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Lecture 6

Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies

10th January 2011

Beer/Johnston; 4.4

Find the reaction at the fixed end ‘E’ DF = 7.5 m A B

D

2.25

C

∑ Fx = Ex +150 ×

4.5 = 0 ⇒ Ex = −90 kN 7.5

20k N 1. 8

20k N 1. 8

20k N

(sign change)

20k N 1. 1. 8 8

3.75

E

4.5

F

6.0 ∑ Fy = Ey − 4 × 20 −150 × 7.5 = 0 ⇒ Ey = 200 kN

D B C

2.25

∑M

E

= 20 × 7.2 + 20 × 5.4 + 20 × 3.6 + 20 ×1.8 6.0 − ×150 × 4.5 + M E = 0 7.5

A

20k N 1. 8 20k N 1. 8

∑M

E

= +180 kNm

20k N

20k N 1. 1. 8 8

3.75

Ex

F E Ey

4.5

150 kN

Cylinders A and B weigh 500 N each and cylinder C weighs 1000 N. Compute all contact forces.

2m

1m

1m

3m

**Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Three Dimensions
**

• Six scalar equations are required to express the conditions for the equilibrium of a rigid body in the general three dimensional case.

∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fz = 0 ∑Mx = 0 ∑M y = 0 ∑Mz = 0

• These equations can be solved for no more than 6 unknowns which generally represent reactions at supports or connections.

• The scalar equations are conveniently obtained by applying the vector forms of the conditions for equilibrium,

∑ F = 0 ∑ M O = ∑ (r × F ) = 0

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Three Dimensions

Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Three-Dimensional Structure

Types of 3D equilibrium

7

Sample Problem 4.8

SOLUTION: • Create a free-body diagram for the sign. • Apply the conditions for static equilibrium to develop equations for the unknown reactions.

A sign of uniform density weighs 1200-N and is supported by a ball-andsocket joint at A and by two cables. Determine the tension in each cable and the reaction at A.

Sample Problem 4.8

TBD = TBD rD − rB rD − rB

− 2.4i +1.2 j − 2.4k = TBD 3.6 = TBD − 2 i + 1 j − 2 k 3 3 3

(

)

TEC = TEC

rC − rE rC − rE

• Create a free-body diagram for the sign. Since there are only 5 unknowns, the sign is partially constrain. It is free to rotate about the x axis. It is, however, in equilibrium for the given loading.

− 6i + 3 j + 2k = TEC 7 6 3 2 = TEC − 7 i + 7 j + 7 k

(

)

Sample Problem 4.8

∑F = A+T

BD

+ TEC − (1200 N) j = 0

6 i : Ax − 2 TBD − 7 TEC = 0 3 3 j : Ay + 1 TBD + 7 TEC −1200 N = 0 3 2 k : Az − 2 TBD + 7 TEC = 0 3

∑M

A

= rB ×TBD + rE ×TEC + (1.2 m)i × (−1200 N) j = 0

**j : 1.6TBD − 0.514TEC = 0 k : 0.8TBD + 0.771TEC −1440 N . m = 0
**

• Apply the conditions for static equilibrium to develop equations for the unknown reactions. Solve the 5 equations for the 5 unknowns, TBD = 451N TEC = 1402 N

A = (1502 N)i + (419 N) j − (100.1N)k

Summary

2D, 3D force system

• Rectangular components • Moment • Varignon’s theorem • Couple • Force-couple system • Resultant • Principle of moment

Equilibrium equations

ΣFx = 0; ΣFy = 0; ΣMA = 0 ΣFx = 0; ΣMA = 0; ΣMB = 0 ΣMA = 0; ΣMB = 0; ΣMc = 0 ΣF = 0 (or) ΣFX = 0; ΣFY = 0; ΣFZ = 0 ΣM = 0 (or) ΣMX = 0; ΣMY = 0; ΣMZ = 0

3D 2D

11

A derrick as shown is supporting a 1000lb load. The vertical beam has a ball-and-socket connection into the ground at d and is held by guy wires ac and bc. Neglect the weight of the members and guy wires, and find the tensions in the guy wires ac, bc, and ce. x

z

c y

10' f 10' e b 3' d 1000 lb

8' 8' a

10'

ME101: Engineering Mechanics

Lecture 7

Analysis of Structures

10th January 2011

Introduction

• For the equilibrium of structures made of several connected parts, the internal forces as well the external forces are considered. • In the interaction between connected parts, Newton’s 3rd Law states that the forces of action and reaction between bodies in contact have the same magnitude, same line of action, and opposite sense. • Three categories of engineering structures are considered: a) Frames: contain at least one multi-force member, i.e., member acted upon by 3 or more forces. b) Trusses: formed from two-force members, i.e., straight members with end point connections c) Machines: structures containing moving parts designed to transmit and modify forces.

Definition of a Truss

• A truss consists of straight members connected at joints. No member is continuous through a joint. • Most structures are made of several trusses joined together to form a space framework. Each truss carries those loads which act in its plane and may be treated as a two-dimensional structure. • Bolted or welded connections are assumed to be pinned together. Forces acting at the member ends reduce to a single force and no couple. Only twoforce members are considered. • When forces tend to pull the member apart, it is in tension. When the forces tend to compress the member, it is in compression.

Definition of a Truss

Members of a truss are slender and not capable of supporting large lateral loads. Loads must be applied at the joints.

Definition of a Truss

Simple Trusses

• A rigid truss will not collapse under the application of a load. • A simple truss is constructed by successively adding two members and one connection to the basic triangular truss. • In a simple truss, m = 2n - 3 where m is the total number of members and n is the number of joints.

**Analysis of Trusses by the Method of Joints
**

• Dismember the truss and create a freebody diagram for each member and pin. • The two forces exerted on each member are equal, have the same line of action, and opposite sense. • Forces exerted by a member on the pins or joints at its ends are directed along the member and equal and opposite. • Conditions of equilibrium on the pins provide 2n equations for 2n unknowns. For a simple truss, 2n = m + 3. May solve for m member forces and 3 reaction forces at the supports. • Conditions for equilibrium for the entire truss provide 3 additional equations which are not independent of the pin equations.

• Forces in opposite members intersecting in two straight lines at a joint are equal. • The forces in two opposite members are equal when a load is aligned with a third member. The third member force is equal to the load (including zero load). • The forces in two members connected at a joint are equal if the members are aligned and zero otherwise. • Recognition of joints under special loading conditions simplifies a truss analysis.

Space Trusses

• An elementary space truss consists of 6 members connected at 4 joints to form a tetrahedron. • A simple space truss is formed and can be extended when 3 new members and 1 joint are added at the same time. • In a simple space truss, m = 3n - 6 where m is the number of members and n is the number of joints. • Conditions of equilibrium for the joints provide 3n equations. For a simple truss, 3n = m + 6 and the equations can be solved for m member forces and 6 support reactions. • Equilibrium for the entire truss provides 6 additional equations which are not independent of the joint equations.

Sample Problem 1

SOLUTION: • Based on a free-body diagram of the entire truss, solve the 3 equilibrium equations for the reactions at E and C. • Joint A is subjected to only two unknown member forces. Determine these from the joint equilibrium requirements. • In succession, determine unknown member forces at joints D, B, and E from joint equilibrium requirements. • All member forces and support reactions are known at joint C. However, the joint equilibrium requirements may be applied to check the results.

Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the truss.

Sample Problem 1

Sample Problem 1

SOLUTION: • Based on a free-body diagram of the entire truss, solve the 3 equilibrium equations for the reactions at E and C.

∑M

C

=0 = (10 kN )(12 m ) + (5 kN )(6 m ) − E (3 m )

E = 50kN ↑

∑ Fx = 0 = C x

Cx = 0

∑F

y

= 0 = −10kN - 5 kN + 50 kN + C y

C y = 35 kN ↓

Sample Problem 1

• Joint A is subjected to only two unknown member forces. Determine these from the joint equilibrium requirements.

10 kN FAB FAD = = 4 3 5

FAB = 7.5 kN T FAD = 12.5 kN C

**• There are now only two unknown member forces at joint D.
**

FDB = FDA

3 FDE = 2 5 FDA

()

FDB = 12.5 kN T FDE = 15 kN C

Sample Problem 1

• There are now only two unknown member forces at joint B. Assume both are in tension.

∑F

y

4 4 = 0 = −5kN − 5 (12 kN ) − 5 FBE

FBE = −18 .75 kN

FBE = 18.75 kN C

∑F

x

3 3 = 0 = FBC − 7.5kN − 5 (12.5kN ) − 5 (18.75)

FBC = +26.25 kN

FBC = 26.25 kN T

• There is one unknown member force at joint E. Assume the member is in tension.

∑F

x

3 3 = 0 = 5 FEC + 15kN + 5 (18.75kN )

FEC = −43.75 kN

FEC = 43.75 kN C

Sample Problem 1

• All member forces and support reactions are known at joint C. However, the joint equilibrium requirements may be applied to check the results.

∑F ∑F

x y

3 = − 26.25 + 5 (43.75) = 0 4 = −35 + 5 (43.75) = 0

(checks) (checks)

ME101: Engineering Mechanics

Lecture 8

Analysis of Structures

17th January 2011

Method of sections

• In method of joints, we need only two equilibrium equations, as we deal with concurrent force system • In method of sections, we will consider three equilibrium equations, including one moment equilibrium eqn. • Force in almost any desired member can be obtained directly from an analysis of a section which has cut the member • Not necessary to proceed from joint to joint • Not more than three members whose forces are unknown should be cut. Only three independent equilibrium eqns. are present • Efficiently find limited information

29

**Methodology for method of sections
**

F E F A E

A B L C

D

A B R1 L A C

D

R2

• The external forces are obtained initially from method of joints, by considering truss as a whole • Assume we need to find force in BE, then entire truss has to be sectioned across FE, BE, BC as shown in figure; we have only 3 equilibrium equations. • AA – section across FE, BE, BC; Forces in these members are initially unknown

30

Section 1

Section 2

• Now each section will apply opposite forces on each other • The LHS is in equilibrium with R1, L, three forces exerted on the cut members (EF, BE, BC) by the RHS which has been removed • In this method the initial direction of forces is decided by moment about any point where known forces are present • For eg., take moment about point B for the LHS, this will give BE, BC to be zero; Then moment by EF should be opposite to moment by R1; Hence EF should be towards left hand side - compressive

31

• Now take moment about ‘F’ => BE should be opposite to R1 moment; Hence BE must be up and to the right; So BE is tensile • Now depending on the magnitudes of known forces, BC direction has to be decided, which in this case is outwards i.e., tensile

Σ MB = 0 => FORCE IN EF; BE, BC = 0 Σ Fy = 0 => FORCE IN BE; BC, EF = 0 Σ MF = 0 => FORCE IN BC; EF, BE = 0 Section 1 Section 2

32

Section AA and BB are possible

Convenient

33

Important points • In method of sections, an entire portion of the truss is considered a single body in equilibrium • Force in members internal to the section are not involved in the analysis of the section as a whole • The cutting section is preferably passed through members and not through joints • Either portion of the truss can be used, but the one with smaller number of forces will yield a simpler solution • Method sections and method of joints can be combined • Moment center can be selected through which many unknown forces pass through • Positive force value will sense the initial assumption of force direction

34

Analysis of Trusses by the Method of Sections

• When the force in only one member or the forces in a very few members are desired, the method of sections works well. • To determine the force in member BD, pass a section through the truss as shown and create a free body diagram for the left side. • With only three members cut by the section, the equations for static equilibrium may be applied to determine the unknown member forces, including FBD.

**Trusses Made of Several Simple Trusses
**

• Compound trusses are statically determinant, rigid, and completely constrained. m = 2n − 3 • Truss contains a redundant member and is statically indeterminate. m > 2n − 3 • Additional reaction forces may be necessary for a rigid truss. • Necessary but insufficient condition for a compound truss to be statically determinant, rigid, and completely constrained, m + r = 2n

non-rigid

m < 2n − 3

rigid m < 2n − 4

Sample Problem 8.1

SOLUTION: • Take the entire truss as a free body. Apply the conditions for static equilibrium to solve for the reactions at A and L. • Pass a section through members FH, GH, and GI and take the right-hand section as a free body. • Apply the conditions for static equilibrium to determine the desired member forces. Determine the force in members FH, GH, and GI.

Sample Problem 8.1

SOLUTION: • Take the entire truss as a free body. Apply the conditions for static equilibrium to solve for the reactions at A and L.

∑ M A = 0 = −(5 m )(6 kN ) − (10 m )(6 kN ) − (15 m )(6 kN ) − (20 m )(1 kN ) − (25 m )(1 kN ) + (25 m )L

L = 7.5 kN ↑

∑ Fy = 0 = −20 kN + L + A

A = 12.5 kN ↑

Sample Problem 8.1

• Pass a section through members FH, GH, and GI and take the right-hand section as a free body.

• Apply the conditions for static equilibrium to determine the desired member forces.

∑MH = 0 (7.50 kN )(10 m ) − (1 kN )(5 m ) − FGI (5.33 m ) = 0

FGI = +13.13 kN

FGI = 13.13 kN T

tan α = FG 8 m = = 0.5333 GL 15 m

α = 28.07°

Sample Problem 8.1

FG 8 m α = 28.07° = = 0.5333 GL 15 m ∑ MG = 0 (7.5 kN )(15 m ) − (1 kN )(10 m ) − (1 kN )(5 m ) tan α = + ( FFH cos α )(8 m ) = 0 FFH = −13.82 kN

FFH = 13.82 kN C

tan β =

GI 5m =2 = 0.9375 HI (8 m ) 3

β = 43.15°

**∑ML = 0 (1 kN )(10 m ) + (1 kN )(5 m ) + (FGH cos β )(10 m ) = 0
**

FGH = −1.371 kN

FGH = 1.371 kN C

I.H. Shames

FBD - 1

FBD - 2 From FBD-2 ΣMB = 0 => -(10)(500)+30 (789)- FAC Sin 30 (30) = 0 FAC = 1244.67 N From FBD -1 ΣFx = 0 => FDA Cos 30 – (1244.67) cos 30 – 1000 sin 30 = 0 ; FDA = 1822 N ΣFy = 0 => (1822)Sin 30 + (1244.67) sin 30 +FAB – 1000 Cos 30 = 0; FAB = -667 N

41

ME101: Engineering Mechanics

Lecture 9

Analysis of Structures

18th January 2011

Analysis of Frames

• Frames and machines are structures with at least one multiforce member. Frames are designed to support loads and are usually stationary. Machines contain moving parts and are designed to transmit and modify forces. • A free body diagram of the complete frame is used to determine the external forces acting on the frame. • Internal forces are determined by dismembering the frame and creating free-body diagrams for each component. • Forces on two force members have known lines of action but unknown magnitude and sense. • Forces on multiforce members have unknown magnitude and line of action. They must be represented with two unknown components. • Forces between connected components are equal, have the same line of action, and opposite sense.

**Frames Which Cease To Be Rigid When Detached From Their Supports
**

• Some frames may collapse if removed from their supports. Such frames can not be treated as rigid bodies. • A free-body diagram of the complete frame indicates four unknown force components which can not be determined from the three equilibrium conditions. • The frame must be considered as two distinct, but related, rigid bodies. • With equal and opposite reactions at the contact point between members, the two free-body diagrams indicate 6 unknown force components. • Equilibrium requirements for the two rigid bodies yield 6 independent equations.

**Force representation and FBD
**

• Representing force by rectangular components • Calculation of moment arms will be simplified • Proper sense of force is necessary; Some times arbitrary assignment is done; Final force answer will yield correct force direction • Force direction should be consistently followed

R. Ganesh Narayanan

45

Sample Problem 8.2

SOLUTION: • Create a free-body diagram for the complete frame and solve for the support reactions. • Define a free-body diagram for member BCD. The force exerted by the link DE has a known line of action but unknown magnitude. It is determined by summing moments about C. Members ACE and BCD are connected by a pin at C and by the link DE. For the loading shown, determine the force in link DE and the components of the force exerted at C on member BCD. • With the force on the link DE known, the sum of forces in the x and y directions may be used to find the force components at C. • With member ACE as a free-body, check the solution by summing moments about A.

Sample Problem 8.2

SOLUTION: • Create a free-body diagram for the complete frame and solve for the support reactions.

∑ Fy = 0 = Ay − 480 N

Ay = 480 N ↑

**∑ M A = 0 = −(480 N )(100 mm ) + B(160 mm )
**

B = 300 N →

∑ Fx = 0 = B + Ax

Note:

80 α = tan −1 150 = 28.07°

Ax = −300 N ←

Sample Problem 8.2

• Define a free-body diagram for member BCD. The force exerted by the link DE has a known line of action but unknown magnitude. It is determined by summing moments about C.

∑M

C

= 0 = ( FDE sin α )( 250 mm ) + ( 300 N )( 80 mm ) + ( 480 N )(100 mm )

FDE = −561 N

FDE = 561 N C

• Sum of forces in the x and y directions may be used to find the force components at C.

∑ Fx = 0 = C x − FDE cos α + 300 N 0 = C x − (− 561 N ) cos α + 300 N

C x = −795 N

∑ Fy = 0 = C y − FDE sin α − 480 N 0 = C y − (− 561 N ) sin α − 480 N

C y = 216 N

• With member ACE as a free-body, check the solution by summing moments about A.

**∑ M A = (FDE cos α )(300 mm ) + (FDE sin α )(100 mm ) − C x (220 mm ) = (− 561cos α )(300 mm ) + (− 561sin α )(100 mm ) − (− 795)(220 mm ) = 0
**

(checks)

Meriem/Kraige

3m A 1.5m

2m

**Find the horizontal and vertical components of all the forces; neglect weight of each member
**

FBD of full frame Ay Ax

R =0.5m 0.5m 1.5m C 1.5m D 400 kg B E F

0.4 x 9.81 = 3.92

Dx

**ΣMA = 0 => 5.5 (-0.4) (9.81) + 5Dx = 0 => Dx = 4.32 kN ΣFx = 0 => -Ax + 4.32 = 0 => Ax = 4.32 kN ΣFy = 0 => Ay – 3.92 = 0 => Ay = 3.92 kN
**

50

**FBD of individual members 3.92 4.32 By Cy A 3.92 Bx Cx 3.92 3.92 3.92 3.92
**

Ey Ex

3.92 F Bx B

Ex

E 3.92

Ey

By

4.32 D Cx C

Cy

E

A 1.5m

3m

2m

R =0.5m 0.5m 1.5m B E F C 1.5m D 400 kg

Apply equilibrium equn. And solve for forces

Machines • Machines are structures designed to transmit and modify forces. Their main purpose is to transform input forces into output forces. • Given the magnitude of P, determine the magnitude of Q. • Create a free-body diagram of the complete machine, including the reaction that the wire exerts. • The machine is a nonrigid structure. Use one of the components as a free-body. • Taking moments about A,

∑ M A = 0 = aP − bQ

Q=

a P b

The truss shown consists of six members and is supported by a ball and socket at B, a short link at C, and two short links at D. Determine the force in each of the members for P = (-2184 N)j and Q = 0.

Reference books

1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers – Statics & Dynamics, Beer & Johnston; 7th edition 2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4th edition 3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics Dynamics Vol. 2, Meriam & Kraige; 5th edition 4. Schaum’s solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2: Dynamics, Joseph F. Shelley STATICS – MID SEMESTER – DYNAMICS Tutorial: Thursday 8 am to 8.55 am

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