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Image Segmentation :

Image Segmentation Image segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple
segments .It is typically used to locate objects and boundaries in images. More precisely, it is the process of
assigning a label to every pixel. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover
the entire image, or a set of contours extracted from the image. Each of the pixels in a region are similar with
respect to some characteristic or computed property, such as color, intensity, or texture. Adjacent regions
are significantly different with respect to the same characteristics Image segmentation

Medical Image Segmentation :


Medical Image Segmentation The Image segmentation is one of the most important parts of clinical
diagnostic tools. Medical image segmentation refers to the segmentation of known anatomic structures from
medical images. Structures of interest include, tumors and cysts, as well as other structures such as bones,
vessels, brain structures . The overall objective of such methods is referred to as computer-aided diagnosis;
in other words, they are used for assisting doctors in evaluating medical imagery or in recognizing abnormal
findings in a medical image. Segmentation results of brain

Methods of Segmentation :
Methods of Segmentation Images are often interfered by signals and artifacts which rose of during sampling,
what may cause big problems at using of common techniques of segmentation. Therefore, accurate
segmentation of medical images is a very difficult task. However, the process of accurate segmentation of
these images is very important and crucial for a correct diagnosis by clinical tools. Many methods have been
developed for better image segmentation. In this paper we are going to make a comparative study of three
methods namely Active Contour Method, Bayesian method and Biomimetic Pattern Recognition Method.

Active Contour Method :


Active Contour Method Besides challenges due to imaging noise and partial volume effects, the similarity in
intensity and texture between neighboring structures complicates the task of identifying distinct boundaries
between the structures. So the active contour method was introduced which developed the concept of shape
contours .When evolving shape contours, the interaction consists of modeling the “forces” of attraction,
repulsion, and competition by taking into account the relationship between object contours and their shape
estimates.

Modes of Interaction :
Modes of Interaction In Active Contour, segmentation is performed by iteratively repeating two interactive
operations: Contour evolution:When evolving shape contours, the interaction consists of modeling the
“forces” of attraction, repulsion, and competition by taking into account the relationship between object
contours and their shape estimates. The attraction describes the force of drawing the organ contour toward
the learned shape prior, while repulsion and competition define the actions between neighboring curves to
avoid overlapping and to solve the ambiguity of which structures the voxels belong to.

Slide 7:
Posteriori shape estimation method :The shape priors are generated according to shape prior distribution,
neighboring shapes, image features, and also the current evolved curves. Energy functionals are then
formulated to model the interactions. Segmentation is achieved by minimizing these functionals.With the
proposed approach, neighboring structures with similar intensities and/or textures, and blurred boundaries
can be extracted simultaneously.

Bayesian Method :
Bayesian Method The Bayesian method provides a way to solve image Reconstruction problems that would
otherwise be insoluble . The Bayesian approach is based on probability theory, which makes it possible to
rank a continuum of possibilities on the basis of their relative likelihood or preference and to conduct
inference in a logically consistent way. Segmentation by bayesian method

Naïve Bayes Model :


Naïve Bayes Model The naïve conditional independence assumption allows efficient computation of
marginal and conditional distributions for large-scale learning and inference. We choose a generative model
over the discriminative counterpart motivated in part by a faster convergence rate of the asymptotic
generalization error when label information is scarce. The naive Bayes classifier finds successful application
in text categorization tasks . The Naive conditional independence assumption allows us to factorize the joint
distribution as a product of class prior and independent conditional probability

Biomimetic Pattern Recognition Method :


Biomimetic Pattern Recognition Method Based on mathematic topological analysis of the sample set in the
high dimensional feature space, this model utilizes the continuity of the same class of samples in the feature
space. In the BPR theory, the construction of the subspace of a certain type of samples depends on
analyzing the relations between the trained types of samples and practicing the methods of “coverage of
objects with complicated geometrical forms in the multidimensional space”. The BPR is based on “pattern
cognition” instead of “pattern classification” The method firstly uses neuron networks to completely cover the
samples‟ high dimensional feature space and then segment medical images based on the results of the
optimal coverage of the samples.

Multi-weight neuron network architecture :


Multi-weight neuron network architecture Here, BPR is realized by Multi-weight Neuron Networks. In training
of a certain class of samples, a Multi-weight Neuron Sub-network should be established. The sub-network
has three layers: Layer 1 (input layer): this layer is used for system data input, which means sample feature
vector. Layer 2 (Multi-weight Neuron hidden layer): this layer uses closed hyper surface to cover input
sample feature vector in the high dimension. The number of Multi-weight Neurons in this layer of sub-
network is determined by the number of training samples. Layer 3 (output layer): this layer is composed by i
nodes, in this paper i =3, which represent CFS, GM and WM respectively. If the current input sample
belongs to i-class,

Conclusion :
Conclusion Here the Active Contour Method is a novel method that is able to effectively segment
neighboring structures with similar texture and intensity. By intuitively describing the relationships between
neighboring structures and their respective shape estimates our method effectively models interaction
between neighboring contours to enable extraction of the boundaries that separate them. In Baysens
method by imposing the transductive learning and inference problem w.r.t. time and in conjunction with
spatiotemporal regularization constraints efficient segmentation data could be achieved. Multimodal
registration was applied to bring the multimodal data sources into a common coordinate frame. In the
Biomimetic pattern, each class of samples is trained to be “cognized” one by one, which produces better
segmentation. By the comparative study of all three methods we have concluded that each method have its
own advantages and disadvantages and so each method can be used in image segmentation according to
the area of interest.

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