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Workshop is the essential part of any industry either it is a small-

scale industry or a large-scale industry. All the production work is done

The decision about allocation of shop is taken with the help of a

string diagram, flow diagram etc. After this the layout of the factory is made.
The same process is adopted here. It may be little bit changed by the
administration according to its convenience.

The function of a factory is divided into 8 governed by following

shops and departments: -

1. Press shop

2. Welding shop

3. Paint shop

4. Recliner shop

5. P.U. Foam shop

6. Seat Assembly

7. Tool Room

8. Heat treatment shop

9. Maintenance department
(i) Mechanical Maintt. Deptt.
(ii) Electrical Maintt. Deptt.

10. Production department

11. Technology department

12.Marketing department

13.Quality control department

14.Designing department


It is a very important shop of the factory. They are different types
of presses such as Mechanical Presses and Hydraulic Presses. There are used
for different working operations. There are seven mechanical presses, which
are of different tonnage capacity i.e. 100, 150, 110, 90, 63, 30, 45 tones.

Two hydraulic presses are also there of 6, 30 tonnage capacity. The

hydraulic presses can be used for many working presses can be used for
many working operations but in this factory, these are used only for riveting

A shearing machine is also there the capacity of which is 7mm and

2.5mm mean maximum width and thickness of any plate, which can cut

The operation that are performed here on mechanical presses are: -

1. Blanking operation
2. Drawing operation
3. Piercing operation
4. Notching operation
5. Bending operation
6. Embossing operation etc.
The riveting is done by hydraulic presses. Initially many times are
made in the press shop but now most of them are purchased from the
different small-scale industries.


It is the most important shop of the factory and an important role in

the factory. In this shop the components and recliner and frames of seats are
welding. The seats of OMNI (Front and rear), swaraj mazda, Eicher, PRTC
etc are made in factory and the frames so all these seats are welded here.

The welding which is done on the shop are three types: -

1. MIG welding
2. ARC welding
3. Spot welding


The Full abbreviation of MIG welding is metallic Inert Gas

Welding. This welding is very much effective on the sheets metal parts.

There are 18 cabins in the welding shop of MIG Welding. There

are two parts, which are most essential for welding one, is mild steel wire
and other is inert gas. The mild steel wire is filler material, which is coated
with copper in order to avoid the corrosion. There are many another inert
gases such as helium, argon etc. but co2 is a cool gas and in the cylinder and
it is near about its freezing point. That is why a heater is assembled at the
outlet of the cylinder in order to heat it. This is not an inflammable gas.

During the welding process the gas acts as a coolant and covers the
welded spot in the form of a protective layer no blowholes are left in the
MIG welding. The feeding to M.S. wire is done mechanically. Hence MIG
welding has a bright future in the industry.

In this factory, there is only one cabin for the ARC Welding
purpose and very less work is done with the help of ARC Welding.

The purpose of ARC Welding is nothing different from the usual

ARC Welding. A flux coated mild steel rod is used and the components and
holder are of opposite charge.


Another type of welding which is used in the factory is SPOT

Welding. There are 3 machines to perform this operation. It is also called
Heat Treatment Welding.

There are two terminal of electricity between which the job is

placed. The terminal presses the components; heat it up to a high
temperature so that the material of two parts may diffuse into each other.
The every machine needs exact 440 Volts electricity for welding. These
machines are pneumatic and water is used continuously to cool the two
electrodes. The main advantage of spot welding is that no filler materials
like mild steel etc. is used and the material of component act as the filler

(iii) PAINT SHOP: -

When the welding process on the product is completed they are

sent to the Paint Shop. It is equally important shop of the industry.
Firstly when the product after welding from the welding shop
arrives here bathing treatment is to clean the products and get them ready for
the paint purpose. There are seven bathing tanks or containers and three of
them are of running water. First tank is called decreasing tank. The oil and
grease, which sticks on the product, is removed here. The temperature of the
tank is 800 to 900 degree Celsius and the chemical caustic 5%. The product
is immersed here for 45 minutes and grease, oil etc. is removed by heating
techniques. 2nd tank is of water and cleaning of the product by bathing with
water is done here. The third tank is a Rustadin tank, which is used to
remove the rust, corrosion etc. from the products. The 4th tank is again a
water tank and the product is cleaned here.

After bathing is done the product is immersed into 5th tank, which
is phosphatic tank into which a layer of phosphatic gas coated on the
product. The product is immersed here for 8-10 minutes. The 6th tank is of
water tank is of water and the product is cleaned in it.

The 7th tank and last tank is precipitated tank when the product
passes through it, it gets ready for paint. It is heated at temperature of 400-
500 degree Celsius and it is also dried the products.

To paint the products like recliner and sheet frames are hanged on
the trolley type train and is earthed or positively charged. The spray of paint
is made dried in baking oven. The baking oven is a long big room in which
there are number of bulbs is done every Sunday.

The spray gun is attached with there the cables H.V. cable (High
Voltage cable), Air pipe and paint pipe H.V. cable charges the spray gun
negatively. As the spray is done on cylindrical products, only once the spray
is done on front side only and due to charge backside also gets coated
automatically. The product passes through the oven, the temperature inside
the oven is 1200 and the paint is dried. The whole process of drying takes 29
minutes. The paints is used in this shop are liquid paint and powder paint.
Powder paint is very much expensive than the liquid ones. These are used on
recliner parts, which are not covered.

The process of powder paint is the same as in liquid paint. In it, the
spray gun is negatively charged and the product is passed through the oven,
which is called Electric oven and has a temperature inside 1200 Degree
Celsius. Due to this high temperature, the powder automatically melts into
paint and gives a nice and durable finish. Powder paints have longer life than
liquid paints.

(iv) P.U. FOAM SHOP: -

In this shop main products of the factory i.e. foam is manufactured.

It is the main shop of the industry. There are two chemicals, which are used
to manufacture the foam Polyol and Iso-cyanate. These are imported from
England, U.S.A., and Germany etc. These chemicals are mixed with each
other in a pourer. The ratio of the chemical mixture is 100:60 (Polyol : Iso
cyanate). A gas is also mixed in the polyol. It is 10% of the polyol. The
name of the gas is R-11. This gas acts as the following agents. The amount
of mixtures is poured into the mould depends upon the size of mould and the
weight of foam. Nylon net is also placed over the poured mixture and the
mould is closed.

The temperature of chemical as well as mould should vary between

200-2500 degree Celsius. In winter the temperature 0 is raised with the help
of oven and in the summer temperature needs to be decreased and is down
by chillers. A parting agent is sprayed over the mould before pouring the
mixture for the easy removal of from the mould. The nylon net is used to
strengthen the foam and to save the foam from springs.
After 5-8 minutes the mould is opened, poured chemical changes
into the regd. Shape of the mould. The foam is taken out of the mould and
compressed in the roller upto the 50% of its thickness to get rid of uneven
gases inside the foam. The then with the help of conveyer belt is sent to the
first floor where the extra material foam is sent to seat-as-assembly.


The assembly of different parts from the different shops is done

here to foam the recliner. The recliners, which are made here, are of OMNI,
Maruti 800 c.c., Wagon-R, Tata safari, Tata indica etc. for both left handed
and right handed made.

The different parts of recliner are Scooter, Scooter pin, Guide

block, and Fork bkt. No.1 and 4 rivets, Spring holding plate, Spiral spring,
Tension spring. The assembly of recliner is done in three stages Pre-
assembly stage, Sub-assembly and Final-assembly.

In Pre-assembly the fork is placed in the slot of bkt no.1 made at

the center. The sector is placed in the two legs of the fork. There are two
1. The notching of bkt. No 1 and notching of fork should
be opposite.
2. Notching of bkt. No. 4 and profile of sector should be
in the same direction.

The sector pin is immersed in the sector and the guide block is
assembled with sector. Now the sector due to the sector pin and guide block
gets locked and can move only in the slot made in bkt. No. 1 and cannot
come out of fork.
Now the spring holding plate is placed over the guide block and
four rivets are put into its four holes made in bkt. no. 1 and also the spring
holding plate is pressed.

Now the bkt. no. 2 with disc is placed inside the fork and the main
shaft is immersed between two brackets to hold these brackets together. The
riveting machining process is done and sent to the paint shop to paint sub-
assembly. The powder coated is made on the recliners and now the sub
assembly is over.

When the finished product came from the paint shop, the oiling
and greasing of guide block and sector is done. A tension spring is mounted
between the notching of the fork and the notching of bkt. no. 1. A spiral
spring is placed around the main shaft and is mounted with the notching of
spring holding plate. A aluminum lever is tightened with the fork with the
help of wimple screw and a star washer or circular. The screw is tighter with
pneumatic gun the plastic cover is placed over spiral spring in the main
shaft. The assembly is now taken to flaring tool where the flaring of the
main shaft from its bottom is done. In order to avoid the out coming of the
plastic cover and washer.

Now the assembly of recliner is over. The checkpoints are

1. No rubbing should be there in between the parts of the

recliner while operating.

2. Proper locking should be ensured.


This is used to slide or adjust the cushion of the seats in Swaraj

Mazda. These are two types left-handed and right-handed.


It is mounted in the right-hand side of the seat. It consists of

following parts Outer channel, Inner channel, Pin forked lever, Tension
spring, Two rollers, Four steel balls, Plastic knob.

First of all the lever is assembled with the outer channel with the
help of a shaft pin, whose flaring is done with a flaring tool hand press. The
lever should not be loose. Then the greasing is done to the mating walls of
outer and inner channels. Two rollers are placed between two channels i.e.
outer channel and inner channel from two different sides. Four steel balls are
also immersed in between two channels i.e. from two different sides. Four
steel balls are also immersed in between the mating walls of channels, two
from one side and two from other. The main function of the rollers and steel
balls to facilitate the movement of the channels.

The movement of the inner channel should note be losses and the
lever should be adjusted in all slots made on the inner channel. Then final
looking of the outer channel is done with a hand press in order to avoid the
out coming of inner channel.


The left-handed adjuster is mounted on the left hand side of the

sib. The manufacturing process of L.H. adjuster is the same as that of right
handed adjuster except there is no lever in it.
The machines, which are used in this shop, are Orbital riveting
machine, Flaring tool, Flaring tool hand press, Depression tool hand,
Pneumatic gun etc.


It is the last shop of the industry where the production is done. All
the products from the different shops arrive there. The assembly of the
products is one covering of the cushion is made.

First material move from store to welding and press shop, these
processes are parallel to each other. Then the material flows from welding
material goes to paint shop and from press shop to recliner and paint shop.
After paint the products arrive here for the assembly.

First of all the tapping of the tapping of the wholes, which are there
on the arrival of the product, is done. Zig-Zag springs are engaged. The
foam arrives here from P.U. shop. Foam is engaged with iron assembly with
the help of screw, staples etc. Then covering is done. The covers of the seats
arrived here from another small-scale industry of nabha “Saravpriya
Industries”. All type of covers is supplied from here. The covers of the
cushions and of back are made tight fit. When the covering is to be done the
steam is allowed to pass through cover with a high pressure. The covers due
high pressure and high temperature of the steam get expanded and can easily
engaged of the foam.

The pneumatic staplers are used for joining the cover with the
foam. In first row the seats (Front, Rear, Left and Right) Cushions of OMNI,
Swaraj mazda, Wagon-R, Eicher etc.are made. In second row the assembly
of seats of tractors etc. is also made.
(vii) TOOL ROOM:-

This is another important shop of this factory. The main function

of the tool room is to manufacture punches, dies etc. regd. In the industry
and for this purpose there are number of machines such as Grinders like
Tool and cutter grinder, Surface grinders, Universal grinders, Copying lathe,
Drilling machines, Shopping machines. Some other machine are also
installed in the factory such as power hexa drilling machining, Special
purpose milling machining, Horizontal milling machine, Lathe.

There are some machines, which need a little more at tensions.

These are as follows:


It is a Computer numerically controlled machine in which cutting

is done with the help of brass wire of very small diameter. As the current
passes the spark is produced and the erosion of the metal is done with the
help of spark. The finishing product in it is up to 1 micron.


The basic principle of E.D.M. is same as wire cutting but in it

impression is made as if no profile cutting is done. Very complex profile’s
impression can be made with it.


This machine is also used for production work. There is no or very

little clearance between the punch and the accuracy obtained is very high.
The feeding of the strip can be done manually and also automatically. To
avoid rolling action of the strip the cutting or sharing of strip is also done.


The maintenance department is one of the most important

departments of the factory. As it’s name indicates, maintenance of
overall industry is there responsibility. All the workers like repair
of machinery oiling, greasing are responsibility of the maintenance

The maintenance department usually has two forms: -

1. Mechanical maintenance department

2. Electrical maintenance department

1) Mechanical maintenance department: -

As it’s name implies the main function of this department is to

keep maintenance of mechanical equipment or machines of the industry. If
there is breakdown and if it is mechanical than this becomes the
responsibility of this department to and out the cause of break down of the
machinery and repair it.

The oiling and greasing will also be doing under this department
There are no. of oils which are used in the factory and different
types of oils are used for different works. Numbers and Grades are given to
the different oils. Commonly used oils are 311, 317, 90, 65, 40, 311, 317 are
normal type of oils can be used for any type of machines 90 no. oil of used
for compressors, 65 is used as lubricant and 40 no. is a cool cut and used as
a coolant while cutting operation is used.
2) Electrical maintenance department: -

As it’s name implies electrical department has the responsibility to

control and maintain all the electrical supply to the machine. If fault in the
machine is of electrical nature than it is duty if this department to find it out
and remove it.



As the name of this department implies the planning of the

production is made by this department. The schedule of the supply arrives
here from the marketing officers. The schedule means the different
industries send their requirements of the definite intervals of the time and
ask the factory to fulfill the requirement at the specified time. PPC
department further transfer the schedule of the different factories to the
different shops according to their function and ask shop in charge to
complete the order within the schedule time. The persons involved in this
department works in the general shift i.e. 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.


This department is very important department. It consists of many

engineers and junior engineers. They study the different methods new
techniques to manufacture their product.


The marketing of the products, which are manufactured here is

done mainly in industries concerned with it. i.e. Maruti udyog Ltd. (MUL),
R.C.F.Kapurthala, I.C.F. Madras, Eicher motars Ltd.(EML), Swaraj Mazda



It is the most important department of the factory. The function of

the department as its name indicates is to maintain the quality of the
products. It checks the raw materials, which is purchased. The selection and
rejection of material entirely depend upon it. The parts, which are finished
here, are right drawing of the right fitment, of right description and have
right specification. This department has it’s own inspector in all the shops
who check at the jobs whether the quality of the product is satisfactory or

In welding shop truing fixtures are made to check the turners of the
product. In press shop the dia. Of the holes punched or pressed is rejected
with the help of vernier caliper. In P.U. Shop the thickness of foam and in
the seat assembly the covers are checked, they should not be damaged. In
Recliner shops the part of the recliner should not rub with each other. In
paint shop, the finishing of paint is checked.

In the end when the desired product is assembled again, its quality
as per its drawing fitment and after which the product is ready for the


It is an important shop in the factory. In this shop, the various
components are heat treated or tempered. This process is also known as the
case hardening of the components is hardened with this process.

The furnaces or tank used in this process are following: -

1. Water washing tank

2. Tempering furnace

3. Passivation

4. Gas carbonized furnace

5. Quenching tank

In the process of case hardening of the components, First of all the

components are arranged in a fixtures and then loaded in the gas-carbonizing
furnace and heated up to a regd. Temperature according to their requirement.
After that the component is allowed to cool in the same furnace. Then
immersing the component in the oil-quenching tank for 10-15 minutes does
the quenching at the component.

After the process of quenching the component is washed in a

water-washing tank. At last, the tempering of the component is done in the
tempering furnace. After the process of tempering the components are ready
for the assembly purpose and component are send to the assembly shop.
There is also hardness machine to test the hardness of the various