Kaplan - The Coming Anarchy -counters idea that post-Cold War brings about new era of peace

in world affairs -Cold War was closest world would get to Utopia new struggles are not neatly ideological, but cultural and historical -New tensions like population, urbanization, and resource depletion are undermining government across dev world uses sierra leone example demographic, environmental, societal stress state is a western concept -borders between states becoming meaningless -transformation of war back to conventional fighting/crime Kaldor Old Wars, Cold Wars, New Wars, and War on Terror -Old war: between states, armed forces in uniform, decisive battles=state building -New War: state and non-state actors unclear/without uniforms, violence against civilians not battles, no distinction between criminality and legit violence, undermine political community = state destroying -Globalization and new information technology grafted onto old war ideals creating new wars Solutions: popular governance, international law, use militaries for conflict prevention Kalyvas New and Old Civil wars -overblown distinction between new and old wars old wars might be more private, violent to civilians, new wars are more popular, controlled violence - New civil wars apparently lack justice-seeking motives but no distinction between new and old wars -removal of coherent political categories after Cold War exaggerating criminal aspects of new civil wars -information comes from faulty sources -Old: collective grievances, broad popular support, controlled violence -New: private loot, lack popular support, gratuitous violence Collier Market for Civil War -Civil Wars don t happen because of legitimate, grievances, but because rebel groups can finance them when states are in poor shape economically not about affecting political change you just want chnges that make you better off -States at risk are recent civil war, large mountainous, resource dep, poor and increasingly poor countries, unconsolidated regime, etc. -Collier says democracy is not a solution more likely to exploit -Solutions: limit rebel groups finances, increase econ dev, military post-presence, interntational law

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Greeks Mueller The Banality of Ethnic War -The idea of ethnic warfare is not true wars more closely resemble nonethnic warfare. largest arms trafficker -UN arms embargos but no laws against arms trafficking -States that produce arms want to keep their business going/governments want to trade in arms to serve their national/geopolitical interests 2 . customs. Pakistan in Punjab. violence occurs when led by violent criminals who like victimizing groups -Takeover. don t rely on international community. new war. Cyprus Turks vs. 98% of male Hutu population did not cary out genocide against Tutsis MYTHS: Old vs. not inevitable. democracy can breed instab first. institutions) states with multiple civilizations will fall -options: isolation. Occupation/Desertion -Solution: international policing works/military interventions. fluid -Rwanda: actual killers only totaled 200k. man v. political identity is weak.waged by small groups of combatants wanting to fight against some larger entity . irresolvable conflicts.Bosnia and Croatia: small bands of thugs hired by government when Yugoslav army refused to fight (non-ideological). hist. band-wagoning.Huntington Clash of Civilizations -Next big conflict will occur between civilizational fault lines civil wars will be less intense wont be fueled by ideology or economy (fueld by lang. religion. Carnival. REALITY: limited. not nationalistic. skin color) -Petty jealousies and perceived advantages cause conflict they are very localized interpersonal animosities doesn t have to do with civilizational identity -Conflict is inherent to our psychology Freudian compulsion conflict doesn t have to happen but because we are human we are likely to follow this path -India vs. so china can get access to natural resources in Africa NYT: Arms and the man -Victor Bout. man. ancient. nationalist parties well-funded from abroad. then it may help NYT: Congo: On the Trail of an AK-47 -AK-47 inflicted the most damage in congo huge political instability because its resource dependant -Small arms trade in mountain provinces of Congo where corrupt militias roam -Guns left over from USSR and coming from china. Revenge. balancing -This is because 1) religion 2) West (BOP) 3) less mutable 4) basic 5) contact Hitchens Narcissism of Small Difference -It s small differences between people that cause conflict (ie hair color.

assassins want power Chapter 2 -Ethnonationalist terrorism popular after 1945. loss of childhood. $. resources) -Terrorists distinct from guerillas. systematic) -Connotation of terrorism flip flops between positive and negative depending on era: French revolution (+) (-) after French revolution was brought down -Takes on revolutionary. FLQ who wanted to attract international support -1980s. was a symbol of Western interests) Asians wanted independence -Ethnonationalist Terrorists: Irgun/Israel as model. don t hold territory. Africa -1960s-70s expanded to include nationalist and ethnic separatist groups ie PLO. Black hand when state-sponsored terrorism gets popular changes meaning to become abuse of power (Colombia. Cyprus EOKA. involves non state actors -People used to not hide that they were terrorists now.starts with Singapore falling to Japan (Sing. and grenades NYT: US is arms bazaar for Mexican drug cartels -US putting guns in Mexican drug cartel hands because gun control laws tougher in Mexico in US you can sell without having to report to government Hoffman. calculated. rarely exercise widespread sovereignty (because they have less #s. Don t function openly as armed units. vigilantes. PFLP. ASALA (Armenia in WW2) NYT: The Making and Unmaking of a Child Soldier -Ishmael Beah fought on the side of government in Sierra Leone civil war against RUF (Revolutionary United Front) -Criminal conflict over control of natural resources -His experience: drug-induced stupor but not canon fodder. Inside Terrorism Chapter 1 -Terrorism: violence or the threat of violence used and directed in pursuit of a political aim (planned. anti-State connotation with use of violence to generate publicity/support -Bosnian/serb nationalists Young Bosnia assassinated Ferdinand and started WWI influenced KKK. Transnational terrorism ie Palestinian PLO. high level of re-recruitment 3 . avoid outright confrontation with militaries. familial attachments to unit.terrorism was something meant to destabilize the West connoted with weaker states confronting larger ones narcoterrorism -Gray area phenom changing definition. missiles. Peru) -After WW2: terrorism regains revolutionary connotations because of anticolonialist groups in Asia. Algeria FLN.NYT: Thais seize notorious arms-deal suspect -Bout seized for supplying FARC terrorists in Colombia -Selling light weapons such as AK-47s.

and there are more of them -Demographic changes. street kids. -need local government committees at local level. family reunification. needs to be sustained. and holding governments/non-gov actors accountable Singer Addressing the Global Challenge of Child Soldiers -A lot people are coming into contact with child soldiers ie peacekeepers. at-risk groups like orphans. but still a long way to go Solutions: We need to take advantage of post-conflict and use it for education. advocacy. child psychologists. Ally. proliferation of SALW children can use. follow-up activities psych and social support. reintroduction to communities. global instability. rehabilitation. Non-gov groups. rehabilitation. legacy of conflict all contribute to child soldiering -Use: cheap and easy way to get force.NYT: Children Carrying Guns for a US. youth houses. and international legal framework in the long term integrate child soldier problem with other PKOs 4 . and reintegration into families. Somalia -US helping to pay soldiers in Somalia s Transitional Federal Government and is thus indirectly paying to train and equip child soldiers -In the quest to build a standing army and bolster a nonexistent government. shields or cannon fodder -Effects of Child Soldiers 1) Increase in violent conflicts due to ease of force generation they re easy. Somalia will take anyone -US and Somalia have not ratified convention on rights of the child UNICEF Factsheet on Child Soldiers -Employing children under the age of 15 is a war crime -Hard to correct use of child soldiers because their use is by armed. refugees. disarmament. SAWL. where there is government breakdown -Response: protective environment for demobilized child soldiers. cheap 2) Declining value of ideology 3) Children in combat and greater price of war 4) Child soldiers increase likelihood of conflict recurrence because they cant do anything except fight -Some international progress (ie convention on rights of child).

PMC s increase ability of government to control state. allowing client to function beter in water and deter conflict more effectively Benefits: coercion in conflict resolution limits loss of life ad hastens end to war country support for mercenaries depends on self interest/natnioanlism. eroding accountability and killing global governance Disadvantages 1) elusive cost savings ie MPRI 2) Kills accountability kills cong ability to influence policy 3) Impact of private security hard to judge could resolve or destabilize Privatization and political change -redistributes power to third parties -can make deals offshore -International organizations could ally with PSC to prevent channeling money into corrupt governments -privatization of security has Increased importance of market mechanisms and diffused control over violence 5 . training. enhances global governance 2) Also could be costly.Outsourcing War Shearer -Increase in private military companies since 1990s -defined by: foreign to conflict. US executive over legislative Effects on State control of force 1) Cheap flexibile security. motivated by money. weapons -act as proxies for government ie MPRI -also allows politicians to achieve goals without public approval Problems: -Lack of accountability when it comes to regulating them they could work for rebel movements -also they could pullout at any point because motivated by money -don t have to adhere to HR -empirical efforts to control mercenaries failed -Need to increase transparency they are going offshore -Collaboration between multilateral institutions and private military sector could work it also might undermine their effectiveness to accept a UN mandate OR Coupling multinational companies with private security contractor gives foreigners powerful leverage over government and affairs ie western mining corporations because mining company depends on security to protect its investments and government needs security to shore up its rule -Overall. unaffected by political constraints. BUT can also hinder efforts to broker peace -Inability of weak governments to counter internal violence PMCs -PMC s improve military capabilities. but don t resolve long term conflicts The privatization of security avant -Either affirming or challenging global governance/state system -Increase in security but changes in political control of force NSA taking over governance. participate in combat diff approach they are corporate and professional work only with legit govts -Role: Improve client s military capability.

NYT: Report on Iraq Security Lists 310 Contractors -Immunity of contractors affecting military/diplomacy in Iraq weakly regulated and very covert -Contractors act on their own accord ie Blackwater killing killed Iraq trust in US -Diffused contracts lacking coherent database NYT: Blackwater Reaches Deal on US Export Violations -Exporting weapons to Afghanistan. and extortion -Khmer Rouge (Cambodia) fringe movement CPP (Cambodian People s Party) vs. irrigation. population increase. and downstream overtapped basins -Regional tension and lac of cooperation between states that share rivers in unilateral water-harnessing ie india/Pakistan. sniper training to Taiwanese police -Excessive use of force taints reputation but no criminal charges Postel and Wolf: Dehydrating conflict -Competition for fresh water may lead to conflicts in the future but there has been little to no conflict over water thus far -Intrastate instability of water system ownership. china/thailand -Solutions: increase productivity of water. corruption. Looted by Renegade Troops" 6 . Funcinpec NYT. act early and constructively at international level NYT: Water Dispute increases india-pakistan tension -India building hydroelectric dam in Himalayas on river that feeds Pakistani farms -Lack of communication and no water conservation technology in Pakistan Davis: Forests and Conflict in Cambodia -Conflict timber forests cause conflicts or harnessing timber resources/industries to fund wars -Use of forests as a political commodity by ruling elite: logging richest resource to maintain off budget revenue flows to leadership in government coupled with institutional weakness. "The Spoils: Congo's Riches. training troops in Sudan. stronger policies within states to regulate groundwater use. privatization.

but foreign investors projecting legitimacy (recognition of sovereignty in international arena) onto weak governments by relaxing notion of sovereignty -Leaders of weak states manipulate transnational commercial connections (act as mediator between local and international) to gain and maintain power -Political conflict in failing states shifts to control over markets when foreign aid shifts from aid to states to aid to investors in Africa -Weak state governments have an advantage over insurgents because of commercial relationships foreign investors only work with internationally recognized governments because of repercussions of international judiciary AND weak leaders can use foreign investors forces/contractors so that they don¶t have to rely on armed rivals/military 7 . "The Spoils: Battle in a Poor Land for Riches Beneath the Soil" -Niger: battle between native Tuareg and government for uranium deposits -Civic activism comes with democratization of Africa Reno.-Bisie. Congo: renegade army troops controlling tin ore mines allow them to perpetuate activities -Foreign investors have no direct access to mines but mines still feed into global market -Would banning tin ore production cause more trouble than solve problems? NYT. "How Sovereignty Matters" -Dichotomy between internal and external sovereignty: local power in Africa has shifted away from state because governments are weak and lacking international aid to compensate for bureaucratic failures (no internal sovereignty).

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