Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
Terrorism is a great concern for the world today. With the development of science and
technology the capability of the terrorists to destroy a structure has also been increased. At the
same time to cause maximum hazard, they aim at the vital structures which can breakdown the
bone marrow of the nation or the locality. So to protect our existence, the vital structures should
be resistant to a certain level of terroristic activity.
Water tanks play the most vital role in the existence of population. Because if a water tank is
destroyed, it affects a huge population. Similarly the petroleum tanks and chemical tanks play
very important role in the transportation, production, economy of a country. But if they fail due
to terroristic attack, then it may be catastrophic and at the same time paralyzing also. So these
structures should be equipped through proper research in order to prevent the destruction.
Though research has been carried out in the field of blast response of tanks, no research work
has been done in the base isolation of these tanks. It has already been proved that the isolators
reduce the response of structures due to dynamic loadings, so the isolation will definitely have
some effect on the response of tank. The research proceeds in the track line as:-study of
explosives, process of detonation, evaluation of blast pressure, response of single degree of
freedom system to impact and blast pressure, numerical analysis of response of isolated and non-
isolated tank using three lumped mass model system, finite element modeling of tank and liquid
mass and finding the response of fixed base and isolated tank and validating the results.
The dynamics of explosion on the basis of conservation of energy is studied by Henrych
(1979). Different blast wave front parameters have been studied by Rankine (1870) and Brode
(1955) independently. Baker (1983) and Kingery (1984) have represented the blast wave
parameters graphically. Blast wave effects on plates have been studied by Rajendran and Lee
(2009). Remennikov (2003) has studied blast pressure on buildings. United states army has
developed a manual TM-5-1300, now known as UCF 3-340-02, which gives details of blast
resistant design. Tawadros and Glockner (1972) carried out experiment to get dynamic response
data of shells under simulated blast wave. Ruiz et al. (1989) studied the elastic response of thin
walled cylindrical shell to blast loading; analyzed both rotationally symmetrical and sideways
loadings; the results obtained from both loadings were compared with those obtained
experimentally. Gefken et al. (1988) studied the response modes of thin cylindrical shells when
impulsively loaded with radial axisymmetrical loads; both internally pressurized and
unpressurised shells were analyzed. Xi et al (2000) gave theoretical and finite element solution
for an orthotropic thick cylinder under arbitrary impact loading. Jhung et al (2006) investigated
the dynamic response characteristics of a structure impacted by high speed projectile and
validated using LS-DYNA and ANSYS. Housner (1963) has given two-degree of freedom liquid
lumped mass model. Haroun (1983) has modeled the liquid as three-degree-of –freedom liquid
lumped mass model. Shrimali and Jangid (2003, 2004) studied the response of base isolated
liquid storage tanks to seismic excitation. Jaiswal et al. (2007) reviewed seismic codes on liquid
containing tanks.
1.2 Objectives
The aim of the present project is to study the blast response of fixed and isolated liquid tank
numerically and by rigorous finite element modelling and to compare the results. In specific,
objectives are:
1. To numerically find the response of isolated liquid filled tank under blast loading using
three-degree-of-freedom liquid lump mass model.
2. To compare the results with non-isolated liquid filled tank.
3. To find the response of tank with and without liquid.
4. Validating the results.
5. To model the liquid mass and the tank using rigorous finite element analysis
6. To do parametric study
1.1Organization of report
The report consists of four chapters including this introductory chapter. The chapter 2
consists of the review the state of art of explosion process, evaluation of blast pressure and other
blast wave parameters, liquid mass modeling, blast response of non-isolated tank and earthquake
response of isolated tank. Chapter 3 consists of response of single degree of freedom system to
impact loading and blast loading. Chapter 4 consists of response of isolated and non-isolated
tank using three degree of freedom lumped mass model.





Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 General
The study of blast effect is a combination of physical and chemical phenomenon. When
an explosive is ignited, it decomposes violently with evolution of heat and gases. The rapid
expansion of these gases results in shock pressure on the surface of solid bodies. The detail
process of explosion, explosives used, and the evaluation of blast pressure are discussed in this
chapter. The state of art is studied under the headings of liquid mass modeling, blast effect of
tank without isolation and earthquake response of tanks with isolation.
2.2 Explosions
Explosions can be physical, nuclear or chemical. When explosion takes place due to
sudden failure of physical structure is called physical explosion e.g. catastrophic failure of a
cylinder of compressed gas. When explosion takes place due to formation of different atomic
nuclei by redistribution of the protons and neutrons within the interacting nuclei is called nuclear
explosion and when an explosion involves rapid combustion of different chemical compounds is
called chemical explosion. Usually in terroristic attacks, explosives used are chemical in nature.
So we will study the chemical explosion in more detail.
A chemical explosion involves the rapid oxidation of fuel elements composed of
hydrocarbon compounds. The oxygen required for combustion is contained within the
compound. Most explosives are condensed under high pressure. When explosives react, they
decompose violently with evolution of heat and gases. The rapid expansion of these gases results
in generations of shock pressure in any solid materials which are in near vicinity.
2.2.1Explosives
The explosives which are usually used in military and terroristic activities are organic by
origin. The elements which constitute the explosives are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and
sulphur. Some commonly used explosives are
1- Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (C
5
H
8
O
12
N
4
), commonly known as PETN is used as a main
charge in munitions and also in demolition detonators. The heat of explosion or mass
specific energy Q of this material is 5940kJ/kg and generates 0.79m
3
of gas per kg of
the material.
2- 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triaza-cyclohexene (C
3
H
6
O
6
N
6
), commonly known as cyclonitrite
or RDX is used as a filling for military munitions and special applications such as
linear cutting charges.
3- 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-aza-cyclo-octane (C
4
H
8
O
8
N
8
), commonly known as
HMX, which is a white crystalline solid used as a filling for high performance
munitions.
4- N-methyl-N-nitro-2,4,6-trinitroaniline (C
7
H
5
O
8
N
8
), commonly known as tetryl or CE
which is used in military detonators.
5- 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (C
7
H
5
O
6
N
3
), commonly known as TNT. Probably it is the mostly
widely used explosive. It is a pale yellow-brown crystalline solid having mass
specific energy 4520kJ/kg and produces 0.73m
3
of gas per kg of TNT. It is used in
military munitions being mixed with other explosives such as RDX, HMX or
ammonium nitrate.
6- Nitroglycerine (C
3
H
5
N
3
O
9
), an oily liquid, commonly known as blasting oil. It
explodes with great violence producing 6700kJ/kg of heat and 0.74m
3
/kg of gas.
7- Nitroglycol (C
2
H
4
O
6
N
2
) explodes releasing very high energy i.e. 6730kJ/kg of
material and liberates 0.74m
3
of gas.
Among all the materials TNT is the most widely used and very efficient explosive. So it
has been accepted as the basis of conversion for all other explosives. An equivalent conversion
factor for all the explosives has been decided according to their mass specific energy. The factors
are given in tabular form below. For calculations of different blast parameters the explosive
mass is converted to TNT mass by multiplying the TNT equivalent.

Table 2.1
2.2.2 Terminology
Combustion is the term used to describe oxidation process in which oxygen required may
be consumed from outside or that contained within.
Explosive
Mass specific energy
Q(kJ/kg)
TNT equivalent
Q/Q
TNT
Amatol 80/20(80% ammonium
nitrate, 20%TNT)
2650 0.586
Compound B(60%RDX, 40%
TNT)
5190 1.148
HMX 5680 1.256
RDX 5360 1.185
Lead azide 1540 0.340
Mercury fulminate 1790 0.390
Nitroglycerine 6700 1.481
Pentolite 50/50 (50% PETN, 50%
TNT)
5110 1.129
PETN 5800 1.282
Tetryl 4520 1.00
TNT 4520 1.00
Torpex (42% RDX, 40% TNT,
18% aluminium)
7540 1.667
Blasting gelatin(91%
nitroglycerine, 7.9%
nitrocellulose, 0.9% antiacid,
0.2%water)
4520 1.00
60% nitroglycerine dynamite 2710 0.600
Deflagration is the combustion process in which the rate of decomposition is much lower
than the speed of sound in the material. Deflagration is propagated by the liberated heat of
reaction. The flow direction of reaction products is in opposition to the direction of
decomposition.
Detonation is the form of reaction of an explosive which produces a high intensity shock
wave. The reaction rate is described by detonation velocity lies between 1500m/s to 9000m/s
which is much faster than thermal conduction and radiation.
Blast wave is the highly compressed layer of air which contains high pressure energy and
so it propagates or expands at a very high speed in order to balance its pressure difference it
possesses as compared to the atmosphere.
2.2.3Generation and propagation of blast wave
When a condensed high explosive is ignited, the explosives produce gases at a high rate
as a product of detonation which is can be at a pressure of 10-30Gpa and a temperature of 3000-
4000
o
C. A violent expansion of gases takes place and the surrounding air is forced out of the
volume it occupies. As a consequence the layer of air surrounding the gaseous products is
compressed, and this layer, which contains high pressure energy, is called the blast wave. As
disequilibrium is established between the blast wave and surrounding air, the blast wave travels
outwards from the centre of the explosion (expansion of blast wave). The pressure in the wave
front decreases as it moves away from the centre of explosion. Due to the momentum of the
gases, it over-expands and the pressure decreases below atmospheric pressure. This creates a
negative or suction phase, which thus applies a decelerative force to the surrounding gas
molecules, resulting in a backward flow of air towards the explosion centre.
The variation of blast pressure with time at a fixed point is shown in the fig. 2.1.p
s
is peak over
static pressure, p
0
is ambient pressure or atmospheric pressure, T
s
is the time of positive pressure,
t
s
-
is time of negative pressure and t
a
is time of arrival. The negative pressure is much less than
positive pressure. The plot shows that after the time t
a
the structure exhibits the maximum
pressure p
s
and then the pressure decreases exponentially to a negative pressure and then attains
equilibrium. The positive pressure is of our concern.
p
s
p
0
Peak
overpressure
Ambient
pressur
e
Positive phase
duration
Negative phase
duration
p(t) T
s
t
s
-
t
a
tp

Fig. 2.1 variation of pressure with time
2.2.4Blast wave parameters
During the detonation process, a detonation wave generates and propagates in the
explosive. The parameters that are used to assess the detonation performance of an explosive are
the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation pressure, the temperature of detonation and the
detonation velocity (Rajendran and Lee, 2009). Typically for an explosive(TNT) with a density
of 1650kg/m
3
, the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation pressure is 21,000MPa, the detonation
temperature is 3720k and the detonation velocity is 6950m/s. once the process of detonation is
completed, the interaction of product gases with the surrounding medium takes place. The
product gases with high pressure and temperature expand outward by generating pressure wave.
The gaseous products are assumed to be in viscid at high temperature and thus the viscous forces
are not considered for explosive modeling. In air explosion, the shock wave moves with the gas-
air interface. An equation of state (EOS) of the explosive relating energy, pressure and volume is
essential for the numerical modeling of the detonation process (Rajendran and Lee,2009).the
most commonly used EOS to describe the state of detonation products is Jones-Wilkins-Lee
(JWL),which is given as

1 2
jwl in
1 2
( , ) 1 e 1 e
RV R V
p V U A B E
RV R V V
− −
| ` | ` Ω Ω Ω
· − + − +

. , . ,
(2.1)
Where
A
,
B
,
1
R
,
2
R
and

are material constants,
jwl
p
is the pressure,
V
is the relative volume
compared to the initial volume of the explosive and
in
U
in is the internal energy per volume and
E is the initial energy per unit mass of explosive. The first in the JWL equation is known as the
high pressure term dominates first for close
V
to 1, the second term is influential for
V
close to
2 and last term corresponds to the expanded state.
The blast pressure time history is given by Friedlander’s equation (Smith and Hetherington,
1994)
a
s s
( )
( ) 1 exp
s
b t t t
p t p
T T
] ] × −
· −
] ]
] ]
(2.2)
Where,
s
p
is peak over static pressure
s
T
is time of positive blast pressure

a
t
is time of arrival

b
is decay coefficient
Peak over static pressure is the maximum pressure at a particular point which may occur for a
larger distance with a larger intensity of blast and can also occur for less distance and less
intensity of blast. So, scaled distance is used to evaluate the intensity of blast pressure at a point
considering the distance and weight of explosive used in terms of TNT (Smith and Hetherington,
1994).
1 3
=
R
Z
W
(2.3)
Where,
R
is the radial distance from the center of explosion

W
is the weight of TNT in kilogram
For chemical explosions, the peak overpressure is expressed as (Brode, 2009):
(a) Near field explosion condition,

3
6.7
1
s
p
Z
· +
bar (p
s
> 10 bar) (2.4)
(b)Far field explosion condition,

2 3
0.975 1.455 5.85
0.019
s
p
Z Z Z
· + + −
bar (0.1<p
s
<10

bar) (2.5)
For chemical explosions, the peak overpressure is expressed as (Rajendran and Lee, 2009),

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
S
2 2 2
0
808 1 4.5
1 0.048 1 0.32 1 1.32
Z
p
p
Z Z Z
]
+
]
·
+ + +
(2.6)
The blast wave velocity
s
U
, and the peak dynamic pressure,
s
q
is given by (Smith and
Hetherington, 1994)

s 0
s 0
0
6 7
7
p p
U a
p
+
·
(2.7)

( )
0
2
s
s
s
5
2 7
p
q
p p
·
+
(2.8)
Where,
0
p
=ambient atmospheric pressure

0
a
=speed of sound in air
The peak particle velocity,
p
U
, peak wind velocity behind the shock front is ( Rajendran, 2009)

( )
0
s 0
p 1
2
s 0
5
7
1 6 7
p a
U
p
p p
]
]
·
]
+
]
]
(2.9)
The air density,
s
ρ
, of the air behind the shock front is related to the ambient density,
0
ρ
as
(Smith and Hetherington, 1994)

0
0
s
s 0
s
6 7
7
p p
p p
+
ρ · ρ
+
(2.10)
The peak overpressure p
s
is related to the ratio of maximum positive overpressure (p
so+
) to the
maximum negative suction pressure (p
so-
) as (Lam et al., 2004),

so-
so+
log 1 0
e
p
b b
p
| `
+ + ·


. ,
(2.11)
Also, a commonly used simplified equation for the decay coefficient expressed with reference to
scaled distance, Z is expressed as (Lam et al., 2004),

2
3.7 4.2 b Z Z · − +
(2.12)
The time of arrival of shock wave for a radial distance R from an explosive of radius r
e
is given
as (Rajendran and Lee, 2009)

( )
e
1
2
a
0 s 0
1 1
d
1 6 / 7
r
r
t r
a p p
]
·
]
+
]

(2.13)
The time of positive pressure for chemical explosion in millisecond is given as (Rajendran and
Lee, 2009)
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
10
S
1
3 6 2
3
980 1 0.54
1 0.02 1 0.74 1 6.9
Z
T
Z Z Z
W
]
+
]
·
] ]
+ + +
] ]
(2.14)
The impulse of the shock wave is given as (Smith and Hetherington,1994)
( )
a s
a
s
d
t T
t
i p t r
+
·

(2.15)
2.3 Liquid mass modeling
To analyze a liquid containing tank numerically, it becomes inevitable to model the liquid
mass according to their responses to external forces so as to define the degree of freedom.
m
c
u
c
k
c
cc k
i
c
i
m
i u
i
kb cb m
r
u
b
Housner (1963) developed a two-degrees-of-freedom theoretical lumped mass model of ground
supported liquid storage tank which are associated with sloshing mass and impulsive mass.
Rosenblueth and Newmark (1971) modified the expressions of Housner to estimate the sloshing
and impulsive masses to evaluate the seismic forces coming on to the tank. Haroun (1983)
developed a three-degrees-of-freedom lumped mass model of ground supported liquid storage
tank which are associated with sloshing mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. The part of the
liquid which moves independent of tank movement is called sloshing mass and the other part
which moves in unison with the tank is called impulsive mass. When flexibility of tank wall is
considered then the part of the impulsive mass moves independent of tank movement and the
other part moves along with the tank called the rigid mass. Haroun has considered the flexibility
of tank wall where as Housner has ignored that. Haroun has also developed design charts for
estimating these masses with the assumptions that the liquid contained in the tank is
incompressible and has irrotational flow. Shrmali and Jangid (2003,2004) have used the three-
degrees-of-freedom lumped mass model to analyze the response of elevated liquid storage tank
to seismic excitation.
(a) (b)
Fig. 2. Liquid mass models used by Shrimali and Jangid
Jaiswal et al. (2007) reviewed many seismic codes on liquid containing tanks across
world and said that as liquid storage tanks possess lower energy dissipating capacity than
conventional buildings and during external excitation, tanks are subjected to hydrodynamic
forces, they have been assigned with higher seismic forces compared to conventional buildings
by all the codes. The modeling in which two-degrees-of-freedom model is referred as rigid tank
wall model and those which use three-degrees-of-freedom model are referred as flexible wall
model. All codes except NZSEE use rigid tank wall modeling. At the same time they said that
those codes which use rigid tank wall modeling, considers the flexibility of wall in evaluation of
impulsive mode time period. So flexibility of wall is neglected in impulsive mass evaluation
(Jaiswal et al., 2007). ASCE 7 and Eurocode 8 use the absolute summation rule whereas ACI
350.3, D-110, D-115, D-100, API 650 and NZSEE use the SRSS rule to get the combined
response of the constituting masses (Jaiswal et al., 2007). The stresses in the tank wall depend on
the hydrodynamic pressure distribution along the height which may be curvilinear or linear
(Jaiswal et al., 2007). Expressions for hydrodynamic pressure on tank base is given in NZSEE
only, but the effect of hydrodynamic pressure on tank base in obtaining the overturning moment
is considered in all the codes(Jaiswal et al., 2007).
2.4 Sloshing wave height
When tank is excited by external force, the sloshing component of liquid mass undergoes
vertical displacement and so providing freeboard becomes necessary for preventing the liquid
from spilling off. Also it may damage the roof top of the tank. So different codes have given
different expressions for sloshing height (Jaiswal et al., 2007).
ACI 350.3 and D-110 CscR0 Where, Csc is the convective mode base shear
coefficient and R0 is the radius of the tank.
Eurocode 8 and NZSEE 0.84CscR0
ASCE 7 and API 650 CscR0Rwc Where, Rwc is the response modification
factor for convective mode.
D-100 CscR0(1.4Rwc)
2.5 Liquid element modeling using ANSYS
Dynamic non-linear fluid structure interaction analysis were performed for two large
steel tanks (Tank-1, with 92.3m diameter, 21.4m height and Tank-2, with 60.5m diameter, 19.8m
height) with floating roofs using finite element modeling (Asfura et al., 2003). The tank walls
were modeled with plate elements, the soils with equivalent non-linear spring elements, the fluid
with equivalent non-linear fluid elements (ANSYS element Type FLUID 80). The FLUID 80
element is highly incompressible and it is free to move vertically and tangentially relative to the
tank wall and also free to move horizontally relative to the tank roof. The elements at the
junction of the tank bottom and the foundation were modeled using a non-linear contact friction
element (ANSYS element Type CONTACT52). This element acts only in compression and
provides the sliding resisting forces between the tank bottom and foundation. The contact
elements between tank bottom and the soil and the soil itself in Tank-1 were modeled as a
combination of elements that allow uplift and friction (combination of ANSYS element Type
CONTACT52 and COMBIN40). The Tank -2 is supported on concrete pad on piles. The soil
elements below this pad were modeled by linear equivalent horizontal and vertical soil springs
(ANSYS element Type COMBIN40). These elements do not allow uplifting and the sliding of
the pad. The interface between tank bottom and the pad were modeled by non-linear contact
friction elements. The stiffness constants of these springs including the effect of the piles and the
soil, were estimated using soil pile interaction analysis using computer code SASSI. The gravity
analysis, modal analysis and dynamic analysis for seismic load were carried and the results were
matched with API and New Zealand recommendations.
2.6 Fluid structure interaction
During dynamic excitation to a fluid tank, interaction between fluid and tank wall takes
place, which is studied under fluid structure interaction. The seismic response of liquid tank was
tried to analyze using finite element modeling software, ANSYS (Austin and Rhee, 1999).
Though fluid structural element is available in ANSYS for considering the fluid structure
interaction problem, it can be used to perform unsymmetric or damped modal, harmonic and
non-linear transient analysis (Austin and Rhee, 1999). For complex structures performing a
nonlinear transient analysis is impractical (Austin and Rhee, 1999). If finite element linear
analysis method is adopted, it neglects the fluid structure interaction (FSI), so it results in more
conservative design (Austin and Rhee, 1999). Method developed by ABB and KOPEC can be
used to find the response using the response spectrum method. The component which is used to
develop this method was the KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) Control Element
Assembly (CEA) Shroud Assembly (IBA). This is a large cylindrical shaped assembly which is
supported from and mounted inside of the Upper Guide Structure (UGS) barrel. The water in the
annulus between the IBA and the UGS produces the fluid structure interaction effect. The IBA
structure is modeled using plate (stiff63), solid (stiff45), beam (beam4) and lumped mass (mass
21) elements. The gap between the IBA and the UGS is kept 1.125 inches.
Method is available for fully coupled fluid-structure-soil interaction analysis of liquid
storage structures on/in horizontally layered half space (Yun and Chang, ). To simulate the fluid
structure interaction effect, the contained fluid is modeled using mixed finite elements with two
fields (displacement and pressure) and the structure-soil interaction effect is considered by using
finite elements and dynamic infinite elements.
2.6 Blast or impact loadings on similar structures
Non-linear dynamic response of PVC shells with different geometrical shapes under
simulated blast loading was observed (Tawadros and Glockner, 1972). Spherical and parabolic
shells with 32 different shapes were observed under blast loadings and also calibrated shots were
applied on dummy models and responses were observed by high speed television cameras. The
results were presented in tabular, graphical and photographical forms.
Rotationally symmetrical and sideways loading were applied on thin-wall cylindrical
shell and strength of the shells were calculated using numerical, analytical and experimental
techniques (Ruiz et al., 1988). The rotationally symmetrical loading case the analytical and
theoretical results were validated by experimental results. For sideways loading the analytical
result was validated by experiments using similar models loaded in shock tube apparatus. Finite
element package, ABAQUS, was considered to be the only practical tool to solve the sideways
loading case and deformation shapes has been given for the case (Ruiz et al., 1988).
Structural response modes of thin cylindrical shells to external radial impulsive loads
were observed for with and without internal pressure (Gefken et al., 1988) . For unpressurised
shells the response modes consisted of dynamic pulse buckling and followed by large inward
deflection and for pressurized shells the response modes consisted of inward deflection followed
by large outward deflection. In unpressurised shell, at critical impulse, the fracture occurs at the
mid height. In shells with internal pressure, at critical impulse, during outward movement, large
hoop strains are produced as the loaded surface rebounds past its original position, resulting in an
axial fracture which ruptures the shell.
A numerical model for non-linear dynamic analysis of blast loaded cylindrical shell
structure was presented by Jiang and Olson (1990). The model was based on a transversely
curved finite strip formulation and can be used to find the transient response of isotropic and
stringer-stiffened shells. The model had been validated by comparing results with other available
results or experimental results. Responses of simply supported stiffened plate panel, simply
supported shell roof structure, simply supported stiffened shell roof structures and cylindrical
shell under blast loading was presented.
The dynamic response of water storage tank under impact loading was studied by Jhung
et al. (2006). The impact of 300 kg projectile on a water storage tank was simulated by ANSYS
and LS-DYNA. An alternate impact analysis method was proposed which is equivalent to an
explicit dynamic analysis. The effect of fluid on the tank wall was also considered. When
frequency of water tank decreases by more than 50% by inclusion of fluid in to it (Jhung et al.,
2006) i.e. fluid is a very good absorber of impact load.
The theoretical solution for an orthotropic thick cylindrical shell under impact loading is
found by making use of finite Hankel transform and Laplace transform (Xi et al., 2000).
Dynamic formulas were derived for a sudden load and followed by an exponential decrease
phase. Finite element analysis for the same problem was also carried out using Algor (Super sap)
and it was found that both the theoretical and the finite element method yield same results.
Dynamic response of a short cylindrical shell which is made from a rigid, perfectly
plastic material under blast loading is investigated by Li and Jones, 1994.
Chapter 3
IMPACT AND BLAST
RESPONSE OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM
3.1 Preview
In real life situations the dynamic excitations are neither harmonic nor periodic. So we
study the dynamic response of single degree of freedom system to excitations varying arbitrarily
with time. Blast loadings are usually idealized as impact loadings, as they act on structures for
few milliseconds. Here response of a SDF system is studied for different types of impact
loadings like rectangular, half sine wave and triangular and a general procedure is presented to
analyze SDF system subjected to force pt varying with time. This result will enable analytical
evaluation of response to force varying with time.
Our aim is to find the solution of the differential equation of motion
mu+cu+ku=p(t) (3.1)
Subjected to initial conditions
u0=0 u0=0
For finding the general solution, p(t) is considered as a sequence of impulses of
infinitesimal duration, and the total response of the system to p(t) is the sum of the responses of
individual impulses. The individual responses can be found from the response of the system to a
unit impulse.
3.2 Response to unit impulse
When a very high force is applied for a very short duration but with a time integral that is
finite is called as impulsive force. As shown in fig. 3.1 force pt=1/ε with time duration starting
at t=τ. As ε→0, force becomes infinite; however the magnitude of the impulse ,defined by the
time integral of pt remains equal to unity. Such a force in limiting case ε→0 is called unit
impulse.
Fig. 3.1 Unit pulse
According to Newton’s second law of motion, if a force p acts on a body of mass m, the
change in momentum of the body is equal to the applied force.
ddtmu=p (3.2)
For constant mass, this equation becomes
p=mu
(3.3)
Integrating both sides with respect to t gives
t1t2p dt=mu2-u1=m∆u (3.4)
In the above equation the left hand side is impulse and the right hand side is change in
momentum. So the magnitude of impulse is the change in momentum. The above equation
represents a SDF mass-spring-damper system, when the effect of spring and damper are not
there. Thus for a unit impulse at t=τ, imparts to the mass, m, the velocity
uτ=1m (3.5)
1/ε
ε
τ
t
p
The initial displacement is
uτ=0 (3.6)
Following the solution of differential equation mu+ku=0 and initial conditions,
given as ut=u0cosωnt+u(0)ωnsinωnt , the solution for undamped system is
ht-τ=ut=1mωnsinωnt-τ t≥τ (3.7)
The solution of damped system is with damping constant ξ
ht-τ=ut=1mωne-ξωnt-τsinωnt-τ t≥τ (3.8)
ht-τ represents the unit impulse response function.
3.3 Response to arbitrary force
A force p(t) varying arbitrarily with time can be represented as the summation of
number of impulse function. The response of one impulse at time τ of magnitude pτdτ, is this
magnitude times the unit impulse function.
dut=pτdτht-τ t>τ (3.9)
Now, response of system at time t is the summation of the responses to all the impulses up to
time t. So the displacement function becomes,
ut=0tptht-τdτ (3.10)
Substituting the values of unit impulse response function gives Duhamel’s integral:
ut=1mωD0tpτe-ξωn(t-τ)sinωDt-τdτ (3.11)
For undamped system the above equation becomes
ut=1mωn0tpτsinωnt-τdτ (3.12)
Duhamel’s integral gives the solution for evaluating the response of a linear SDF system
to arbitrary force. As it is based on principle of superposition, it holds good for linear systems
only. For complicated forcing functions numerical methods are adopted to get the solution.
3.4 Response of SDF system to pulse excitation
3.4.1 Response to rectangular pulse
Let’s consider a simple SDF without damping and which is excited to rectangular pulse
described as follows.
( ) mu ku p t + · · &&
0
0
d
d
p t t
t t
≤ ¹
'

¹
(3.13)
With at rest initial conditions:
u
(0) =
u&
(0) = 0. It should be analyzed in two phase i.e. forced
vibration phase and free vibration phase.
1. Forced vibration phase: During this phase the system is subjected to step force

( )
0
( ) 2
1 cos 1 cos
n d
st n
u t t
t t t
u T
π
ω · − · − ≤
(3.14)
2. Free vibration phase: After the force application duration,

( )
0
( ) 1
2sin sin 2
2
d d
d
st n n n
t t u t t
t t
u T T T
π
π
] | ` | `
· − ≥
]
. , . , ]
(3.15)
The response of SDF system to rectangular pulse is shown in fig. 3.2. It is observed from the
response that the response greatly depends on the
/
d n
t T
value. When force is applied to the
structure, it oscillates with static displacement
( )
0
0
/
st
u p k ·
and time period
n
T
. As we are
discussing about undamped system, there will be no decay in force after the excitation ends. So,
the system retains the deformation it possesses at the end of pulse, and continues oscillating
about its center with that displacement as amplitude and time period
n
T
. So when the pulse ends
at n
n
T
(n=1,2,3…), the system comes to rest after excitation and when pulse ends at n
n
T
/2, the
system oscillates with maximum amplitude as
( )
0
st
u
.
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/8
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/4
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t )
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/2
0 1 2 3
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1.25
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1
0 1 2 3
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1.5
0 1 2 3 4
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1.75
t/T
n
0 1 2 3 4
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t )
0
t/T
n
t
d
/T
n
=2
Fig. 3.2 Dynamic response of undamped SDF system to rectangular pulse force
3.4.2 Response to half sine wave pulse
Let’s now consider the following half sin wave step function to study the behavior of
undamped SDF system.

0
sin( / )
( )
0
d d
d
p t t t t
mu ku p t
t t
π ≤ ¹
+ · ·
'

¹
&&
(3.16)
It also follows the two phases, but here the behavior of the system becomes different when
/
d n
t T
=1/2. So we will discuss this in another case.
Case 1:
/ 1/ 2
d n
t T ≠
Forced vibration phase:
( )
( )
2
0
( ) 1
sin sin 2
2
1 2
n
d
st d d n
n d
T u t t t
t t
u t t T
T t
π π
] | ` | `
· − ≤
]

. , . , ]
(3.17)
Free vibration phase:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
0
/ cos
( ) 1
sin 2
2
/ 2 1
n d d n d
d
st n n
n d
T t t T t u t t
t t
u T T
T t
π
π
] | `
· − − ≥
]

. , ]
(3.18)
Case 2:
/ 1/ 2
d n
t T ·
Forced vibration phase:
( )
0
( ) 1 2 2 2
sin cos
2
d
st n n n
u t t t t
t t
u T T T
π π π | `
· − ≤

. ,
(3.19)

Free vibration phase:
( )
0
( ) 1
cos 2
2 2
d
st n
u t t
t t
u T
π
π
| `
· − ≥

. ,
(3.20)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
-2
-1
0
1
2

u
(
t
)
/
(
u
s
t )
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/8
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/
(
u
s
t )
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/2
A
0 1 2 3
-2
-1
0
1
2
t
d
/T
n
=1.5
u
(
t
)
/
(
u
s
t )
0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-2
-1
0
1
2

u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/4
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
-2
-1
0
1
2
t
d
/T
n
=1
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
0 1 2 3 4
-2
-1
0
1
2
t
d
/T
n
=2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
-2
-1
0
1
2
t
d
/T
n
=2.5
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t/T
n
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-2
-1
0
1
2
t
d
/T
n
=3
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t )
0
t/T
n
Fig. 3.3 Dynamic response of undamped SDF system to half sine wave pulse force
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/8
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t )
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/2

0 1 2 3
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=1.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t )
0
t
d
/T
n
=1/4
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/
(
u
s
t )
0
t
d
/T
n
=1
0 1 2 3 4
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=2.5
t/T
n
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-2
-1
0
1
2
u
(
t
)
/(
u
s
t
)
0
t
d
/T
n
=3
t/T
n
Fig. 3.3 Dynamic response of undamped SDF system to triangular pulse force
3.4.3 Response to triangular pulse
The function of triangular pulse is given by
( )
0
0
2
0 / 2
( )
2 / 2
1 / 2
d
d
d
d d
d
p t
t t
t
mu ku p t
t t
p t t t
t
¹
≤ ≤
¹
¹
+ · ·
'
− | `
¹
− ≤ ≤

¹
. , ¹
&&
2 sin 2
2
n
d d
T t
t t π
| `


. ,
Chapter 4
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LIQUID FILLED INDUSTRIAL TANK
USING LUMPED MASS MODEL
4.1 Introduction
In the literature we have discussed about the two-degrees-of freedom lumped mass model
(Housner, 1963) and three-degrees-of-freedom lumped mass model (Haroun, 1983). In this
research work three-degrees-of-freedom lumped mass model has been used for analysis as it
considers the flexibility of the tank wall.
When tank is excited by blast force, a part of liquid moves independent of the tank,
called the convective mass or sloshing mass (m
c
). This mass lies towards the upper part of the
tank. The second mass which also does not move in coordination with tank called as impulsive
mass (m
i
). This mass comes into picture when the flexibility of the tank wall is considered. This
mass lies around the central portion of the tank. The third mass which moves in coordination
with the tank called as rigid mass (m
r
). This mass lies just below the central portion of the tank.
The corresponding stiffness constants have been worked out according to the properties of the
tank wall and liquid mass.
These masses when applied to blast load, induces substantial hydrodynamic forces on the
tank wall which in turn generates design forces such as base shear and overturning moments. The
base shear is used for designing of the isolation system. The overturning moment develops high
stress on one side of the tank and may cause uplift of anchor on the other side. Due to
overturning moment buckling stress also develops on the tank wall. The designing becomes more
complex when the liquid-structure interaction is taken into consideration.
Here effort has been done to find the blast response of isolated tank numerically in order
to reduce the base shear and overturning moment which are the basic reasons for the failure of
the tank. Blast responses have been found out first for fixed base tank and then for isolated tank
and the responses are compared. Here responses found out for two types of tank i.e. broad tank
and slender tank.
Hk
c

c
c
u
c
m
c
k
i

c
i
u
i
m
i
m
r
u
b
Hk
c

c
c
u
c
m
c
k
i
c
i u
i
m
i
m
r
u
b
m
c
m
i
m
r
m
b
k
c
c
c
m
c
k
i
ci
(a) (
b)
Fig. 4.1 (a) Liquid lumped mass model of non-isolated tank (b) stick model of non-isolated tank
(a) (b)
Fig. 4.2 (a) liquid lumped mass model of isolated tank (b) stick model of isolated tank
m
c
m
i
m
r
k
c
c
c
k
i
c
i
Rubber isolator
4.2 Structural model of liquid storage tank
A structural model of ground supported liquid storage cylindrical tank with fixed base is
shown in fig. 4.1(a) and the stick model is shown in the fig. 4.1 (b). The base isolated tank model
and stick model are also shown in the fig. 4.2(a) & (b).
The liquid masses sloshing mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass are referred as m
c,
m
i,
m
r
respectively. The stiffness constants of the springs which are associated with convective mass
and impulsive mass are k
c
and k
i
respectively. The damping constants which are associated with
convective mass and impulsive mass are c
c
, c
i
respectively.
The fixed base tank has two-degrees-of-freedom which are associated with sloshing mass
and impulsive mass where as in isolated tank there are three-degrees-of-freedom, the new degree
of freedom is associated with the rigid mass or tank base. u
c
, u
i
, u
r
are referred to as the absolute
displacement of these masses.
The liquid lumped masses can be evaluated by using the chart given by Haroun. The
chart values corresponds to the aspect ratio of tank, S (H/R) and t
h
/R. (where H is the height of
liquid level and R is the radius of the tank)
For t
h
/R =0.004 the values are presented.
ycyiyrP=1.01327-0.87570.35708-0.154671.21716-0.62839-
0.015990.0370850.863560.084302-0.30941-0.05088 0.066920.004390.14434-
0.01250.040830.0125230-0.00121SS2S3S4
Where,
c
Y
,
i
Y
,
r
Y
are the mass ratios defined as
c
c
m
Y
m
·
(4.2)
i
i
m
Y
m
·
(4.3)
r
r
m
Y
m
·
(4.4)
2
w
m R H π ρ ·
(
w
ρ
is the mass density of liquid) (4.5)
The natural frequencies of sloshing mass, impulsive mass are expressed as
( ) 1.84 tanh 1.84
c
g
S
R
ω
| `
·

. ,
(4.6)
i
s
P E
H
ω
ρ
·
(4.7)
Where,
E
and
s
ρ
are modulus of elasticity and density of tank wall respectively and
g
is the
acceleration due to gravity.
The equivalent stiffness constants and damping coefficients of the convective and
impulsive mass are expressed as
2
c c c
k m ω ·
(4.8)
2
i i i
k mω ·
(4.9)
2
c c c c
c m ξ ω ·
(4.10)
2
i i i i
c m ξ ω ·
(4.11)
Where
c
ξ
and
i
ξ
are damping ratio of convective mass and impulsive mass respectively.
4.3 Governing equation of motion of non-isolated system
The governing equation of motion of non-isolated system subjected to blast force
expressed in matrix form is
[ ] { ¦ [ ] { ¦ [ ] { ¦ ( ) m x c x k x F t + + · && &
(4.12)
Where
[ ] m
,
[ ] c
,
[ ] k
are the mass matrix, damping matrix, and stiffness matrix respectively.
{ ¦ x

is the displacement vector. Here
{ ¦ { ¦ ,
T
c i
x x x ·
will give the absolute displacement of the
respective masses as,
c c
x u ·
and
i i
x u ·
. The matrixes are
[ ]
0
0
c
i
m
m
m
]
·
]
]
[ ]
0
0
c
i
k
k
k
]
·
]
]
[ ]
0
0
c
i
c
c
c
]
·
]
]
( ) F t
is the force vector which is multiplication of the pressure from blast and the area on which
blast pressure is acting. The blast force will be acting at the center of masses. So area to be
multiplied has to be considered accordingly. Now, by solving the differential equation the
displacement, velocity and acceleration are found out.
After calculating the, acceleration the base shear can be calculated as
b c c i i
F m u mu · + && &&
4.4 Governing equation of motion of isolated system
The governing equation of motion of non-isolated system subjected to blast force
expressed in matrix form is
[ ] { ¦ [ ] { ¦ [ ] { ¦ ( ) m x c x k x F t + + · && &
Where
[ ] m
,
[ ] c
,
[ ] k
are the mass matrix, damping matrix, and stiffness matrix respectively.
{ ¦ x

is the displacement vector. Here
{ ¦ { ¦ , ,
T
c i r
x x x x ·
will give the absolute displacement of the
respective masses as,
c c b
x u u · −
,
i i b
x u u · −
and
r b
x u ·
. The matrixes are
[ ]
0
0
c c
i i
c i
m m
m m m
m m M
]
]
·
]
]
]
[ ]
0 0
0 0
0 0
c
i
b
k
k k
k
]
]
·
]
]
]
[ ]
0 0
0 0
0 0
c
i
b
c
c c
c
]
]
·
]
]
]
Where
b
k
and
b
c
are expressed as
2
b b b
c M ξ ω ·
2
2
b
b
k M
T
π | `
·

. ,
The expression of base shear is given as,

b c c i i r b
F m u mu m u · + + && && &&
501 BROAD
502 SLENDER
502 BROAD
401 SLENDER
401 BROAD
101 BROAD
101 SLENDER

walled cylindrical shell to blast loading; analyzed both rotationally symmetrical and sideways loadings; the results obtained from both loadings were compared with those obtained experimentally. Gefken et al. (1988) studied the response modes of thin cylindrical shells when impulsively loaded with radial axisymmetrical loads; both internally pressurized and unpressurised shells were analyzed. Xi et al (2000) gave theoretical and finite element solution for an orthotropic thick cylinder under arbitrary impact loading. Jhung et al (2006) investigated the dynamic response characteristics of a structure impacted by high speed projectile and validated using LS-DYNA and ANSYS. Housner (1963) has given two-degree of freedom liquid lumped mass model. Haroun (1983) has modeled the liquid as three-degree-of –freedom liquid lumped mass model. Shrimali and Jangid (2003, 2004) studied the response of base isolated liquid storage tanks to seismic excitation. Jaiswal et al. (2007) reviewed seismic codes on liquid containing tanks. 1.2 Objectives The aim of the present project is to study the blast response of fixed and isolated liquid tank numerically and by rigorous finite element modelling and to compare the results. In specific, objectives are: 1. To numerically find the response of isolated liquid filled tank under blast loading using three-degree-of-freedom liquid lump mass model. 2. To compare the results with non-isolated liquid filled tank. 3. To find the response of tank with and without liquid. 4. Validating the results. 5. To model the liquid mass and the tank using rigorous finite element analysis 6. To do parametric study 1.1 Organization of report The report consists of four chapters including this introductory chapter. The chapter 2 consists of the review the state of art of explosion process, evaluation of blast pressure and other blast wave parameters, liquid mass modeling, blast response of non-isolated tank and earthquake response of isolated tank. Chapter 3 consists of response of single degree of freedom system to

impact loading and blast loading. Chapter 4 consists of response of isolated and non-isolated tank using three degree of freedom lumped mass model.

Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 General The study of blast effect is a combination of physical and chemical phenomenon. When an explosive is ignited, it decomposes violently with evolution of heat and gases. The rapid expansion of these gases results in shock pressure on the surface of solid bodies. The detail process of explosion, explosives used, and the evaluation of blast pressure are discussed in this chapter. The state of art is studied under the headings of liquid mass modeling, blast effect of tank without isolation and earthquake response of tanks with isolation. 2.2 Explosions Explosions can be physical, nuclear or chemical. When explosion takes place due to sudden failure of physical structure is called physical explosion e.g. catastrophic failure of a cylinder of compressed gas. When explosion takes place due to formation of different atomic nuclei by redistribution of the protons and neutrons within the interacting nuclei is called nuclear explosion and when an explosion involves rapid combustion of different chemical compounds is called chemical explosion. Usually in terroristic attacks, explosives used are chemical in nature. So we will study the chemical explosion in more detail. A chemical explosion involves the rapid oxidation of fuel elements composed of hydrocarbon compounds. The oxygen required for combustion is contained within the compound. Most explosives are condensed under high pressure. When explosives react, they decompose violently with evolution of heat and gases. The rapid expansion of these gases results in generations of shock pressure in any solid materials which are in near vicinity. 2.2.1Explosives The explosives which are usually used in military and terroristic activities are organic by origin. The elements which constitute the explosives are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. Some commonly used explosives are
1- Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (C5H8O12N4), commonly known as PETN is used as a main

charge in munitions and also in demolition detonators. The heat of explosion or mass specific energy Q of this material is 5940kJ/kg and generates 0.79m3 of gas per kg of the material.

Probably it is the mostly widely used explosive.73m3 of gas per kg of TNT.74m3/kg of gas.7-tetra-aza-cyclo-octane (C4H8O8N8). 6.Nitroglycerine (C3H5N3O9). commonly known as HMX.6-trinitroaniline (C7H5O8N8).5.1 .Nitroglycol (C2H4O6N2) explodes releasing very high energy i. It explodes with great violence producing 6700kJ/kg of heat and 0. HMX or ammonium nitrate.N-methyl-N-nitro-2.4. So it has been accepted as the basis of conversion for all other explosives. For calculations of different blast parameters the explosive mass is converted to TNT mass by multiplying the TNT equivalent.2.5-trinitro-1. An equivalent conversion factor for all the explosives has been decided according to their mass specific energy.3. It is a pale yellow-brown crystalline solid having mass specific energy 4520kJ/kg and produces 0. It is used in military munitions being mixed with other explosives such as RDX.2.1. commonly known as blasting oil.5. 4. 6730kJ/kg of material and liberates 0.e.74m3 of gas.3.7-tetranitro-1. Table 2. 3. The factors are given in tabular form below.1. 7. Among all the materials TNT is the most widely used and very efficient explosive.4.3. an oily liquid. commonly known as cyclonitrite or RDX is used as a filling for military munitions and special applications such as linear cutting charges. which is a white crystalline solid used as a filling for high performance munitions.3.6-trinitrotoluene (C7H5O6N3). 5. commonly known as tetryl or CE which is used in military detonators. commonly known as TNT.5-triaza-cyclohexene (C3H6O6N6).

586 nitrate.481 1.00 1. 0.Mass specific energy Explosive Q(kJ/kg) Amatol 80/20(80% ammonium 2650 TNT equivalent Q/QTNT 0.148 1.600 2.256 1.185 0.00 1. 40% 5190 5680 5360 1540 1790 6700 5110 5800 4520 4520 7540 1.390 1. 20%TNT) Compound TNT) HMX RDX Lead azide Mercury fulminate Nitroglycerine Pentolite 50/50 (50% PETN.2 Terminology Combustion is the term used to describe oxidation process in which oxygen required may be consumed from outside or that contained within.340 0.2%water) 60% nitroglycerine dynamite 0.9% gelatin(91% 7.667 4520 1.282 1. . 50% TNT) PETN Tetryl TNT Torpex (42% RDX.2. nitrocellulose. B(60%RDX.00 2710 0.9% antiacid.129 1. 40% TNT. 18% aluminium) Blasting nitroglycerine.

which contains high pressure energy. 2. The negative pressure is much less than positive pressure. The plot shows that after the time ta the structure exhibits the maximum pressure ps and then the pressure decreases exponentially to a negative pressure and then attains equilibrium. The flow direction of reaction products is in opposition to the direction of decomposition. Blast wave is the highly compressed layer of air which contains high pressure energy and so it propagates or expands at a very high speed in order to balance its pressure difference it possesses as compared to the atmosphere.2. 2. and this layer.is time of negative pressure and ta is time of arrival. it over-expands and the pressure decreases below atmospheric pressure. As a consequence the layer of air surrounding the gaseous products is compressed.1.ps is peak over static pressure.3Generation and propagation of blast wave When a condensed high explosive is ignited. The pressure in the wave front decreases as it moves away from the centre of explosion. is called the blast wave. Deflagration is propagated by the liberated heat of reaction. The variation of blast pressure with time at a fixed point is shown in the fig. resulting in a backward flow of air towards the explosion centre. Ts is the time of positive pressure. The positive pressure is of our concern. Detonation is the form of reaction of an explosive which produces a high intensity shock wave. The reaction rate is described by detonation velocity lies between 1500m/s to 9000m/s which is much faster than thermal conduction and radiation. A violent expansion of gases takes place and the surrounding air is forced out of the volume it occupies. As disequilibrium is established between the blast wave and surrounding air. the blast wave travels outwards from the centre of the explosion (expansion of blast wave). ts. Due to the momentum of the gases. the explosives produce gases at a high rate as a product of detonation which is can be at a pressure of 10-30Gpa and a temperature of 30004000o C. .Deflagration is the combustion process in which the rate of decomposition is much lower than the speed of sound in the material. This creates a negative or suction phase. p0 is ambient pressure or atmospheric pressure. which thus applies a decelerative force to the surrounding gas molecules.

2009). the detonation temperature is 3720k and the detonation velocity is 6950m/s.4Blast wave parameters During the detonation process. the shock wave moves with the gasair interface. pressure and volume is .000MPa. An equation of state (EOS) of the explosive relating energy.ta ts T0 p(t) p-ss Peakphase Negative phase Positive Ambient pressur overpressure duration duration e Fig.2. The gaseous products are assumed to be in viscid at high temperature and thus the viscous forces are not considered for explosive modeling. The parameters that are used to assess the detonation performance of an explosive are the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation pressure. the temperature of detonation and the detonation velocity (Rajendran and Lee. a detonation wave generates and propagates in the explosive. The product gases with high pressure and temperature expand outward by generating pressure wave. Typically for an explosive(TNT) with a density of 1650kg/m3. the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation pressure is 21. In air explosion. the interaction of product gases with the surrounding medium takes place. once the process of detonation is completed.1 variation of pressure with time 2. 2.

essential for the numerical modeling of the detonation process (Rajendran and Lee. The blast pressure time history is given by Friedlander’s equation (Smith and Hetherington. is the pressure. ps is time of positive blast pressure Ts is time of arrival ta is decay coefficient b is peak over static pressure . A B R1 R2 Ω compared to the initial volume of the explosive and U in in is the internal energy per volume and E is the initial energy per unit mass of explosive.which is given as (2. .the most commonly used EOS to describe the state of detonation products is Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL). U in ) = A  1 −  R1V Where . and  − R1V  Ω  e + B 1 −   R 2V p jwl  − R2V Ω + E e V  is the relative volume V are material constants.2)  t  b × (t − ta )  p (t ) = ps 1 −  exp   Ts  Ts    Where. 1994) (2. the second term is influential for V close to 2 and last term corresponds to the expanded state.1)  Ω p jwl (V . .2009). The first in the JWL equation is known as the high pressure term dominates first for close V to 1.

5) ps = 0.Peak over static pressure is the maximum pressure at a particular point which may occur for a larger distance with a larger intensity of blast and can also occur for less distance and less intensity of blast. (2. bar (ps> 10 bar) (2.1<ps<10 bar) (2. scaled distance is used to evaluate the intensity of blast pressure at a point considering the distance and weight of explosive used in terms of TNT (Smith and Hetherington. 1994) . bar (0.5 )  pS   = 2 2 2 p0 1 + ( Z 0. the peak overpressure is expressed as (Rajendran and Lee.975 1.32 ) 1 + ( Z 1.455 5. 2009): (a) Near field explosion condition. and the peak dynamic pressure. So.3) Z= Where. 2009).019 Z Z Z For chemical explosions. the peak overpressure is expressed as (Brode.048 ) 1 + ( Z 0. 1994).32 ) 2 The blast wave velocity Us Hetherington. (2.4) ps = 6. R W1 3 is the radial distance from the center of explosion R is the weight of TNT in kilogram W For chemical explosions. qs is given by (Smith and .85 + 2 + 3 −0.6) 808 1 + ( Z 4.7 +1 Z3 (b)Far field explosion condition.

2009) (2. of the air behind the shock front is related to the ambient density. peak wind velocity behind the shock front is ( Rajendran. ρs . p0 =ambient atmospheric pressure =speed of sound in air a0 The peak particle velocity.7) Us = 6 ps + 7 p0 a0 7 p0 (2. 1994) (2.9)   5 ps  a0  Up = 7 p0  1 + 6 p 7 p 1  2 ( s 0)    The air density.8) qs = 2 ps + 7 p 0 ( 5 ps 2 ) Where.. 2004).(2.10) ρs = 6 ps + 7 p0 ps + 7 p0 ρ0 The peak overpressure ps is related to the ratio of maximum positive overpressure (pso+) to the maximum negative suction pressure (pso-) as (Lam et al. Up . ρ0 as (Smith and Hetherington. .

3 Liquid mass modeling To analyze a liquid containing tank numerically. (2.14) 980 1 + ( Z 0. 2009) (2.7 Z +4.54 )    = 1 3 6 2 W 3 1 + ( Z 0.1994) (2. a commonly used simplified equation for the decay coefficient expressed with reference to scaled distance.15) is = ta +Ts ta ∫ p ( t ) dr 2.2 The time of arrival of shock wave for a radial distance R from an explosive of radius re is given as (Rajendran and Lee.11)  p log e  b so p so+    + b +1 = 0   Also.13) r  1  1 ta = ∫   dr a0 re 1 + ( 6 ps / 7 p0 )  1 2 The time of positive pressure for chemical explosion in millisecond is given as (Rajendran and Lee.9)    TS 10 The impulse of the shock wave is given as (Smith and Hetherington. it becomes inevitable to model the liquid mass according to their responses to external forces so as to define the degree of freedom. . 2009) (2.02)  1 + ( Z 0.(2. 2004).74)  1 + ( Z 6.12) b = Z 2 −3.. Z is expressed as (Lam et al.

Haroun (1983) developed a three-degrees-of-freedom lumped mass model of ground supported liquid storage tank which are associated with sloshing mass. Haroun has also developed design charts for estimating these masses with the assumptions that the liquid contained in the tank is incompressible and has irrotational flow. Rosenblueth and Newmark (1971) modified the expressions of Housner to estimate the sloshing and impulsive masses to evaluate the seismic forces coming on to the tank. Haroun has considered the flexibility of tank wall where as Housner has ignored that. (2007) reviewed many seismic codes on liquid containing tanks across world and said that as liquid storage tanks possess lower energy dissipating capacity than .Housner (1963) developed a two-degrees-of-freedom theoretical lumped mass model of ground supported liquid storage tank which are associated with sloshing mass and impulsive mass. Shrmali and Jangid (2003.2004) have used the threedegrees-of-freedom lumped mass model to analyze the response of elevated liquid storage tank to seismic excitation. The part of the liquid which moves independent of tank movement is called sloshing mass and the other part which moves in unison with the tank is called impulsive mass. m kc ub mi c b cc b r i c ki ci (a) (b) Fig. impulsive mass and rigid mass. 2. When flexibility of tank wall is considered then the part of the impulsive mass moves independent of tank movement and the other part moves along with the tank called the rigid mass. Liquid mass models used by Shrimali and Jangid Jaiswal et al.

D-100 CscR0(1. All codes except NZSEE use rigid tank wall modeling..4 Sloshing wave height When tank is excited by external force. considers the flexibility of wall in evaluation of impulsive mode time period. The stresses in the tank wall depend on the hydrodynamic pressure distribution along the height which may be curvilinear or linear (Jaiswal et al. but the effect of hydrodynamic pressure on tank base in obtaining the overturning moment is considered in all the codes(Jaiswal et al.conventional buildings and during external excitation. the sloshing component of liquid mass undergoes vertical displacement and so providing freeboard becomes necessary for preventing the liquid from spilling off.. Rwc is the response modification factor for convective mode.4Rwc) 2. The modeling in which two-degrees-of-freedom model is referred as rigid tank wall model and those which use three-degrees-of-freedom model are referred as flexible wall model.. Also it may damage the roof top of the tank. So different codes have given different expressions for sloshing height (Jaiswal et al. D-110. tanks are subjected to hydrodynamic forces. 2007). So flexibility of wall is neglected in impulsive mass evaluation (Jaiswal et al. D-100. D-115. 2007). Csc is the convective mode base shear coefficient and R0 is the radius of the tank.. ASCE 7 and Eurocode 8 use the absolute summation rule whereas ACI 350. 2007). ACI 350. 2007).84CscR0 CscR0Rwc Where.3 and D-110 CscR0 Where. 2007). API 650 and NZSEE use the SRSS rule to get the combined response of the constituting masses (Jaiswal et al. 2.3. Expressions for hydrodynamic pressure on tank base is given in NZSEE only. Eurocode 8 and NZSEE ASCE 7 and API 650 0. At the same time they said that those codes which use rigid tank wall modeling..5 Liquid element modeling using ANSYS . they have been assigned with higher seismic forces compared to conventional buildings by all the codes.

Method developed by ABB and KOPEC can be used to find the response using the response spectrum method. The tank walls were modeled with plate elements. The Tank -2 is supported on concrete pad on piles..6 Fluid structure interaction During dynamic excitation to a fluid tank. it neglects the fluid structure interaction (FSI). 1999). The contact elements between tank bottom and the soil and the soil itself in Tank-1 were modeled as a combination of elements that allow uplift and friction (combination of ANSYS element Type CONTACT52 and COMBIN40). it can be used to perform unsymmetric or damped modal. 1999).8m height) with floating roofs using finite element modeling (Asfura et al. For complex structures performing a nonlinear transient analysis is impractical (Austin and Rhee. 2.5m diameter. the fluid with equivalent non-linear fluid elements (ANSYS element Type FLUID 80). modal analysis and dynamic analysis for seismic load were carried and the results were matched with API and New Zealand recommendations.Dynamic non-linear fluid structure interaction analysis were performed for two large steel tanks (Tank-1. 1999). The interface between tank bottom and the pad were modeled by non-linear contact friction elements. 19. If finite element linear analysis method is adopted. 2003). ANSYS (Austin and Rhee. The component which is used to . harmonic and non-linear transient analysis (Austin and Rhee. 1999). 21. These elements do not allow uplifting and the sliding of the pad. were estimated using soil pile interaction analysis using computer code SASSI.4m height and Tank-2. interaction between fluid and tank wall takes place. the soils with equivalent non-linear spring elements. The soil elements below this pad were modeled by linear equivalent horizontal and vertical soil springs (ANSYS element Type COMBIN40). The elements at the junction of the tank bottom and the foundation were modeled using a non-linear contact friction element (ANSYS element Type CONTACT52). Though fluid structural element is available in ANSYS for considering the fluid structure interaction problem. This element acts only in compression and provides the sliding resisting forces between the tank bottom and foundation. which is studied under fluid structure interaction. The gravity analysis. so it results in more conservative design (Austin and Rhee. The stiffness constants of these springs including the effect of the piles and the soil. with 60. The FLUID 80 element is highly incompressible and it is free to move vertically and tangentially relative to the tank wall and also free to move horizontally relative to the tank roof. The seismic response of liquid tank was tried to analyze using finite element modeling software. with 92.3m diameter.

ABAQUS.. analytical and experimental techniques (Ruiz et al. For sideways loading the analytical result was validated by experiments using similar models loaded in shock tube apparatus. Spherical and parabolic shells with 32 different shapes were observed under blast loadings and also calibrated shots were applied on dummy models and responses were observed by high speed television cameras.125 inches. was considered to be the only practical tool to solve the sideways loading case and deformation shapes has been given for the case (Ruiz et al. during outward movement. 1988) . The gap between the IBA and the UGS is kept 1. at critical impulse. 1972). In unpressurised shell. To simulate the fluid structure interaction effect. Finite element package. Method is available for fully coupled fluid-structure-soil interaction analysis of liquid storage structures on/in horizontally layered half space (Yun and Chang. For unpressurised shells the response modes consisted of dynamic pulse buckling and followed by large inward deflection and for pressurized shells the response modes consisted of inward deflection followed by large outward deflection. beam (beam4) and lumped mass (mass 21) elements.develop this method was the KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) Control Element Assembly (CEA) Shroud Assembly (IBA). The IBA structure is modeled using plate (stiff63). Rotationally symmetrical and sideways loading were applied on thin-wall cylindrical shell and strength of the shells were calculated using numerical. The water in the annulus between the IBA and the UGS produces the fluid structure interaction effect. at critical impulse. Structural response modes of thin cylindrical shells to external radial impulsive loads were observed for with and without internal pressure (Gefken et al. 2.. the fracture occurs at the mid height. ).6 Blast or impact loadings on similar structures Non-linear dynamic response of PVC shells with different geometrical shapes under simulated blast loading was observed (Tawadros and Glockner. 1988). The results were presented in tabular.. large . The rotationally symmetrical loading case the analytical and theoretical results were validated by experimental results. graphical and photographical forms. This is a large cylindrical shaped assembly which is supported from and mounted inside of the Upper Guide Structure (UGS) barrel. solid (stiff45). the contained fluid is modeled using mixed finite elements with two fields (displacement and pressure) and the structure-soil interaction effect is considered by using finite elements and dynamic infinite elements. 1988). In shells with internal pressure.

e. simply supported stiffened shell roof structures and cylindrical shell under blast loading was presented. 2000). 1994. The theoretical solution for an orthotropic thick cylindrical shell under impact loading is found by making use of finite Hankel transform and Laplace transform (Xi et al. Dynamic formulas were derived for a sudden load and followed by an exponential decrease phase.. The effect of fluid on the tank wall was also considered. resulting in an axial fracture which ruptures the shell. .hoop strains are produced as the loaded surface rebounds past its original position. The dynamic response of water storage tank under impact loading was studied by Jhung et al. When frequency of water tank decreases by more than 50% by inclusion of fluid in to it (Jhung et al. A numerical model for non-linear dynamic analysis of blast loaded cylindrical shell structure was presented by Jiang and Olson (1990). perfectly plastic material under blast loading is investigated by Li and Jones. fluid is a very good absorber of impact load. Finite element analysis for the same problem was also carried out using Algor (Super sap) and it was found that both the theoretical and the finite element method yield same results.. (2006). Dynamic response of a short cylindrical shell which is made from a rigid. 2006) i. The model was based on a transversely curved finite strip formulation and can be used to find the transient response of isotropic and stringer-stiffened shells. The model had been validated by comparing results with other available results or experimental results. The impact of 300 kg projectile on a water storage tank was simulated by ANSYS and LS-DYNA. Responses of simply supported stiffened plate panel. simply supported shell roof structure. An alternate impact analysis method was proposed which is equivalent to an explicit dynamic analysis.

This result will enable analytical evaluation of response to force varying with time. as they act on structures for few milliseconds. half sine wave and triangular and a general procedure is presented to analyze SDF system subjected to force pt varying with time.2 Response to unit impulse .1) Subjected to initial conditions u0=0 u0=0 For finding the general solution. Blast loadings are usually idealized as impact loadings. Here response of a SDF system is studied for different types of impact loadings like rectangular. p(t) is considered as a sequence of impulses of infinitesimal duration. The individual responses can be found from the response of the system to a unit impulse.1 Preview In real life situations the dynamic excitations are neither harmonic nor periodic. Our aim is to find the solution of the differential equation of motion mu+cu+ku=p(t) (3. and the total response of the system to p(t) is the sum of the responses of individual impulses. So we study the dynamic response of single degree of freedom system to excitations varying arbitrarily with time. 3.Chapter 3 IMPACT AND BLAST RESPONSE OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM 3.

this equation becomes p=mu (3. p 1/ε ε τ t Fig.1 Unit pulse According to Newton’s second law of motion.5) . So the magnitude of impulse is the change in momentum.defined by the time integral of pt remains equal to unity. As ε→0. however the magnitude of the impulse . ddtmu=p (3. Thus for a unit impulse at t=τ. when the effect of spring and damper are not there. As shown in fig. the change in momentum of the body is equal to the applied force.3) Integrating both sides with respect to t gives t1t2p dt=mu2-u1=m∆u (3. imparts to the mass. The above equation represents a SDF mass-spring-damper system. 3. force becomes infinite. if a force p acts on a body of mass m. 3.4) In the above equation the left hand side is impulse and the right hand side is change in momentum. Such a force in limiting case ε→0 is called unit impulse.When a very high force is applied for a very short duration but with a time integral that is finite is called as impulsive force.2) For constant mass.1 force pt=1/ε with time duration starting at t=τ. the velocity uτ=1m (3. m.

.10) Substituting the values of unit impulse response function gives Duhamel’s integral: ut=1mωD0tpτe-ξωn(t-τ)sinωDt-τdτ (3. the solution for undamped system is ht-τ=ut=1mωnsinωnt-τ t≥τ (3. So the displacement function becomes. ut=0tptht-τdτ (3. For complicated forcing functions numerical methods are adopted to get the solution. is this magnitude times the unit impulse function.11) For undamped system the above equation becomes ut=1mωn0tpτsinωnt-τdτ (3. given as ut=u0cosωnt+u(0)ωnsinωnt . The response of one impulse at time τ of magnitude pτdτ.6) Following the solution of differential equation mu+ku=0 and initial conditions. it holds good for linear systems only.12) Duhamel’s integral gives the solution for evaluating the response of a linear SDF system to arbitrary force.7) The solution of damped system is with damping constant ξ ht-τ=ut=1mωne-ξωnt-τsinωnt-τ ht-τ represents the unit impulse response function.8) 3. response of system at time t is the summation of the responses to all the impulses up to time t.The initial displacement is uτ=0 (3. dut=pτdτht-τ t>τ (3.9) Now. t≥τ (3.3 Response to arbitrary force A force p(t) varying arbitrarily with time can be represented as the summation of number of impulse function. As it is based on principle of superposition.

1 Response to rectangular pulse Let’s consider a simple SDF without damping and which is excited to rectangular pulse described as follows.15) πt    t 1 t  u (t )  =  2sin d  sin 2π  − d   Tn  ( ust ) 0    Tn 2 Tn   t≥ t d The response of SDF system to rectangular pulse is shown in fig.2. forced & u vibration phase and free vibration phase. It should be analyzed in two phase i.e. (3. As we are Tn value. 1. It is observed from the response that the response greatly depends on the td / Tn structure.3. it oscillates with static displacement and time period . 3.14) u (t ) 2π t = 1 − cos ωn t = 1 − cos Tn ( ust ) 0 t ≤ td 2.13) & & mu + ku = p (t ) =  p0  0 t ≤ td t ≥ td With at rest initial conditions: (0) = u (0) = 0.4. When force is applied to the ( ust ) 0 = p0 / k .4 Response of SDF system to pulse excitation 3. (3. Forced vibration phase: During this phase the system is subjected to step force (3. Free vibration phase: After the force application duration.

So when the pulse ends ( ust ) 0 2 2 td/Tn=1/8 1 1 td/Tn=1/4 0 u(t)/ ust)0 ( 0.0 0.3…). So.4 0.05 0. the system retains the deformation it possesses at the end of pulse.2. the .2 0.20 0.25 u(t)/(ust)0 0 -1 -1 -2 0.00 -2 0. there will be no decay in force after the excitation ends. and continues oscillating about its center with that displacement as amplitude and time period Tn at n Tn system oscillates with maximum amplitude as . the system comes to rest after excitation and when pulse ends at n Tn /2.15 0.1 0.3 0.5 .10 0.discussing about undamped system. (n=1.

5 1 u(t)/(ust)0 0 u(t)/ust)0 ( 0 1 2 3 0 -1 -1 -2 -2 0 1 2 3 .0 2 td/Tn=1.50 0.2 td/T n= 1/2 1 2 td/Tn=1 1 u(t)/ st)0 (u 0 u(t)/ust)0 ( 0.5 2.5 1.75 1.0 1.00 -2 0.25 0.25 1 2 td/Tn=1.0 0.00 0 -1 -1 -2 0.

2 Dynamic response of undamped SDF system to rectangular pulse force 3. but here the behavior of the system becomes different when =1/2.2 2 td/Tn=1. So we will discuss this in another case. 3.2 Response to half sine wave pulse Let’s now consider the following half sin wave step function to study the behavior of undamped SDF system. (3.16)  p0 sin(π t / td ) & & mu + ku = p( t) =  0 t ≤ td t ≥ td It also follows the two phases. td / Tn Case 1: td / Tn ≠ 1/ 2 Forced vibration phase: (3.4.17)   t  Tn  u (t ) 1 t  = sin  2π   sin  π  − ( ust ) 0 1 − ( Tn 2td ) 2   td  2 td  Tn   Free vibration phase: t ≤td .75 1 u(t)/ust)0 ( 1 td/Tn=2 u(t)/(ust)0 0 0 -1 -1 -2 0 1 2 3 4 -2 0 1 2 3 4 t/Tn t/T n Fig.

18)   t 1 t  u (t ) ( Tn / t d ) cos ( π t d Tn ) = −sin  2π  − d   2 ( ust ) 0 ( Tn / 2td ) − 1   Tn 2 T n  Case 2: td / Tn = 1/ 2 Forced vibration phase: t ≥td (3.20)  t 1 u (t ) π = cos 2π  −  ( ust ) 0 2  Tn 2  t ≥ td t ≤ td .19) u (t ) 1  2π t 2π t 2π t  =  sin − cos  Tn  ( ust ) 0 2  Tn Tn Free vibration phase: (3.(3.

0 0 -2 0.1 0.2 td/T n= /8 1 1 1 2 td/T n=1/4 u(t)/ ) (u st 0 u(t)/ ust)0 ( 0.20 0 5 .5 0 A 0.2 0.0 0.0 0 0 -2 0 .0 0.2 5 0.1 0 0 .0 2 1 td/T n= .5 2 td/T n= 1/2 1 2 u(t)/ ) (u st 0 0 1 td/Tn=1 -1 u(t)/ ust)0 ( 0.0 1.5 2.15 0.5 1.3 0.2 0 0 -1 -1 -2 0.4 0.5 1 2 u(t)/ ) (u st 0 0 1 td/Tn=2 -1 u(t)/(ust)0 0 1 2 3 0 -2 -1 -2 0 1 2 3 4 .7 5 1.05 0.00 -1 -2 0.

3.5 1 td/Tn=3 u(t)/ust)0 ( u(t)/(ust)0 0 0 -1 -1 -2 -2 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 t/T n t/T n Fig.2 2 1 td/T n=2.3 Dynamic response of undamped SDF system to half sine wave pulse force .

2 0.00 td/Tn=2 0.1 0.05 0.15 0.2 2 td/T n= 1/4 td/Tn=1/8 1 1 u(t)/ st)0 (u u(t)/ ust)0 ( 0 0 -1 -1 -2 0.00 1 u(t)/ ust)0 ( 0 -1 -2 2 0 td/Tn=1.0 1 .3 0.25 0.5 2 td/T n= 1 1 u(t)/ st 0 (u ) td/T n= 1/2 0 2 -1 1 -2 0 .5 1 2 3 4 1 u(t)/ust)0 ( 0 -1 -2 0 1 2 3 .00 -2 0.0 u(t)/ st)0 (u -1 2 -2 0.5 1.5 2 .75 1.0 0 0 .50 0.4 0.10 0.25 0.0 0.20 0.

2 2 td/Tn=2.5 1 td/Tn=3 1 u(t)/ ust)0 ( 0 u(t)/ust)0 ( 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 -1 -1 -2 -2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 t/T n t/T n Fig.3 Dynamic response of undamped SDF system to triangular pulse force . 3.

3 Response to triangular pulse The function of triangular pulse is given by  2 p0t  t  d & & mu + ku = p(t) =   p  1 − 2 ( t − td / 2 )    0 td    0 ≤ t ≤ td / 2 td / 2 ≤ t ≤ td t  T 2  − n sin 2   td 2π td  .4.3.

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Here effort has been done to find the blast response of isolated tank numerically in order to reduce the base shear and overturning moment which are the basic reasons for the failure of the tank. broad tank and slender tank. The second mass which also does not move in coordination with tank called as impulsive mass (mi). Due to overturning moment buckling stress also develops on the tank wall. This mass comes into picture when the flexibility of the tank wall is considered.1 Introduction In the literature we have discussed about the two-degrees-of freedom lumped mass model (Housner. Here responses found out for two types of tank i. The designing becomes more complex when the liquid-structure interaction is taken into consideration. This mass lies around the central portion of the tank. Blast responses have been found out first for fixed base tank and then for isolated tank and the responses are compared. This mass lies towards the upper part of the tank. The corresponding stiffness constants have been worked out according to the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. The base shear is used for designing of the isolation system. . The overturning moment develops high stress on one side of the tank and may cause uplift of anchor on the other side. induces substantial hydrodynamic forces on the tank wall which in turn generates design forces such as base shear and overturning moments. a part of liquid moves independent of the tank. 1963) and three-degrees-of-freedom lumped mass model (Haroun. In this research work three-degrees-of-freedom lumped mass model has been used for analysis as it considers the flexibility of the tank wall.Chapter 4 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LIQUID FILLED INDUSTRIAL TANK USING LUMPED MASS MODEL 4. The third mass which moves in coordination with the tank called as rigid mass (mr).e. 1983). This mass lies just below the central portion of the tank. called the convective mass or sloshing mass (mc). When tank is excited by blast force. These masses when applied to blast load.

4.1 (a) Liquid lumped mass model of non-isolated tank (b) stick model of non-isolated tank ki ci m m uiibcir k cb Hcrc ci cc Rubber isolator (a) (b) Fig. 4.2 (a) liquid lumped mass model of isolated tank (b) stick model of isolated tank .m uiib k cir Hcc cc i mc k cir i cc i (a) b) ( Fig.

The fixed base tank has two-degrees-of-freedom which are associated with sloshing mass and impulsive mass where as in isolated tank there are three-degrees-of-freedom.14434- Where.35708-0. The liquid masses sloshing mass.2(a) & (b). ci respectively.87570. (where H is the height of liquid level and R is the radius of the tank) For th/R =0.1(a) and the stick model is shown in the fig.2) Yc = mc m (4. The stiffness constants of the springs which are associated with convective mass and impulsive mass are kc and ki respectively. are the mass ratios defined as Yc Yi Yr (4.0125230-0. S (H/R) and th/R.863560.040830. the new degree of freedom is associated with the rigid mass or tank base. ur are referred to as the absolute displacement of these masses. The liquid lumped masses can be evaluated by using the chart given by Haroun.30941-0. 4.01327-0.21716-0.004 the values are presented. impulsive mass and rigid mass are referred as mc. mi.2 Structural model of liquid storage tank A structural model of ground supported liquid storage cylindrical tank with fixed base is shown in fig.4.154671. The damping constants which are associated with convective mass and impulsive mass are cc.05088 0.066920.01250. 4. The base isolated tank model and stick model are also shown in the fig.1 (b). uc.004390.3) Yi = mi m . ui. mr respectively.0370850. ycyiyrP=1.015990. .084302-0. The chart values corresponds to the aspect ratio of tank.00121SS2S3S4 0. . 4.628390.

5) ρw The natural frequencies of sloshing mass.6) g ωc = 1.10) . The equivalent stiffness constants and damping coefficients of the convective and impulsive mass are expressed as (4.(4. impulsive mass are expressed as (4.9) cc = 2ξ c mcωc (4. E and are modulus of elasticity and density of tank wall respectively and ρs acceleration due to gravity.7) ωi = P H E ρs is the g Where.8) kc = mc ωc 2 ki = mi ωi 2 (4.84   tanh ( 1.84S ) R (4.4) Yr = mr m ( m = π R H ρw 2 is the mass density of liquid) (4.

damping matrix. [ m] [ c ] [ k ] is the displacement vector.11) ξc ξi 4. = F( t) are the mass matrix. (4. .3 Governing equation of motion of non-isolated system The governing equation of motion of non-isolated system subjected to blast force expressed in matrix form is (4.ci = 2ξi mi ωi Where and are damping ratio of convective mass and impulsive mass respectively. xc = uc and xi = ui T . The matrixes are [ m] =  0c  m 0 mi   [ k ] =  0c  k 0 ki   . Here { x} will give the absolute displacement of the { x} = { xc . xi } respective masses as. and stiffness matrix respectively.12) & & x} [ m] { & + [ c] { x} + [ k] { x} Where .

The matrixes are xr = ub . xr } respective masses as. xc = uc − ub xi = ui − ub and T . acceleration the base shear can be calculated as & & & & Fb = mc uc + mi ui 4. After calculating the. .[ c] =  0c  c 0 ci   is the force vector which is multiplication of the pressure from blast and the area on which F (t ) blast pressure is acting. = F( t) are the mass matrix. [ m] [ c ] [ k ] is the displacement vector. Here { x} will give the absolute displacement of the { x} = { xc . xi . So area to be multiplied has to be considered accordingly.4 Governing equation of motion of isolated system The governing equation of motion of non-isolated system subjected to blast force expressed in matrix form is & & x} [ m] { & + [ c] { x} +[ k] { x} Where . Now. damping matrix. by solving the differential equation the displacement. velocity and acceleration are found out. The blast force will be acting at the center of masses. . and stiffness matrix respectively.

 mc [ m] =  0   mc  0 mi mi mc  mi   M   kc [ k] =  0  0  0 ki 0 0 0   kb  cc [ c] =  0  0  Where kb and cb 0 ci 0 0 0  cb   are expressed as cb = 2ξb M ωb  2π  kb =   M  Tb  The expression of base shear is given as. 2 & & & & & & Fb = mc uc + mi ui + mr ub .

501 BROAD 502 SLENDER .

502 BROAD 401 SLENDER 401 BROAD 101 BROAD 101 SLENDER .

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