Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

10 views

Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- ImprovedDiff-artigo26
- solving inverse problem by genetic algorithm
- Ari Hara Su Than
- LPsolver
- ENG345 Overview P
- opyp
- Sustainable Management of Savanna
- Inter Achieve 2004 Jinkoo(EESD)
- PhDSampleQ_IEOR
- Chapter 1
- Inspire+Brochure
- MRI Presentation
- 00b7d5153091f8975d000000
- OM - Aggregate Planning
- Aggregate Planning
- MBA Guide Book 2
- 2. Transportation Model
- Research _ Operations Research and Operations-research
- Optimal and suboptimal performance of stochastic linear tracking systems
- lec_01__OR

You are on page 1of 8

NEURAL NETWORKS (ART1)

Krishan Kumar1

1

Invertis Institute of Management Studies, Bareilly, India (kumar_krishana@yahoo.com)

Ravendra Singh2

2

Department of CSIT,IET, MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, India (rsingh_iet@rediffmail.com)

Zubair Khan3

3

Department of Computer Science, IIET, Bareilly, India (zubair_762001@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Over the next ten years, air traffic management in the world will change dramatically,

bringing both challenges and opportunities. The biggest of those challenges is the

continuing rise in traffic volumes and will increase the movement of airbuses around the

airport due to busy runways. This air traffic congestion will increase the running cost of

flights due to unwanted movement of airbuses around the airport and it will also increase

the chances of the airbus collision. This paper considers the problem of solving conflicts

arising among several aircraft that are assumed to move in a shared airspace. Aircraft can

not get closer to each other than a given safety distance in order to avoid possible

conflicts between different airplanes. For such system of multiple aircraft, we consider

the path planning problem among given waypoints avoiding all possible conflicts. In this

paper we have proposed Adaptive Resonance Theory Map Neural networks (ART1) to

produce optimize solution. Our result shows that the average expected conflict time of

aircrafts using ARTMAP has been increased to more than 20 minutes.

Keywords- collision detection, separation distance, ARTMAP neural networks, etc, stc

As air traffic keeps increasing, En-route capacity separation constraints.

Part 2 of the paper introduces the problem solver,

becomes a serious problem. Aircraft conflict

resolution and resolution monitoring, are still done its constraints and goals. Modelling is discussed in

manually by controllers. Solutions to conflicts are part 3. Part 4 introduces Adaptive Resonance Theory

techniques and the coding of the problem. Part 5

empirical and, whereas aircraft are highly automated

and optimized systems, tools provided for ATC presents different examples of resolution of very

control are very basic, even out of date. complex test problems.

In part 5 we present the complete ATC simulator,

The need for an automatic problem solver is a

serious concern when addressing the issues of free conflict detector and cluster builder used to

flight. It is still very unclear how conflicts will be benchmark the problem solver on real traffic; we also

discuss weaknesses of the system and possible

solved in free flight airspace. In this paper, we present

an optimal solution. It builds optimal resolution for improvements.

complex conflicts and also computes a large number

Today as we know that Air Traffic is going to one maneuver per aircraft should be

increase day by day and creates traffic congestion, forecasted for the next twenty minutes.

delay of flights at airport and hence loss to air 4. If possible the conflicts must be solved

industry due to increase in running cost. However, horizontally for comfort and economical

continuing rise in traffic volume can be solved by reasons, especially when aircraft is leveled.

increasing the existing capacity and will require

investment in new automated systems and 3 MODELLING

infrastructure. Improving the current systems will

In this paper we will only give resolution orders

provide a short-term solution. Artificial Intelligence in the horizontal planes. It can be extended to 3D

techniques constitute an optimized methodology conflict resolution. Optimal command theory with

effective for solving discontinuous, non-convex, non-

state constraints developed by Bryson and Ho [9]

linear, or non-analytic problems. concludes the following results by us. For a conflict

resolution involving two aircraft: at the optimum, as

long as the standard separation constraint is not

2 CONFLICT RESOLUTION achieved, aircraft fly in a straight line. When

2.1 Earlier work done for the problem achieved, aircraft starts turning, and as soon as the

Conflict resolution is a very complex separation constraint is freed aircraft fly straight

mathematical problem involving trajectory again. This result can be easily extended to the case of

optimization and constraints handling. This problem n aircrafts, when n≥2. When moving only one

has two faces: find automatically solutions to the aircraft, it can be proved [10] that trajectories are

conflicts, and find the optimal solution regarding regular, they do not include discontinuous points and

conflicts. There have been many attempts to reach the minimum increase h of the trajectory length is

these objectives, automization and optimization. given by the following equation

However, most of the time two objectives are

confused. 1

AERA 3 [3], [4], [5] considers optimum results 2+h = +

d

in the “Gentle-Strict” function for a two aircraft 1+

conflict, but the “ maneuver Option Manger” only 2−d2

seeks after acceptable solutions and does not focus on

the optimum.

Karim Zehgal [6] with reactive techniques for 2 + 2x + x 2

+

collision avoidance gives a solution to the problem of ⎛ d ⎞

automation which is robust to disturbance, but 2⎜⎜1 + h − ⎟

⎟

completely disregards optimization. Furthermore the ⎝ 2 + 2h + h 2 − d 2 ⎠

modeling adopted implies a complete automation of

both on board and ground systems and requires speed 2

regulations which can not be handled by human pilots d (1 + d )( 2 + 2h + h 2− d + 1

and would probably be very difficult to apply to log

2 (1 + h − d )( 2 − d 2 + 1)

current aircraft engines without damaging them.

First approach to conflict resolution by genetic

algorithms was done by Alliot and Gruber [7], [8].

In this above equation d is the standard

2.2 Specification of the System separation divided by the initial distance to the

The main idea behind the solution of conflict trajectory cross, speeds are equal and normalized, the

detection is as close as possible to the current ATC trajectory angle is 85°. This equation can be

system. The solution has to handle the following generalized to different speeds and angles. Numerical

constraints: solutions shows that the length of the conflict free

1. Conflict free trajectories must respect both trajectory increases when

aircraft and pilot performances. 1. The angle of incidence between the two

2. Trajectories must take into account aircraft decreases

uncertainties in aircraft speed due to winds 2. The speed ratio gets close to 1

or turbulence. 3. Aircraft are getting closer to the conflict

3. Maneuvers orders must be given with an point

advance notice to the pilot. A maximum of

When only one of the two aircraft turns, it has space which strongly suggests that any method which

been shown that the turning point approximation requires exploring every connected component is NP.

(figure1) lengthens the optimal trajectory by less than It is important to note that this complexity is

1% if distance between the aircraft and the conflict independent of the modeling chosen. The offset

point is greater than two standard separations and the modeling seems to be very attractive, because it

angle of incidence between trajectories is greater than linearizes constraints. Nevertheless, each constraint

30 degrees. It can also be proved that that the offset multiplies by two the number of linear programs to

modelling (figure1), which moves an aircraft to put it solve. Our problem involves n(n-1)/2 constraints.

on a parallel route. The offset is thus very easy to Moreover, linearizing the minimized function,

compute, but separation constraints must be checked multiplies by 2n the number of linear programs to

during maneuvers and the complexity of the problem solve (we minimize the sum of each aircraft offset

remains. For n aircraft, 2n(n+1)/2 linear programs must which may be positive or negative). Finally, we will

be solved i.e. if n=4, 4096 linear programs must be have to solve 2n(n+1)/2 linear programs. Each one

solved . However this offset modeling is very useful involving n(n+1)/2 linear constraints. For n=4 we

to solve conflicts between overtaking aircraft. have to solve 1024 linear programs with 10

Both offset modeling and turning point modeling constraints in each program.

must be kept. For overtaking aircraft, offsets are more The model introduced above is simple enough to

efficient whereas for other conflicts, turning points be used in real time optimization program. Let us

are more efficient. However if we want to solve the consider a conflict involving n aircraft and let’s

very large conflict then we must try to start choose a time step (λ minutes for example). Let’s

maneuvers as late as possible with respect to the imagine we want to recompute all trajectories every λ

aircraft constraints. A maneuver will be determined minutes. During the optimization time, aircraft are

by: flying and must know if they change their route or

1. The maneuver starting time. not. Consequently, for each aircraft, at the beginning

2. The turning point. of the current optimization, trajectories are

3. The offset ending time determined by the previous run and can not be

4. The deviation angle changed for the next λ minutes; afterwards, an offset

can be shortened or turned into a turning point, a

turning point can become an offset, etc.

5 METHODOLOGY USED

Using classical methods, such as gradient

methods for example, becomes useless for our

problem, because of arbitrary choice of the starting

point required by these methods. Each connected

component may contain one or several local optima,

and we can easily understand that the choice of the

starting point in one of these components can not lead

by classical method to an optimum in another

component. We can thus expect only a local

optimum. Practical attempts done on LANCELOT

(Large and Nonlinear Constrained Extended

Lagrangian Optimization Techniques [12] have

4 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION confirmed this problem, and highlighted others.

Convergence is very slow, particularly when

The problem’s complexity was exposed by

introducing a speed constraint. This approach is not

Medioni, Durand and Alliot [11]. Let us consider a

efficient for real time trajectory planning.

conflict between two aircraft. We can easily prove

Genetic algorithms were used to find a problem

that the minimized function is convex, but the set of

solver and hence to find the expected time of conflict

conflict free trajectories is not. It is not even

of different aircraft [13],[14],[15]. Genetic algorithms

connected. If trajectories don’t loop, the set of

were initially developed by John Holland [16] in the

conflict free trajectories has two connected

sixties. Genetic algorithms are stochastic optimization

components. For a conflict involving n aircrafts there

techniques that mimic natural evolution.

may be 2n connected components in the free trajectory

Here we are proposing an Adaptive Resonance input vector again sends its signals to the interface

Theory Neural networks [1] based solution to find the units, which again send this as the bottom-up signal to

expected time of conflict between two aircrafts and the F2 layer, and the competition is repeated (but

later to find the solution for multiple aircrafts by without the participation of any inhibited units).

using ART1.

The process continues until either a satisfactory match

is found (a candidate is accepted) or all units are

5.1 Algorithm inhibited. The action to be taken if all units are

A discussion of the choice of parameter values

inhibited must be specified by the user.

and initial weights follows the training algorithm. The

notation we use is as follows:

5.3 Coding our problem

Coding is done by using adaptive resonance theory

n- number of components in the input vector. neural network coded in java. Each time value

m- maximum number of clusters that can be represents is coded by a positive integer. The

formed.

deviation angle can be -30,-20,-10, 0, 10, 20, 30. At

bij-bottom-up weights (from F1(b) unit Xi to F2 each new step following data is given

unit Yj). 1. Duration of the optimization

tji- top-down weights (from F2 unit Yj to F1 unit

2. Anticipation time

Xi). 3. Heading of each aircraft

ρ- vigilance parameter. 4. Speed of each aircraft

s- binary input vector (an n-tuple).

5. Uncertainty of each aircraft

x-activation vector for F1 (b) layer (binary). 6. Position of each aircraft

║x║ norm of vector x, defined as the sum of the

7. Horizontal separation in nautical miles

components xi. (whereas standard separation is 4 nm)

Other global data is required by ARTMAP e.g.

5.2 Description number of iterations

A binary input vector s is presented to the F1 (a)

layer, and the signals are sent to the corresponding X

5.4 Computing the winning node

units. These F1 (b) units then broadcast to the F2

One of the main issues is to know how to find

layer over connection pathways with bottom-up out the winning node we have a poly criteria problem

weights. Each F2 unit computes its net input, and the to solve, in fact the following criteria have to be

units compete for the right to be active. The unit with

matched together to find a single fitness value

the largest net input sets its activation to 1; all others 1. The delay due to a deviation must be as

have an activation of 0.We shall denote the inbox of small as possible.

the unit as j. This winning unit becomes the candidate

2. However, the number of aircrafts deviated

to learn the input pattern. A signal is then sent down and the total number of maneuvers must be

from F2 to F1 (b) (multiplied by the top down as low as possible.

weights). The X units (in the interface portion of the 3. The maneuver duration for an aircraft must

F1 layer) remain “on” only if they receive nonzero be as short as possible so that the aircraft is

signals from both the F1 (a) and F2 units [figure (1)]. freed as soon as possible for another

The norm of the vector x (the activation vector

maneuver.

for the interface portion of F1) gives the number of 4. Trajectories must handle the separation

components in which the top-down weight vector for constraints.

the wining F2 unit tj and the input vector s are both 1. Instead of considering a global fitness value that

(This quantity is sometimes is referred to as the takes into account the different length engines of the

match.) If the ratio of ║x║ and ║s║ is greater than or

trajectories and the conflicts between the aircraft, we

equal to the vigilance parameter, the weights (top keep in a n2 sized matrix F (where n is the number of

down and bottom up) for the winning cluster unit are aircraft). If i ≠ j, Fi,j measures the conflict between the

adjusted.

aircraft i and j. it is set to zero if no conflict occurs

However, the ratio is less than the vigilance and increases with the seriousness of the conflict. Fi,i

parameter; the candidate unit is rejected, and another measures the lengthening of aircraft i trajectory. This

candidate unit must be chosen. The current winning

fitness matrix contains much more information than

cluster becomes inhibited, so that it cannot be chosen then previous scalar global fitness and this will allow

again as a candidate on this learning trial, and the

activations of the F1 units are reset to zero. The same

Figure 1: Basic Architecture of ART1

us to define more deterministic crossover and fitness does not take into account the delays induced

mutation operators[17]. by maneuvers.

At each time step t, we compute Ct,i,j as the

difference of the standard separation and the distance 5.4 Training Algorithm

between the segments i and j describing aircraft i and The training algorithm an ART1 net is presented

j position at time t. these values are added and give a next. A discussion of the role of the parameters and

measure of the conflict between i and j. So the fitness an appropriate choice of initial weights follows.

matrix is computed as follows: Step0. Initialize parameters:

L > 1, 0 < ρ ≤ 1

totaltime Initialize weights:

F i, j = ∑C t ,i , j 0 < bij(0) < L / L- 1 + n , tji(0) = 1

t =0 Step1. While stopping condition is false, do

Steps 2-13

It is obvious that the fitness matrix is Step2. For each training input, do steps 3-12.

symmetrical. A triangular matrix can also be used. Step3. Set activation of all F2 units to zero.

We can now define scalar fitness as follow: Set activations of F1(a) units to input

vector s.

1 Step4. Compute the norm of s:

∃(i, j ), i ≠ j , Fi , j ≠ 0 ⇒ F = ║s║= ∑ si

2 + ∑ Fi , j Step5. Send input signal from F1(a) to the F1(b)

layer: Xi = si.

This fitness function guarantees that if a calculated Step6. For each F2 node that is not inhibited:

value of winning matrix of winning node is larger If yj ≠ -1, then

than 1/2 , no conflict occurs. If a conflict remains the Yj = ∑ bij*xi.

Step7. While reset is true, do step 8-11. Now the algorithm works as follows in our case:

Step8. Find J(winning node) such that yJ ≥ yj for all

Initialize parameters:

nodes j.

L =50

If yj = -1, then all nodes are inhibited and

ρ=0.8 (high vigilance)

this pattern can not be clustered.

Initialize weights:

Step9. Recompute activation x of F1 (b):

bij(0) =0.2

xi = si*tji.

tji(0) = 1

Step10. Compute the norm of vector x:

We have taken 9 aircrafts in sky, but here we

║x║ = ∑ xi.

have taken only two aircrafts. Each aircraft is

Step11. Test for reset:

presented as an input pattern one by one in a sequence

If ║x║ / ║s║ < ρ, then yj = -1 (inhibited

and the top down weight matrix is updated. The flight

node J) (and continue executing Step 7 again)

sequence is defined by the following table1:

If ║x║ / ║s║ ≥ ρ,

Binary Input pattern Aircraft Number

Step12. Update the weights for node j (fast learning):

bij(new) = L*xi / L-1 + ║x║ , tji (new) = xi. 0001 S1

Step13. Test for stopping condition. 0010 S2

0011 S3

5.5 Parameters Used

0100 S4

n: number of components in the input vector. Used 0101 S5

as a sequence of flights.

0110 S6

m: maximum number of clusters that can be formed. 0111 S7

Used as a runway assignment.

1000 S8

bij: bottom-up weights (from F1(b) unit Xi to F2 unit

1001 S9

Yj).Used to store different clusters values. Permissible

range is given by

0 < bij(0) < L / (L – 1 + n) sample value 1 /( 1 + n). Table 1: Input Sequence Pattern as per Aircraft

Number

tji: top-down weights (from F2 unit Yj to F1 unit

Xi).Used to store runways assignment for different

After the completion of one sequence pattern

flights.

different conflict time are calculated for that pattern.

ρ - vigilance parameter.(For deciding the learning That sequence pattern to be selected is on the basis of

node). conflict time that is calculated and is then compared

with the other value of conflict time and the

s - binary input vector (an n-tuple). Input array to

maximum one is selected.

store different input values.

x - activation vector for F1 (b) layer (binary). 6 CONCLUSION AND RESULTS

Output array to decide the learning node.

In the first application, we consider the

║x║ - norm of vector x, defined as the sum of the conflict between two aircraft described in figure2.The

components xi. anticipation is set to 2 minutes, aircraft speed (400

knots) are known with an error of 5 percent and

delay[] -array to store different delay values.

trajectory is forecast for 20 minutes. In this case, if

Resul[] -hash table to store different sequences delay aircraft1 speed is 380 knots and aircraft2 speed is 420

obtained. knots, because of uncertainty, at last no conflict

occurs the standard separation is 4nm).

etc[] -to store expected time of conflict of different Our main objective of finding conflict time

flights. greater than ½ between two aircrafts and hence

stc[] -to store schedule time of conflict. minimizing conflict by increasing the expected time

of conflict in minutes (table 2,figure 3) is successfully

Full algorithm is coded by using core java. achieved. The use of Adaptive Resonance Theory

(ART1) instead of Genetic Algorithm has drastically

reduced the conflict time and hence collision. Results

so obtained are more accurate and optimum. Generations Fitness value

5 0

10 0.296556555

7 FUTURE WORK

15 0.665555555

This technique can be further implemented 20 0.554444444

to aircraft collision of more than two aircrafts control

25 0.554444444

of ATC to provide the optimum air traffic control at

the busiest airport. Also the first module, which we 30 0.554444444

implemented with this problem, can be combined 35 0.554444444

with second module by using adaptive resonance 40 0.554444444

theory (ART2) to get the best air traffic simulation 45 0.554444444

tool. Further work will concentrate in refining the 50 0.554444444

modeling and the global criteria to optimize, taking

into account for example take-off sequencing needs of

approach sectors or priority levels for slotted Table 2: Delay according to our proposed ART1

departures.

0.7

0.6

0.5

fitness value

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

generations

[15] N. Durand, J.M. Alliot, and J. Noailles. Collision

REFERENCES avoidance using neural networks learned by genetic

algorithms. In Ninth International Conference on

[1] Gail A.Carpenter, Stephen Grossberg, Adaptive

Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial

Resonance Theory MAP.

Intelligence and Expert Systems, Fukuoka, 1996.

[2] Yang Yuying, Shi Xizhi, Li Guoyi, Rules from

[16] J.H Holland. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial

fuzzy adaptive resonance theory map, Progress in

Systems. University of Michigan press, 1975.

Natural Science May 1999, Vol.9 No.5, p.382.

[17] N. Durand, O. Chansou, and J.M. Alliot. An

[3] W.P.Niedrighaus, I.Frowlow, J.C.Corbin, a.h.

optimizing conflict solver for atc. ATC Quarterly,

Gisch, N.J.Taber, and f.H. Leiber. Automated enroute

1996.

Air Traffic Control Algorithmic Specifications: Flight

Plan conflict probe. Technical report, FAA, 1983.

DOT/FAA/ES-83/6.

[4] W.P.Niedrighaus, A mathematical formulation

for planning automated aircraft separation for

AERA3. technical report, FAA, 1989. DOT/FAA/DS-

89/6.

[5] W.P.Niedrighaus, A mathematical formulation for

planning automated aircraft separation for AERA3.

technical report, FAA, 1989. DOT/FAA/DS-89/20.

[6] Karim zehgal. Vers Une theory de la coordinated

d’actions. Applications a’la navigation aerienne.

Ph.D. thesis, University Paris VI, 1994.

[7] Daniel Delahaye, Jean-Marc Alliot, Marc

Schenauer, and Jean-Loup Farges. Genetic algorithms

for partitioning air space. In proceedings of the Tenth

Confrence on Artificial Intelligence and Application.

IEEE, 1994.

[8] Jean-Marc Alliot, Herbe Gruber, and Marc

Schoenauer. Using genetic algorithms for solving

ATC conflicts. Inproceedings of the ninth Conference

on Artificial Intelligence and Application. IEEE,

1993.

[9] Bryson and Ho. Applied Optimal Control.

Hemisphere publishing Corporotation, New York

1975.

[10] Nocolas Durand. Conflict free trajectory

modeling for enroute control. Technical report,

ENAC/CENA, January 1994.

[11] Frédéric Médioni. Algorithmes génétiques et

programmation linéaire appliqués a la resolution de

conflits aériens. Master's thesis, Ecole Nationale de

l'Aviation Civile (ENAC), 1994.

[12] A.R. Conn, Nick Gould, and Ph. L. Toint. A

comprehensive description of LANCELOT.

Technical report, IBM T.J. Watson research center,

1992. Report 91/10.

[13] N. Durand, O. Chansou, and J.M. Alliot. An

optimizing conflict solver for atc. ATC Quarterly,

1996.

[14]Nicolas Durand, Nicolas Alech, Jean-Marc Alliot,

and Marc Schoenauer. Genetic algorithms for optimal

air traffic conflict resolution. In Proceedings of the

Second Singapore Conference on Intelligent Systems.

SPICIS, 1994.

- ImprovedDiff-artigo26Uploaded byAgni74
- solving inverse problem by genetic algorithmUploaded bygirish_smash
- Ari Hara Su ThanUploaded byharieeesudan
- LPsolverUploaded byrushikesh28
- ENG345 Overview PUploaded byRenoMasr
- opypUploaded byJay Adrian
- Sustainable Management of SavannaUploaded bynata_lu
- Inter Achieve 2004 Jinkoo(EESD)Uploaded bybristi
- PhDSampleQ_IEORUploaded byTamiltamil Tamil
- Chapter 1Uploaded byBRGR
- Inspire+BrochureUploaded bycen1510353
- MRI PresentationUploaded bymri27
- 00b7d5153091f8975d000000Uploaded bybacuoc.nguyen356
- OM - Aggregate PlanningUploaded byMohammed Aadil
- Aggregate PlanningUploaded bySanjeev Ranjan
- MBA Guide Book 2Uploaded byzinash
- 2. Transportation ModelUploaded byLelouch V. Britania
- Research _ Operations Research and Operations-researchUploaded bychrkiitm
- Optimal and suboptimal performance of stochastic linear tracking systemsUploaded bynitesh
- lec_01__ORUploaded byTapu mojumder
- 2017 - Anjos, Vieira - Mathematical Optimization Approaches for Facility Layout Problems_The State-Of-The-Art and Future Research DirectionsUploaded byRamon Swell
- Ottimizzazione del controllo di un veicolo a due assiUploaded bytrisino
- Ge8151 Python Programming Question BankUploaded bybala
- Parametric and Shape Optimization of Spati al Trusses Modeled with Bézier CurvesUploaded byMario Rivero
- Adaptive Under-Voltage Load Shedding Scheme Using Model Predictive ControlUploaded bydog123
- Jurnal Matematika Model OkUploaded bynina ariesta
- Paper PresUploaded byAkash M Shahzad
- The Power Grid Library for Benchmarking AC Optimal Power Flow AlgorithmsUploaded byGaston GB
- 3. a Mixed Integer Optimization Formulation for the Well Scheduling Problem on Petroleum FieldsUploaded byMaylin Garcia
- 5Uploaded byAshraf Irfan

- ubicc118_vimala_118Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- Low Latency Adversarial Transmission Control in 5G Networks for IoTs: Detection, equalization, synchronization, estimationUploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- UBICC-233_233Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubicc-cfn_113Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- 4_421Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubiccform_240Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- UBICC-455-kjayapriya_455Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- UBICC Journal HassnaaMoustafa 246 246Uploaded byUsman Tariq
- UBICC-submitted 206 206Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubiccjournalvolume2no3_2_28Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- UBICC-Cameraready_481Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- UBICC-paper_63_63Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- UbiCC Paper Framing Pervasive Computing AdnanShaout_343Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- UBICC-montavont 101 101Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubicc008_268Uploaded byUsman Tariq
- ubicc-qos_181Uploaded byUsman Tariq
- ubiccjournalvolume2no3_4_43Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- Ubicc1 Application 1Uploaded byUsman Tariq
- ubicc92_92Uploaded byUsman Tariq
- ubicc298_298Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubiccjournalvolume2no3_1_25Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubiccjournalvolume2no3_6_70Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubiccjournalvolume2no3_7_81Uploaded byUsman Tariq
- ubiccjournalvolume2no3_5_67Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubiccjournalvolume2no3_Letter1_94Uploaded byUsman Tariq
- UbiCC Bouzid BookChapter 494Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- UBICC_659Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- 1_418Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubicc_624_624Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- ubiccjournalvolume2no3_8_31Uploaded byUbiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

- Abenaki Report 06 2005Uploaded bybruno
- From Naked Statistics- C WheelanUploaded bykalos
- PGV32.pdfUploaded bycaprit_her_771605
- Range CoderUploaded byftwilliam
- KAPITULLI 1 ANGLISHTUploaded byHalil Demolli
- 3051Uploaded byTamy Alex
- Modulations for Cong. Worsh (1)Uploaded byccdelao
- Combined Autoclave and Water Purification System using Solar EnergyUploaded byIJIRST
- ExercisesSynthesis (1)Uploaded byharuly
- Project ReportUploaded by1man1book
- ASTM D3702-94 Thrus iugougUploaded byTaufik Hidayatullah
- Transformer Sizing CalculationUploaded byArunava Basak
- Infovis SurveyUploaded byMOUHIEDDINE
- Phasing in DCS Migration[1]Uploaded bypanchogancho
- Automatic Pneumatic High Speed Sheet Cutting MachineUploaded byIyappan
- Enterprise Scale Password Management With Hid Pw ManagerUploaded byHitachiID
- Supplementary Cementing Materials.pptUploaded byTruong Giang Vo
- Anselm’s Elusive ArgumentUploaded byMarinca Andrei
- Astm D1250 Table 56Uploaded byFrankie Nguyen
- Introducing JSX - ReactUploaded byYaoyao Wang
- Semsol Bu LidyaUploaded byMeri Eka Feby Agustin
- Ray Adil Salin GanayUploaded byJevan Calaque
- Demand of Burger King - Managerial EconomicUploaded byEdayu Yusof
- HVAC Handbook CFD for HVAC by FluentUploaded byNajam24
- Strain 01Uploaded byRup Joshi
- Engilsh modal verbs.docxUploaded byAbbas Yahya
- Embedded Systems WikiUploaded byYogendrabhilash
- Flare NetUploaded byPetrol Solly
- Shell and Tube ManualUploaded bySuperducks
- Javascript Form ValidationUploaded byziki0523