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Ethics is a moral code -it is the inner voice that tells a person what is right or wrong.

Ethics can come from religion, from the law, from internal values, from learned values,
from public opinion or from any number of sources. The whole of a person's ideas about
morality and about what is right and wrong -and everything that goes into forming those
ideas- determines what is and is not ethical.

Ethics Are Important


So, why are ethics important? They are important because they keep people from doing
what is wrong. If an individual has no ethics, he will do the wrong thing whenever he
believes it will benefit him and that he can get away with it.
Ethics are different than laws, and different than doing the right thing as a result of fear of
consequences. While something that is unethical might be illegal, there is not necessarily
a perfect overlap. Furthermore, in many ways ethics can be even more important than the
law, since the law will only deter a person from bad behavior if he fears penalty, while a
person with a strong code of ethics will do the right thing just because it is the right thing.
If a person had no code of ethics, he could steal, as long as no one was watching. He
could lie to his loved ones or to strangers, as long as the lie didn't rise to the level of
criminal fraud. He could engage in all sorts of things that were "wrong" and "bad" as long
as he didn't get caught.
Since the law can't possibly catch everyone each time they do something bad, and the law
can't make every "wrong" action illegal, society would quickly fall apart if there were no
ethical principles or moral rights or wrongs.

Morality (from the Latin moralities "manner, character, proper behavior") is a sense of
behavioral conduct that differentiates intentions, decisions, and actions between those
that are good (or right) and bad (or wrong). A moral code is a system of morality (for
example, according to a particular philosophy, religion, culture, etc.) and a moral is any
one practice or teaching within a moral code. Immorality is the active opposition to
morality, while amorality is variously defined as an unawareness of, indifference toward,
or disbelief in any set of moral standards or principles

What are the essential elements of human acts


knowledge voluntariness freedom, knowledge voluntariness freedom
Kinds of Human act.
good ,bad indifferent,direct,indirect,perfect,imperfect
Modifier of human acts
Circumstance,Conscience ,Law ,Custom,Need , Mother
Criminal justice system
The criminal justice system consists of three main parts: (1) law enforcement (police); (2)
adjudication (courts); and (3) corrections (jails, prisons, probation and parole). In a
criminal justice system, these distinct agencies operate together both under the rule of law
and as the principal means of maintaining the rule of law within society.
Law enforcement(Police)
The first contact an offender has with the criminal justice system is usually with the
police (or law enforcement) who investigate a suspected wrong-doing and make an
arrest. When warranted, law enforcement agencies or police officers are empowered to
use force and other forms of legal coercion and means to effect public and social order.
A History of Policing
The early beginnings during the Dark Ages...
The origin of early policing traces its roots back to Anglo-Saxon times in England. There,
the early Kings demanded complete loyalty and obedience from each of their subjects. In
exchange for this security, the Kings provided protection from attack from outside
invaders or from overzealous lords under the King's control.
It was under King Alfred the Great that a type of internal police force evolved. Alfred
decreed that the various "thanes" or landowners throughout his kingdom were responsible
to police his territory, deliver criminals to the King and to settle civil litigations. The
people or "freemen" under each thane became concerned that the thane mighty abuse or
even exceed his power, and banded together in a "tything" which consisted of 10
families. This group would meet regularly to discuss common concerns and mutual
protection. But more importantly, the tything served as a "surety", or guarantee, that
criminals within the family units would be delivered to the thane for disposition. They
served as a guarantee that those who committed criminal acts would be brought forth. In
addition, the tything often set in place neighborhood-watch type of patrols in which they
kept an eye on each others' properties as a method to guarantee that no damages would
occur. The head of this group was referred to as a "tythingman".
As the concept spread, the process evolved to the point that 100 tythingmen set up an
organization known as the "hundred". The hundred met once a year and elected one
tythingman who was called a "reeve". The reeve was responsible for the organization of a
court which handled complaints from within the shire and handled civil matters or
disagreements between two or more people. Later the reeve of the shire became known as
a sheriff. Under this system, there was a very close bond established between the "laws of
the land" and the local people. This whole notion of "grassroots" justice would continue
throughout the evolutionary process of English law.
Crime Detection & Investigation?
History
Crime detection and investigation used to depend mostly on witnesses, hearsay or forced
confessions.
Process
Crime detection begins with the discovery of a crime scene, and proceeds through the
process of evidence collection, identification and analysis.
Crime Scene
Crime scene investigation employs many forensic techniques, examining hairs or fibers,
firearms, anatomy, bodily fluids and chemistry.
Surveillance
Surveillance is used when there is a high probability of a crime taking place at a specific
place and time. Detectives are bound by all privacy laws, and must obtain a court order to
intrude on privacy.
Interrogation
Interrogation is probably the oldest crime detection and investigation technique.
Detectives interview all known victims or witnesses and interrogate suspects to further
their investigation.

arrest warrant (warrant of arrest) a judge's order to law enforcement officers to arrest
and bring to jail a person charged with a crime. The warrant is issued upon a sworn
declaration by the district attorney, a police officer or an alleged victim that the accused
person committed a crime.
What is Plane Trigonometry?

Plane trigonometry The study of triangles in the euclidean plane with the use of
functions defined by the ratios of sides of right triangles.

Kinds of Angle
Acute Angle an angle that is less than 90°
Right Angle an angle that is 90° exactly
Obtuse Angle an angle that is greater than 90° but less than 180°
Straight Angle an angle that is 180° exactly
Reflex Angle an angle that is greater than 180°