3/14/2011

1
Basic Soil Mechanics
Basi c Soi l Mechani cs:
Basic soil properties, correlation between engineering parameters, geotechnical
investigation, bore log.
Pi l e f oundat i on:
Jacket main piles, skirt piles, driven piles, drilled and grouted piles, steel and concrete
piles, axial capacity, point bearing and skin friction, factor of safety, lateral load on
piles, p-y, t-z and q-z curves, pile group effect, scour around piles, seabed subsidence
and design of piles against seabed movement, negative skin friction, cyclic degradation,
main pile to jacket connections, skirt pile to jacket connections, API RP 2A provisions.
Pi l e I nst al l at i on:
Minimum pile wall thickness, pile handling stresses, static and dynamic stresses, pile
stickup, stresses during stick up, wave and current loads, hammer selection, pile driving
stresses, wave equation analysis, pile driving fatigue, API RP 2A guidelines.
Pi l e Test i ng:
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
1
Pi l e Test i ng:
Working load test, ultimate load test, pile monitoring during driving, pile integrity
testing, high strain dynamic testing, rebound method.
Special foundations: Mud-mats: bearing capacity, sliding stability, over-turning stability,
short term and long term settlements, factor of safety; Bucket foundation; Suction
anchors; Gravity foundation.
Basic Soil Mechanics
BASI C SOI L MECHANI CS
Basic soil properties
Correlation between
engineering parameters
Geotechnical investigation
Bore log
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
2
Bore log
3/14/2011
2
Basic Soil Mechanics
GROUND FORMATI ON TYPES
 COHESIONLESS SOIL
 SAND GRAVEL  SAND, GRAVEL
 COHESIVE SOIL
 Clay, organic soil
 ROCKY
 Sedimentary, granite etc
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
3
Basic Soil Mechanics
CLAY STRUCTURES
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
4
a) Dispersed, b) Flocculated, c) Book house, d)
Turbostratic e) Example of a natural clay
3/14/2011
3
Basic Soil Mechanics
Soi l t ype Ter m Fi el d t est
Sands,
gravels
Loose
Dense
Can be excavated with a spade; 50 mm wooden
peg can be easily driven
Requires a pick for excavation; 50 mm wooden
peg is hard to drive
Visual examination; pick removes soil in lumps
BASIC CHARACTERS OF SOIL
Slightly
cemented
Visual examination; pick removes soil in lumps
which can be abraded
Silts Soft or loose
Firm or dense
Easily moulded or crushed in the fingers
Can be moulded or crushed by strong pressure in
the fingers
Clays Very soft
Soft
Stiff
Exudes between the fingers when squeezed in the
hand
Moulded by light finger pressure
Cannot be moulded by the fingers; can be
indented by the thumb
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
5
Very stiff
Can be indented by the thumbnail
Organic, peats Firm
Spongy
Plastic
Fibres already compressed together
Very compressible and open structure
Can be moulded in the hand and smears the
fingers
Basic Soil Mechanics
Homogeneous
Interstratified
Deposit consists essentially of one soil type
Alternating layers of varying types or with bands or lenses
of other materials (an interval scale for bedding spacing or
BASIC CHARACTERS OF SOIL
of other materials (an interval scale for bedding spacing or
layer thickness can be used)
Homogeneous
Weathered
A mixture of soil types
Coarse particles may be weakened and may show
concentric layering
Fine soils usually have crumb or columnar structure
Fissured (clays) Breaks into polyhedral fragments along fissures (interval
scale for spacing of discontinuities may be used)
Intact (clays) No fissures
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
6
Intact (clays) No fissures
Fibrous (peats) Plant remains are recognizable and retain some strength
Amorphous
(peats)
Recognizable plant remains are absent
3/14/2011
4
Basic Soil Mechanics
Soi l gr oups Subgr oups and l abor at or y i dent i f i cat i on
GRAVEL and SAND may be qualified sandy
GRAVEL and gravelly SAND, etc., where
appropriate
Group
symbol
Subgroup
symbol
Fines (%
less than
0.06
mm)
Liquid
limit
GW
GW
o
f

Slightly silty or clayey
British soil Classification System for Engineering Purposes
GW
G
GP
G- M
G- F
G- C
GM
GF
GC
SW
GW
GPU GPg
GWM GPM
GWC GPC
GML.et c
GCL, GCI
GCH,GCV
GCE
SW
0 t o 5
5 t o 15
15 t o 35
C
O
A
R
S
E

S
O
I
L
S
3
5
%

o
f

t
h
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

i
s

f
i
n
e
r

t
h
a
n

0
.
0
6

m
m
G
R
A
V
E
L
S

M
o
r
e

t
h
a
n

5
0
%

o
f

c
o
a
r
s
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

i
s

o
g
r
a
v
e
l

s
i
z
e

(
c
o
a
r
s
e

t
h
a
n

2

m
m
)
%

Slightly silty or clayey
GRAVEL
Slightly GRAVEL
Clayey GRAVEL
Very stilty GRAVEL
Very clayey GRAVEL
Slightly silty or
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
7
S
SP
S- M
S- F
S- C
SPu SPg
SWM SPM
SWC SPC
0 t o 5
5 t o 15
C
L
e
s
s

t
h
a
n

3
S
A
N
D
S

M
o
r
e

t
h
a
n

5
0
o
f

c
o
a
r
s
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

i
s

o
f

s
a
n
d

s
i
z
e

(
m
o
r
e

t
h
a
n

2

m
m
)
g y y
clayey SAND
Silty SAND
Clayey SAND
Basic Soil Mechanics
Very Silty SAND
Very clayey SAND
SM
SF
SC
SML, et c
SCL
SCI
SCH
SCV
SCE
15 t o 35
ll G G
S
A
N
D
S

M
o
r
e

t
h
a
n

5
0
%

o
f

c
o
a
r
s
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

i
s

o
f

s
a
n
d

s
i
z
e

(
m
o
r
e

t
h
a
n

2

m
m
)
Gravelly SILT
Gravelly CLAYEY
Sandy SILT
Sandy CLAY
SILT (M-SOIL)
MG
FG
CG
MS
FS
CS
M
MLG, et c
CLG
CI G
CHG
CVG
CEG
MLS, et c
CLS, et c
ML, et c
< 35
35 t o 50
50 t o 70
70 t o 90
> 90
F
I
N
E

S
O
I
L
S
5
%

o
f

t
h
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

i
s

f
i
n
e
r

t
h
a
n

0
.
0
6

m
m
G
r
a
v
e
l
l
y

o
r

s
a
n
d
y

S
I
L
T
S

a
n
d

C
L
A
Y
S

3
5
%

t
o

6
5
%

f
i
n
e
s
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
8
( )
CLAY
M
F
C
ML, et c
CL
CI
CH
CV
CE
< 35
35 t o 50
50 t o 70
70 t o 90
> 90
M
o
r
e

t
h
a
n

3
S
I
L
T
S

A
N
D

C
L
A
Y
S


6
5
%

t
o

1
0
0
%

f
i
n
e
s
3/14/2011
5
Basic Soil Mechanics
Mai n Ter ms Qual i f yi ng Ter ms
GRAVEL G Wel l gr aded W
SAND S Poor l y gr aded
uni f or m
P
Pu
gap- gr aded Pg
FI NE SOI L, FI NES F Of l ow pl ast i ci t y ( w L < 35) L
SI LT ( M- SOI L) M Of i nt er medi at e pl ast i ci t y ( w L 35 - 50) I
CLAY C Of hi gh pl ast i ci t y ( w L 50 - 70)
Of ver y hi gh pl ast i ci t y ( w L 70 – 90)
Of ex t r emel y hi gh pl ast i ci t y ( w L > 90)
Of upper pl ast i ci t y r ange ( w L > 35)
H
V
E
U
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
9
Or gani c ( may be a suf f i x t o any gr oup) O
PEAT Pt
Basic Soil Mechanics
Name
Gr oup
symbol s
Labor at or y cr i t er i a
Fi nes ( % ) Gr adi ng Pl ast i ci t y
Not es
Coarse
grained
(more than
Gravel
(more than
50% of
Well graded GW
Gravels,
0 – 5 CU > 4
1 < CZ <
Dual
symbols if
5 12%
UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
(more than
50% larger
than 63%
um BS or
No. 200 US
sieve size
50% of
coarse
fraction of
gravel size)
sandy gravels,
with little or
no fines
Poorly graded GP
gravels, sandy
gravels, with
little or no fines
Silty gravels, GM
0 – 5
>12
3
Not
satisfying
GW
require-
ments
Below A-line
5 – 12%
fines. Dual
symbols if
above A-
line and 4
< IP < 7
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
10
Silty gravels, GM
Silty sand gravels
Clayey gravels GC
clayey sandy
gravels
>12
>12
Below A line
or Ip<4
Above A-line
and IP > 7
Contd…
3/14/2011
6
Basic Soil Mechanics
Name
Gr oup
symbol s
Labor at or y cr i t er i a
Fi nes ( % ) Gr adi ng Pl ast i ci t y
Not es
Coarse
grained
Sands (more
than 50% of
Well graded GW
sands,
0 – 5 CU > 6
1 < CZ < 3
Dual
symbols if
UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
(more than
50% larger
than 63%
um BS or
No. 200 US
sieve size
coarse fraction
of gravel size)
sa ds,
Gravely sands,
with little or
no fines
Poorly graded GP
sands, gravelly
sands, with
little or no fines
Silt sands SM
0 – 5
>12
C 3
Not
satisfying
SW require-
ments
Belo A
5 – 12%
fines.
Dual
symbols if
above A-
line and 4
< IP < 7
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
11
Silty sands SM
Clayey sands SC
>12
>12
Below A-
line or
Ip<4
Above A-
line and IP
> 7
Contd…
Basic Soil Mechanics
Name Group
symbols
Laboratory criteria
Fine grained (more
than 50% smaller
than 63 μm BS or
No.200 US sieve size)
Silts and clays
(liquid limit less
than 50)
Inorganic silts, silty ML
or clayey fine sands,
With slight plasticity
Inorganic clays, silty CL
Use plasticity chart
Use plasticity chart
UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Silts and clays
(liquid limit less
than 50)
Inorganic clays, silty CL
clays, sandy clays
of low plasticity
Organic silts and OL
organic silty clays
of low plasticity
Inorganic silts of high MH
plasticity
In organic clays of CH
plasticity
Organic clays of high OH
Use plasticity chart
Use plasticity chart
Use plasticity chart
Use plasticity chart
U l ti it h t
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
12
Highly organic soils
Organic clays of high OH
plasticity
Peat and other highly Pt
organic soils
Use plasticity chart
3/14/2011
7
Basic Soil Mechanics
PLASTI CI TY CHART : UNI FI ED SYSTEM
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
13
Basic Soil Mechanics
BS Sieve Particle size* Percentage smaller
Soil A Soil B Soil C Soil D
63 mm 100 100
20 mm 64 76
6.3 mm 39 100 65
2 mm 24 98 59
600 μm 12 90 54
212 μm 5 9 47 100
63 μm 0 3 34 95
0.020 mm 23 69
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
14
0.006 mm 14 46
0.002 mm 7 31
* From sedimentation test
3/14/2011
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Basic Soil Mechanics
BS Si eve Par t i cl e si ze Per cent age smal l er
Soi l E Soi l F Soi l G Soi l H
63 mm 100
20 mm 94
6 3 69 100 6.3 mm 69 100
2 mm 32 98
600 μm 13 88 100
212 μm 2 67 95 100
63 μm 37 73 99
0.020 mm 22 46 88
0 006 mm 11 25 71
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
15
0.006 mm 11 25 71
0.002 mm 4 13 58
Liquid limit
Plastic limit
Non-plastic
32
24
78
31
Basic Soil Mechanics
PHASE DI AGRAMS
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
16
3/14/2011
9
Basic Soil Mechanics
PLASTICITY OF FINE GRAINED SOILS
÷ =
P L P
W W I
The water content range is defined as the plasticity index
Limit Plastic W
Limit Liquid W
P
L
=
=
÷
=
P
L
I
w w
I
The water content range is defined as the Liquidity index
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
17
Limit Plastic w
content Water w
P
=
=
P
I
Basic Soil Mechanics
The degree of saturation is the ratio of the volume of water
to the total volume of void space
Saturation ratio
water of Volume V
saturation of Degree S
w
r
=
=
=
v
w
r
V
V
S
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
18
space void of volume Total V
v
=
3/14/2011
10
Basic Soil Mechanics
The void ratio is the ratio of the volume of voids to the
volume of solids
ratio void e =
=
s
v
V
V
e
solids of Volume V
space void of volume Total V
s
v
=
=
The porosity is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total
Volume of the soil
=
V
V
n
v
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
19
soil the of Volume V
voids of olume V
Porosity n
v
=
=
=
V
Basic Soil Mechanics
The void ratio and the porosity are inter-related as follows:
n
e =
e
e
n
n
+
=
÷
1
1
The specific volume (v) is the total volume of soil which
contains unit volume of solids
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
20
contains unit volume of solids
v = 1 + e
3/14/2011
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Basic Soil Mechanics
air voids or content Air A =
=
V
V
A
a
The air content or air voids is the ratio of the volume of air to the total
volume of the soil
soil the of Volume V
air of Volume V
air voids or content Air A
a
=
=
=
The bulk density of a soil is the ratio of the total mass to the total
volume
=
V
M
p
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
21
Volume V
Mass Total
density Bulk
=
=
=
M
p
Basic Soil Mechanics
The specific gravity of the soil particles is given by
= =
w
s
w s
s
s
V
M
G
p
p
p
density Particle ρ
particles soil of Gravity G
s
s
=
=
The Saturation Ratio is given by
wG
S
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
22
water of Volume wG
s
=
=
e
wG
S
s
r
3/14/2011
12
Basic Soil Mechanics
In the case of a fully saturated soil, Sr = 1, hence
e = wGs
wG e
A
s
÷
=
The air content can be expressed as
e
A
+ 1
s
w G
p p
+
=
) 1 (
A = n(1- Sr)
The bulk density of a soil can be expressed as
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
23
w
e
p p
+
=
1
w
r s
e
e S G
p p
+
+
=
1
or
Basic Soil Mechanics
For a fully saturated soil (Sr = 1)
w
s
sat
e
e G
p p
+
+
=
1
w
s
d
e
G
p p
+
=
1
For a completely dry soil (Sr = 0)
The unit weight of a soil is the ratio of the total weight
(a force) to the total volume
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
24
V
Mg
V
W
= = ¸
(a force) to the total volume
3/14/2011
13
Basic Soil Mechanics
r s
w
s
e S G
e
w G
¸ ¸
+
+
=
1
) 1 (
Apply in the case of unit weights
Where a soil in-situ is fully saturated the solid soil
particles (volume 1 unit, weight Gs w) are subjected to
upthrust (
w
r s
e
¸ ¸
+
=
1
¸
s w s
G G
¸
¸
¸
÷
= =
,
1
¸
w
). Hence the buoyant unit weight is given by
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
25
w sat
w
e i
e e
¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
÷ =
+ +
,
: . .
1 1
Basic Soil Mechanics
PARTI CLE SI ZE DI STRI BUTI ON CURVES
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
26
3/14/2011
14
Basic Soil Mechanics
DETERMI NATI ON OF LI QUI D LI MI T
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
27
Basic Soil Mechanics
 Planning
 Equipment
SOIL INVESTIGATION
 Field testing
 Sampling
 Bore Holes
 Location and Numbers
 Field Tests
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
28
 Field Tests
 Laboratory Tests
3/14/2011
15
Basic Soil Mechanics
SCHEMATIC OF WASH BORING
OPERATIONS
PHOTOGRAPH OF WASH
BORING OPERATIONS
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
29
Basic Soil Mechanics
 Field tests
 Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
SOIL TESTING METHODS
 Field Vane Shear test
 Cone Penetration Test
 Laboratory Tests
 Direct Shear Test
 Tri-axial Shear Test
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
30
 Tri axial Shear Test
 Unconfined Compressive Strength test
3/14/2011
16
Basic Soil Mechanics
 50mm External Diameter 35mm internal
Diameter Split Barrel Sampler – 650mm
length
SPT Test Parameters
length
 65 Kg Hammer is dropped from a height of
760mm
 Number of Blow for 300mm penetration is
called SPT “N” Value
 It indicates relative strength of soil
 E i i l l ti b t th
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
31
 Empirical correlation between other
parameters available.
Basic Soil Mechanics
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMMS OF
THE THREE COMMONLY USED
HAMMERS
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
32
3/14/2011
17
Basic Soil Mechanics
Description Very loose Loose Medium Dense Very dense
Relative density D 0 0 15 0 35 0 65 0 85
Empirical values for ø, Dr, and unit weight of granular soils based on
the SPT at 6 m depth and normally consolidated
SPT N70: fine
medium
coarse
1 – 2
2 – 3
3 – 6
3 – 6
4 – 7
5 – 9
7 – 15
8 – 20
10 – 25
16 – 30
21 – 40
26 – 45
?
> 40
> 45
ø: fine
medium
coarse
26 – 28
27 – 28
28 – 30
28 – 30
30 – 32
30 – 34
30 – 34
32 – 36
33 – 40
33 – 38
36 – 42
40 – 50
< 50
λwet, pcf
(kN/m³)
0-100†
(11 – 16)
90 – 115
(14 – 18)
110 – 130
(17 – 20)
110 – 140
(17 – 22)
130 – 150
(20 – 23)
Relative density Dr 0 0.15 0.35 0.65 0.85
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
33
( )
† Excavated soil or material dumped from a truck will weigh 11 to 14 kN/m³ and
must be quite dense to weigh much over 21 kN/m³. No existing soil has a Dr = 0.00
nor a value of 1.00 – common ranges are from 0.3 to 0.7
Basic Soil Mechanics
N Val ue Cl assi f i cat i on I d ( % ) ( NI ) 60
DENSITY INDEX OF SANDS
N Val ue Cl assi f i cat i on I d ( % ) ( NI ) 60
0 – 4 Very loose 0 – 15 0 – 3
4 – 10 Loose 15 – 35 3 – 8
10 – 30 Medium dense 35 – 65 8 – 25
30 – 50 Dense 65 – 85 25 – 42
> 50 Very dense 85 – 100 42 – 58
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
34
> 50 Very dense 85 100 42 58
3/14/2011
18
Basic Soil Mechanics
Consistency
,
70
N
Remarks
CONSISTENCY OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS†
Very soft
Soft
Medium
Stiff
Very stiff
0 – 2
3 – 5
6 – 9
10 – 16
17 – 30
N
C
e
a
s
i
n
g
O
C
R
Y
o
u
n
g

c
l
a
y

A
g
e
d

/

m
e
n
t
e
d

Squishes between fingers when squeezed
Very easily deformed by squeezing
Hard to deform by hand squeezing
Very hard to deform by hand
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
35
Hard
> 30
I
n
c
r
e
O
A
c
e
m
Nearly impossible to deform by hand
† Blow counts and OCR division are for a guide in clay “exceptions to the rule”
are very common
Basic Soil Mechanics
EFFECTIVE OVERBURDEN PRESSURE
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
36
3/14/2011
19
Basic Soil Mechanics
CORRECTION OF MEASURED VALUES OF STANDARD
PENETRATION RESISTANCE
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
37
Basic Soil Mechanics
MECHANICAL (OR DUTCH) CONE, OPERATIONS
SEQUENCE, AND TIP RESISTANCE DATA
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
38
3/14/2011
20
Basic Soil Mechanics
VANE SHEAR TESTS
 Two types available
 Field Vane Shear
 Laboratory Vane Shear  Laboratory Vane Shear
 Principle is same but only the size of
equipment different
 Method based on shearing a circular soil
surface and relating it with the torque
applied
 Gives the undrained shear strength of soil
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
39
 Gives the undrained shear strength of soil,
mostly clay based soils.
Basic Soil Mechanics
VANE SHEAR
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
40
3/14/2011
21
Basic Soil Mechanics
VANE SHEAR TEST
3 2
| | d h d
length vane h
width vane overall d
failure at Torque
6 2
3 2
=
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
t
d h d
c T
u
t
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
41
length vane h =
Basic Soil Mechanics
SHEAR TEST
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
42
3/14/2011
22
Basic Soil Mechanics
DIRECT SHEAR APPARATUS
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
43
Basic Soil Mechanics
PRINCIPAL LINE DETAILS OF TRIAXIAL CELL
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
44
3/14/2011
23
Basic Soil Mechanics
THE MOHR-COULOMB FAILURE CRITERION
The shear strength of a soil at a point on a particular
plane was originally expressed by Coulomb as a linear
function of the normal stress on the plane at the same
Stress Normal
Strength Shear
tan
=
=
+ =
o
t
o o t
f
f
f f
c
function of the normal stress on the plane at the same
point
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
45
Parameters Strength Shear c, = o
f
Basic Soil Mechanics
THE MOHR- COULOMB FAI LURE CRI TERI ON
In accordance with Terzaghi,s fundamental concept that
shear stress in a soil can be resisted only by the skeleton
of solid particles, shear strength is expressed as a
in Parameters Strength Shear ,
tan
, ,
, , ,
=
+ =
o
o o t
c
c
f f
of solid particles, shear strength is expressed as a
function of effective normal stress:
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
46
stress effective of terms
3/14/2011
24
Basic Soil Mechanics
expressed be also can soil a of strength shear The
THE MOHR- COULOMB FAI LURE CRI TERI ON
u o o t
o o
2 sin ) (
2
1
failure. at and stresses
principal minor and major effective of in terms
,
3
,
1
,
3
,
1
÷ =
f
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
47
u o o o o o 2 cos ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
,
3
,
1
,
3
,
1
,
÷ + ÷ =
f
Basic Soil Mechanics
σ΄
1
σ΄
1 τ
St r ess Condi t i ons at Fai l ur e
σ΄
1
σ΄
3
σ΄
3
θ
τ
1
τ
1
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
48
σ΄
σ΄
3
σ΄
1
σ΄
1

1
3/14/2011
25
Basic Soil Mechanics
major e between th angle al theoretic the is u
2
45
hat apparent t is It
failure. of plane the and plane principal
,
O
o
u + =
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
49
2
Basic Soil Mechanics
: Now obtained. be also can parameters
strength shear the and failure at stresses
principal effective e between th ip relationsh The
Therefore,
) (
2
1
cot
) (
2
1
sin
,
3
,
1
, ,
,
3
,
1
,
o o o
o o
o
+ +
÷
=
c
27 June 2009 Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36
50
)
2
45 tan( 2 )
2
45 ( tan
,
,
,
2 ,
3
,
1
o o
o o + + + =
o o
c

3/14/2011

Basic Soil Mechanics

GROUND FORMATION TYPES
 COHESIONLESS SOIL
 SAND GRAVEL SAND,

 COHESIVE SOIL
 Clay, organic soil

 ROCKY
 Sedimentary, granite etc

27 June 2009

3

Dr. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Basic Soil Mechanics
CLAY STRUCTURES

a) Dispersed, b) Flocculated, c) Book house, d) Turbostratic e) Example of a natural clay
27 June 2009 4 Dr. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

2

can be indented by the thumb Can be indented by the thumbnail Fibres already compressed together Very compressible and open structure Can be moulded in the hand and smears the fingers Dr. 50 mm wooden peg is hard to drive Visual examination. 50 mm wooden peg can be easily driven Requires a pick for excavation. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 3 . Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Clays 27 June 2009 Basic Soil Mechanics BASIC CHARACTERS OF SOIL Homogeneous Interstratified Deposit consists essentially of one soil type Alternating layers of varying types or with bands or lenses of other materials (an interval scale for bedding spacing or layer thickness can be used) A mixture of soil types Coarse particles may be weakened and may show concentric layering Fine soils usually have crumb or columnar structure Breaks into polyhedral fragments along fissures (interval scale for spacing of discontinuities may be used) No fissures Plant remains are recognizable and retain some strength Recognizable plant remains are absent Homogeneous Weathered Fissured (clays) Intact (clays) Fibrous (peats) Amorphous (peats) 27 June 2009 6 Dr. pick removes soil in lumps which can be abraded Easily moulded or crushed in the fingers Can be moulded or crushed by strong pressure in the fingers Exudes between the fingers when squeezed in the hand Moulded by light finger pressure Cannot be moulded by the fingers. gravels Term Loose Dense Slightly cemented Silts Soft or loose Firm or dense Very soft Soft Stiff Very stiff Organic.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics BASIC CHARACTERS OF SOIL Soil type Sands. S. peats Firm Spongy Plastic 5 Field test Can be excavated with a spade.

etc ML.06 mm Slightly silty or clayey GRAVEL Slightly GRAVEL Clayey GRAVEL Very stilty GRAVEL Very clayey GRAVEL g y y Slightly silty or clayey SAND GW G GP G-M G-F G-C GM GF GC GW 15 to 35 GCL. etc 15 to 35 SCL SCI SCH SCV SCE MLG.etc Liquid limit GRAVELS More than 50% of coarse material is of o gravel size (coarse than 2 mm) C COARSE SOILS Less than 35% of the material is finer 3 than 0. etc CL CI CH CV CE <35 35 to 50 50 to 70 70 to 90 >90 <35 35 to 50 50 to 70 70 to 90 >90 FINE SOILS More than 35% of the material is finer than 0. etc G CLG CIG CHG CVG CEG MLS. etc CLS.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics British soil Classification System for Engineering Purposes Soil groups GRAVEL and SAND may be qualified sandy GRAVEL and gravelly SAND. GCI GCH.06 mm Gravelly or sandy SILTS and CLAYS 35% to 65% fines Gravelly SILT ll Gravelly CLAYEY MG G FG CG Sandy SILT Sandy CLAY SILT (M-SOIL) ( ) SILTS AND CLAYS 65% to 100% fines CLAY MS FS CS M F C 27 June 2009 8 Dr. where appropriate Subgroups and laboratory identification Group symbol Subgroup symbol Fines (% less than 0. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 4 . S.06 mm) 0 to 5 GPU GPg GWM GPM 5 to 15 GWC GPC GML.GCV GCE SW 0 to 5 SPu SPg SWM SPM 5 to 15 SWC SPC SANDS More than 50% of coarse material is of sand size (more than 2 mm) SW S SP S-M S-F S-C Silty SAND Clayey SAND 7 27 June 2009 Dr. S.. etc. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics SANDS More than 50% of coarse material is of sand size (more than 2 mm) Very Silty SAND Very clayey SAND SM SF SC SML.

3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics Main Terms GRAVEL SAND G S Qualifying Terms Well graded Poorly graded uniform gap-graded Of low plasticity (wL < 35) Of intermediate plasticity (wL 35 . Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Contd… 5 . GM Silty sand gravels Clayey gravels clayey sandy gravels GC 0–5 fines. 200 US sieve size Gravel (more than 50% of coarse fraction of gravel size) Well graded Gravels. with little or no fines Silty gravels. sandy gravels. sandy gravels. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Name Laboratory criteria Grading Group Fines (%) symbols Notes Coarse grained (more than 50% larger than 63% um BS or No.50) Of high plasticity (wL 50 . FINES SILT (M-SOIL) CLAY F M C PEAT Pt 27 June 2009 9 Dr.70) Of very high plasticity (wL 70 – 90) Of extremely high plasticity (wL > 90) Of upper plasticity range (wL > 35) Organic (may be a suffix to any group) W P Pu Pg L I H V E U O FINE SOIL. with little or no fines GW 0–5 CU > 4 1 < CZ < 3 Plasticity Dual symbols if 5 – 12% Poorly graded GP gravels. Dual symbols if above Aline and 4 < IP < 7 >12 Not satisfying GW requirements >12 Below A-line A line or Ip<4 Above A-line and IP > 7 27 June 2009 10 Dr. S.

With slight plasticity Inorganic clays. gravelly sands. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Contd… Basic Soil Mechanics UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Name Fine grained (more than 50% smaller than 63 μm BS or No. silty or clayey fine sands. S. 200 US sieve size Sands (more than 50% of coarse fraction of gravel size) Well graded GW sa ds.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Name Laboratory criteria Grading Group Fines (%) symbols Notes Coarse grained (more than 50% larger than 63% um BS or No. Gravely sands. sands. sandy clays of low plasticity Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity Inorganic silts of high plasticity In organic clays of plasticity Organic clays of high plasticity Peat and other highly organic soils Group symbols ML Laboratory criteria Use plasticity chart CL Use plasticity chart OL Use plasticity chart Silts and clays (liquid limit less than 50) MH CH OH Use plasticity chart Use plasticity chart Use l ti it h t U plasticity chart Highly organic soils Pt 27 June 2009 12 Dr. silty clays. Dual symbols if above Aline and 4 < IP < 7 >12 Clayey sands SC >12 27 June 2009 11 Dr. with little or no fines Silty Silt sands SM 0–5 CU > 6 1 < CZ < 3 Plasticity Dual symbols if 5 – 12% 0–5 Not satisfying SW requirements Below A Belo Aline or Ip<4 Above Aline and IP >7 fines.200 US sieve size) Silts and clays (liquid limit less than 50) Inorganic silts. with little or no fines Poorly graded GP sands. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 6 . S.

Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics BS Sieve 63 mm 20 mm 6.3 mm 2 mm 600 μm 212 μm 63 μm 0.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics PLASTICITY CHART : UNIFIED SYSTEM 27 June 2009 13 Dr.002 mm * From sedimentation test 27 June 2009 14 Dr. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Particle size* Soil A Percentage smaller Soil B 64 39 24 12 5 0 100 98 90 9 3 Soil C 100 76 65 59 54 47 34 23 14 7 100 95 69 46 31 Soil D 100 7 .020 mm 0. S.006 mm 0.

002 mm Liquid limit Plastic limit 27 June 2009 15 100 94 69 32 13 2 100 98 88 67 37 22 11 4 Non-plastic 100 95 73 46 25 13 32 24 100 99 88 71 58 78 31 Dr.006 0 006 mm 0. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics PHASE DIAGRAMS 27 June 2009 16 Dr. S.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics BS Sieve Particle size Soil E Percentage smaller Soil F Soil G Soil H 63 mm 20 mm 6.020 mm 0. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 8 .3 6 3 mm 2 mm 600 μm 212 μm 63 μm 0.

S.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics PLASTICITY OF FINE GRAINED SOILS The water content range is defined as the plasticity index I P  WL  WP WL  Liquid Limit WP  Plastic Limit The water content range is defined as the Liquidity index IL  w  wP IP w  Water content w P  Plastic Limit 27 June 2009 17 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 9 . Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics Saturation ratio The degree of saturation is the ratio of the volume of water to the total volume of void space Sr  Vw Vv Sr  Degree of saturation Vw  Volume of water Vv  Total volume of void space 27 June 2009 18 Dr. S.

S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics The void ratio and the porosity are inter-related as follows: e  n 1  n e n  1  e The specific volume (v) is the total volume of soil which contains unit volume of solids v=1+e 27 June 2009 20 Dr.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics The void ratio is the ratio of the volume of voids to the volume of solids e Vv Vs e  void ratio Vv  Total volume of void space Vs  Volume of solids The porosity is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total Volume of the soil Vv n V n  Porosity Vv  Volume of voids V  Volume of the soil 27 June 2009 19 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 10 . S.

S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics The specific gravity of the soil particles is given by Gs  Ms   s Vs  w  w G s  Gravity of soil particles ρ s  Particle density The Saturation Ratio is given by Sr  wGs e wG s  Volume of water 22 Dr. S.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics The air content or air voids is the ratio of the volume of air to the total volume of the soil Va V A  Air content or air voids A Va  Volume of air V  Volume of the soil The bulk density of a soil is the ratio of the total mass to the total volume M  V   Bulk density M  Total Mass V  Volume 27 June 2009 21 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 27 June 2009 11 .

Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics For a fully saturated soil (Sr = 1)  sat  Gs  e w 1 e For a completely dry soil (Sr = 0) d  Gs w 1 e The unit weight of a soil is the ratio of the total weight (a force) to the total volume  27 June 2009 W Mg  V V 24 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 12 . Sr = 1. S.Sr) The bulk density of a soil can be expressed as  Gs (1 w) w 1 e or G  Sr e  s w 1 e 27 June 2009 23 Dr.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics In the case of a fully saturated soil. S. hence e = wGs A e  wGs 1 e The air content can be expressed as A = n(1.

S.   sat   w 27 June 2009 25 Dr.  i. S.e. : Gs  w Gs  1  w 1 e 1 e  . weight Gs w) are subjected to upthrust (  w ). Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 13 . Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVES 27 June 2009 26 Dr. Hence the buoyant unit weight is given by .3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics Apply in the case of unit weights Gs (1  w) w 1 e GSe   s r w 1 e  Where a soil in-situ is fully saturated the solid soil particles (volume 1 unit.

3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics DETERMINATION OF LIQUID LIMIT 27 June 2009 27 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 14 . S. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics SOIL INVESTIGATION  Planning  Equipment  Field testing  Sampling  Bore Holes  Location and Numbers  Field Tests  Laboratory Tests 27 June 2009 28 Dr.

Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics SOIL TESTING METHODS  Field tests  Standard Penetration Test (SPT)  Field Vane Shear test  Cone Penetration Test  Laboratory Tests  Direct Shear Test  Tri-axial Shear Test Tri axial  Unconfined Compressive Strength test 27 June 2009 30 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 15 . S.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics SCHEMATIC OF WASH BORING OPERATIONS PHOTOGRAPH OF WASH BORING OPERATIONS 27 June 2009 29 Dr. S.

3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics SPT Test Parameters  50mm External Diameter 35mm internal Diameter Split Barrel Sampler – 650mm length  65 Kg Hammer is dropped from a height of 760mm  Number of Blow for 300mm penetration is called SPT “N” Value  It indicates relative strength of soil  E Empirical correlation b t i i l l ti between other th parameters available. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMMS OF THE THREE COMMONLY USED HAMMERS 27 June 2009 32 Dr. S. S. 27 June 2009 31 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 16 .

7 27 June 2009 33 Dr. pcf ( (kN/m³) ) † Excavated soil or material dumped from a truck will weigh 11 to 14 kN/m³ and must be quite dense to weigh much over 21 kN/m³. S.3 to 0.65 16 – 30 21 – 40 26 – 45 33 – 38 36 – 42 40 – 50 110 – 140 (17 – 22) 0 85 0.85 ? > 40 > 45 < 50 130 – 150 (20 – 23) λwet. No existing soil has a Dr = 0.35 7 – 15 8 – 20 10 – 25 30 – 34 32 – 36 33 – 40 110 – 130 (17 – 20) 0 65 0.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics Empirical values for ø. and unit weight of granular soils based on the SPT at 6 m depth and normally consolidated Description Very loose Loose Medium Dense Very dense Relative density Dr SPT N70: fine medium coarse ø: fine medium coarse 0 1–2 2–3 3–6 26 – 28 27 – 28 28 – 30 0-100† (11 – 16) 0 15 0. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 17 . Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics DENSITY INDEX OF SANDS N Value Classification Id (%) (NI)60 0–4 4 – 10 10 – 30 30 – 50 > 50 Very loose Loose Medium dense Dense Very dense 0 – 15 15 – 35 35 – 65 65 – 85 85 – 100 0–3 3–8 8 – 25 25 – 42 42 – 58 27 June 2009 34 Dr. Dr.15 3–6 4–7 5–9 28 – 30 30 – 32 30 – 34 90 – 115 (14 – 18) 0 35 0.00 nor a value of 1.00 – common ranges are from 0. S.

Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 18 . N 70 Remarks Squishes between fingers when squeezed Very easily deformed by squeezing 0–2 3–5 6–9 10 – 16 17 – 30 > 30 Hard to deform by hand squeezing Very hard to deform by hand Nearly impossible to deform by hand † Blow counts and OCR division are for a guide in clay “exceptions to the rule” are very common 27 June 2009 35 Dr.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics CONSISTENCY OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS† Consistency Very soft NC O OCR Young A Aged / cem mented clay Soft Medium Incre easing Stiff Very stiff Hard . Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics EFFECTIVE OVERBURDEN PRESSURE 27 June 2009 36 Dr. S. S.

Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 19 . S. S.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics CORRECTION OF MEASURED VALUES OF STANDARD PENETRATION RESISTANCE 27 June 2009 37 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics MECHANICAL (OR DUTCH) CONE. AND TIP RESISTANCE DATA 27 June 2009 38 Dr. OPERATIONS SEQUENCE.

S. 27 June 2009 39 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics VANE SHEAR 27 June 2009 40 Dr.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics VANE SHEAR TESTS  Two types available  Field Vane Shear  Laboratory Vane Shear  Principle is same but only the size of equipment different  Method based on shearing a circular soil surface and relating it with the torque applied  Gives the undrained shear strength of soil soil. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 20 . mostly clay based soils. S.

S. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics SHEAR TEST 27 June 2009 42 Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 21 .3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics VANE SHEAR TEST  d 2h d 3  T  cu   2  6     t  Torque at failure d  overall vane width h  vane length 27 June 2009 41 Dr.

Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics PRINCIPAL LINE DETAILS OF TRIAXIAL CELL 27 June 2009 44 Dr.3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics DIRECT SHEAR APPARATUS 27 June 2009 43 Dr. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 22 . S.

shear strength is expressed as a function of effective normal stress:  f  c . c .f tan  .3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics THE MOHR-COULOMB FAILURE CRITERION The shear strength of a soil at a point on a particular plane was originally expressed by Coulomb as a linear function of the normal stress on the plane at the same point  f  c   f tan   f  Shear Strength  f  Normal Stress c. S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics THE MOHR-COULOMB FAILURE CRITERION In accordance with Terzaghi. .  .s fundamental concept that shear stress in a soil can be resisted only by the skeleton of solid particles.   Shear Strength Parameters 27 June 2009 45 Dr.   . S. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 23 .  Shear Strength Parameters in terms of effective stress 27 June 2009 46 Dr.

and  3 at failure. S. .   3 )  ( 1. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 Basic Soil Mechanics Stress Conditions at Failure σ΄1 σ΄1 σ΄3 τ1 θ σ΄3 τ σ΄1 τ1 2θ σ΄3 27 June 2009 48 σ΄1 σ΄1 σ΄ Dr. stresses  1. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 24 .   3 ) sin 2 1 2 1 1 . S.f  ( 1.  f  ( 1.   3 ) cos 2 2 2 27 June 2009 47 Dr. .3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics THE MOHR-COULOMB FAILURE CRITERION The shear strength of a soil can also be expressed in terms of effective major and minor principal .  .

  3 ) 2 Therefore. 3 2 o 27 June 2009 50 . 2 49 Dr. It is apparent that   45  O .3/14/2011 Basic Soil Mechanics  is the theoretical angle between the major principal plane and the plane of failure.  1 . 2 )  2c tan(45  . 2 ) Dr. Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 25 . . S.    tan (45  . o . ( 1   3 ) 2 sin . c . Now : 1 . 1 . cot  . Nallayarasu Department of Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36 27 June 2009 Basic Soil Mechanics The relationship between the effective principal stresses at failure and the shear strength parameters can also be obtained.  ( 1. S.

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