ME101: Engineering Mechanics

Lecture 10
21
th
January 2011
Distributed Forces: Centroids and Centers
of Gravity
• The earth exerts a gravitational force on each of the particles forming a
body. These forces can be replace by a single equivalent force equal to
the weight of the body and applied at the center of gravity for the body.
• The centroid of an area is analogous to the center of gravity of a body.
Introduction
• The centroid of an area is analogous to the center of gravity of a body.
The concept of the first moment of an area is used to locate the centroid.
• Determination of the area of a surface of revolution and the volume of a
body of revolution are accomplished with the Theorems of Pappus-
Guldinus.
• Center of gravity of a plate • Center of gravity of a wire
Center of Gravity of a 2D Body
y
x
M xW x W
x dW
M yW y W
y dW
= ∆
=
= ∆
=
∑ ∑

∑ ∑

• Centroid of an area • Centroid of a line
Centroids and First Moments of Areas and Lines
( ) ( )
x
Q dA y A y
y
Q dA x A x
dA t x At x
dW x W x
x
y
respect to h moment wit first
respect to h moment wit first
=
= =
=
= =
=
=




γ γ ( ) ( )




=
=
=
=
dL y L y
dL x L x
dL a x La x
dW x W x
γ γ
• An area is symmetric with respect to an axis BB’
if for every point P there exists a point P’ such
that PP’ is perpendicular to BB’ and is divided
into two equal parts by BB’.
• The first moment of an area with respect to a
line of symmetry is zero.
• If an area possesses a line of symmetry, its
First Moments of Areas and Lines
• If an area possesses two lines of symmetry, its
centroid lies at their intersection.
• An area is symmetric with respect to a center O
if for every element dA at (x,y) there exists an
area dA’ of equal area at (-x,-y).
• If an area possesses a line of symmetry, its
centroid lies on that axis
Centroids of Common Shapes of Areas
Centroids of Common Shapes of Lines
• Composite plates
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
=
=
W y W Y
W x W X
Composite Plates and Areas
• Composite area
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
=
=
A y A Y
A x A X
SOLUTION:
• Divide the area into a triangle, rectangle,
and semicircle with a circular cutout.
• Find the total area and first moments of
• Calculate the first moments of each area
with respect to the axes.
Sample Problem 10.1
For the plane area shown, determine
the first moments with respect to the
x and y axes and the location of the
centroid.
• Compute the coordinates of the area
centroid by dividing the first moments by
the total area.
the triangle, rectangle, and semicircle.
Subtract the area and first moment of the
circular cutout.
Sample Problem 10.1
3 3
3 3
mm 10 7 . 757
mm 10 2 . 506
× + =
× + =
y
x
Q
Q
• Find the total area and first moments of the
triangle, rectangle, and semicircle. Subtract the
area and first moment of the circular cutout.
2 3
3 3
mm 10 13.828
mm 10 7 . 757
×
× +
= =


A
A x
X
• Compute the coordinates of the area centroid by dividing the first moments
by the total area.
Sample Problem 10.1
2 3
mm 10 13.828× ∑
A
mm 8 . 54 = X
2 3
3 3
mm 10 13.828
mm 10 2 . 506
×
× +
= =


A
A y
Y
mm 6 . 36 = Y
Determination of Centroids by Integration
∫ ∫∫ ∫
∫ ∫∫ ∫
= = =
= = =
dA y dy dx y dA y A y
dA x dy dx x dA x A x
el
el
• Double integration to find the first moment
may be avoided by defining dA as a thin
rectangle or strip.
Determination of Centroids by Integration
( )
( ) ydx
y
dA y A y
ydx x
dA x A x
el
el




=
=
=
=
2
( )
( )
2
el
el
xA x dA
a x
a x dy
yA y dA
y a x dy
=
+
= −

=
= −





|
¹
|

\
|
=
=
|
¹
|

\
|
=
=




θ θ
θ θ
d r
r
dA y A y
d r
r
dA x A x
el
el
2
2
2
1
sin
3
2
2
1
cos
3
2
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
Lecture 11
24
th
January 2011
Distributed Forces: Centroids and Centers
of Gravity
SOLUTION:
• Determine the constant k.
• Evaluate the total area.
• Using either vertical or horizontal
strips, perform a single integration to
find the first moments.
Sample Problem 10.2
Determine by direct integration the
location of the centroid of a parabolic
spandrel.
find the first moments.
• Evaluate the centroid coordinates.
SOLUTION:
• Determine the constant k.
2
2
2
1 2
2
2
( )
( ) 1
y k x a
b
b k a k
a
b y
y x a or x a
a b
= −
= ⇒ =

| |
= − = +

|
\ ¹
Sample Problem 10.2
2
( ) 1 y x a or x a
a b
= − = +

|
\ ¹


• Evaluate the total area.
3
3
) (
0
2 2
3
2
0
2
2
ab
x a ax
x
a
b
dx a x
a
b
dx y
dA A
a
a
=

+ − = − = =
=
∫ ∫

• Using vertical strips, perform a single integration
to find the first moments.
( )
2
0
2
2
b a b
dx a x
a
b
x dx xy dA x Q
a
a
el y
= =
− = = =
∫ ∫ ∫
Sample Problem 10.2
( )
( )
10 2
1
2
1
2
12
2
0
4
4
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
ab
dx a x
a
b
dx a x
a
b
dx y
y
dA y Q
b a
a
b
a
a
el x
= − =

− = = =
= =

∫ ∫ ∫
• Or, using horizontal strips, perform a single
integration to find the first moments.
( )
1
2 2
2
2 1
2 1
2
0
2
b a
dy y
a
a
dy x
dy x
x
dA x Q
b
b
el y
=
|
|
|

|
− =
= = =

∫ ∫ ∫
Sample Problem 10.2
10
1
12 2
2
0
2 3
2 1
2 1
0
2 1
ab
dy y
b
a
ay
dy
b
y
ya yxdy dA y Q
dy y
b
a
b
el x
=
|
¹
|

\
|
− =

|
¹
|

\
|
− = = =
=
|
|
¹

\
− =

∫ ∫ ∫

• Evaluate the centroid coordinates.
12 3
2
b a ab
x
Q A x
y
=
=
4
a
x =
Q A y =
Sample Problem 10.2
10 3
2
ab ab
y
Q A y
x
=
=
b y
10
3
=
• Surface of revolution is generated by rotating a
plane curve about a fixed axis.
Theorems of Pappus-Guldinus
plane curve about a fixed axis.
• Area of a surface of revolution is
equal to the length of the generating
curve times the distance traveled by
the centroid through the rotation.
L y A π 2 =
• Body of revolution is generated by rotating a plane
area about a fixed axis.
Theorems of Pappus-Guldinus
area about a fixed axis.
• Volume of a body of revolution is
equal to the generating area times
the distance traveled by the centroid
through the rotation.
A y V π 2 =
SOLUTION:
• Apply the theorem of Pappus-Guldinus
to evaluate the volumes or revolution
for the rectangular rim section and the
inner cutout section.
• Multiply by density and acceleration
to get the mass and acceleration.
Sample Problem 10.3
The outside diameter of a pulley is 0.8
m, and the cross section of its rim is as
shown. Knowing that the pulley is
made of steel and that the density of
steel is
determine the mass and weight of the
rim.
3 3
m kg 10 85 . 7 × = ρ
to get the mass and acceleration.
SOLUTION:
• Apply the theorem of Pappus-Guldinus
to evaluate the volumes or revolution for
the rectangular rim section and the inner
cutout section.
• Multiply by density and acceleration to
get the mass and acceleration.
Sample Problem 10.3
( )( )
|
¹
|

\
|
× × = =

3
3 9 3 6 3 3
mm m 10 mm 10 65 . 7 m kg 10 85 . 7 V m ρ
kg 0 . 60 = m
( )( )
2
s m 81 . 9 kg 0 . 60 = = mg W
N 589 = W
get the mass and acceleration.
• A distributed load is represented by plotting the load
∫ ∫
= = = A dA dx w W
L
Distributed Loads on Beams
• A distributed load is represented by plotting the load
per unit length, w (N/m) . The total load is equal to
the area under the load curve.
∫ ∫
= = = A dA dx w W
0
( )
( ) A x dA x A OP
dW x W OP
L
= =
=


0
• A distributed load can be replace by a concentrated
load with a magnitude equal to the area under the
load curve and a line of action passing through the
area centroid.
SOLUTION:
• The magnitude of the concentrated load
is equal to the total load or the area under
the curve.
• The line of action of the concentrated
load passes through the centroid of the
area under the curve.
Sample Problem 10.4
A beam supports a distributed load as
shown. Determine the equivalent
concentrated load and the reactions at
the supports.
area under the curve.
• Determine the support reactions by
summing moments about the beam
ends.
SOLUTION:
• The magnitude of the concentrated load is equal to
the total load or the area under the curve.
kN 0 . 18 = F
• The line of action of the concentrated load passes
through the centroid of the area under the curve.
Sample Problem 10.4
through the centroid of the area under the curve.
kN 18
m kN 63 ⋅
= X
m 5 . 3 = X
• Determine the support reactions by summing
moments about the beam ends.
( ) ( )( ) 0 m .5 3 kN 18 m 6 : 0 = − =

y A
B M
Sample Problem 10.4
kN 5 . 10 =
y
B
( ) ( )( ) 0 m .5 3 m 6 kN 18 m 6 : 0 = − + − =

y B
A M
kN 5 . 7 =
y
A
Center of Gravity of a 3D Body: Centroid of a Volume
• Center of gravity G
( )

∆ − = − j W j W

( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) j W r j W r
j W r j W r
G
G

− × ∆ = − ×
∆ − × = − ×


∫ ∫
= = dW r W r dW W
G

• Results are independent of body orientation,
∫ ∫ ∫
= = = zdW W z ydW W y xdW W x
∫ ∫ ∫
= = = zdV V z ydV V y xdV V x
dV dW V W γ γ = = and
• For homogeneous bodies,
Centroids of Common 3D Shapes
• Moment of the total weight concentrated at the
center of gravity G is equal to the sum of the
moments of the weights of the component parts.
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
= = = W z W Z W y W Y W x W X
• For homogeneous bodies,
Composite 3D Bodies
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
= = = V z V Z V y V Y V x V X
SOLUTION:
• Form the machine element from a
rectangular parallelepiped and a
quarter cylinder and then subtracting
two 25 mm. diameter cylinders.
Sample Problem 10.5
Locate the center of gravity of the
steel machine element. The diameter
of each hole is 25 mm.
Sample Problem 10.5
( ) ( )
3 4
mm 3 . 82589 mm 1200425 = =
∑ ∑
V V x X
Sample Problem 10.5
( ) ( )
∑ ∑
( ) ( )
3 4
mm 3 . 82589 mm 1971662 − = =
∑ ∑
V V y Y
( ) ( )
3 4
mm 3 . 82589 mm 3341238 = =
∑ ∑
V V z Z
mm 53 . 14 = X
mm 9 . 23 = Y
mm 5 . 40 = Z
1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers – Statics & Dynamics, Beer &
Johnston; 7
th
edition
2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4
th
edition
3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics
Dynamics Vol. 2, Meriam & Kraige; 5
th
edition
Reference books
34
STATICS – MID SEMESTER – DYNAMICS
Tutorial: Thursday 8 am to 8.55 am
4. Schaum’s solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2:
Dynamics, Joseph F. Shelley

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