# 1. Introduction to FEA in engineering problems 1.

Introduction to FEA in engineering problems
The University of Western Australia The University of Western Australia
School of Mechanical Engineering School of Mechanical Engineering
Tribology Laboratory Tribology Laboratory
What is FEA?
• • Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Analysis is a way to simulate loading conditions on a is a way to simulate loading conditions on a
design and determine the design design and determine the design’ ’s response to those conditions. s response to those conditions.
• • The design is modeled using discrete building blocks called The design is modeled using discrete building blocks called elements elements. .
1. 1. Each element has exact equations that describe how it Each element has exact equations that describe how it
2. 2. The The “ “sum sum” ” of the response of all elements in the model of the response of all elements in the model
gives the total response of the design gives the total response of the design. .
3. 3. The elements have a finite number of unknowns, hence the The elements have a finite number of unknowns, hence the
name name finite elements finite elements. .
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
What is FEA?
• The finite element model, which has a finite number of unknowns, can
only approximate the response of the physical system, which has
infinite unknowns.
How good is the approximation?
– Unfortunately, there is no easy
depends entirely on what you
are simulating and the tools you
use for the simulation.
– We will, however, attempt to
give you guidelines throughout
this FEM unit.
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
Physical System F.E. Model
• • Hrennikoff[1941] - Lattice of 1D bars Hrennikoff[1941] - Lattice of 1D bars
• • McHenry [1943] - Model 3D solids McHenry [1943] - Model 3D solids
• • R. Courant [1943] - Variational form R. Courant [1943] - Variational form
• • Levy [1947, 1953] - Flexibility & Stiffness Levy [1947, 1953] - Flexibility & Stiffness
• • M. J. Turner [1953] - FEM computations on a wing M. J. Turner [1953] - FEM computations on a wing
• • Boeing [1950's] Engineer's at Boeing apply FEM to delta wings Boeing [1950's] Engineer's at Boeing apply FEM to delta wings
• • Argryisand Kelsey [1954] - Energy Prin. for Matrix Methods Argryisand Kelsey [1954] - Energy Prin. for Matrix Methods
• • Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp[1956] - 2D elements Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp[1956] - 2D elements
• • R. W. Clough [1960] R. W. Clough [1960] – – Coins the term Coins the term “ “Finite Elements Finite Elements” ”
History
Historical Note
• The finite element method of structural
analysis was created by academic and
industrial researchers during the 1950s
and 1960s.
• The underlying theory is over 100 years
old, and was the basis for pen-and-
paper calculations in the evaluation of
suspension bridges and steam boilers.
History
• • 1963 - Mathematical validity of method established -applied to non-structural 1963 - Mathematical validity of method established -applied to non-structural
problems problems
• • 1960's - First general purpose FEA code developed 1960's - First general purpose FEA code developed
• • 1970's - Non-linear solvers developed 1970's - Non-linear solvers developed
• • 1980's - Graphical pre-/postprocessors are developed 1980's - Graphical pre-/postprocessors are developed
• • 1990's and now - FEM tools integrated in CAD software 1990's and now - FEM tools integrated in CAD software
• • To reduce the amount of prototype testing To reduce the amount of prototype testing
– – Computer simulation allows multiple Computer simulation allows multiple “ “what-if what-if” ” scenarios to be tested quickly and scenarios to be tested quickly and
effectively. effectively.
• • To simulate designs that are not suitable for prototype testing To simulate designs that are not suitable for prototype testing
– – Example: Surgical implants, such as an artificial knee Example: Surgical implants, such as an artificial knee
• • The bottom line: The bottom line:
– – Cost savings Cost savings
– – Time savings Time savings… … reduce time to market! reduce time to market!
– – Create more reliable, better-quality designs Create more reliable, better-quality designs
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
Why is FEA needed? Why is FEA needed?
Examples of FEA applications Examples of FEA applications
stress analysis stress analysis
nonstructural nonstructural
structural structural
buckling buckling
vibration analysis vibration analysis
heat transfer heat transfer fluid flow fluid flow
distribution of electric or distribution of electric or
magnetic potential magnetic potential
combined combined
struc&nonstruc struc&nonstruc
biomechanical engineering biomechanical engineering
problems problems
© 2002 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning™
nodes, 48 beam elements) with typical nodes, 48 beam elements) with typical
degrees of freedom shown at node 1 degrees of freedom shown at node 1
Stress analysis Stress analysis
Stress analysis Stress analysis
( (Failure Failure analysis of analysis of Minneapolis Bridge Gusset Plates Minneapolis Bridge Gusset Plates) )
(from (from Abaqus Technology Brief, Dec 2009) Abaqus Technology Brief, Dec 2009)
Gusset plates - flat steel structure used Gusset plates - flat steel structure used
to bolt together girders that carry the to bolt together girders that carry the
weight of a bridge weight of a bridge
Bowed gusset
plates
Shell to solid Shell to solid
coupling coupling
Model of deck truss portion Model of deck truss portion
Stress analysis Stress analysis
(Analysis of cylinder to nozzle intersection in pressure vessel) (Analysis of cylinder to nozzle intersection in pressure vessel)
(from Int. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82 (2005) pp.43-50) (from Int. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82 (2005) pp.43-50)
Crush analysis of a car Crush analysis of a car
Crush analysis of a car Crush analysis of a car
Crush analysis of automobiles is the simulation of a slow, dynamic (virtually static) Crush analysis of automobiles is the simulation of a slow, dynamic (virtually static)
process. ADINA was employed to perform crush analyses using the implicit dynamic process. ADINA was employed to perform crush analyses using the implicit dynamic
(practically static) analysis procedures. (practically static) analysis procedures.
Comparison of FEA results with test results Comparison of FEA results with test results
CFD lets you simulate the full-scale vehicle without the need for scaling CFD lets you simulate the full-scale vehicle without the need for scaling
approximations. Also, a multitude of design variations can be assessed approximations. Also, a multitude of design variations can be assessed
without the high cost of tank test time. without the high cost of tank test time.
(from http://www.wbmpl.com.au) (from http://www.wbmpl.com.au)
Computational fluid dynamics Computational fluid dynamics
(Hydrodynamics) (Hydrodynamics)
Maximising performance of processing equipment such as cyclones, boilers, burners, filters, Maximising performance of processing equipment such as cyclones, boilers, burners, filters,
stirrers, and valves, requires a thorough knowledge of the fluid processes behind the stirrers, and valves, requires a thorough knowledge of the fluid processes behind the
functionality of the equipment. functionality of the equipment.
The ability of CFD to clearly visualise these processes makes the identification of design The ability of CFD to clearly visualise these processes makes the identification of design
modifications for improving efficiency and reducing maintenance requirements faster and modifications for improving efficiency and reducing maintenance requirements faster and
more economical than traditional model testing and interpretation of physical measurement. more economical than traditional model testing and interpretation of physical measurement.
(from http://www.wbmpl.com.au) (from http://www.wbmpl.com.au)
Computational fluid dynamics Computational fluid dynamics
(Processing equipment) (Processing equipment)
The accurate determination of wind loads on large buildings and structures is essential to The accurate determination of wind loads on large buildings and structures is essential to
efficient and safe design. CFD can be used to obtain accurate wind loads on very complex efficient and safe design. CFD can be used to obtain accurate wind loads on very complex
structures without the need for simplifying assumptions or scaling. structures without the need for simplifying assumptions or scaling.
Computational fluid dynamics Computational fluid dynamics
(from http://www.wbmpl.com.au) (from http://www.wbmpl.com.au)
FE model of vertebral body with wedge-shaped FE model of vertebral body with wedge-shaped
section removed section removed
(from http://biomech2.me.berkeley.edu/research/pcres.html) (from http://biomech2.me.berkeley.edu/research/pcres.html)
FE model of artificial knee joint FE model of artificial knee joint
(from http://www.uic.edu/labs/brl/knee1.htm) (from http://www.uic.edu/labs/brl/knee1.htm)
To see movie on To see movie on
trabecular bone check trabecular bone check
http://biomech1.me.ber http://biomech1.me.ber
keley.edu/tbone-fail/ keley.edu/tbone-fail/
FE model of human model FE model of human model
(http://www.tytlabs.co.jp/english/tech/thums) (http://www.tytlabs.co.jp/english/tech/thums)
Problem: Find the bending moment at section AA and the
deflection at the pin subjected to the load of 1000N.
(adapted from Finite Element Procedures, K J Bathe) (adapted from Finite Element Procedures, K J Bathe)
Bracket
A simple beam model
(Mathematical model 1)
Moment at section AA
Is this simple beam model reliable and effective?

M =WL = 27,500Ncm

δ =
1
3
W L + r
N
( )
3
EI
+
W L + r
N
( )
5
6
AG
= 0.053cm
Under the assumption that W is small
load that does not cause yielding of the
material we get
Easy to solve by hand! Easy to solve by hand!
A 2D linear-elastic plane stress model
(Mathematical model 2)
More accurate than Model 1, however it does not More accurate than Model 1, however it does not
consider consider
• • the actual bolt fastening and contact conditions the actual bolt fastening and contact conditions
between the steel column and the bracket, and between the steel column and the bracket, and
• • the pin carrying the load onto the bracket the pin carrying the load onto the bracket
One possible solution is to One possible solution is to use numerical use numerical
techniques techniques
The differential equations are difficult to The differential equations are difficult to
solve by hand! solve by hand!
For problems involving complicated geometries, For problems involving complicated geometries,
not possible to obtain analytical mathematical not possible to obtain analytical mathematical
solutions. solutions.
These analytical solutions generally require the These analytical solutions generally require the
solution of ordinary or partial differential solution of ordinary or partial differential
equations, which, because of the complicated equations, which, because of the complicated
are not usually obtainable. are not usually obtainable.
Analytical solutions are difficult to obtain Analytical solutions are difficult to obtain
Physical Problem
Mathematical model
Governed by differential
equations
Numerical model
e.g., finite element
model
Finite difference methods
Finite element methods
Differential equations are replaced by Differential equations are replaced by
difference equations difference equations
Analytical solutions show the exact behavior of a system at any point within
the system, while numerical solutions approximate exact solutions only at
discrete points.
Common numerical techniques
Differential equations are replaced by Differential equations are replaced by
algebraic equations obtained using algebraic equations obtained using
integral formulations integral formulations
Numerical techniques Numerical techniques
apply to problems with complex geometries, complex boundary conditions or apply to problems with complex geometries, complex boundary conditions or
nonisotropic material properties. nonisotropic material properties.
Difficult to Difficult to Quite easily to Quite easily to
We will solve the bracket problem using a We will solve the bracket problem using a
finite element method finite element method
Basic steps of finite element method
Step 1. Discretize and select the element types Step 1. Discretize and select the element types
Step 2. Select a displacement function Step 2. Select a displacement function
Step 3. Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationships Step 3. Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationships
Step 4. Derive the element stiffness matrix and equations Step 4. Derive the element stiffness matrix and equations
Step 5. Assemble the element equations to obtain the global or total equations and introduce Step 5. Assemble the element equations to obtain the global or total equations and introduce
boundary conditions boundary conditions
Step 6. Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom (or generalized displacements) Step 6. Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom (or generalized displacements)
Step 7. Solve for the secondary quantities Step 7. Solve for the secondary quantities
Step 8. Interpret the results Step 8. Interpret the results
Step 1. Discretize and select the Step 1. Discretize and select the
element types element types
Break down the structure (e.g. the bracket) into an Break down the structure (e.g. the bracket) into an
equivalent system of finite elements equivalent system of finite elements
Choose the most appropriate element type to Choose the most appropriate element type to
model most closely the actual physical behaviour model most closely the actual physical behaviour
The total number of elements used and their The total number of elements used and their
variation in size and type within a given body are variation in size and type within a given body are
primarily matters of engineering judgment. primarily matters of engineering judgment.
© 2002 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning™
Which element? Which element?
Meshed solid model
Real continuum model
node node
1. 1. Every interconnected element is linked, directly or indirectly, to every other Every interconnected element is linked, directly or indirectly, to every other
element through nodes. element through nodes.
at the nodes after deformation takes place. at the nodes after deformation takes place.
3. 3. The 2D element is used to represent plane stress/strain in the bracket. The 2D element is used to represent plane stress/strain in the bracket.
4. 4. Every element has a displacement function that is defined within the element Every element has a displacement function that is defined within the element
using the nodal displacement values. using the nodal displacement values.
Each point has an infinite number Each point has an infinite number
of deformation state variables, i.e. of deformation state variables, i.e.
degrees of freedom (DOF) degrees of freedom (DOF)
Each point has a finite number of Each point has a finite number of
deformation state variables (u,v), deformation state variables (u,v),
i.e. degrees of freedom i.e. degrees of freedom
Step 2. Select a displacement function Step 2. Select a displacement function
The function is defined within the element using the nodal values of the element. The function is defined within the element using the nodal values of the element.
Which displacement function? Which displacement function?
Typical displacement functions are Typical displacement functions are
polynomials polynomials trigonometric series trigonometric series
For the bracket analysis, the displacement function is a linear function For the bracket analysis, the displacement function is a linear function
of the coordinates in the x-y plane. of the coordinates in the x-y plane.
and and
Step 3. Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationships Step 3. Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationships
These relationships are used to obtain equations that describe the element behaviour. These relationships are used to obtain equations that describe the element behaviour.
For the bracket analysis, the Hooke's law is used. For the bracket analysis, the Hooke's law is used.
strain/displacement: strain/displacement:
stress/strain: stress/strain:
Step 4. Derive the element stiffness matrix and element equations Step 4. Derive the element stiffness matrix and element equations
The matrix and equations relate nodal forces to nodal displacements The matrix and equations relate nodal forces to nodal displacements
principle of virtual work principle of virtual work
(both to elastic and (both to elastic and
non-elastic materials) non-elastic materials)
principle of minimum principle of minimum
potential energy potential energy
(only to elastic materials) (only to elastic materials)
Castigliano's theorem Castigliano's theorem
(only to elastic materials) (only to elastic materials)
direct equilibrium method direct equilibrium method
(most easily applicable (most easily applicable
to 1D elements) to 1D elements)
work or energy methods work or energy methods
(easier applicable to (easier applicable to
2D or 3D elements) 2D or 3D elements)
methods of weighted methods of weighted
residuals residuals
(applicable wherever the (applicable wherever the
energy methods are) energy methods are)

They can be obtained by They can be obtained by
Galerkin's method Galerkin's method
(most popular) (most popular)

f
1
f
2
f
3
:

f
n
|
¦
|
|
|
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|
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¦
|
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|
|
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=
k
11
k
12
k
13
... k
1n
k
21
k
22
k
23
... k
2n
k
31
k
32
k
33
... k
3n
:

:

k
n1
k
n2
k
n3
... k
nn
|
|
|
|
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d
1
d
2
d
3
:

d
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f { } = k
[ ]
d { }
or or
where where

f { }
- the vector of element nodal forces - the vector of element nodal forces
- the element stiffness matrix - the element stiffness matrix
- the vector of unknown element nodal degrees of freedom or generalized displacements - the vector of unknown element nodal degrees of freedom or generalized displacements

k
[ ]

d { }
For the bracket analysis, the element equations are obtained using a minimum For the bracket analysis, the element equations are obtained using a minimum
potential energy method potential energy method
The element equations are The element equations are
Step 5. Assemble the element equations to obtain the global or total Step 5. Assemble the element equations to obtain the global or total
equations and introduce boundary conditions equations and introduce boundary conditions
Describe the behaviour of the entire structure by adding together the individual element Describe the behaviour of the entire structure by adding together the individual element
equations using a method of superposition (called a direct stiffness method) equations using a method of superposition (called a direct stiffness method)

F { } = K
[ ]
d { }

F { }

K
[ ]

d { }
- the vector of global nodal forces - the vector of global nodal forces
- the structure global or total stiffness matrix - the structure global or total stiffness matrix
- - the vector of known and unknown structure nodal degrees of freedom the vector of known and unknown structure nodal degrees of freedom
or generalized displacements or generalized displacements
The global equation is modified to account for the boundary conditions
The assembly process gives a set of simultaneous algebraic
equations that can be written as the global equation
Step 6. Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom (or generalized Step 6. Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom (or generalized
displacements) displacements)
The modified global equation is solved to obtain nodal results (primary unknowns, first The modified global equation is solved to obtain nodal results (primary unknowns, first
quantities), such as displacement values at different nodes. quantities), such as displacement values at different nodes.
The global equation can be solved by
Elimination method Elimination method
(Gauss's method) (Gauss's method)
Iterative method Iterative method
(Gauss-Seidel method) (Gauss-Seidel method)
or or
For the bracket analysis, the global equation is solved using the iterative method For the bracket analysis, the global equation is solved using the iterative method
and as a result, and as a result, the global nodal displacements were obtained. obtained.
Step 7. Solve for the secondary quantities Step 7. Solve for the secondary quantities
Obtain other important information, for example: moments and deflections Obtain other important information, for example: moments and deflections
Having solved for the nodal displacements, Having solved for the nodal displacements, the bending moment at section AA and
the deflection at the pin can be calculated. .
Moment at section AA:

M = 27,500Ncm
Deflection at the pin:

δ = 0.064cm
Step 8. Interpret the results Step 8. Interpret the results
Verify results,display results obtained in graphical form Verify results,display results obtained in graphical form

M = 27,500Ncm
Results from FEA:

δ = 0.064cm
Results from simple beam
model:

M = 27,500Ncm

δ = 0.053cm
Difference in less than 20%

δ
Difference in less than 1%

M
Maximum stress Maximum stress
near notch near notch
Conclusions Conclusions
The simple beam model is The simple beam model is reliable under the condition reliable under the condition that the that the
required bending moment is to be predicted within 1% accuracy required bending moment is to be predicted within 1% accuracy
and the deflection is to be predicted within 20%. and the deflection is to be predicted within 20%.
This model is This model is effective effective since it can be since it can be easily solved by hand easily solved by hand. .
Advantages of finite element analysis (FEA) Advantages of finite element analysis (FEA)
1. 1. Model irregularly shaped bodies quite easily Model irregularly shaped bodies quite easily
2. 2. Handle general load conditions without difficulty Handle general load conditions without difficulty
3. 3. Model bodies composed of several different materials Model bodies composed of several different materials
4. 4. Handle unlimited numbers and kinds of boundary conditions Handle unlimited numbers and kinds of boundary conditions
5. 5. Vary the size of the elements to make it possible to use small elements where necessary Vary the size of the elements to make it possible to use small elements where necessary
6. 6. Alter the FE model relatively easily and cheaply Alter the FE model relatively easily and cheaply
7. 7. Include dynamic effects Include dynamic effects
8. 8. Handle nonlinear behavior existing with large deformations and nonlinear materials Handle nonlinear behavior existing with large deformations and nonlinear materials
1. 1. An approximate solution An approximate solution
2. 2. An element dependent solution An element dependent solution
- - Shape quality of elements affect the solution, e.g. poorly shaped elements (irregular Shape quality of elements affect the solution, e.g. poorly shaped elements (irregular
shapes) reduce accuracy of the FE solution shapes) reduce accuracy of the FE solution
- - Element density affect the solution, i.e. the element size should be adjusted to capture Element density affect the solution, i.e. the element size should be adjusted to capture
gradients, e.g. plate with a circular hole gradients, e.g. plate with a circular hole
3. Errors in input data 3. Errors in input data
(from Cook et. al. Concepts and applications of FEM, 2002) (from Cook et. al. Concepts and applications of FEM, 2002)
B B B B
B B
* *
Finite elements are stiffened by distortion and Finite elements are stiffened by distortion and
by an increase of Gauss points. by an increase of Gauss points.
How to avoid pitfalls How to avoid pitfalls
1. 1. Hand calculations (Navier, Airy, Timoshenko, Gere, ...) Hand calculations (Navier, Airy, Timoshenko, Gere, ...)
2. 2. Norm base calculations (Australian Standards, API, ...) Norm base calculations (Australian Standards, API, ...)
3. 3. Experiments (strain-gauge, accelerometers, ...) Experiments (strain-gauge, accelerometers, ...)
4. 4. Evaluate the kinematic behaviour (deformations) Evaluate the kinematic behaviour (deformations)
Outline of a finite element analysis project
Devise (or improve) a Devise (or improve) a
mathematical model. mathematical model.
Obtain approximate Obtain approximate
results for comparison results for comparison
with FEA results. with FEA results.
Preprocessing: Preprocessing:
Build the FE model Build the FE model
Solution: Solution:
Solve equations of Solve equations of
the FE model the FE model
Postprocessing: Postprocessing:
Display computed Display computed
results for examination results for examination
Are FEA results free of obvious errors and physically Are FEA results free of obvious errors and physically
reasonable? Do FEA results agree well with predictions reasonable? Do FEA results agree well with predictions
and approximations obtained from other means? and approximations obtained from other means?
Are error estimates Are error estimates
small? Does mesh small? Does mesh
revision do little to revision do little to
alter FEA results? alter FEA results?
What is at fault? What is at fault?
Physical understanding Physical understanding
or FEA modeling? or FEA modeling? STOP STOP
Physical problem Physical problem
Revise the FE Revise the FE
discretization. discretization.
Plan a FE discretization Plan a FE discretization
of the mathematical of the mathematical
model model
Physics Physics
FEA FEA
No No
No No
Yes Yes
Yes Yes
FEA software FEA software
Adapted from 'Concepts and applications of FEA', R.D. Cook et al. Adapted from 'Concepts and applications of FEA', R.D. Cook et al.
Three phases of finite element method
The steps in FEM can be grouped into three phases The steps in FEM can be grouped into three phases
Preprocessing Preprocessing
Steps from 1 to 5 Steps from 1 to 5
Solution Solution
Step 6 Step 6
Postprocessing Postprocessing
Steps 7 and 8 Steps 7 and 8
• • Preprocessing Preprocessing
– – Which analysis type? Which analysis type?
– – What to model? What to model?
– – Which element type? Which element type?
– – Define Material Define Material
– – Create or import the model geometry Create or import the model geometry
– – Mesh the geometry Mesh the geometry
• • Solution Solution
– – Solve Solve
• • Postprocessing Postprocessing
– – Review results Review results
– – Check the validity of the solution Check the validity of the solution
Preprocessing Preprocessing
Solution Solution
Postprocessing Postprocessing
(adapted from the ANSYS training manual) (adapted from the ANSYS training manual)
Phases of FEM in FEA software Phases of FEM in FEA software
Given: A 1” thick spherical aluminum tank with a height of 180” and
radius of 100” tank is filled with water to a height of 80”. The
aluminum properties are E = 10E6 Psi, ν = 0.3.
Question: Predict the membrane stress distributions in the
meridional (σ
m
) and circumferential (σ
c
) directions?
1 “
80 “
100 “
100 “
3
163279 . 1
in
lbf
= ρ
m
σ
c
σ
Stress Convention
A
A
Section Definition
Section A-A
Overview of preprocessing, solution and postprocessing Overview of preprocessing, solution and postprocessing
(adapted from the ANSYS training manual)
• The analysis type usually belongs to one of the following disciplines:
•The appropriate analysis type for this model is a structural analysis!
1. Motion of solid bodies, pressure on solid bodies, or contact of solid bodies
2. Applied heat, high temperatures, or changes in temperature
3. Devices subjected to electric currents (AC or DC), electromagnetic waves,
and voltage or charge excitation
4. Motion of gases/fluids, or contained gases/fluids
5. Combinations of any of the above
Preprocessing phase
Which analysis type?
(adapted from the ANSYS training manual)
Preprocessing phase
What to model?
• What should be used to model the geometry of the spherical tank?
symmetric. This type of model would provide the most simplified model.
– Rotational symmetry since the loading, material, and the boundary conditions are
symmetric. Advantage over axisymmetry: offers some results away from applied
boundary conditions.
– Full 3D model is an option, but would not be an efficient choice compared to the
axisymmetric and quarter symmetry models. If model results are significantly
influenced by symmetric boundary conditions, this may be the only option.
An axisymmetric and a one-quarter symmetry (i.e. rotational symmetry) An axisymmetric and a one-quarter symmetry (i.e. rotational symmetry)
model will be used! model will be used!
(adapted from the ANSYS training manual)
Preprocessing phase Preprocessing phase
Which Element Type? Which Element Type?
• • What element type should be used for the model of the spherical tank What element type should be used for the model of the spherical tank? ?
– – Axisymmetric model: Axisymmetric model:
» » Axisymmetric since 2-D section can be revolved to Axisymmetric since 2-D section can be revolved to create create 3D geometry. 3D geometry.
» » Linear due to small displacement assumption Linear due to small displacement assumption. .
» » Plane42 (in ANSYS) Plane42 (in ANSYS)
– – Rotational symmetry model Rotational symmetry model: :
» » Shell since radius/thickness ratio > 10 Shell since radius/thickness ratio > 10
» » Linear due to small displacement assumption. Linear due to small displacement assumption.
» » Shell93 (in ANSYS) Shell93 (in ANSYS)
(adapted from the ANSYS training manual)
• • A typical solid model is defined by volumes, areas, lines, and A typical solid model is defined by volumes, areas, lines, and
keypoints. keypoints.
– – Volumes Volumes are bounded by areas. They represent solid objects. are bounded by areas. They represent solid objects.
– – Areas Areas are bounded by lines. They represent faces of solid objects, or planar are bounded by lines. They represent faces of solid objects, or planar
or shell objects. or shell objects.
– – Lines Lines are bounded by keypoints. They represent edges of objects. are bounded by keypoints. They represent edges of objects.
– – Keypoints Keypoints are locations in 3-D space. They represent vertices of objects. are locations in 3-D space. They represent vertices of objects.
Volumes Volumes
Areas Areas Lines & Keypoints Lines & Keypoints
Preprocessing phase Preprocessing phase
Create the Solid Model Create the Solid Model
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
Preprocessing phase Preprocessing phase
Create the Solid Model Create the Solid Model
One-quarter Symmetry Model One-quarter Symmetry Model
Axisymmetric model Axisymmetric model
• • What geometry should be used to model the spherical tank? What geometry should be used to model the spherical tank?
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
• • Meshing Meshing is the process used to is the process used to “ “fill fill” ” the solid model with the solid model with
nodes and elements, i.e. to create the FEA model. nodes and elements, i.e. to create the FEA model.
– – Remember, you need nodes and elements for the finite element solution, not Remember, you need nodes and elements for the finite element solution, not
just the solid model. The solid model does NOT participate in the finite just the solid model. The solid model does NOT participate in the finite
element solution. element solution.
Solid model Solid model FEA model FEA model
meshing meshing
Preprocessing phase Preprocessing phase
Create the FEA Model Create the FEA Model
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
One-quarter Symmetry Model One-quarter Symmetry Model
Axisymmetric model Axisymmetric model
Preprocessing phase Preprocessing phase
Create the FEA Model Create the FEA Model
• • What would the mesh of the spherical tank look like? What would the mesh of the spherical tank look like?
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
Preprocessing phase
Define Material
Material Properties
• Every analysis requires some material property input:
Young’s modulus EX for structural elements, thermal
conductivity KXX for thermal elements, etc.
• There are two ways to define material properties:
– Material library
– Individual properties
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
• There are five categories of loads:
DOF Constraints Specified DOF values, such as displacements in a
stress analysis or temperatures in a thermal analysis.
convections.
(causing thermal expansion) or internal heat
generation.
Inertia Loads Loads due to structural mass or inertia, such as gravity
and rotational velocity.
Solution phase
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
One-quarter Symmetry Model One-quarter Symmetry Model
Axisymmetric model Axisymmetric model
Edge Symmetry Edge Symmetry
constraint constraint
Edge Symmetry Edge Symmetry
constraint constraint
Tangential Tangential
Constraint* Constraint*
Hydrostatic Hydrostatic
pressure pressure
Hydrostatic Hydrostatic
pressure pressure
Tangential Tangential
Constraint* Constraint*
Edge Symmetry Edge Symmetry
constraint constraint
Solution phase Solution phase
• • What are the loads on the spherical tank models? What are the loads on the spherical tank models?
* Tangential constraint used to allow comparison to Roarke closed form solution. * Tangential constraint used to allow comparison to Roarke closed form solution.
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
• • Postprocessing is the final step in the finite element analysis process. Postprocessing is the final step in the finite element analysis process.
• • It is imperative that you interpret your results relative to the assumptions It is imperative that you interpret your results relative to the assumptions
made during model creation and solution. made during model creation and solution.
• • You may be required to make design decisions based on the results, so it You may be required to make design decisions based on the results, so it
is a good idea not only to review the results carefully, but also to check is a good idea not only to review the results carefully, but also to check
the validity of the solution. the validity of the solution.
• • ANSYS has two postprocessors: ANSYS has two postprocessors:
– – POST1, the General Postprocessor, to review a single set of results over the POST1, the General Postprocessor, to review a single set of results over the
entire model. entire model.
– – POST26, the Time-History Postprocessor, to review results at selected POST26, the Time-History Postprocessor, to review results at selected
points in the model over time. Mainly used for transient and nonlinear points in the model over time. Mainly used for transient and nonlinear
analyses. analyses.
Postprocessing phase Postprocessing phase
Review Results Review Results
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
One-quarter Symmetry Model One-quarter Symmetry Model
Axisymmetric model Axisymmetric model
Postprocessing phase Postprocessing phase
Review Results Review Results
• • What are the circumferential stress results in the spherical tank What are the circumferential stress results in the spherical tank
models? models?
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
One-quarter Symmetry Model One-quarter Symmetry Model
Axisymmetric model Axisymmetric model
Postprocessing phase Postprocessing phase
Review Results Review Results
• • What are the meridional stress results in the spherical tank models? What are the meridional stress results in the spherical tank models?
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
• • It is always a good idea to do a It is always a good idea to do a “ “sanity check sanity check” ” and make sure that the and make sure that the
solution is acceptable. solution is acceptable.
• • What you need to check depends on the type of problem you are solving, What you need to check depends on the type of problem you are solving,
but here are some typical questions to ask: but here are some typical questions to ask:
Postprocessing phase Postprocessing phase
Verification Verification
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
• • Do the reaction forces balance the applied loads? Do the reaction forces balance the applied loads?
• • Where is the maximum stress located? Where is the maximum stress located?
– –If it is at a singularity, such as a point load or a re-entrant corner, the value is If it is at a singularity, such as a point load or a re-entrant corner, the value is
generally meaningless. generally meaningless.
– –Are the stress values beyond the elastic limit? Are the stress values beyond the elastic limit?
– –If so, the load magnitudes may be wrong, or you may need to do a nonlinear If so, the load magnitudes may be wrong, or you may need to do a nonlinear
analysis. analysis.
Membrane Stress Distributions for Axisymmetric Model
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Stress (Psi)
y

(
i
n
c
h
e
s
)
Circumferential Stress (Roarke)
Circumferential Stress
(Axisymmetric)
Meridional Stress (Roarke)
Meridional Stress (Axisymmetric)
One-quarter Symmetry Model One-quarter Symmetry Model
Axisymmetric model Axisymmetric model
Postprocessing phase Postprocessing phase
Verification Verification
• • How do the ANSYS results compare with Roarke? How do the ANSYS results compare with Roarke?
y y
Membrane Stress Distributions for Quarter Symmetry Model
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Stress (Psi)
y

(
i
n
c
h
e
s
)
Circumferential Stress (Roarke)
Circumferential (quarter symmetry)
Meridional Stress (Roarke)
Meridional Stress (quarter symmetry)
y y
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)
Well organized and developed with user ease in mind Well organized and developed with user ease in mind
Solve many types of small or large size problems Solve many types of small or large size problems
Expandable Expandable
Run on PCs Run on PCs
Becoming more attractive in price Becoming more attractive in price
High cost of developing High cost of developing
Less efficient than special-purpose programs Less efficient than special-purpose programs
They are proprietary They are proprietary
Low development costs Low development costs
Small computers are able to run the programs Small computers are able to run the programs
Expandable quickly and at low cost Expandable quickly and at low cost
Very efficient in solving some special problems Very efficient in solving some special problems
Inability to solve different classes of problems Inability to solve different classes of problems
General-Purpose FEM programs General-Purpose FEM programs
Special-Purpose FEM programs Special-Purpose FEM programs
• • element types available (eg. beam, plane stress, solid shells, 3D solid) element types available (eg. beam, plane stress, solid shells, 3D solid)
• • types of analysis available (e.g. static, dynamic) types of analysis available (e.g. static, dynamic)
• • material behaviour (e.g. linear-elastic, nonlinear) material behaviour (e.g. linear-elastic, nonlinear)
• • load types (e.g. concentrated, distributed, thermal) load types (e.g. concentrated, distributed, thermal)
• • data generation (e.g. automatic generation of meshes; mesh correction on-line) data generation (e.g. automatic generation of meshes; mesh correction on-line)
• • displacement behaviour (e.g. small and large displacement, buckling) displacement behaviour (e.g. small and large displacement, buckling)
• • multiphysics multiphysics
• • plotting options plotting options
ALGOR ALGOR ANSYS ANSYS
COSMOS/M COSMOS/M STARDYNE/FEMAP STARDYNE/FEMAP
MSC/NASTRAN MSC/NASTRAN SAP90/2000 SAP90/2000
GT Strudl GT Strudl ABAQUS ABAQUS
Plaxis Plaxis IMAGES-3D IMAGES-3D
Matlab based: Matlab based: CalFem, FemLab CalFem, FemLab
CAE products: CAE products:
Pro/Engineer (Pro/FEA, Pro/Mechanica), Cosmos/Works, Inventor/ANSYS, Pro/Engineer (Pro/FEA, Pro/Mechanica), Cosmos/Works, Inventor/ANSYS,
Ideas Ideas
FEM programs FEM programs
ANSYS Family of Products
• • ANSYS ANSYS – – Advanced nonlinear mechanical Advanced nonlinear mechanical
and multiphysics FEA solution capabilities and multiphysics FEA solution capabilities
• • ANSYS Workbench ANSYS Workbench – – Complete environment Complete environment
for geometry modeling, mesh manipulation, for geometry modeling, mesh manipulation,
structural/thermal analysis, and optimization, structural/thermal analysis, and optimization,
which is tightly integrated with CAD packages which is tightly integrated with CAD packages
• • CFX CFX – – CFD solvers, including the coupled, CFD solvers, including the coupled,
parallel parallel CFX-5 CFX-5 solver solver
• • ICEM CFD ICEM CFD – – Meshing tools with general pre- Meshing tools with general pre-
and post-processing features, including ICEM and post-processing features, including ICEM
CFD for generating complex CFD grids and CFD for generating complex CFD grids and
AI*Environment for creating with sophisticated AI*Environment for creating with sophisticated
structural FEA meshes structural FEA meshes
(check demo room on http://www-harwell.ansys.com/demoroom/) (check demo room on http://www-harwell.ansys.com/demoroom/)
ANSYS Workbench ANSYS Workbench is comprised of five modules: is comprised of five modules:
– – Simulation Simulation for performing structural and thermal analyses using the for performing structural and thermal analyses using the
ANSYS solver ANSYS solver
– – CFX-Mesh CFX-Mesh for generating a CFX-Pre mesh for the CFX-5 solver for generating a CFX-Pre mesh for the CFX-5 solver
– – DesignModeler DesignModeler for creating and modifying CAD geometry to prepare for creating and modifying CAD geometry to prepare
the solid model for use in the solid model for use in Simulation Simulation or or CFX-Mesh CFX-Mesh
– – DesignXplorer DesignXplorer and and DesignXplorer VT DesignXplorer VT for investigating the effect of for investigating the effect of
variations input to the response of the system variations input to the response of the system
– – FE Modeler FE Modeler for translating a Nastran mesh for use in ANSYS for translating a Nastran mesh for use in ANSYS
What is ANSYS Workbench? What is ANSYS Workbench?
ANSYS Workbench ANSYS Workbench is a new-generation solution from ANSYS that provides is a new-generation solution from ANSYS that provides
methods for interacting with the ANSYS solver functionality. This methods for interacting with the ANSYS solver functionality. This
process. process.
DesignModeler FE Modeler
CFX-Mesh
Simulation DesignXplorer (VT)
ANSYS Workbench
ANSYS Workbench Overview
It covers a wide range of analyses including: It covers a wide range of analyses including:
• • Structural Structural
• • Thermal Thermal
• • Fluid Fluid
• • Electromagnetic Electromagnetic
• • Coupled physics (e.g. structural/fluid) and others Coupled physics (e.g. structural/fluid) and others
The ANSYS Workbench platform allows these capabilities to be combined with The ANSYS Workbench platform allows these capabilities to be combined with
other ANSYS engineering applications, giving you access into: other ANSYS engineering applications, giving you access into:
• • Design Optimisation Design Optimisation
• • Fatigue Postprocessing Fatigue Postprocessing
• • Model Translation and more Model Translation and more
Capabilities of ANSYS Capabilities of ANSYS
ANSYS Mechanical Parametric Design Language (APDL) ANSYS Mechanical Parametric Design Language (APDL)
(formerly called ANSYS Classic) (formerly called ANSYS Classic)
ANSYS Mechanical and ANSYS Workbench use the same solver. ANSYS Mechanical and ANSYS Workbench use the same solver.
ANSYS Mechanical APDL will be taught since ANSYS Mechanical APDL will be taught since
• we focus on the theoretical fundamentals of FEA, including
the selection of a right FE from a large pool of available
elements and the bottom-up approach,
• we will solve many 1D and 2D problems for which ANSYS
Workbench that relies heavily on 3D CAD geometry is not
required,
• we need a well documented software and have a direct
excess to all complex features available in ANSYS.
have a good understanding how ANSYS "reasons" and "works". have a good understanding how ANSYS "reasons" and "works".
Our school has licenses for ANSYS 13.0 until Our school has licenses for ANSYS 13.0 until
28th February 2012 28th February 2012
At this point you should At this point you should
• •realize that a good understanding of the basic concepts of the FEA is realize that a good understanding of the basic concepts of the FEA is
necessary to use FE software more effectively necessary to use FE software more effectively
• •know that eight steps are used in FEA; these steps can be grouped into three know that eight steps are used in FEA; these steps can be grouped into three
phases: preprocessing, solution and postprocessing phases: preprocessing, solution and postprocessing
• •spend some time to understand your problem before FEA; you might find a spend some time to understand your problem before FEA; you might find a
reasonable solution by hand to the problem reasonable solution by hand to the problem
• •realize that you must always find a way to verify your FEA results realize that you must always find a way to verify your FEA results

What is FEA?
• Finite Element Analysis is a way to simulate loading conditions on a design and determine the design’s response to those conditions. • The design is modeled using discrete building blocks called elements.
1. Each element has exact equations that describe how it responds to a certain load. 2. The “sum” of the response of all elements in the model gives the total response of the design. 3. The elements have a finite number of unknowns, hence the name finite elements.

(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)

What is FEA?
• The finite element model, which has a finite number of unknowns, can only approximate the response of the physical system, which has infinite unknowns. How good is the approximation?
– Unfortunately, there is no easy answer to this question. It depends entirely on what you are simulating and the tools you use for the simulation. – We will, however, attempt to give you guidelines throughout this FEM unit.

Physical System

F.E. Model
(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual)

Energy Prin. J. • M. Courant [1943] . Turner [1953] .Model 3D solids R.Variational form Levy [1947.Flexibility & Stiffness Historical Note • The finite element method of structural analysis was created by academic and industrial researchers during the 1950s and 1960s. for Matrix Methods Turner.2D elements R. W. and was the basis for pen-andpaper calculations in the evaluation of suspension bridges and steam boilers. 1953] .History • • • • • • • • • Hrennikoff[1941] . Martin and Topp[1956] . Clough [1960] – Coins the term “Finite Elements” . Clough.FEM computations on a wing Boeing [1950's] Engineer's at Boeing apply FEM to delta wings Argryisand Kelsey [1954] .Lattice of 1D bars McHenry [1943] . The underlying theory is over 100 years old.

FEM tools integrated in CAD software .Mathematical validity of method established -applied to non-structural problems • 1960's .History • 1963 .Graphical pre-/postprocessors are developed • 1990's and now .Non-linear solvers developed • 1980's .First general purpose FEA code developed • 1970's .

Why is FEA needed? • To reduce the amount of prototype testing – Computer simulation allows multiple “what-if” scenarios to be tested quickly and effectively. such as an artificial knee • The bottom line: – Cost savings – Time savings… reduce time to market! – Create more reliable. • To simulate designs that are not suitable for prototype testing – Example: Surgical implants. better-quality designs (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) .

Examples of FEA applications structural stress analysis buckling nonstructural heat transfer fluid flow combined struc&nonstruc biomechanical engineering problems vibration analysis distribution of electric or magnetic potential .

(Control tower for a railroad) Stress analysis Discretized railroad control tower (28 nodes. 48 beam elements) with typical degrees of freedom shown at node 1 © 2002 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning™ .

Stress analysis (Failure analysis of Minneapolis Bridge Gusset Plates) Bowed gusset plates Gusset plates . Dec 2009) .flat steel structure used to bolt together girders that carry the weight of a bridge Shell to solid coupling Model of deck truss portion (from Abaqus Technology Brief.

J.Stress analysis (Analysis of cylinder to nozzle intersection in pressure vessel) (from Int. of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82 (2005) pp.43-50) .

adina.Crush analysis of a car (from http://www.com) .

(from http://www.com) . ADINA was employed to perform crush analyses using the implicit dynamic (practically static) analysis procedures.adina.Crush analysis of a car Crush analysis of automobiles is the simulation of a slow. dynamic (virtually static) process.

adina.com) .Comparison of FEA results with test results (from http://www.

a multitude of design variations can be assessed without the high cost of tank test time.com. (from http://www. Also.au) .wbmpl.Computational fluid dynamics (Hydrodynamics) CFD lets you simulate the full-scale vehicle without the need for scaling approximations.

burners.au) .wbmpl. requires a thorough knowledge of the fluid processes behind the functionality of the equipment. filters.Computational fluid dynamics (Processing equipment) Maximising performance of processing equipment such as cyclones. and valves. (from http://www.com. stirrers. boilers. The ability of CFD to clearly visualise these processes makes the identification of design modifications for improving efficiency and reducing maintenance requirements faster and more economical than traditional model testing and interpretation of physical measurement.

CFD can be used to obtain accurate wind loads on very complex structures without the need for simplifying assumptions or scaling.com.au) . (from http://www.wbmpl.Computational fluid dynamics (Structural wind loading) The accurate determination of wind loads on large buildings and structures is essential to efficient and safe design.

html) .FE model of vertebral body with wedge-shaped section removed (from http://biomech2.me.berkeley.edu/research/pcres.

FE model of artificial knee joint
(from http://www.uic.edu/labs/brl/knee1.htm)

To see movie on trabecular bone check http://biomech1.me.ber keley.edu/tbone-fail/

FE model of human model

(http://www.tytlabs.co.jp/english/tech/thums)

Bracket
Problem: Find the bending moment at section AA and the
deflection at the pin subjected to the load of 1000N.

(adapted from Finite Element Procedures, K J Bathe)

053cm 5 3 EI AG 6 3 € Easy to solve by hand! Is this simple beam model reliable and effective? € .500Ncm 1 W ( L + rN ) W (L + rN ) δ= + = 0.A simple beam model (Mathematical model 1) Under the assumption that W is small load that does not cause yielding of the material we get Moment at section AA Deflection at load M = WL = 27.

however it does not consider • the actual bolt fastening and contact conditions between the steel column and the bracket. and • the pin carrying the load onto the bracket The differential equations are difficult to solve by hand! One possible solution is to use numerical techniques .A 2D linear-elastic plane stress model (Mathematical model 2) More accurate than Model 1.

loadings. loadings. are not usually obtainable. it is generally not possible to obtain analytical mathematical solutions. which. Mathematical model Governed by differential equations Numerical model e..Analytical solutions are difficult to obtain Physical Problem For problems involving complicated geometries. because of the complicated geometries. These analytical solutions generally require the solution of ordinary or partial differential equations.g. and material properties. and material properties. finite element model .

. Common numerical techniques Finite difference methods Finite element methods Differential equations are replaced by algebraic equations obtained using integral formulations Quite easily to Differential equations are replaced by difference equations Difficult to apply to problems with complex geometries.Numerical techniques Analytical solutions show the exact behavior of a system at any point within the system. complex boundary conditions or nonisotropic material properties. while numerical solutions approximate exact solutions only at discrete points.

We will solve the bracket problem using a finite element method .

Interpret the results . Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom (or generalized displacements) Step 7. Derive the element stiffness matrix and equations Step 5. Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationships Step 4. Solve for the secondary quantities Step 8.Basic steps of finite element method Step 1. Discretize and select the element types Step 2. Select a displacement function Step 3. Assemble the element equations to obtain the global or total equations and introduce boundary conditions Step 6.

g.Which element? Step 1. © 2002 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning™ . the bracket) into an equivalent system of finite elements Choose the most appropriate element type to model most closely the actual physical behaviour The total number of elements used and their variation in size and type within a given body are primarily matters of engineering judgment. Discretize and select the element types Break down the structure (e.

degrees of freedom (DOF) Each point has a finite number of deformation state variables (u. 3. directly or indirectly. i. Every element has a displacement function that is defined within the element using the nodal displacement values. i. to every other element through nodes.v).Each point has an infinite number of deformation state variables.e. . 2. 4. Compability condition: elements connected before loading remain connected at the nodes after deformation takes place.e. Meshed solid model Every interconnected element is linked. The 2D element is used to represent plane stress/strain in the bracket. degrees of freedom quadrilateral element node Real continuum model 1.

Select a displacement function The function is defined within the element using the nodal values of the element. . the displacement function is a linear function of the coordinates in the x-y plane. Which displacement function? Typical displacement functions are polynomials and trigonometric series For the bracket analysis.Step 2.

Step 3. the Hooke's law is used. Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationships These relationships are used to obtain equations that describe the element behaviour. For the bracket analysis. strain/displacement: stress/strain: .

Derive the element stiffness matrix and element equations The matrix and equations relate nodal forces to nodal displacements They can be obtained by methods of weighted residuals (applicable wherever the energy methods are) direct equilibrium method (most easily applicable to 1D elements) work or energy methods (easier applicable to 2D or 3D elements) principle of virtual work (both to elastic and non-elastic materials) Castigliano's theorem (only to elastic materials) principle of minimum potential energy (only to elastic materials) Galerkin's method (most popular) .Step 4.

k nn  dn    € { f } = [ k ]{d} {f} € ... k1n  d1    .the vector of unknown element nodal degrees of freedom or generalized displacements € . the element equations are obtained using a minimum potential energy method The element equations are  f1   k11 k12     f 2  k 21 k 22    f 3  = k 31 k 32 : : • •  f n  k n1 kn 2    where k13 k 23 k 33 kn 3 .. k 3n  d3  or  :  :  •  •  .For the bracket analysis...... k 2n  d2    .the vector of element nodal forces .the element stiffness matrix [k ] € {d} .

the structure global or total stiffness matrix . Assemble the element equations to obtain the global or total equations and introduce boundary conditions Describe the behaviour of the entire structure by adding together the individual element equations using a method of superposition (called a direct stiffness method) The assembly process gives a set of simultaneous algebraic equations that can be written as the global equation {F } = [K ]{d} {F } [K ] € € .the vector of known and unknown structure nodal degrees of freedom or generalized displacements {d} € The € global equation is modified to account for the boundary conditions .the vector of global nodal forces .Step 5.

. first quantities). the global equation is solved using the iterative method and as a result. the global nodal displacements were obtained.Step 6. such as displacement values at different nodes. The global equation can be solved by Elimination method (Gauss's method) or Iterative method (Gauss-Seidel method) For the bracket analysis. Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom (or generalized displacements) The modified global equation is solved to obtain nodal results (primary unknowns.

Solve for the secondary quantities Obtain other important information. for example: moments and deflections Having solved for the nodal displacements.064 cm € € .500Ncm δ = 0.Step 7. the bending moment at section AA and the deflection at the pin can be calculated. Moment at section AA: Deflection at the pin: M = 27.

500Ncm δ = 0.053cm € Difference in δ less than 20% € Difference in M less than 1% € .Step 8.display results obtained in graphical form Results from FEA: M = 27.500Ncm δ = 0.064 cm € Maximum stress near notch Results from simple beam model: € M = 27. Interpret the results Verify results.

This model is effective since it can be easily solved by hand. .Conclusions The simple beam model is reliable under the condition that the required bending moment is to be predicted within 1% accuracy and the deflection is to be predicted within 20%.

7. 4. Model irregularly shaped bodies quite easily Handle general load conditions without difficulty Model bodies composed of several different materials Handle unlimited numbers and kinds of boundary conditions Vary the size of the elements to make it possible to use small elements where necessary Alter the FE model relatively easily and cheaply Include dynamic effects Handle nonlinear behavior existing with large deformations and nonlinear materials . 2.Advantages of finite element analysis (FEA) 1. 3. 5. 8. 6.

e. the element size should be adjusted to capture gradients. i.g. An element dependent solution Shape quality of elements affect the solution.Disadvantages of FEA 1. poorly shaped elements (irregular shapes) reduce accuracy of the FE solution Element density affect the solution.e. An approximate solution 2.g. Errors in input data . e. plate with a circular hole 3.

al. Concepts and applications of FEM.Disadvantages of FEA B B * B Finite elements are stiffened by distortion and by an increase of Gauss points. (from Cook et. 2002) .

Timoshenko.. API.) 3.How to avoid pitfalls 1. ..... Norm base calculations (Australian Standards. Experiments (strain-gauge. Airy.) 4. .) 2. Hand calculations (Navier. Evaluate the kinematic behaviour (deformations) . .. accelerometers. Gere.

Plan a FE discretization of the mathematical model Physics What is at fault? Physical understanding or FEA modeling? FEA No Revise the FE discretization. R. Are error estimates small? Does mesh revision do little to Yes STOP alter FEA results? Preprocessing: Build the FE model Solution: Solve equations of the FE model Postprocessing: Display computed results for examination FEA software No Yes Are FEA results free of obvious errors and physically reasonable? Do FEA results agree well with predictions and approximations obtained from other means? Adapted from 'Concepts and applications of FEA'. Cook et al.Outline of a finite element analysis project Physical problem Devise (or improve) a mathematical model. Obtain approximate results for comparison with FEA results.D. .

Three phases of finite element method The steps in FEM can be grouped into three phases Preprocessing Steps from 1 to 5 Solution Step 6 Postprocessing Steps 7 and 8 .

Phases of FEM in FEA software • Preprocessing – – – – – – Which analysis type? What to model? Which element type? Define Material Create or import the model geometry Mesh the geometry Preprocessing Solution • Solution – Apply loads – Solve Postprocessing • Postprocessing – Review results – Check the validity of the solution (adapted from the ANSYS training manual) .

The aluminum properties are E = 10E6 Psi.3. ν = 0.Overview of preprocessing. solution and postprocessing Given: A 1” thick spherical aluminum tank with a height of 180” and radius of 100” tank is filled with water to a height of 80”.163279 3 in Section A-A σm σc Stress Convention Question: Predict the membrane stress distributions in the meridional (σm) and circumferential (σc) directions? (adapted from the ANSYS training manual) . A 100 “ 100 “ 1“ A Section Definition 80 “ lbf ρ = 1.

Which analysis type? • The analysis type usually belongs to one of the following disciplines: 1. Combinations of any of the above •The appropriate analysis type for this model is a structural analysis! (adapted from the ANSYS training manual) . or changes in temperature 3. or contact of solid bodies Preprocessing phase 2. Applied heat. Devices subjected to electric currents (AC or DC). Motion of gases/fluids. electromagnetic waves. Motion of solid bodies. high temperatures. pressure on solid bodies. or contained gases/fluids 5. and voltage or charge excitation 4.

but would not be an efficient choice compared to the axisymmetric and quarter symmetry models. – Full 3D model is an option. and the boundary conditions are symmetric. Preprocessing phase An axisymmetric and a one-quarter symmetry (i. this may be the only option. material. rotational symmetry) model will be used! (adapted from the ANSYS training manual) . – Rotational symmetry since the loading.What to model? • What should be used to model the geometry of the spherical tank? – Axisymmetry since the loading. If model results are significantly influenced by symmetric boundary conditions. and the boundary conditions are symmetric. Advantage over axisymmetry: offers some results away from applied boundary conditions.e. This type of model would provide the most simplified model. material.

Which Element Type? • What element type should be used for the model of the spherical tank? – Axisymmetric model: » Axisymmetric since 2-D section can be revolved to create 3D geometry. » Plane42 (in ANSYS) Preprocessing phase – Rotational symmetry model: » Shell since radius/thickness ratio > 10 » Linear due to small displacement assumption. » Linear due to small displacement assumption. » Shell93 (in ANSYS) (adapted from the ANSYS training manual) .

They represent solid objects. or planar or shell objects. – Keypoints are locations in 3-D space.Create the Solid Model • A typical solid model is defined by volumes. They represent faces of solid objects. They represent edges of objects. – Lines are bounded by keypoints. lines. – Volumes are bounded by areas. They represent vertices of objects. – Areas are bounded by lines. Preprocessing phase Volumes Areas Lines & Keypoints (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) . areas. and keypoints.

Create the Solid Model • What geometry should be used to model the spherical tank? Preprocessing phase Axisymmetric model One-quarter Symmetry Model (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) .

i. you need nodes and elements for the finite element solution. not just the solid model. Preprocessing phase meshing Solid model FEA model (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) . to create the FEA model.e.Create the FEA Model • Meshing is the process used to “fill” the solid model with nodes and elements. The solid model does NOT participate in the finite element solution. – Remember.

Create the FEA Model • What would the mesh of the spherical tank look like? Preprocessing phase Axisymmetric model One-quarter Symmetry Model (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) .

thermal conductivity KXX for thermal elements.Define Material Material Properties • Every analysis requires some material property input: Young’s modulus EX for structural elements. • There are two ways to define material properties: – Material library – Individual properties Preprocessing phase (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) . etc.

Define Loads • What are the loads on the spherical tank models? Edge Symmetry constraint Tangential Constraint* Hydrostatic pressure Edge Symmetry constraint Hydrostatic pressure Tangential Constraint* Solution phase Edge Symmetry constraint Axisymmetric model One-quarter Symmetry Model (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) * Tangential constraint used to allow comparison to Roarke closed form solution. .

(adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) Postprocessing phase . to review results at selected points in the model over time. • You may be required to make design decisions based on the results.Review Results • Postprocessing is the final step in the finite element analysis process. so it is a good idea not only to review the results carefully. the General Postprocessor. – POST26. • ANSYS has two postprocessors: – POST1. to review a single set of results over the entire model. the Time-History Postprocessor. Mainly used for transient and nonlinear analyses. • It is imperative that you interpret your results relative to the assumptions made during model creation and solution. but also to check the validity of the solution.

Review Results • What are the circumferential stress results in the spherical tank models? Postprocessing phase Axisymmetric model One-quarter Symmetry Model (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) .

Review Results • What are the meridional stress results in the spherical tank models? Postprocessing phase Axisymmetric model One-quarter Symmetry Model (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) .

but here are some typical questions to ask: • Do the reaction forces balance the applied loads? • Where is the maximum stress located? –If it is at a singularity. the load magnitudes may be wrong. –Are the stress values beyond the elastic limit? –If so. the value is generally meaningless. (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) .Postprocessing phase Verification • It is always a good idea to do a “sanity check” and make sure that the solution is acceptable. • What you need to check depends on the type of problem you are solving. such as a point load or a re-entrant corner. or you may need to do a nonlinear analysis.

Postprocessing phase Verification • How do the ANSYS results compare with Roarke? Membrane Stress Distributions for Axisymmetric Model 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 Circumferential Stress (Roarke) Membrane Stress Distributions for Quarter Symmetry Model 180 160 140 120 y (inches) y (inches) 100 80 Circumferential Stress (Roarke) Circumferential Stress (Axisymmetric) Meridional Stress (Roarke) Meridional Stress (Axisymmetric) 60 40 20 0 Circumferential (quarter symmetry) Meridional Stress (Roarke) 40 y Meridional Stress (quarter symmetry) 20 y 0 Stress (Psi) Stress (Psi) Axisymmetric model One-quarter Symmetry Model (adapted from the ANSYS Training Manual) .

General-Purpose FEM programs Advantages Well organized and developed with user ease in mind Solve many types of small or large size problems Expandable Run on PCs Becoming more attractive in price Disadvantages High cost of developing Less efficient than special-purpose programs They are proprietary Special-Purpose FEM programs Advantages Low development costs Small computers are able to run the programs Expandable quickly and at low cost Very efficient in solving some special problems Disadvantages Inability to solve different classes of problems .

g. automatic generation of meshes. concentrated. 3D solid) • types of analysis available (e.g. small and large displacement. thermal) • data generation (e.g. static. nonlinear) • load types (e.g.g. plane stress. linear-elastic.Questions about FEM programs You should ask about • element types available (eg. buckling) • multiphysics • integration with CAD packages • plotting options • cost of upgrading . beam. dynamic) • material behaviour (e. solid shells. distributed. mesh correction on-line) • displacement behaviour (e.

Ideas ANSYS STARDYNE/FEMAP SAP90/2000 NISA ABAQUS IMAGES-3D Matlab based: CalFem. Pro/Mechanica). Inventor/ANSYS.FEM programs ALGOR COSMOS/M MSC/NASTRAN ADINA GT Strudl Plaxis CAE products: Pro/Engineer (Pro/FEA. Cosmos/Works. FemLab .

including ICEM CFD for generating complex CFD grids and AI*Environment for creating with sophisticated structural FEA meshes (check demo room on http://www-harwell.ansys. which is tightly integrated with CAD packages • CFX – CFD solvers. parallel CFX-5 solver • ICEM CFD – Meshing tools with general preand post-processing features. mesh manipulation. including the coupled.ANSYS Family of Products • ANSYS – Advanced nonlinear mechanical and multiphysics FEA solution capabilities • ANSYS Workbench – Complete environment for geometry modeling.com/demoroom/) . structural/thermal analysis. and optimization.

What is ANSYS Workbench? ANSYS Workbench is a new-generation solution from ANSYS that provides methods for interacting with the ANSYS solver functionality. This environment provides an integration with CAD systems. ANSYS Workbench is comprised of five modules: – Simulation for performing structural and thermal analyses using the ANSYS solver – CFX-Mesh for generating a CFX-Pre mesh for the CFX-5 solver – DesignModeler for creating and modifying CAD geometry to prepare the solid model for use in Simulation or CFX-Mesh – DesignXplorer and DesignXplorer VT for investigating the effect of variations input to the response of the system – FE Modeler for translating a Nastran mesh for use in ANSYS . and your design process.

ANSYS Workbench Overview ANSYS Workbench Simulation DesignXplorer (VT) DesignModeler CFX-Mesh FE Modeler .

g.Capabilities of ANSYS It covers a wide range of analyses including: • Structural • Thermal • Fluid • Electromagnetic • Coupled physics (e. giving you access into: • Associative CAD plug-ins to all major CAD vendors • CAD modification • Design Optimisation • Fatigue Postprocessing • Advanced Meshing Tools • Model Translation and more . structural/fluid) and others The ANSYS Workbench platform allows these capabilities to be combined with other ANSYS engineering applications.

• we will solve many 1D and 2D problems for which ANSYS Workbench that relies heavily on 3D CAD geometry is not required. Advice for future: Start with ANSYS Classic and switch to WB when you have a good understanding how ANSYS "reasons" and "works". • we need a well documented software and have a direct excess to all complex features available in ANSYS. .ANSYS Mechanical Parametric Design Language (APDL) (formerly called ANSYS Classic) ANSYS Mechanical and ANSYS Workbench use the same solver. including the selection of a right FE from a large pool of available elements and the bottom-up approach. ANSYS Mechanical APDL will be taught since • we focus on the theoretical fundamentals of FEA.