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Introduction: This paper outlines the process used to create a mathematical model of the love affair between two characters from classical literature: Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet. They are traditionally known as the ultimate example of two “star-crossed lovers.” In the classic tragedy “Romeo and Juliet,” written by William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet meet at a party, and within a single night become infatuated with each other, and ultimately get married. Just a day earlier, however, Romeo was pining over his lost “love,” Rosaline. Five days, several deaths, and an exile later, Romeo and Juliet commit suicide, over their love for each other. This paper explores the Background: Romeo and Juliet are in love. Romeo is a fickle lover. He begins to dislike her when she loves him more and more. When Juliet loses interest in him his feelings then start warming up and his love for Juliet increases. Juliet’s love, on the other hand, grows when he loves her and tends to decrease when he hates her. We give 2 models for their ill-fated love relationship. R(t)= Romeo’s love/hate for Juliet at any time t, J(t)= Juliet’s love/hate for Romeo at any time t. Positive R or J means love, negative R or J means hate and R=J=0 means indifference. Let’s measure time t in days (0-365) days. Love will be measured in the scale of -10 to 10, love at scale 0 being indifference. State of Love Value of R,J Figure 1, table of feelings corresponding to values of each function. When Romeo sees Juliet for the first time,(t=0), he is immediately attracted to her, say, R(0)= 5. Juliet is indifferent at that time, R(0)=0. Procedure: The author started with systems of differential equations for each model which represented their relative feelings Romeo and Juliet had for each other; and the Hatre d -10 disgu st -7.5 indifferenc e 0 Sweet attraction 7.5 Ecstatic love 10 Over affectionate >10
changes in those feelings due to the changes of feelings in the other. Initial values were chosen, based on the fact that Romeo is the first to become infatuated. Using the initial equations and initial conditions, a solution to each differential equation system was produced. This solution was then plotted, using Maple 11, to show the fluctuations in their emotions for each other. Then, the coeffecients of each eqution in the system were translated to a matrix, and the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors for each system's corresponding matrix were computed. Using the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, a phase plot of each model was produced, in order to show the overall general behavior of their relationship. Please note that each function's plot was restricted to one fifth of a year, or 73 days, to make each plot easier to read. This did not leave out any data; the plot for model one repeats itself roughly every 73 days.
Model 1: The system
, with initial values
represents a love affair between Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet. As the system suggests, Romeo's love decreases in proportion to Juliet's love, and Juliet's love increases in proportion to Romeo's love. Solving this model using the given inital conditions, gives the equations: J(t) = 10sin(t) and R(t) = 5cos(t). Using the matrix method, the matrix of this system produces
Eigenvalues of 0 and -0.5 for R(t) and J(t), respectively. The Eigenvectors produced were :
Results: The plot of each function in figure two shows the sporadicity of their relationship (blue represents Romeo, and pink represents Juliet).
Figure 2: Plot of the solutions to the differential equation system in model 1. It would appear that Romeo never loves Juliet as much as Juliet loves Romeo. Also, it seems that roughly every five days, Romeo's love goes from near disgust to near attraction, back to near disgust. Therefore, Romeo never loves Juliet. However, within a period of five days, offset by a few days from Romeo's cycle, Juliet goes from complete hatred to ecstatic love, then back to hatred again. The only time that their love for each other is equal is every 2.5 days, their love for each other is around negative or positive 4.8, which corresponds to near disgust to near attraction, respectively. This does not seem like a healthy relationship. The cyclical nature of their relationship can be represented by the phase plot in figure 3.
Figure 3: phase plot showing the cyclical nature of Romeo and Juliet's love affair. It should be noted how the solutions are constantly spiking. This represents how fickle their relationship is: Juliet is constantly either loving or hating Romeo. Model 2: Because of Juliet's bipolar nature, her doctor has prescribed her tranquilizers. This changes the system to the following system:
. Solving this system gives the following equations:
This system has eigenvalues of -2 for both equatoins. The eigen vectors are:
Results: The plot in figure 4 is produced, again with blue representing Romeo and pink representing Juliet.
Figure 4. Plot of Romeo and Juliet's relationship, with tranquilizers. With the tranquilizers, Juliet will begin with only a mild attraction to Romeo. Romeo will notice that Juliet is taking tranqulizers, which will turn him off, and as such, he will be mostly indifferent. Once Juliet sees this, her feelings for Romeo sharply decline, and after about a week, neither of them are interested in each other. The nature of their relationship can be better interpreted by the following phase plot.
Figure 5. Phase plot of Romeo and Juliet's relationship with tranquilizers. You will notice that all paths lead back to indifference. Their relationship is futile, and
there is no hope for them lasting forever. Conclusion: The results in model 1 show a very dysfunctional relationship. Their love for each other constantly waxes and wanes. This model, however, is not very accurate when taking the original story of Romeo and Juliet into account: After five days, they were both so in love with each other, that they committed suicied over one another. The model, however, shows an indifference experienced between each other after the first five days of the relationship. Model two also seems to not convey the same love that they, according to the story, felt for each other after five days. However, according to this model, their relationship would certainly not have lasted more than a week. Perhaps it is best that they commited suicide. If they had not, their love would have grown dull, and they would not have liked each other anymore. As a result, we would not have the story of Romeo and Juliet as we know it; we would have a story about a summer fling which probably went longer than it should have.