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beclomethasone synthetic glucocorticoid that readily penetrates the

airway mucosa, used for asthma

low potency dopamine receptor

thioridazine blocker

thioridazine side effects are retinal deposits, torsades, postural

hypotension, sedation, CNS depression

valproic acid causes neural tube defects

valproic acid used to treat all kinds of seizures, as well as bipolar


binds benzodiazepine receptors,
zolpidem antagonized by flumazenil

hypnotic drug that is not a

zolpidem benzodiazepine

amphetamines indirect sympathomimetic MOA

cocaine inhibits catecholamine reuptake, resulting in

cardiotox and hypertension

disulfiram inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, causing an

accumulation of acetaldehyde

benzodiazepine used as a date rape
flunitrazepam drug

lysergic acid diethylamide hallucinogenic, nausea, weakness

mescaline hallucinogenic, nausea, weakness

psilocybin hallucinogenic, nausea, weakness

lowers intraocular pressure in

marijuana glaucoma

methadone treatment of opiod withdrawal

nausea, chills, sweats, lacrimation, cramps,

opioid withdrawal syndrome rhinorrhea, yawning, piloerection, diarrhea, tremor

destroys dopaminergic neurons of

MPTP the nigrostriatal tract

morphine binds mu receptors

enkephalin binds delta receptors

dynorphins bind kappa receptors

constricted pupils, clammy skin, nausea, drowsiness,

opioid overdose resp depression

phencyclidine (pcp) nystagmus, hypertension, seizure

COX inhibitor which inhibits

acetaminophen prostaglandin synthesis

analgesic, antipyretic (but not

acetaminophen anti-inflammatory)

suicide inhibition of xanthine
allopurinol oxidase

allopurinol increases xanthine and hypoxanthine, which are less

likely to form crystals than uric acid

allopurinol slows production of uric acid, used to treat gout (and


aspirin PGE inhibitor

aspirin predisposes to acute gastritis by inhibiting PGE in

the stomach

irreversible inhibitor of
aspirin cyclooxygenase

analgesic, antipyretic, antiplatelet,

aspirin anti-inflammatory

capsaicin impairs release of substance P

capsaicin used topically for RA

celecoxib COX-2 inhibitor

rofecoxib COX-2 inhibitor

celecoxib sulfa drug

rofecoxib sulfa drug

colchicine inhibits microtubule assembly, and therefore

leukocyte migration and phagocytosis

colchicine leukocyte inhibitor used to treat attacks of gouty


cyclosporin binds to cyclophilins and inhibits the transcription of
cytokine genes

binds to the immunophilin

tacrolimus FK-binding protein

impairs T cell IL-2 production, used

cyclosporin in transplant patients

tacrolimus used in transplant patients

etanercept a fusion product of TNF-alpha receptor and Fc

portion of antibody

infliximab binds and inhibits TNF-alpha

used in RA and inflammatory bowel

etanercept disease

gold salts nephrotoxic

gold salts used in RA

decreases lysosomal and

gold salts macrophage function

similar to aspirin, lacks antiplatelet
ibuprofen effects

ibuprofen reversibly inhibits COX

indomethacin potent NSAID used to close a PDA

used to maintain a PDA in

PGE congenital heart disease

ketorolac parenteral NSAID

causes relaxation of the sphincter of
meperidine oddi

meperidine causes increased ICP

opiods causes biliary spasm

sumatriptan binds the serotonin 1D receptor

causes vasoconstriction of cerebral

sumatriptan vasculature

used for acute migraine and cluster
sumatriptan headaches

used to treat SLE, multiple

thalidomide myeloma, and leprosy

thalidomide suppresses production of TNF-alpha

thalidomide immunosuppressant

statins may cause elevated liver enzymes

statins may cause myositis

may cause increased CK from

statins skeletal muscle

reserpine enters the CNS and may cause suicidal depression

and parkinsonian symptoms

antihypertensive agent that blocks the storage and

reserpine release of catecholamines and serotonin from

probucol decreases HDL as well as LDL

probucol prevents restenosis after angioplasty

probucol acts as an antioxidant

postural hypotension, headache,

nitroglycerin flushing

causes increase in cGMP in vascular

nitroglycerin smooth muscle

niacin directly reduces secretion of VLDLs

niacin increases HDL

niacin causes cutaneous flushing

vincristine M phase inhibitor

blocks microtubule polymerization

vincristine and spindle formation

adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine,

ABVD dacarbazine

mechlorethamine, oncovin,
MOPP procarbazine, prednisone

used for lymphomas, wilms tumor,

vincristine and choriocarinomas

heparin activates AT3

heparin inactivates thrombin

protamine sulfate reverses effects of heparin

binds to receptor tyrosine kinase
trastuzumab Erb-B2 (HER-2)

used for HER-2 positive breast

trastuzumab cancer

tamoxifen estrogen receptor partial antagonist

increases risk of endometrial

tamoxifen carcinoma

rituximab binds CD20 antigen on B cells

treatment of non-hodgkin
rituximab lymphoma

prednisone triggers apoptosis

treatment for leukemia, lymphoma,

prednisone RA, asthma

paclitaxel prevents mitotic spindle breakdown

interferes with
paclitaxel anaphase

paclitaxel microtubule stabilizing agent

methotrexate S phase inhibitor

methotrexate inhibits DHFR

leucovorin myelosuppression

methotrexate folic acid analog

mercaptopurine activated by hypoxanthine-guanine
phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)

mercaptopurine inhibits many enzymes involved in

purine metabolism

leuprolide treatment for endometriosis

treatment for BPH and precocious

leuprolide puberty

leuprolide stimulates release of FSH and LH

GnRH agonist used to treat prostate
leuprolide cancer

produced by virally infected cells to prevent infection

interferon alpha of adjacent cells

used to treat CML, malignant myeloma, kaposi

interferon alpha sarcoma, hairy cell leukemia

interferon alpha recombinantly produced cytokine

used to antagonize residual

flutamide androgens after orchiectomy

side effects include gynecomastia
flutamide and libido changes

flutamide androgen receptor antagonist

fluorouracil S phase antimetabolite

fluorouracil myelosuppression

fluorouracil inhibits thymidylate synthase

used to treat colon cancer and basal
fluorouracil cell carcinoma

etoposide G2 phase inhibitor

causes double stranded breaks in

etoposide DNA

etoposide inhibits topoisomerase II

etoposide used to treat small cell carcinoma of the lung and

prostate and testicular cancers

intercalates in DNA to reduce
doxorubicin replication and transcription

doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy

daunorubicin used to treat AML

cyclophosphamide causes hemorrhagic cystitis

alkylating agent used to treat

cyclophosphamide cancers

cisplatin alkylating agent

causes nephrotoxicity and acoustic

cisplatin nerve damage

carmustine alkylating agent that causes DNA cross-linking and

strand breaks

carmustine used to treat brain tumors, highly lipophilic

nitrosourea drug

bleomycin mixture of glycoproteins that produce free radicals

upon binding DNA

bleomycin causes strand breaks in DNA

bleomycin G2 phase inhibitor

bleomycin can cause pulmonary fibrosis

anastrozole inhibitor of steroid synthesis

inhibits conversion of
anastrozole androstenedione to estrone

blocks conversion of cholesterol to
aminoglutethimide pregnenolone

anastrazole aromatase inhibitor

zidovudine inhibits viral reverse transcriptase

zidovudine chain terminator

given to prevent transmission of

zidovudine HIV to neonates

vancomycin used to treat MRSA

vancomycin used to treat c. difficile

rapid IV infusion causes red man

vancomycin syndrome

TMP-SMX blocks folate synthesis

TMP-SMX can cause megaloblastic anemia

do not give to pts with G6PDH
TMP-SMX deficiency

trimethoprim blocks DHFR

sulfamethoxazole blocks dihydropteroate synthase

tetracycline inhibits 30s ribosome

tetracycline bacteriostatic drug

tetracycline CI in pregnant women due to bone dysplasia and
dental enamel defects

streptogramins p450 inhibitor

arthralgias and
streptogramins myalgias

streptogramins used to treat MRSA and VRE

inhibits DNA-dependent RNA

rifampin polymerase

imparts red-orange color to
rifampin secretions

ribavirin guanosine analog

ribavirin inibits steps in RNA synthesis

used to treat viral hemorrhagic

ribavirin fevers and hepatitis C

ribavirin used to treat RSV

quinine blocks DNA replication and RNA transcription in p.
falciparum within RBCs

quinine causes cinchonism

headache, vertigo, blurry vision,

cinchonism tinnitus

used for prophylaxis of p. falciparum

mefloquine due to low SE

quinine used for malaria

stimulates nicotinic receptors in
pyrantel pamoate nematodes

used for fluke and tapeworm

praziquantel infections

cationic detergent that disrupts

polymyxin b bacterial membranes

causes neurotoxicity and acute

polymyxin b tubular necrosis

polymyxin b only used topically

penicillins inhibits transpeptidation step in bacterial cell wall

neuraminidase inhibitor that

oseltamivir prevent viral spreading

used against influenza

oseltamivir a

nystatin disrupts fungal membrane permeability by binding

to ergosterol

used to treat oral candidiasis and

nystatin diaper rash

can cause hemolysis in G6PDH
nitrofurantoin deficient patients

nitrofurantoin can accumulate to toxic levels in patients with renal


urinary antiseptic that requires

nitrofurantoin acidification

nifurtimox used to treat chagas disease

NNRTI used to treat

nevirapine HIV

neomycin used to treat hepatic encephalopathy

prevents accumulation of
neomycin nitrogenous microbial metabolites

metronidazole activated by anaerobes and parasites

metronidazole interferes with nucleic acid synthesis

metronidazole used to treat amebiasis, trichomoniasis, giariasis,

and c. diff

bulky R-group prevents degradation
methicillin by penicillinase

bulky R-group prevents degradation

nafcillin by penicillinase

bulky R-group prevents degradation

dicloxacillin by penicillinase

methi, naf, diclox beta lactams

mebendazole inhibits microtubule synthesis and glucose uptake by


mebendazole used to treat pinworms

albuterol selective b2 agonist

atenolol selective b1 blocker

acebutolol selective b1 blocker

metoprolol selective b1 blocker

depresses cough center in the
detromethrophan medulla

metoclopramide facilitates acetylcholine while blocking dopamine in

the enteric nervous system

SE are sedation, diarrhea,

metoclopramide extrapyramidal symptoms

prokinetic agent used to block

metoclopramide emesis

blocks D2 receptors in the area

metoclopramide postrema

misoprostol PGE analog

misoprostol decreases gastric acid production, increases mucus


eicosanoid preparation used for pts

misoprostol taking lots of NSAIDs

omeprazole H/K ATPase inhibitor

serotonin-3 inhibitor that acts at the

ondansetron area postrema

requires acidic environment to
sucralfate polymerize

cannot be used with antacids or H2

sucralfate blockers

folic acid will correct anemia but not neuro sx associated with
b12 deficiency

EPO recombinant drug used for anemia

orally active inhibitor of

aminocaproic acid plasminogen activation

aminocaproic acid inhibits fibrinolysis

used for acute bleeding in

aminocaproic acid hemophilic patients

antibody against glycoprotein 2b/3a

abciximab receptor

abciximab prevents platelet activation

anticoagulant preventing restenosis

abciximab after angioplasty

benztropine antimuscarinic

CI are prostatic hyperplasia, GI

benztropine obstruction, glaucoma

benztropine antimuscarinic used to treat tremors and rigidity in

parkinsons, but does nothing for bradykinesia

antibody to Rh(D) antigen that

RhoGAM opsonizes

probenecid competes with uric acid for reabsorption in the

proximal tubule

probenecid inhibits secretion of weak acids

sulfinpyrazone acts simliarly to probenecid

methylsergide blocks serotonin receptors

causes fibroplasia of
methylsergide retroperitoneum and

methylsergide used to prevent migraines

binds IL-2 receptor on activated T
daclizumab cells

used for patients with renal

daclizumab allografts

bromocriptine D2 agonist

bromocriptine inhibits PRL release

inhibit histamine binding to H1

diphenhydramine receptors

diphenhydramine causes drowsiness

used for allergies and motion

diphenhydramine sickness

cromolyn sodium stabilizes mast cell membrane

lithium inhibits IP3 and DAG

causes tremor, hypothyroidism,

lithium polydipsia, polyuria

stimulates the release of
methylphenidate catecholamines

phenytoin inducer of p450

carbamazepine inducer of p450

griseofulvin inducer of p450

rifampin inducer of p450

barbiturates inducer of p450

penicillins bactericidal

cephalosporins bactericidal

vancomycin bactericidal

aminoglycosides bactericidal

fluoroquinolones bactericidal

metronidazole bactericidal

calcium channel causes cutaneous flushing


adenosine causes cutaneous flushing

vancomycin causes cutaneous flushing

metronidazole causes disulfiram-like reaction

cephalosporins causes disulfiram-like reaction

procarbazine causes disulfiram-like reaction

nitrous oxide has a high MAC

phenelzine MAOI

tranylcypromine MAOI

isocarboxazid MAOI

MAOI + SSRI serotonin syndrome

inhibits breakdown of amine

MAOI neurotransmitters

mebendazole microtubule inhibitor

thiabendazole microtubule inhibitor

paclitaxel microtubule inhibitor

vincristine microtubule inhibitor

colchicine microtubule inhibitor

griseofulvin microtubule inhibitor

hydralazine SLE like syndrome

procainamide SLE like syndrome

isoniazid SLE like syndrome

phenytoin SLE like syndrome

massive hepatic
halothane necrosis

massive hepatic
acetaminophen necrosis

massive hepatic
valproic acid necrosis

cimetidine p450 inhibitor

ketoconazole p450 inhibitor

erythromycin p450 inhibitor

cimetidine gynecomastia

ketoconazole gynecomastia

spironolactone gynecomastia

bleomycin pulmonary fibrosis

amiodarone pulmonary fibrosis

busulfan pulmonary fibrosis

ototoxic and

ototoxic and
loop diuretics nephrotoxic

ototoxic and
cisplatin nephrotoxic

vancomycin mildly ototoxic and nephrotoxic

penicillamine used to treat wilson disease

penicillamine used to treat RA

used to treat copper toxicity bc it is a

penicillamine chelator

anticholinesterases used in chemical

organophosphates warfare

antidote for anticholinesterases such

pralidoxime as organophosphates

naloxone mu opioid receptor antagonist

naloxone used to treat opioid overdose

phenobarbital binds GABA receptors

increases the duration of chloride

phenobarbital channel opening

used to treat tonic-clonic seizures

phenobarbital and crigler-najjar

phenytoin interferes with folate absorption

phenytoin SE are gingival hyperplasia, hirsutism, anemia, and

birth defects

phenytoin class 1b antiarrhythmic

risperidone blocks D2 and serotonin-2 receptors

risperidone causes high sedation

atypical antipsychotic with lots of
risperidone extrapyramidal SE

forestalls the use of levodopa in

ropinirole parkinson's disease

methanol causes damage by being converted to formaldehyde

in the liver

retinal damage, blindness, metabolic

methanol acidosis, coma

antagonizes benzodiazepines and

flumazenil zolpidem

flumazenil used for benzodiazepine overdose

causes metabolic acidosis and precipitation of

ethylene glycol oxalate crystals in the kidney

chelates metals to keep them from

dimercaprol damaging proteins

succimer orally active metal chelator

dimercaprol used to treat heavy metal poisoning

digibind fab fragment antibody

rapid infusion causes hypotensive

deferoxamine shock

deferoxamine used to treat acute iron toxicity

dantrolene decreases the release of calcium from the

sarcoplasmic reticulum

used to treat malignant

dantrolene hyperthermia

selegiline inhibits MAO-B

MAO-B degrades dopamine

selegiline inhibits degradation of dopamine in CNS, used with

levodopa for parkinson's

thiopental ultra-short acting barbiturate used to induce surgical


alprazolam intermediate-acting benzodiazepine used for panic

disorder and phobias

protects against fulminant hepatic
n-acetylcysteine failure

n-acetylcysteine used for acetaminophen overdose

carvedilol used for CHF

nonselective beta blocker and

carvedilol alpha-1 blocker

blocks sodium
amiodarone channels

amiodarone corneal microdeposits

amiodarone class III antiarrythmic

short acting agent given IV for AV

adenosine nodal arrhythmias

spironolactone potassium sparing diuretic

spironolactone aldosterone antagonist

spironolactone functions at the collecting tubule

nitroprusside stimulates guanyl cyclase

increases cGMP in vascular smooth

nitroprusside muscle

minoxidil direct-acting vasodilator

used topically bc of benefit of

minoxidil hypertrichosis

bind bile acids to prevent
cholestyramine enterohepatic recycling

fexofenadine nonsedating antihistaminic

loratadine nonsedating antihistaminic

ipratropium dry mouth side effect

antimuscarinic for COPD and

ipratropium asthma

salmeterol may cause tremors and arrhythmias

theophylline methylxanthine used for asthma

theophylline inhibits phosphodiesterase

theophylline inhibits conversion of cAMP to AMP

octreotide used to treat carcinoid, gastrinoma, somatotropic

pituitary adenoma

inhibits iodination step of thyroid
propylthiouracil hormone synthesis

same as PTU but crosses placenta

methimazole and enters breast milk

estrogen partial
raloxifene agonist

does not increase the risk of

raloxifene endometrial cancer

tamoxifen increases risk of endometrial cancer

rapid onset
repaglinide sulfonylurea

binds potassium channels to

repaglinide facilitate insulin release

glitazones increase insulin sensitivity

glitazones stimulate PPAR-gamma receptor

troglitazone hepatotoxic

stimulate closure of potassium
sulfonylureas channels

sulfonylureas glyburide and glipizide

sulfonylureas cause release of preformed insulin

acyclovir used to treat herpes

acyclovir guanosine analog

activated by thymidine kinase of the
acyclovir virus it treats

acyclovir functions as a chain terminator when incorporated

into viral DNA

prophylaxis against influenza A and

amantadine rubella

amantidine inhibits fusion of viral particles within endosome of

the cell

amantidine not effective against influenza B

amantidine binds to M2 protein

disrupts fungal membranes by

amphotericin B binding ergosterol

blocks binding of progesterone to

mifepristone cytoplasmic receptors

extended spectrum penicillin used to

ampicillin treat gram negatives

aztreonam b-lactamase resistant monobactam

used only with aminoglycosides
aztreonam against gram negative rods

cannot be used against gram

aztreonam positives or anaerobic bacteria

bacitraicin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis

used against enterobacter and

piperacillin pseudomonas

used against enterobacter and

carbenicillin pseudomonas

used against enterobacter and
ticarcillin pseudomonas

ceftriaxone used for septic meningitis

used to treat
cefixime gonnorhea

gray baby syndrome in babies deficient in hepatic

chloramphenicol gluconosyltransferase

chloramphenicol aplastic anemia

fludrocortisone used in postadrenalectomy therapy

chloroquine primary drug for acute malaria

chloroquine disrupts hemoglobin breakdown, with toxic

accumulation of heme in RBC

beta lactamase
clavulanic acid

beta lactamase
sulbactam inhibitor

beta lactamase
tazobactam inhibitor

clindamycin bacteriostatic at the 50s ribosome

treatment of
clindamycin bacteroides

didanosine (ddI) dose-limiting pancreatitis

inhibits reverse transcriptase of

lamivudine hepatitis B

erythromycin bacteriostatic inhibitor of 50s

erythromycin macrolide

azithromycin macrolide

clarithromycin macrolide

GI irritation and acute cholestatic

erythromycin hepatitis

metformin biguanide compound

metformin increases peripheral glycolysis

blocks negative feedback at the

clomiphene pituitary

used for diagnosis of addison's

cosyntropin disease

danazol inhibitor of p450

danazol used for endometriosis and fibrocystic disease of the

desmopressin selective V2 agonist

vasopression V1 and V2 agonist

vasopressin used to treat esophageal varices

clear cell carcinoma of the vagina in

DES daughters

lowers risk of coronary disease, slows osteoporosis,
ethinyl estradiol/mestranol ameliorates hot flashes

increased risk of breast and ovarian

HRT cancer

zileutin inhibits leukotriene synthesis

LTD4 and LTE4

monteleukast antagonist

acarbose inhibits a-galactosidase

bisphosphonates esophageal ulcerations

used to treat hyperprolactinemia

bromocriptine due to pituitary adenoma

bromocriptine ergot alkaloid

diphenoxylate suppress GI motility

loperamide suppress GI motility

cisapride stimulates peristalsis by release of Ach from
myenteric plexus

cisapride long QT

magnesium hydroxide laxative antacid

aluminum hydroxide constipating antacid

acts to stimulate chemoreceptor

ipecac syrup trigger zone of the medulla

cimetidine gynecomastia and galactorrhea

cimetidine p450 inhibitor

calcium carbonate hypercalcemic alkalosis

calcium carbonate renal calculi

used with metronidazole and tetracycline for PUD

bismuth subsalicylate caused by h.pylori

interferes with vitamin K dependent
warfarin clotting factors

converts fibrin-bound plasminogen

alteplase to plasmin

ticlopidine platelet antiaggregant

ticlopidine interferes with binding of fibrin to Gp2b/3a receptor

on platelets

catalyzes conversion of plasminogen

streptokinase to plasmin

fluconazole inhibits formation of ergosterol

prophylaxis against cryptococcus

fluconazole neoformans

fluconazole used to treat oral candidiasis

fluoroquinolones bactericidal inhibitor of DNA gyrase

used for gram negative rods, some gram positives,

fluoroquinolones and neisseria

fluoroquinolones bad for cartilage

sargramostim recombinant GM-CSF

filgrastim G-CSF

hydroxyurea used for sickle cell crisis

hydroxyurea increases levels of HbF

hydroxyurea inhbits DNA synthesis by blocking conversion of
ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides

foscarnet treats CMV

foscarnet inhibits viral DNA polymerase

ganciclovir metabolized by viral transferases

requires phosphorylation by viral

ganciclovir kinases to work

guanosine analog converted by CMV
ganciclovir to triphosphorylated form

SE: neutropenia, leukopenia,

ganciclovir thrombocytopenia

griseofulvin keratinized tissue

griseofulvin ringworm

griseofulvin binds tubulin

carbapenem given with cliastatin

carbapenem used against gram positive cocci, gram negative rods,

and anaerobes

ritonavir inhibit protease in the HIV pol gene

isoniazid inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid

isoniazid SE neuritis and hepatitis

ethambutol TB

pyrazinamide TB

rifampin TB

streptomycin TB

sulfonamides stevens-johnson

ethosuxamide stevens-johnson

lamotrigine stevens-johnson

penicillins erythema multiforme

barbiturates erythema multiforme

salicylates erythema multiforme

hydantoins erythema multiforme

antimalarials erythema multiforme

sulfonamides G6PDH

isoniazid G6PDH

primaquine G6PDH

tetracycline photosensitivity

amiodarone photosensitivity

sulfonamides photosensitivity

bethanechol muscarinic agonist

carbachol nicotinic and muscarinic agonist

ephedrine ma-huang

adrenergic antagonist (alpha

phenoxybenzamine receptors)

used in diagnosing
phentolamine pheochromocytoma

onchocera volvulus and

ivermectin strongyloides stercoralis

increases GABA transmission in the

ivermectin worm

interfere with fungal cell wall
ketoconazole synthesis

pilocarpine treatment of glaucoma

pilocarpine muscarinic agonist

prazosin first dose syncope

prazosin miosis

pyridostigmine used for tubocurarine toxicity

competitive cholinergic antagonist

scopolamine used for motion sickness

succinylcholine muscle relaxant

nicotinic agonist that opens sodium

succinylcholine channels

nondepolarizing neuromuscular
tubocurarine ganglionic blockers

acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the proximal
convoluted tubule

acetazolamide metabolic acidosis

give to alkalinize the urine in aspirin

acetazolamide toxicity

block sodium channels in the

amiloride cortical collecting tubules

amiloride hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis

captopril inhibit breakdown of bradykinin

should be given with

ketamine benzodiazepines

gabapentin partial seizures

ethosuxamide inhbits T-type calcium channels

inhibits conversion of levodopa to

entacapone 3-0-methyldopa

hypokalemia, alkalosis,
HCTZ hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia

captopril functions at the collecting tubules

losartan functions at the collecting tubules

losartan CI in pregnancy

captopril CI in pregnancy