Determine the location x of the two supports so as to minimize the maximum bending moment in the beam.

Specify the maximum bending moment.

ME101: Engineering Mechanics

Lecture 14 Friction

01st February 2011

Introduction
• In preceding chapters, it was assumed that surfaces in contact were either frictionless (surfaces could move freely with respect to each other) or rough (tangential forces prevent relative motion between surfaces). • Actually, no perfectly frictionless surface exists. For two surfaces in contact, tangential forces, called friction forces, will develop if one attempts to move one relative to the other. • However, the friction forces are limited in magnitude and will not prevent motion if sufficiently large forces are applied. • The distinction between frictionless and rough is, therefore, a matter of degree. • There are two types of friction: dry or Coulomb friction and fluid friction. Fluid friction applies to lubricated mechanisms. The present discussion is limited to dry friction between nonlubricated surfaces.

W

Dry friction: Laws of dry friction
• W – weight; N – Reaction of the surface

A

• Only vertical component

N W P

• P – applied load
A F N

• F – static friction force : resultant of many forces acting over the entire contact area • Because of irregularities in surface & molecular attraction

The Laws of Dry Friction. Coefficients of Friction
• Block of weight W placed on horizontal surface. Forces acting on block are its weight and reaction of surface N. • Small horizontal force P applied to block. For block to remain stationary, in equilibrium, a horizontal component F of the surface reaction is required. F is a static-friction force. • As P increases, the static-friction force F increases as well until it reaches a maximum value Fm. Fm = µ s N • Further increase in P causes the block to begin to move as F drops to a smaller kinetic-friction force Fk. Fk = µ k N

The Laws of Dry Friction. Coefficients of Friction
• Maximum static-friction force: Fm = µ s N • Kinetic-friction force: Fk = µ k N

µ k ≅ 0.75µ s
• Maximum static-friction force and kineticfriction force are: - proportional to normal force - dependent on type and condition of contact surfaces - independent of contact area

EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE: Fm proportional to N Fm = µs N; µs – static friction co-efficient Similarly, Fk = µk N; µk – kinetic friction co-efficient

µk = 0.75 µs

µs and µk depends on the nature of surface; not on contact area of surface

W P

F
Equilibrium
A B

Fm

Motion

Fk p Less irregularities interaction

F N More irregularities interaction

• ‘P’ is increased; ‘F’ is also increased and continue to oppose ‘P’ • This happens till maximum ‘Fm’ is reached – Body tend to move till Fm is reached • After this point, block is in motion • Block in motion: ‘Fm’ reduced to ‘Fk – lower value – kinetic friction force’ and it remains same – related to irregularities interaction • ‘N’ reaches ‘B’ from ‘A’ – Then tipping occurs about ‘B’

The Laws of Dry Friction. Coefficients of Friction
• Four situations can occur when a rigid body is in contact with a horizontal surface:

• No friction, (Px = 0)

• No motion, (Px < Fm)

• Motion impending, (Px = Fm)

• Motion, (Px > Fm)

Angles of Friction
• It is sometimes convenient to replace normal force N and friction force F by their resultant R:

• No friction

• No motion

• Motion impending

• Motion
Fk µ k N tan φ k = = N N tan φ k = µ k

Fm µ s N tan φ s = = N N tan φ s = µ s

Angles of Friction
• Consider block of weight W resting on board with variable inclination angle q.

• No friction

• No motion

• Motion impending

• Motion

Problems Involving Dry Friction

• All applied forces known • All applied forces known • Coefficient of static friction is known • Coefficient of static • Motion is impending • Motion is impending friction is known • Determine value of • Determine magnitude • Determine whether body coefficient of static or direction of one of will remain at rest or friction. the applied forces slide

Three categories of problems
First category: to know a body slips or not

• All applied forces are given, co-effts. of friction are known • Find whether the body will remain at rest or slide • Friction force ‘F’ required to maintain equilibrium is unknown (magnitude not equal to µs N) Solution
• Determine ‘F’ required for equilibrium, by solving equilibrium equns; Also find ‘N’ • Compare ‘F’ obtained with maximum value ‘Fm’ i.e., from Fm = µs N • ‘F’ is smaller or equal to ‘Fm’, then body is at rest • Otherwise body starts moving • Actual friction force magnitude = Fk = µk N R. Ganesh Narayanan
14

Sample Problem 14.1
SOLUTION: • Determine values of friction force and normal reaction force from plane required to maintain equilibrium. • Calculate maximum friction force and compare with friction force required for equilibrium. If it is greater, block will not slide. A 500-N force acts as shown on a 1.5 kN block placed on an inclined plane. The coefficients of friction between the block and plane are ms = 0.25 and mk = 0.20. Determine whether the block is in equilibrium and find the value of the friction force. • If maximum friction force is less than friction force required for equilibrium, block will slide. Calculate kinetic-friction force.

Sample Problem 14.1
SOLUTION: • Determine values of friction force and normal reaction force from plane required to maintain equilibrium.

∑ Fx = 0 :

4 5

3 (500 N) - 5 (1500 N ) − F = 0

F = −500 N

∑ Fy = 0 :

3 4 N - 5 (500 N ) − 5 (500 N ) = 0

N = 1500 N
• Calculate maximum friction force and compare with friction force required for equilibrium. If it is greater, block will not slide.
Fm = µ s N Fm = 0.25(1500 N ) = 375 N

The block will slide down the plane.

Sample Problem 14.1
• If maximum friction force is less than friction force required for equilibrium, block will slide. Calculate kinetic-friction force.

Factual = Fk = µ k N = 0.20(1500 N )
Factual = 300 N

F
Equilibrium

Fm

Motion

Fk p

Meriam/Kraige; 6/8

Cylinder weight: 30 kg; Dia: 400 mm Static friction co-efft: 0.30 between cylinder and surface Calculate the applied CW couple M which cause the cylinder to slip ΣFx = 0 = -NA+0.3NB Cos 30-NB Sin 30 = 0 ΣFy = 0 =>-294.3+0.3NA+NBCos 30-0.3NB Sin 30 = 0 Find NA & NB by solving these two equns.
M FB = 0.3 NB C NA 30 x 9.81 M 30°

ΣMC = 0 = > 0.3 NA (0.2)+0.3 NB (0.2) - M = 0 Put NA & NB; Find ‘M’
NB FA = 0.3 NA

NA = 237 N & NB = 312 N; M = 33 N-m

Paint Wooden block

Meriam/Kraige; 6/5

4

Θ 12
Roof surface

Wooden block: 1.2 kg; Paint: 9 kg
Determine the magnitude and direction of (1) the friction force exerted by roof surface on the wooden block, (2) total force exerted by roof surface on the wooden block

10.2x 9.81

Θ = tan-1 (4/12) = 18.43°

Y

(2) Total force = 10.2 x 9.81 = 100.06 N UP
F

X

(1) ΣFx = 0 => -F+100.06 sin 18.43 => F = 31.6 N ΣFy = 0 => N = 95 N

N

Beer/Johnston

For 20 kg block
20 x 9.81 = 196.2 N

(a)

For 30 kg block
30 x 9.81 = 294.3 N F1 N1

T F1 N1

P
F2 N2

(B)

490.5 N

P

N

Beer/Johnston
A 6.5-m ladder AB of mass 10 kg leans against a wall as shown. Assuming that the coefficient of static friction on µs is the same at both surfaces of contact, determine the smallest value of µs for which equilibrium can be maintained. A
2.5 m

B

6m

Slip impends at both A and B, FA= µsNA, FB= µsNB ΣFx=0=> FA−NB=0, NB=FA=µsNA ΣFy=0=> NA−W+FB=0, NA+FB=W NA+µsNB=W; W = NA(1+µs2) ΣMo = 0 => (6) NB - (2.5) (NA) +(W) (1.25) = 0 6µsNA - 2.5 NA + NA(1+µs2) 1.25 = 0 µs = -2.4 ± 2.6 = > Min µs = 0.2

FB B NB

W A NA FA
1.25

O
1.25

ME101: Engineering Mechanics

Lecture 15 Friction

01st February 2011

Sample Problem 14.2
SOLUTION: • When W is placed at minimum x, the bracket is about to slip and friction forces in upper and lower collars are at maximum value. • Apply conditions for static equilibrium to find minimum x.

The moveable bracket shown may be placed at any height on the 75 mm. diameter pipe. If the coefficient of friction between the pipe and bracket is 0.25, determine the minimum distance x at which the load can be supported. Neglect the weight of the bracket.

Sample Problem 14.2
SOLUTION: • When W is placed at minimum x, the bracket is about to slip and friction forces in upper and lower collars are at maximum value. FA = µ s N A = 0.25 N A
FB = µ s N B = 0.25 N B

• Apply conditions for static equilibrium to find minimum x.

∑ Fx = 0 : N B − N A = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 : FA + FB − W = 0
0.25 N A + 0.25 N B − W = 0 0 .5 N A = W

NB = N A

N A = N B = 2W

∑MB = 0:

N A (150 mm ) − FA (75 mm ) − W ( x − 35.5 mm ) = 0 150 N A − 75(0.25 N A ) − Wx + 37.5W = 0 150(2W ) − 18.75(2W ) − Wx + 37.5W = 0

x = 300 mm

Wedges

• Wedges - simple machines used to raise heavy loads. • Force required to lift block is significantly less than block weight. • Friction prevents wedge from sliding out. • Want to find minimum force P to raise block.

• Block as free-body

• Wedge as free-body

∑ Fx = 0 :
− N1 + µ s N 2 = 0

∑ Fx = 0 :
− µ s N 2 − N 3 (µ s cos 6° − sin 6°) +P=0 ∑ Fy = 0 : − N 2 + N 3 (cos 6° − µ s sin 6°) = 0

∑ Fy = 0 :
− W − µ s N1 + N 2 = 0

or
R1 + R2 + W = 0

or
P − R2 + R3 = 0

Square-Threaded Screws
• Square-threaded screws frequently used in jacks, presses, etc. Analysis similar to block on inclined plane. Recall friction force does not depend on area of contact. • Thread of base has been “unwrapped” and shown as straight line. Slope is 2pr horizontally and lead L vertically. • Moment of force Q is equal to moment of force P.
Q = Pa r

• Impending motion upwards. Solve for Q.

• φs > θ , Self-locking, solve for Q to lower load.

• φs > θ , Non-locking, solve for Q to hold load.

The homogeneous semi-cylinder rests on a horizontal surface and is subjected to the force P applied to a cord firmly attached to its periphery. The force P is slowly increased and kept normal to the flat surface of the semi-cylinder. If slipping is observed just as θ reaches 400, determine the coefficient of static friction µs and the value of P when slipping occurs.

06_06

06_07

Sample Problem 14.5
SOLUTION • Calculate lead angle and pitch angle. • Using block and plane analogy with impending motion up the plane, calculate the clamping force with a force triangle. A clamp is used to hold two pieces of wood together as shown. The clamp has a double square thread of mean diameter equal to 10 mm with a pitch of 2 mm. The coefficient of friction between threads is ms = 0.30. If a maximum torque of 40 N*m is applied in tightening the clamp, determine (a) the force exerted on the pieces of wood, and (b) the torque required to loosen the clamp. • With impending motion down the plane, calculate the force and torque required to loosen the clamp.

Sample Problem 14.5
SOLUTION • Calculate lead angle and pitch angle. For the double threaded screw, the lead L is equal to twice the pitch. L 2(2 mm ) tan θ = = = 0.1273 θ = 7.3° 2π r 10π mm φ s = 16.7° tan φ s = µ s = 0.30 • Using block and plane analogy with impending motion up the plane, calculate clamping force with force triangle. 40 N ⋅ m Q r = 40 N ⋅ m Q= = 8 kN 5 mm 8 kN (θ + φ s ) = Q tan W= W tan 24°
W = 17.97 kN

Sample Problem 14.5
• With impending motion down the plane, calculate the force and torque required to loosen the clamp.
tan (φ s − θ ) = Q W Q = (17.97 kN ) tan 9.4° Q = 2.975 kN

Torque = Q r = (2.975 kN )(5 mm ) = 2.975 × 103 N 5 × 10 −3 m

(

)(

)

Torque = 14.87 N ⋅ m

Beer/Johnston The position of the automobile jack shown is controlled by a screw ABC that is singlethreaded at each end (right-handed thread at A, left-handed thread at C). Each thread has a pitch of 2 mm and a mean diameter of 7.5 mm. If the coefficient of static friction is 0.15, determine the magnitude of the couple M that must be applied to raise the automobile.
FBD joint D:

By symmetry:

ΣFy = 0 => 2FADsin25°−4 kN=0
4 kN

FAD = FCD = 4.73 kN
25°

D

25°

FAD

FCD
R. Ganesh Narayanan 37

FBD joint A: 4.73 kN
25°

ΣFx = 0 => FAC−2(4.73) cos25°=0 FAC = 8.57 kN

A

25°

FAC

FAE = 4.73 Joint A
W = FAC = 8.57

P = M/r θ θ

φ R Π (7.5)

L = Pitch = 2 mm

38

FBD joint A: 4.73 kN
25°

ΣFx = 0 => FAC−2(4.73) cos25°=0 FAC = 8.57 kN

A

25°

FAC

FAE = 4.73 Joint A
W = FAC = 8.57

Here θ is used instead of α used earlier

P = M/r θ θ

φ R Π (7.5)

L = Pitch = 2 mm

MA = rW tan (Φ+α) = (7.5/2) (8.57) tan (13.38) = 7.63 Nm
Similarly, at ‘C’, Mc = 7.63 Nm (by symmetry); Total moment = 7.63 (2) = 15.27 Nm
39

A novel Electrical machine

Trent 1000

06_08

06_09

Journal Bearings. Axle Friction
• Journal bearings provide lateral support to rotating shafts. Thrust bearings provide axial support • Frictional resistance of fully lubricated bearings depends on clearances, speed and lubricant viscosity. Partially lubricated axles and bearings can be assumed to be in direct contact along a straight line. • Forces acting on bearing are weight W of wheels and shaft, couple M to maintain motion, and reaction R of the bearing. • Reaction is vertical and equal in magnitude to W. • Reaction line of action does not pass through shaft center O; R is located to the right of O, resulting in a moment that is balanced by M. • Physically, contact point is displaced as axle “climbs” in bearing.

Journal Bearings. Axle Friction

• Angle between R and normal to bearing surface is the angle of kinetic friction jk. M = Rr sin φ k
≈ Rrµ k

• May treat bearing reaction as forcecouple system.

• For graphical solution, R must be tangent to circle of friction.
r f = r sin φ k ≈ rµ k

Thrust Bearings. Disk Friction
Consider rotating hollow shaft: P ∆M = r∆F = rµ k ∆N = rµ k ∆A A rµ k P∆A = 2 2 π R2 − R1

(

)

M =

2 2 π R2 − R1

(

µk P

2π R2

)0 R

2 ∫ ∫ r drdθ
1

= 2 µk P 2 3 2 R2 − R1

3 3 R2 − R1

For full circle of radius R,
M = 2 µ k PR 3

Wheel Friction. Rolling Resistance

• Point of wheel in contact with ground has no relative motion with respect to ground. Ideally, no friction.

• Deformations of wheel and • Moment M due to frictional ground cause resultant of resistance of axle bearing ground reaction to be requires couple produced applied at B. P is required by equal and opposite P to balance moment of W and F. about B. Without friction at rim, wheel would slide. Pr = Wb b = coef of rolling resistance

Sample Problem 14.6
A pulley of diameter 100 mm can rotate about a fixed shaft of diameter 50 mm. The coefficient of static friction between the pulley and shaft is 0.20. Determine: • the smallest vertical force P required to start raising a 2.5 kN load, • the smallest vertical force P required to hold the load, and • the smallest horizontal force P required to start raising the same load. SOLUTION: • With the load on the left and force P on the right, impending motion is clockwise to raise load. Sum moments about displaced contact point B to find P. • Impending motion is counterclockwise as load is held stationary with smallest force P. Sum moments about C to find P. • With the load on the left and force P acting horizontally to the right, impending motion is clockwise to raise load. Utilize a force triangle to find P.

Sample Problem 14.6
SOLUTION: • With the load on the left and force P on the right, impending motion is clockwise to raise load. Sum moments about displaced contact point B to find P. The perpendicular distance from center O of pulley to line of action of R is

rf = r sin ϕ s ≈ rµ s

rf ≈ (25 mm ) 0.20 = 5 mm

Summing moments about B,

∑M

B

= 0:

(55 mm )(2500 N ) − (45 mm )P = 0
P = 3060 N

Sample Problem 14.6

• Impending motion is counter-clockwise as load is held stationary with smallest force P. Sum moments about C to find P. The perpendicular distance from center O of pulley to line of action of R is again 0.20 in. Summing moments about C,

∑M

C

= 0:

(45 mm )(2500 N ) − (55 mm )P = 0
P = 2050 N

Sample Problem 14.6
• With the load on the left and force P acting horizontally to the right, impending motion is clockwise to raise load. Utilize a force triangle to find P. Since W, P, and R are not parallel, they must be concurrent. Line of action of R must pass through intersection of W and P and be tangent to circle of friction which has radius rf = 0.20 in.
sin θ = OE 5 mm = = 0.0707 OD (50 mm ) 2

θ = 4.1°

From the force triangle,

P = W cot (45° − θ ) = (2500 N ) cot 40.9°

P = 2890 N

Belt Friction
• Relate T1 and T2 when belt is about to slide to right. • Draw free-body diagram for element of belt ∆θ ∆θ ∑ Fx = 0 : (T + ∆T ) cos − T cos − µ s ∆N = 0 2 2 ∆θ ∆θ ∑ Fy = 0 : ∆N − (T + ∆T ) sin − T sin = 0 2 2 • Combine to eliminate ∆N, divide through by ∆θ,
∆T ∆θ ∆T  sin (∆θ 2 )  cos − µ s T +  ∆θ 2 2  ∆θ 2 

• In the limit as ∆θ goes to zero, dT − µ sT = 0 dθ • Separate variables and integrate from θ = 0 to θ = β T2 T2 ln = µ s β or = e µs β T1 T1

Sample Problem 14.7
SOLUTION: • Since angle of contact is smaller, slippage will occur on pulley B first. Determine belt tensions based on pulley B. • Taking pulley A as a free-body, sum moments about pulley center to determine torque. A flat belt connects pulley A to pulley B. The coefficients of friction are ms = 0.25 and mk = 0.20 between both pulleys and the belt. Knowing that the maximum allowable tension in the belt is 3000-N, determine the largest torque which can be exerted by the belt on pulley A.

Sample Problem 14.7
SOLUTION: • Since angle of contact is smaller, slippage will occur on pulley B first. Determine belt tensions based on pulley B.

T2 = eµs β T1

3000 N = e 0.25(2ρ 3) = 1.688 T1

3000 N T1 = = 1777.3 N 1.688
• Taking pulley A as free-body, sum moments about pulley center to determine torque.

∑M

A

= 0:

M A + (200 mm )(1777.3 N − 3000 N ) = 0

M A = 245 N ⋅ m

Reference books
1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers – Statics & Dynamics, Beer & Johnston; 7th edition 2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4th edition 3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics Dynamics Vol. 2, Meriam & Kraige; 5th edition 4. Schaum’s solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2: Dynamics, Joseph F. Shelley STATICS – MID SEMESTER – DYNAMICS Tutorial: Thursday 8 am to 8.55 am

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