This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dynamics: Lecture 3
03
rd
March 2011
Kinematics of Particles
• Dynamics includes:
 Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion. Kinematics is used to
relate displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference to
the cause of motion.
 Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a
body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is used
to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces
Introduction
to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces
required to produce a given motion.
• Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it
moves along a straight line.
• Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it
moves along a curved line in two or three dimensions.
• Particle moving along a straight line is said
to be in rectilinear motion.
• Position coordinate of a particle is defined by
positive or negative distance of particle from
a fixed origin on the line.
• The motion of a particle is known if the
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity and Acceleration
position coordinate for particle is known for
every value of time t. Motion of the particle
may be expressed in the form of a function,
e.g.,
3 2
6 t t x − =
or in the form of a graph x vs. t.
• Instantaneous velocity may be positive or
• Consider particle which occupies position P
at time t and P’ at t+∆t,
t
x
v
t
x
t ∆
∆
= =
∆
∆
=
→ ∆ 0
lim
Average velocity
Instantaneous velocity
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity and Acceleration
• Instantaneous velocity may be positive or
negative. Magnitude of velocity is referred
to as particle speed.
• From the definition of a derivative,
dt
dx
t
x
v
t
=
∆
∆
=
→ ∆ 0
lim
e.g.,
2
3 2
3 12
6
t t
dt
dx
v
t t x
− = =
− =
• Consider particle with velocity v at time t and
v’ at t+∆t,
Instantaneous acceleration
t
v
a
t ∆
∆
= =
→ ∆ 0
lim
• Instantaneous acceleration may be:
 positive: increasing positive velocity
or decreasing negative velocity
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity and Acceleration
t
dt
dv
a
t t v
dt
x d
dt
dv
t
v
a
t
6 12
3 12 e.g.
lim
2
2
2
0
− = =
− =
= =
∆
∆
=
→ ∆
• From the definition of a derivative,
or decreasing negative velocity
 negative: decreasing positive velocity
or increasing negative velocity.
• Consider particle with motion given by
3 2
6 t t x − =
2
3 12 t t
dt
dx
v − = =
t
dt
x d
dt
dv
a 6 12
2
2
− = = =
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity and Acceleration
t
dt
dt
a 6 12
2
− = = =
• at t = 0, x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s
2
• at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = v
max
= 12 m/s, a = 0
• at t = 4 s, x = x
max
= 32 m, v = 0, a = 12 m/s
2
• at t = 6 s, x = 0, v = 36 m/s, a = 24 m/s
2
• Recall, motion of a particle is known if position is known for all time t.
• Typically, conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration
experienced by the particle. Determination of velocity and position requires
two successive integrations.
• Three classes of motion may be defined for:
Determination of the Motion of a Particle
• Three classes of motion may be defined for:
 acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)
 acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)
 acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)
• Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t):
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫ ∫
= − = = =
= − = = = =
t t t x
x
t t t v
v
dt t v x t x dt t v dx dt t v dx t v
dt
dx
dt t f v t v dt t f dv dt t f dv t f a
dt
dv
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Determination of the Motion of a Particle
• Acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x):
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
= − = =
= = = = =
x
x
x
x
x v
v
dx x f v x v dx x f dv v dx x f dv v
x f
dx
dv
v a
dt
dv
a
v
dx
dt
dt
dx
v
0 0 0
2
0
2
1
2
2
1
or or
• Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v):
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
∫
∫ ∫
=
= = = =
t v
v
t t v
v
t
v f
dv
dt
v f
dv
dt
v f
dv
v f a
dt
dv
0
0
0
Determination of the Motion of a Particle
11  9
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
∫
∫ ∫
= −
= = = =
t v
v
t v
v
t x
x
v
v f
dv v
x t x
v f
dv v
dx
v f
dv v
dx v f a
dx
dv
v
0
0 0
0
0
SOLUTION:
• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
• Solve for t at which velocity equals
zero (time for maximum elevation)
and evaluate corresponding altitude.
• Solve for t at which altitude equals
Sample Problem 11.1
Determine:
• velocity and elevation above ground at
time t,
• highest elevation reached by ball and
corresponding time, and
• time when ball will hit the ground and
corresponding velocity.
Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity
from window 20 m above ground.
• Solve for t at which altitude equals
zero (time for ground impact) and
evaluate corresponding velocity.
( )
( ) t v t v dt dv
a
dt
dv
t t v
v
81 . 9 81 . 9
s m 81 . 9
0
0
2
0
− = − − =
− = =
∫ ∫
SOLUTION:
• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
Sample Problem 11.1
v 0
0
( ) t t v

¹

\

− =
2
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1
0
0
81 . 9 10 81 . 9 10
81 . 9 10
0
t t y t y dt t dy
t v
dt
dy
t t y
y
− = − − =
− = =
∫ ∫
( )
2
2
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20 t t t y

¹

\

−

¹

\

+ =
• Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and evaluate
corresponding altitude.
( ) 0
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
2
=

¹

\

− = t t v
s 019 . 1 = t
• Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate
Sample Problem 11.1
• Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate
corresponding velocity.
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
s 019 . 1
s
m
905 . 4 s 019 . 1
s
m
10 m 20
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20

¹

\

−

¹

\

+ =

¹

\

−

¹

\

+ =
y
t t t y
m 1 . 25 = y
• Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and
evaluate corresponding velocity.
( ) 0
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20
2
2
= 
¹

\

−

¹

\

+ = t t t y
( )
s 28 . 3
s meaningles s 243 . 1
=
− =
t
t
Sample Problem 11.1
( )
( ) ( ) s 28 . 3
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10 s 28 . 3
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
2
2

¹

\

− =

¹

\

− =
v
t t v
s
m
2 . 22 − = v
Brake mechanism used to reduce gun
recoil consists of piston attached to barrel
kv a − =
SOLUTION:
• Integrate a = dv/dt = kv to find v(t).
• Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
• Integrate a = v dv/dx = kv to find
v(x).
Sample Problem 11.2
recoil consists of piston attached to barrel
moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil.
As barrel recoils with initial velocity v
0
,
piston moves and oil is forced through
orifices in piston, causing piston and
cylinder to decelerate at rate proportional
to their velocity.
Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).
SOLUTION:
• Integrate a = dv/dt = kv to find v(t).
( )
( )
kt
v
t v
dt k
v
dv
kv
dt
dv
a
t t v
v
− = − = − = =
∫ ∫
0
0
ln
0
( )
kt
e v t v
−
=
0
Sample Problem 11.2
• Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
( )
( )
( )
t
kt
t
kt
t x
kt
e
k
v t x dt e v dx
e v
dt
dx
t v
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
− = =
= =
− −
−
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
kt
e
k
v
t x
−
− = 1
0
• Integrate a = v dv/dx = kv to find v(x).
kx v v
dx k dv dx k dv kv
dx
dv
v a
x v
v
− = −
− = − = − = =
∫ ∫
0
0
0
kx v v − =
0
Sample Problem 11.2
• Alternatively,
( )
( )


¹

\

− =
0
0
1
v
t v
k
v
t x
kx v v − =
0
( )
( )
0
0
or
v
t v
e e v t v
kt kt
= =
− −
( ) ( )
kt
e
k
v
t x
−
− = 1
0
with
and
then
For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and
the velocity is constant.
dt v dx
v
dt
dx
t x
=
= =
∫ ∫
constant
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
vt x x
vt x x
x
+ =
= −
∫ ∫
0
0
0
0
For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of
the particle is constant.
at v v
at v v dt a dv a
dt
dv
t v
v
+ =
= − = = =
∫ ∫
0
0
0
0
constant
Uniform Accelerated Rectilinear Motion
( )
2
2
1
0 0
2
2
1
0 0
0
0 0
0
at t v x x
at t v x x dt at v dx at v
dt
dx
t x
x
+ + =
+ = − + = + =
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
( )
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
1
2
constant
0 0
x x a v v
x x a v v dx a dv v a
dx
dv
v
x
x
v
v
− + =
− = − = = =
∫ ∫
• For particles moving along the same line, time
should be recorded from the same starting
instant and displacements should be measured
from the same origin in the same direction.
= − =
A B A B
x x x relative position of B
with respect to A
A B A B
x x x + =
Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion
= − =
A B A B
v v v relative velocity of B
with respect to A
A B A B
v v v + =
= − =
A B A B
a a a relative acceleration of B
with respect to A
A B A B
a a a + =
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity
and constant acceleration of ball into
general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.
• Substitute initial position and constant
velocity of elevator into equation for
Sample Problem 11.3
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level
in elevator shaft with initial velocity of
18 m/s. At same instant, openplatform
elevator passes 5 m level moving
upward at 2 m/s.
Determine (a) when and where ball hits
elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball
and elevator at contact.
velocity of elevator into equation for
uniform rectilinear motion.
• Write equation for relative position of
ball with respect to elevator and solve
for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
• Substitute impact time into equation
for position of elevator and relative
velocity of ball with respect to
elevator.
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity and constant
acceleration of ball into general equations for
uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
2 2
1
0 0
2
0
m
905 . 4
m
18 m 12
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
18
t t at t v y y
t at v v
B
B



−



+ = + + =

¹

\

− = + =
Sample Problem 11.3
2
2
2
2
1
0 0
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
18 m 12 t t at t v y y
B

¹

\

−

¹

\

+ = + + =
• Substitute initial position and constant velocity of
elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.
t t v y y
v
E E
E

¹

\

+ = + =
=
s
m
2 m 5
s
m
2
0
• Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to
elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
( ) ( ) 0 2 5 905 . 4 18 12
2
= + − − + = t t t y
E B
( )
s 65 . 3
s meaningles s 39 . 0
=
− =
t
t
• Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator
Sample Problem 11.3
• Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator
and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.
( ) 65 . 3 2 5+ =
E
y
m 3 . 12 =
E
y
( )
( ) 65 . 3 81 . 9 16
2 81 . 9 18
− =
− − = t v
E B
s
m
81 . 19 − =
E B
v
• Position of a particle may depend on position of one
or more other particles.
• Position of block B depends on position of block A.
Since rope is of constant length, it follows that sum of
lengths of segments must be constant.
= +
B A
x x 2 constant (one degree of freedom)
Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion
• Positions of three blocks are dependent.
= + +
C B A
x x x 2 2
constant (two degrees of freedom)
• For linearly related positions, similar relations hold
between velocities and accelerations.
0 2 2 or 0 2 2
0 2 2 or 0 2 2
= + + = + +
= + + = + +
C B A
C B A
C B A
C B A
a a a
dt
dv
dt
dv
dt
dv
v v v
dt
dx
dt
dx
dt
dx
SOLUTION:
• Define origin at upper horizontal surface
with positive displacement downward.
• Collar A has uniformly accelerated
rectilinear motion. Solve for acceleration
and time t to reach L.
• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.
Sample Problem 11.4
11  24
Pulley D is attached to a collar which
is pulled down at 75mm/s. At t = 0,
collar A starts moving down from K
with constant acceleration and zero
initial velocity. Knowing that
velocity of collar A is 300 mm/s as it
passes L, determine the change in
elevation, velocity, and acceleration
of block B when block A is at L.
• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.
Calculate change of position at time t.
• Block B motion is dependent on motions
of collar A and pulley D. Write motion
relationship and solve for change of block
B position at time t.
• Differentiate motion relation twice to
develop equations for velocity and
acceleration of block B.
SOLUTION:
• Define origin at upper horizontal surface with
positive displacement downward.
• Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear
motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.
( ) ( ) [ ]
0
2
0
2
2 − + =
A A A A A
x x a v v
Sample Problem 11.4
( )
s 333 . 1
s
mm
225
s
mm
300
2
0
= =
+ =
t t
t a v v
A A A
( )
2
2
s
mm
225 mm 200 2
s
mm
300 = =

¹

\

A A
a a
• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate
change of position at time t.
( )
( ) ( ) mm 100 s 333 . 1
s
mm
75
0
0
=

¹

\

= −
+ =
D D
D D D
x x
t v x x
• Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar
A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and
Sample Problem 11.4
A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and
solve for change of block B position at time t.
Total length of cable remains constant,
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] 0 mm 100 2 mm 200
0 2
2 2
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
= − + +
= − + − + −
+ + = + +
B B
B B D D A A
B D A B D A
x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
( ) mm 400
0
− = −
B B
x x
• Differentiate motion relation twice to develop
equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.
0
s
mm
75 2
s
mm
300
0 2
constant 2
= +

¹

\

+

¹

\

= + +
= + +
B
B D A
B D A
v
v v v
x x x
s
mm
450 =
B
v
Sample Problem 11.4
0
s
mm
225
0 2
2
= +

¹

\

= + +
B
B D A
v
a a a
2
s
mm
225 − =
B
a
SOLUTION:
• Define origin at upper horizontal surface with
positive displacement downward.
• Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear
motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.
• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate
change of position at time t.
( )
( ) ( ) mm 100 s 333 . 1
s
mm
75
0
0
=

¹

\

= −
+ =
D D
D D D
x x
t v x x
• Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar
A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and
solve for change of block B position at time t.
Total length of cable remains constant,
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] 0 mm 100 2 mm 200
0 2
2 2
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
= − + +
= − + − + −
+ + = + +
B B
B B D D A A
B D A B D A
x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
( ) mm 400
0
− = −
B B
x x
• Differentiate motion relation twice to develop
equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.
0
s
mm
75 2
s
mm
300
0 2
constant 2
= +

¹

\

+

¹

\

= + +
= + +
B
B D A
B D A
v
v v v
x x x
s
mm
450 =
B
v
0
s
mm
225
0 2
2
= +

¹

\

= + +
B
B D A
v
a a a
2
s
mm
225 − =
B
a
Graphical Solution of RectilinearMotion Problems
• Given the xt curve, the vt curve is equal to
the xt curve slope.
• Given the vt curve, the at curve is equal to
the vt curve slope.
Graphical Solution of RectilinearMotion Problems
• Given the at curve, the change in velocity between t
1
and t
2
is
equal to the area under the at curve between t
1
and t
2
.
• Given the vt curve, the change in position between t
1
and t
2
is
equal to the area under the vt curve between t
1
and t
2
.
• Momentarea method to determine particle position at
time t directly from the at curve:
( )
∫
− + =
− = −
1
0
1 1 0
0 1
curve under area
v
v
dv t t t v
t v x x
using dv = a dt ,
Other Graphical Solution Methods
( )
∫
− + = −
1
0
1 1 0 0 1
v
v
dt a t t t v x x
( ) = −
∫
1
0
1
v
v
dt a t t first moment of area under at curve
with respect to t = t
1
line.
( )( )
C t
t t at t v x x
centroid of abscissa
curve under area
1 1 0 0 1
=
− + + =
• Method to determine particle acceleration
from vx curve:
=
=
AB
dx
dv
v a
θ tan
Other Graphical Solution Methods
= =
=
BC
AB θ tan
subnormal to vx curve
• Particle moving along a curve other than a straight line
is in curvilinear motion.
• Position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a
vector between origin O of a fixed reference frame and
the position occupied by particle.
• Consider particle which occupies position P defined
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Consider particle which occupies position P defined
by at time t and P’ defined by at t + ∆t, r
r
′
=
=
∆
∆
=
=
=
∆
∆
=
→ ∆
→ ∆
dt
ds
t
s
v
dt
r d
t
r
v
t
t
0
0
lim
lim
instantaneous velocity (vector)
instantaneous speed (scalar)
=
=
∆
∆
=
→ ∆ dt
v d
t
v
a
t
0
lim
instantaneous acceleration (vector)
• Consider velocity of particle at time t and velocity
at t + ∆t,
v
v
′
• In general, acceleration vector is not tangent to
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• In general, acceleration vector is not tangent to
particle path and velocity vector.
( ) u P
• Let be a vector function of scalar variable u,
( ) ( )
u
u P u u P
u
P
du
P d
u u ∆
− ∆ +
=
∆
∆
=
→ ∆ → ∆
0 0
lim lim
• Derivative of vector sum,
( )
du
Q d
du
P d
du
Q P d
+ =
+
• Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,
Derivatives of Vector Functions
( )
du
P d
f P
du
df
du
P f d
+ =
• Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,
• Derivative of scalar product and vector product,
( )
( )
du
Q d
P Q
du
P d
du
Q P d
du
Q d
P Q
du
P d
du
Q P d
× + × =
×
• + • =
•
• When position vector of particle P is given by its
rectangular components,
k z j y i x r
+ + =
• Velocity vector,
k z j y i x k
dt
dz
j
dt
dy
i
dt
dx
v
+ + = + + =
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
k v j v i v
k z j y i x k
dt
j
dt
i
dt
v
z y x
+ + =
+ + = + + =
• Acceleration vector,
k a j a i a
k z j y i x k
dt
z d
j
dt
y d
i
dt
x d
a
z y x
+ + =
+ + = + + =
2
2
2
2
2
2
• Rectangular components particularly effective
when component accelerations can be integrated
independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,
0 0 = = − = = = = z a g y a x a
z y x
with initial conditions,
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , , 0
0
0
0
0 0 0
= = = =
z y x
v v v z y x
Integrating twice yields
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
Integrating twice yields
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0
0
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
= − = =
= − = =
z gt y v y t v x
v gt v v v v
y x
z y y x x
• Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.
• Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.
• Motion of projectile could be replaced by two
independent rectilinear motions.
• Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference.
All other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed
reference frame are moving frames of reference.
• Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to
the fixed frame of reference Oxyz are
. and
B A
r r
• Vector joining A and B defines the position of
B with respect to the moving frame Ax’y’z’ and
A B
r
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
A B A B
r r r
+ =
• Differentiating twice,
=
A B
v
velocity of B relative to A.
A B A B
v v v
+ =
=
A B
a
acceleration of B relative
to A.
A B A B
a a a
+ =
• Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining
motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to
moving reference frame attached to A.
• Velocity vector of particle is tangent to path of
particle. In general, acceleration vector is not.
Wish to express acceleration vector in terms of
tangential and normal components.
• are tangential unit vectors for the
particle path at P and P’. When drawn with
respect to the same origin, and
t t
e e
′
and
t t t
e e e
−
′
= ∆
Tangential and Normal Components
respect to the same origin, and
is the angle between them.
t t t
e e e −
′
= ∆
θ ∆
( )
( )
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
d
e d
e
e e
e
e
t
n
n n
t
t
=
=
∆
∆
=
∆
∆
∆ = ∆
→ ∆ → ∆ 2
2 sin
lim lim
2 sin 2
0 0
t
e v v
= • With the velocity vector expressed as
the particle acceleration may be written as
dt
ds
ds
d
d
e d
v e
dt
dv
dt
e d
v e
dt
dv
dt
v d
a
t t
θ
θ
+ = + = =
but
v
dt
ds
ds d e
d
e d
n
t
= = = θ ρ
θ
After substituting,
Tangential and Normal Components
After substituting,
ρ ρ
2 2
v
a
dt
dv
a e
v
e
dt
dv
a
n t n t
= = + =
• Tangential component of acceleration reflects
change of speed and normal component reflects
change of direction.
• Tangential component may be positive or
negative. Normal component always points
toward center of path curvature.
ρ ρ
2 2
v
a
dt
dv
a e
v
e
dt
dv
a
n t n t
= = + =
• Relations for tangential and normal acceleration
also apply for particle moving along space curve.
• Plane containing tangential and normal unit
vectors is called the osculating plane.
Tangential and Normal Components
vectors is called the osculating plane.
n t b
e e e
× =
• Normal to the osculating plane is found from
binormal e
normal principal e
b
n
=
=
• Acceleration has no component along binormal.
• When particle position is given in polar coordinates,
it is convenient to express velocity and acceleration
with components parallel and perpendicular to OP.
( )
θ
θ
θ
e r e r
e
dt
d
r e
dt
dr
dt
e d
r e
dt
dr
e r
dt
d
v
r
r
r r
+ =
+ = + = =
• The particle velocity vector is
Transverse and Radial Components
r
r
e
d
e d
e
d
e d
− = =
θ θ
θ
θ
dt
d
e
dt
d
d
e d
dt
e d
r r
θ θ
θ
θ
= =
dt
d
e
dt
d
d
e d
dt
e d
r
θ θ
θ
θ θ
− = =
θ
θ e r e r
r
+ =
• Similarly, the particle acceleration vector is
( ) ( )
θ
θ
θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
θ
e r r e r r
dt
e d
dt
d
r e
dt
d
r e
dt
d
dt
dr
dt
e d
dt
dr
e
dt
r d
e
dt
d
r e
dt
dr
dt
d
a
r
r
r
r
2
2
2
2
2
2
+ + − =
+ + + + =

¹

\

+ =
r
e r r
=
• When particle position is given in cylindrical
coordinates, it is convenient to express the
velocity and acceleration vectors using the unit
vectors . and , , k e e
R
θ
• Position vector,
k z e R r
R
+ =
Transverse and Radial Components
• Velocity vector,
k z e R e R
dt
r d
v
R
+ + = =
θ
θ
• Acceleration vector,
( ) ( ) k z e R R e R R
dt
v d
a
R
+ + + − = =
θ
θ θ θ 2
2
SOLUTION:
• Calculate tangential and normal
components of acceleration.
• Determine acceleration magnitude and
direction with respect to tangent to
curve.
Sample Problem 11.5
A motorist is traveling on curved
section of highway at 90 km/h. The
motorist applies brakes causing a
constant deceleration rate.
Knowing that after 8 s the speed has
been reduced to 72 km/h, determine
the acceleration of the automobile
immediately after the brakes are
applied.
SOLUTION:
• Calculate tangential and normal components of
acceleration.
( )
( )
2
2
2
m
833 . 0
s m 25
s
m
625 . 0
s 8
s m 258 20
= = =
− =
−
=
∆
∆
=
v
a
t
v
a
n
t
Sample Problem 11.5
• Determine acceleration magnitude and direction
with respect to tangent to curve.
( )
2
2
2 2
833 . 0 625 . 0 + − = + =
n t
a a a
2
s
m
041 . 1 = a
° = 1 . 53 α
m/s 0 2 km/h 2 7
m/s 25 km/h 60
=
=
2
s
833 . 0
m 750
= = =
ρ
a
n
Rotation of the arm about O is defined
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate time t for θ = 30
o
.
• Evaluate radial and angular positions,
and first and second derivatives at
time t.
• Calculate velocity and acceleration in
Sample Problem 11.6
Rotation of the arm about O is defined
by θ = 0.15t
2
where θ is in radians and t
in seconds. Collar B slides along the
arm such that r = 0.9  0.12t
2
where r is
in meters.
After the arm has rotated through 30
o
,
determine (a) the total velocity of the
collar, (b) the total acceleration of the
collar, and (c) the relative acceleration
of the collar with respect to the arm.
• Calculate velocity and acceleration in
cylindrical coordinates.
• Evaluate acceleration with respect to
arm.
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate time t for θ = 30
o
.
s 869 . 1 rad 524 . 0 30
0.15
2
= = ° =
=
t
t θ
• Evaluate radial and angular positions, and first
and second derivatives at time t.
Sample Problem 11.6
and second derivatives at time t.
2
2
s m 24 . 0
s m 449 . 0 24 . 0
m 481 . 0 12 . 0 9 . 0
− =
− = − =
= − =
r
t r
t r
2
2
s rad 30 . 0
s rad 561 . 0 30 . 0
rad 524 . 0 15 . 0
=
= =
= =
θ
θ
θ
t
t
• Calculate velocity and acceleration.
( )( )
r
r
r
v
v
v v v
r v
s r v
θ
θ
θ
β
θ
1 2 2
tan
s m 270 . 0 s rad 561 . 0 m 481 . 0
m 449 . 0
−
= + =
= = =
− = =
° = = 0 . 31 s m 524 . 0 β v
( )( )
r
r r a θ
2 2
2
s rad 561 . 0 m 481 . 0 s m 240 . 0 − − =
− =
Sample Problem 11.6
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
r
r
a
a
a a a
r r a
θ
θ
θ
γ
θ θ
1 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
tan
s m 359 . 0
s rad 561 . 0 s m 449 . 0 2 s rad 3 . 0 m 481 . 0
2
s m 391 . 0
s rad 561 . 0 m 481 . 0 s m 240 . 0
−
= + =
− =
− + =
+ =
− =
− − =
° = = 6 . 42 s m 531 . 0 γ a
• Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.
Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear
and defined by coordinate r.
2
s m 240 . 0 − = = r a
OA B
Sample Problem 11.6
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.