I I

U I In
-
I
eonsruclon
I
I ws ra e
FOURTH EDITION
FRANCIS O.K. CHING
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This book
Published
Published
Printed in the United
10 76
on
New
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conceived to
range of human activities in
economic, and and
natural and built environments that constrain
We should rh;?lAotf1Y'O
consider the contextua I forces that a in planning
the and construction of
and natural habitat of a site all
in the
into
of the sun, the rush of the wind, and the flow
Consideration of these contextual on and
cannot without a brief discussion of
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license from
Canadian
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11
27%
and warms the
and Maintenance
Materials & Construction
While some of this infrared
the
and in all directions
by IlI"PtmhrlllC;p
pmr'''''''A' "r'", of
Architecture 2030 is an environmental whose
mission is "to information and innovative solutions
in the fields of architecture and
r'lts
and IlrPl
o
nl1rlllc;p
What relevant to any discussion of sustainable
that most of the
attributable to the
may come from
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• Gravel • Sand
Clean GW
mm GP
GIv1
Clean SW

Sands wi fines SIv1
Iv1L
mm CL
OL
<0.002 mm Iv1H
CH
OH
Highly soils
Based on the ASTIv1 Unified Soil Classification
tConsulta the
0.0479 kPa
§ LL
liquid limit: the water content,
10000
10000
5000
4000
7500
6000
4000
4000
2000
2000
2000
2000
The
into soil
rAVM<n"rii+;A'" and characteristics. See table below .
advisable to have a ""tyr'nrMIVlir,,1
479 None Excellent
479 None Excellent
Poor
192 Poor
None Excellent
287 None Excellent
192 Fair
192 lv1edium Poor
Poor
96 lv1edium
96 high Poor
96 lv1edium
lv1edium
Unsuitable Poor
which soil from to liquid
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mix
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(v)/ horizontal distance (h)] x 100
The between contour lines
in elevation and the horizontal
between the two contours.
refers to the of surface features
which influences where and how to build and
To ofa to
Contour lines are ,m::Lr'lIn'Jr\/
elevation above a datum or bench mark. of each
contour line indicates the of the land formation at that
elevation. Note that contour lines are continuous and
view only when
of the site, and the nature of
and the
interval between contours. For or
20' or 40' (5 or 10 m) contour intervals may be
For small 1',2', or
or1.om)
Ground over 25% erosion and
difficult to build on.
Ground over 10%
outdoor activities
Ground
informal outdoor activities and can be built on without
Ground 5% are usable for most outdoor
build on.
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Warm
& Heavier cool
into
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9000
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movement.
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r
U
, Altitude the
elevation of the sun above
the horizon.
48°
44° Toronto
40° Denver
Tulsa
32° Phoenix
18° 42°
22° 46°
26° 50°
30° 54°
34° 58°
Azimuth of south for sunrise, and west of south for
124
0
56° 122°
58° 120
0
60° 118°
62° 116
0
The
of a
should be to maintain balance between underheated
when solar radiation is beneficial and overheated
when radiation should be avoided.
The of the sun
and the latitude
a site should obtained from a weather almanac or
service bureau before ,""1'<"""1"11,, the
and
Horizon
Winter
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nrntprti.nn on
• Provide solar windows outdoor
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N
,j
LEED EA Credit Renewable
LEED EA Credit 6 Green Power
00
heat the
liic;t:rihllitinn and control of solar energy.
hour W/mr'/hr), used in
of solar radiation on
solar
for solar
collection
* Area should be 30% to 50% of floor area in cold
climates and 15% to 25% offloor area in rDW1VWV''1rn
, Concrete: 12
J1
to 18
1J
• Brick: 1O" to 14
1J
'Adobe: to 12"
, Vents.
minimize
and
heat distribution.
on the rpl::rflnt1C;hlVl between the sun, the interior
and there ways in which
indirect
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wall
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, Horizontal most effective
when have southern orientations,
combine the
to wall.
range of
characteristics of horizontal and vertical
louvers and have high ratio,
r sometimes referred to
very efficient in hot climates,
MosterFormot 10 71 13 Sun
or
Itonlati(;allv with time or
controls to the
low sun
, Louver's may interfere with view,
50%
on
Devices
devices shield windows and other
in warm weather,
on their form and orientation relative to the solar
altitude and azimuth for the time and season of
Exterior devices are more efficient than those
located within interior
solar rays before
window,
Illustrated
, Vertical louvers
western PV\!1(1G;1 moe;
, Louvers may be
can reach an exterior wall or
devices, Their
for
aut(Jmaticaliv with time or controls
shade
and orientation,
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for
exterior wall ass,eml?lles.
r-"",'''O''''WlAI'D the runoff of rain and snow from
constt'ucted and increases the
amount of storm water that must be drained from the
• Cisterns for /''''I.orr .. , , ~ ,
structure.
roofs shed rainwater If the
60° the roof may
and to storm
natural outfall on the
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, High inlets
in
, Flat roof
ND
up to 7:12
, Outlets should be
or inlets for
maximum airflow,
, The of an outlet
direct flow
of windbreak
7:12
The direction and of
site considerations in all climatic
daily variations in wind should be
structure,
Wind-induced ventilation of interior aids in the
necessary for health and odor removal. In hot
and in humid ventilation is
beneficial for convective or Natural
ventilation also reduces the energy
fans and eCWit7ment.
EQCredit
of airflow are affected more by building
orientation than
The ventilation of concealed roof and crawl
remove
attic ventilation reduce overhead
reduce
of relative calm on their
on the
tJenl::I:ratlle wi ndscreen
in wind shadow on the leeward
side of the
The structure, rnf'l'lnnrlPnr
be anchored to
or
suction on the sides and leeward surfaces and normal to
windward roof surfaces less than 30°,
2.09 for more information on wind forces,
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Views
txt?imSlve view
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TJ
(GxH)]/(A B)
nhrr.vVV""n n of allovvable width 01' C/ A
LEED Credit
limit the
with any restriction
define three-dimensional
which the volume of a may not
extend. Refer to the ordinance for
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n
u N
MasterFormat 0 00
MasterFormot 30 00
1. Provide for
movement to
transit
and circulation for "'D,;"crr,'Onc
2. Determine the number
and automobile traffic.
for nl41nrAOVlr\l
11.
from the for the
Carre by Alvtlr Aalto.
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Minimum
Handrails
or
* Avoid
wheelchair traffic.
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Berth: 10
1
to 121
• One lane: 13
1
lU minimum
, Two lanes:
18
1
minimum
,
wheel
21-6
11
ON
Transition
to of
main
111 minimum
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, 7'-0
11
minimum
minimum width
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N
... :::;;.:,,= .••••.•....• ~
(51 MasterFormat 31 00
MosterFormat 00
MasterFormat 31 00
erosion from the runoff of surface
water some means of stabilization. The for
stabilization can reduced by the runoff at the
ofthe or by to reduce the
ofthe runoff.
erosion.
of
Filter fabric or and
Gabions are aalvani7P-r;j or PVC-coated wire
structure,
Filter fabric
to form an abutment or
to an embankment
for
filled
Natural means of stabilization include soil hlnr:IPrc,·-V11::lnr
erosion by
of
cover and network of that bind the soil.
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, T
, T
by
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should extend below
the frostline or 21
whichever
or live loads.
Wall
when
used for
counterfort
the
may be to relieve the of
behind the wall.
minimum
minimum
o.c., and
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wi
• Gravel for walls over
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1% minimum
may
, Grid or turf block:
* Consult local
NG
000
thick , Granite cobble: or 6" thick
(100 or 150 150 thick)
for or vehicular
and
two of
receive moisture from 'Hi"Hf"v>cf"nAM
thick
, Cut stone: and thick
and installation recommendations.
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The site natural and built features
of a site and describes construction in relation
to these features. Usually based on an
land survey, the is an essential
construction documents. A wmUIC::[,itiGl
the items:
1. Name and
2. Address of
6.
7.
8.
owner
if different from owner's
boundaries
location and elevations of new
construction
9. Identification and dimensions
10,
11.
of
connections
20, I( ptprpnrpc, to related and details
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meridians north-
south reference lines p,c;t:8t711''lhp,r;
at substantial landmarks for
ON
of land. .' '" '.,'. """"" ..... , ........ _.},...... r·,-··,·· ·"t·, -'."'"
, Guide meridians north·south
reference lines located between
correction lines at 24-mile
baseline
, Correction lines
reference lines located
intervals
and south
for the convergence of Vf1prltilC1nc.
and
(SI MasterFormat 02 21 1 Site
A
and boundaries of a
metes-and·bounds surveyor a vvI/C1IIV1UIClI
or made with reference to
and dimensions of each lot.
The based on
and
numbered subdivisions
;mnt'mlirn;Ji:f:i\l one mile
and further subdivided
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construction are not 110(','C;C;'1rllll
r'lVHnrH,I'''' An of the methods
VlOJIIIVIlVJ, and
VIUU'(A"V'JV it. A working
of building construction only one of several
critical factors in the execution of architecture. When
the art of we should
, The
of a building
• The of human activities and
dimension
Thefunctional of the
to
and unified
can be
embodiment of a number of
that must be
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The manner in which we the various
in construction should
, Fire resistance,
, Allowable or desirable thickness of construction ::Ic;C;PI11YJIIPC;
Control of heat and assemblies
wear, corrosion, and IUD'1rnDril1t1
Cleatnltness, and maintenance
and detail
, Initial
energy
maintenance and
demolition and and interest on invested money
and rnC/1I1rr,6C
, Conformance to
, Division of labor and coordination of
constraints
, Construction
, Erection time
, Provisions for inclement weather
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rA(JIIIrAtl1An't.:; or concerns, model code may
munlclpcl!rr,ywith amendments.
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ON
The IBe classifies the construction of a aCC(Jralin(J to the
and interior
floor and roof assemblies,
elements,
III have noncombustible exterior walls and
material code.
HT) have noncombustible
interior elements of solid or
and without
of rel7reserrGatlve
A B A A B HT A
Structural frame 0 0 0
walls
Exterior 2 0 2 0
Interior 0 0 1/HT 0
walls Varies with location on and distance to structures
Floor construction 2 2 0 0 HT 0
Roof construction 11/2 0 0 HT 0
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r"Y""rr"Hn often with
atJtJlllcal;lOn. Under a
in relation to
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• Ground acceleration
An consistsofa of'l1nlllT"I'"n::l'
vibrations induced in the earth's crust
of fault lines. The shocks of an p::Irf'ht1ll::l11
the earth's
1"".,,,,irhWlir·1Ih with distance from its source. While these
the more critical in structural
elements of a structure
have considerable reserve for additional vertical loads .
brief introduction to the way a structural
must resolve all of the forces and channel them
tothe
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two conditions are necessary.
the vector sum of all forces on it must
of all moments of the forces
A concentrated load
has reactions at its
zero, rotational
of the live load on floor
wall.
maintain the equilibrium of the whole.
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Beams to transfer
C;llnYlnrtinll elements. The
nonconcurrent
which must be resisted
material.
Deflection
and
of the
of each element of an
the moment of inertia of the section divided
the neutral axis to the most remote
of rotation.
from
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& A f i x e d ~ e n d beam
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and bottom chords are the members of
a truss from end to end and connected by
web members.
Web is the
the
a rnrrpc;nllnrl i 1'111
chord.
Heel
, Vierendeel
of members rnMYlDrf',Yl/1
truss.
within the web of a
on chord and
on an
end of a truss.
framed beam structures
vertical web members connected to
and bottom chords. Vierendeel
are not true
forces.
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_.
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Plate structures are
structures that
with the loads /Ione)""II\.1 "YnllnlAlllnl1
structure a reinforced concrete slab.
or
structure.
of a
Inrrp"c;.pc; the number of members into which shear is
transferred and reduces the forces in the members. 6.10
for more information on frames.
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The dime:Msions
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, Planks
g Joist slabs
, Flat
Waffle
o
o
10 20 30 40
10
The of horizontal elements
of their vertica I
relaClOnSMIO between the
of structural elements influences the dimensions and
scale of the defined of
building. The dimensions and
in turn. should be related to the VlrntlY'c:JWlmc:J1',lr
Y'PI1IIIY'Pf'r1pnfc of the
60 70
20
80 90 100
30
feet
meters
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,A may in one or two directions
to accommodate the dimensional of
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, A rigid floor structure,
or
The structural elements building must be
to form a stable structure
a structural
to not only carry vertical
withstand lateral wind and seismic forces from
The following are the basic mechanisms
A steel or reinforced concrete frame with
of in
concrete, or masonry wall
and lateral loads to the
A timber or steel frame braced with members
may be used or in combination
to stabilize structure. Of the three vertical
frame tends to be the
be useful when p,rrlrJ'I{)VII'In
form undesired barriers between
Lateral forces tend to be more critical in the short direction of
and more efficient shear walls or braced
used in this direction. In the long
elements may be used.
Bents are braced or frames
vertical and lateral loads transverse to the
framed structure.
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· A
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mounted on rollers
ofa tall with
to
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them to a lJutme:nts on either
have
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• Schwedler domes steel dome structures , Lattice domes steel dome c;t.rllr.t.llrpc;
members that follow the lines of members that follow the circles of
latitude and third of
Adame is
circular a
that are r.nmnrpC;C;IIIP near the crown and tensile in
vertical section
the surface of the dome
the
movement of the meridional
of a
forces to
of from
• Geodesic domes are steel dome c;trllrtllrpc;
members that follow three
at 60°, ;;U1l01IVHAIIiIA
(51 Mnd·",i-flrmnt
00 Structures
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network of cables sustJenaea
'nrm1rpc;c;inn members to
, The
,;cJfllr:-C,I,,;\lccfl structures have vertical or inclined
from which cables extend to
members in
MosterFormot 13
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IONS
connector: bolt Linear connector: weld Surface connector:
Welded steel connections Reinforced concrete
The manner in which forces transferred
from one structural element to the next
'dJi",j\l,",[lfJon
and connections used. Structural
to each other in three
ways.
to be continuous and
element to make the connection.
allow all of the connected
to form
structural connection.
the structural
elements may be in the form
or a While linear and surface
translation in direction nprvlpnflllf'lIl::lr
into or away from their faces.
in construction
or fixed connections
when must allow
and contraction of a element to
occur.
resists translation
the cable.
in the direction of
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, Thrust from arched or tensile structures
The foundation is the lowest division of a
or wholly below the
loads it serves
critical link in the distribution and resolution of building
the foundation must be to both
of the C;11Y),Orc;trllrlr.llrp
above and
and water below.
on basement
walls. In some may also have to
counter the thrust from arched or tensile structures.
soil on
earth soil in
to the horizontal movement of a foundation.
Lateral
nonuniform
Some shear is friction
between the foundation and the IIMI110rl\IIMfl soil.
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Foundations utilize combination
and to transmit
substructures:
DaSernt:rr\;s wholly or
continuous foundation wall to hold
the
of
and exterior walls and columns of the
installations,
Concrete earth
and thickened to carry wall and column
economical foundation and floor for
crt'"rr"t'DC. in where little or no
occurs,
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00
InllPrnlnt11n1l refers to the
c;rrc·nllrhpnlnll the foundation of an
new excavation in
foundation.
foundation
tAUUIJuIIG·tA, needle beams are
the foundation wall and carried by
and shores.
to
new foundation wall
additional until the
or on
r", .. """·""",,, remove section of
foundation with reinforced
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The lowest shallow foundation
The contact area is
transmitted and the allowable
soil
d for unit masonry walls
d for concrete walls
for shear
AMfW' II riff" ,,! tpVf1VlprClt'l,rp reinforcement
Tensile reinforcement when a
than half of the foundation wall thickness and
of
Frostline the average which soil is frozen
flfCIIICLf A!,r:'4 the
rnml!1Clrtpt1 in 8" to 12"
wall
controlled moisture content, can be used to make up the extra
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Active
is'rrcH1c;tprrpt1
combination of soil friction on the bottom
and the of
soil
foundation walls,
Foundation walls
walls must
dowels or mechanical
foundation wall to
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• 18
1
x24"
to crawl
• Clearance is
may on
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formwork
Anchor bolts sill of construction;
and 4,28,
8
11
minimum wall thickness
, Horizontal and vertical reinforcement as
by 5.06,
Anchor bolts for sill construction;
and
units in bond with M mortar
minimum nominal wall thickness
3.09,
dowels anchor foundation wall to
Full on VUlAlllJllIAA
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anchored to
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A subsoil
foundation
to storm well.
or natural outfall lower
elevation on the
minimum
is
to a foundation wall when subsoil
conditions indicate that 14"," ,,,,"'1' '11'i ,0
J:1mVlnr,'1ntlnll may consist of a bituminous
modified cement
from the
concrete masonry walls with not less than (10)
bituminous
A mudslab of unreinforced concrete used when the
lAl:1tprnr'nntinll membrane continues under the slab
surface on unstable soil.
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(51 I\IInci'orf"nrmnt
(51
Vertical reinforcement
Lateral reinforcement
also 5.04 for concrete column details.
Steel dowels anchor column to
minimum
reinforcement
d effective
3/1 minimum cover for
reinforcement when concrete is
Critical section
Critical
of
available. Consult
manufacturerfor allowable loads
and installation details.
also be

A where:
P Column load in
A
in
distribute the
column load over an area wide
allowable
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$ H/3 or 40' m)
, Ground
width minimum
should not
of soil or rock.
on
In
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(51 MasterFormat 03 30 00
(51 MasterFormat 03 31 00
(In.llfl.,,,nr,, (oncrete
Tv,rvn"r:c. thickness
Welded wire fabric reinforcement
of the
level to serve
of a concrete slab
f.nnI1I1r;1nhll and soil
on
differential movement in the soil bars may be
heavier-than-normalfloor loads.
may be to
and
MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS WIRE SIZE
FEET (M) INCHES (MM) (NUMBER)
6x6 W1.4x W1.4
x W2.0 x W2.o
6x6 W2.9xW2.9
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masonry wall and foundation
6
11
minimum clear
from any wood to finish
sill
from any
to transmit loads
should be used
wall or column transmits
or concentrated load.
1211
minimum
, A concrete slab may be thickened to
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minimum
cover
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CSI I\l\llctClrHHnlllt 06 13 6
Construction
foundations elevate timber structures above the
• Seismic zone
Floors should
transfer the
D\lr'"lll'1T1Af' and
I1IArJ'nrAflrYi to
of the structure,
have shorter
When the necessary embedment is not such on a
steel rod with turnbuckles or shear walls of
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• Solid or
drilled holes with
an
connection,
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MasterFormat 31 60 00
and caisson foundations.
n::lrHJP::lrlnll wall
Reinforced concrete or tie beam with
in clusters of two or more,
to
the heads cluster of
in order to distribute the load from column or beam
the
12" minimum
frictional resistance of a
for The skin friction aeV/;IO!?13a
and the soil into which the
the deviation of a from location or
can result in reduction of its allowable load.
stratum of soil or rock
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AIIncl'llY,"nrml1t 31 64 00
with concrete, For this
drilled or
Caisson
may be
or loose fill from the shaft
of
drilled
order to additional frictional
or eccentric
out
rock
solid rock in
Rock are caissons that have a
H-section within concrete-filled
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t7e considered in the
and movable
of the floor
must transfer their loads
the floor. The conditions of the floor structure and
foundation and wall affect
of a and
The of the floor construction and the within it
should be considered if it accommodate runs of
mechanical or electrical lines within the floor For floor
between habitable
additional
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or
limited
• Wood or
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111 clear minimum or not less than
nominal bar 0 or
minimum cover
steel reinforcement from fire and corrosion ___
bevel or chamfer
extend into and down
vertical Mo/lVlnnDVlT
tension.
Reinforced concrete beams are
Beam in 211
, Rule of thumb for concrete
beam:
measured from the rnmnrl'c;c;inn
Beam width should be to
width of column.
vary
reinforcement rather than beam
in 211 or 3"
as tension
reinforcement in the section of a concrete beam
to the
moment.
IVIIC1IIVW011IlW bars bent up or down
of moment reversal in beam.
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more
heavier loads than o n e ~ w a y
in the
reinforcement
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slab of uniform thickness may be reinforced in two directions and
with beams and columns on all four
increments.
removal.
with nnC;'r.TPtlC;lnnlnll
• For maximum {)rtll'r{)f1,0\1
resistance to lateral forces
slabs constructed
rule of thumb for slab
structural unit over three or more
lower' rnoments than
rule of thumb for total
Waffle slabs can be cantilevered in two directions up to
When no cantilever is a slab band
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• Steel tendons are first stretched across the
two abutments until
is then in formwork around the stretched tendons and
fully cured. The tendons in order to reduce the
maximum by alone.
• The deflection of the member under
curvature.
MosterFormot 03 38 00 Concrete
MosterFormat 03 40 00 Precast Concrete
tends its
• Dead load
• Dead load and
reinforced by or
tendons within their elastic
tendons are transferred to the concrete,
section of the flexural member in rnl1'lYlrP'C;C;llln
or
in the
com'entlOnallY reinforced member of the same size, ",,,,,,v'Averi,,,,, and
concrete member by the
concrete is
• Combined dead load and
, Final combined
lost due to the combined
of the concrete, relaxation of
and at the c:lnrlhnr;IIlPC;
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in
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• For economy, standard forms
should be in
manner whenever
C51 03 10 00 Concrete Accessories
concrete can exert on it.
for
concrete slab or beam has cured
own form work removed and the
slab or beam reshored until the concrete it full
for the formwork
for concrete columns and walls.
, construction
raised into by
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A 2"
with
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, 12'to 24'
6
11
,8",10
11
,12
11
20
11
to 48" to
1211 to
, 12" or
IJJVVllA V'V' of State
, 36'to60'(1Oto18m) range
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into column
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(51 AIInctcH;,nrnlnt 05 2 00
, Connections
transitional such steel
or The actual
connections may be riveted but are
more often bolted or welded.
Structural steel and columns used to
construct a skeleton frame for structures from
to C;VlIC;rr::Hlprc;
this can result in construction of a
structural frame. Structural steel may be left in
''''1'M'Af'A,'f''''; noncombustible construction. but because
fire"rated assemblies or
connections.
MI1MrIP?Y'rMIl or curtain wall 7.24.
wi
the concentrated load by a column
or beam that the resultant unit
does not exceed the allowable unit
material.
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'W
I
i i
or sections.
Rules of thumb for pc:;ti:m::ltinfJ
is to the steel section
limits
intended
In addition to material
for erection.
and shearforces within allowable
rHlr""':""
D
deflection for
also consider the labor costs
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C;pml-I"If1!ll1 connections.
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connection made by Two welded or
the bolted to column and web
of beam
welded to
bolted to web
welded to beam all
around and bolted to column
connection made by
(,{)W1Vl{)rl0nr of the

limited
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vary
8K1 to16
1
m)
lOK1 m)
7m)
m)
to 10 m)
11m)
m)
m)
LH
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, Floor deck
, Floor deck
of the
, Floor deck may consist
• Metal w/concrete fill
lateral
analOiAOIJS to
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, Concrete floor slab
fifit1ctr\Y.,C\rn1f1t 05 30 00
of metal
nprtYl::JrJPrI for a reinforced
Itself and live load.
tensile reinforcement for the
bonded with rib
for electrical and communications
available for floor outlets. The
when the VWV'i'.hV>0fn/l
• Rule of thumb for overall
, Consult the manufacturer for
gauges, and allowable
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Wto
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, Joists may be
, Reinforced
, Connections
inserted with an electric or nnPllm::rnr
welded cotllneC1:,lOtlS
ranges of IltllTt-tl::lIltlA
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Metal wall
Continuous runner
Anchor
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material.
(SI MosterFormot 06 11
or the
for construction. If
floor structure can serve
nlcHll1r"::l/lJ1c1 to transfer lateral loads to shear
discussion of wood construction
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'2xlO 10
1
to 141
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anchors or holddowns may be
the wall and to the
foundation
or header
o,c.
direct contact between
minimum for wood beams
on concrete or masonry
Thicken wall to form if additional
iAlSCUSSlon of balloon and
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in
of
@16"
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nailed wi
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For rated
Structural I
Sturd+floot,
32/16
36/16
48/24
Over subfloor
Over board subfloor
MasterFormat 06 16 00 ::>nellmmq
and thicker.
other
board
Consult the American
(lr:U1PC;T.;:]rrm found on the back of
the maximum
laid
secured with or
nails. Consult the APA for detailed recommendations.
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consult
building
minimum
chord.
Continuous nailerfor lateral
of bottom chords
Wood stud or masonry wall
Continuous
Wood stud or
masonry wall
Wood
Stud wall
the
Wood beam or
stud wall
@
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, Provides resistance to
horizontal
• For
• Positive
of
IIlprl1::1n.rllnl1 beam
of metal attachments are manufactured for
('1_'''1),,,,., and
resisted or
t,r::1tlc;tprrpl'l the connectors may be nailed or bolted.
beam
Sill
3" minimum
Foundation wall
of minimum
of the on either side
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column
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the allowable rnmnrpc;c,i\/p
beam and material not exceeded.
MasterFormat 06 1
(51 06 1
beams may over or frame
beams to reduce of
Iimitto
1
/4of
and concentrated loads
additional
to
may be left
material and labor
sound transmission, and
forthermal insulation,
and ductwork.
in
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, Solid
2x8 nominal
end have the most
deflection
• 2x 6
1
, 3x
, 4x
101 141
, 6x can 12
1
to 20
1
MosterFormot 06 1 00
NG
$ Solid , Laminated
nominal
, Channel groove , Plain or molded
II II

II rf
, Most efficient structural of
material
to
to
II
+

II
Rule of thumb for
, Limit deflection to
Consult IJIc:llllllc:lLd/UJ
allowable
VU11 L'IIIUv'U::?1 v over four or more
, Joints in the
rows by 12"
free
at
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Walls are the vertical constructions of a
and
interior of a
vertical loads, exterior wall
able withstand horizontal wind
can serve walls and
lateral wind and seismic the
foundation,
exterior walls shield
weather for the interior
their construction should control the
structural
and windows must constructed
distributed around
VlmCII.81:lnn. view,
well as the constraints of the
and modular wall
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Reinforcement the
vertical reinforcement and C;T.rpnIlDlpnc;
the column
(51 III1f1rtrIYH'lrf11f1t
(51 /\I\f1ctr,Y;'Arn1flt
(51 MasterFormat 03 31 00
minimLHl1
not over 48
, Dowels tie column to
C;llnYlnrr:,Orl beams and
, Inclined bars should not
exceed 1:6
width minimum
, Round columns:
10"
minimum
Concrete columns are
vertical and lateral reinforcement in
forces. Consult a structural
code forthe
reinforcement.
the column.
, Vertical reinforcement should not be less than 1% nor
more than 8% four No.
minimum for tied columns or six No. bars
3"
concrete is
to earth
Below frostline
Contact area distributes column load to
ensure that the allowable of the
C;llnYlnrt-inll soil not eXCc;eClB:Cl; minimum.
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Mnd'Arl."rrnnt 03 20 00
Mnd'Ar\..Arrnnt 03 30 00
Mncirnrl--nrmnt 03 31 00
, Anchor reinforced concrete walls to floor
and walls with
o.c. for
and wall
AMe: Dr",,,,,,r for structu ral
Walls more than 1011
reinforcement in two
with the of the wall.
No. minimum
x wall thickness or 18
11
o.c.
Minimum ratio of vertical reinforcement to
concrete 0.0012
, Minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement
to 0.0020
continuous
ni'1f'DVl1Df1r of all reinforcement.
for a discussion of
construction material.
bent in
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Concrete
Form
concrete. While various M"
there
she bolts.
have notches or that allow
their ends to be off below the concrete
removed for
the concrete.
inside
groove in the surface of a
These also available
on the outside
member.
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form,
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Up to 48
1
m)
• 1211 to 2411
(51 03 00
MasterFormat 03 00
cast and in
and
rnW1Vlnnl>nrc Fabrication
environment enables the units to have
consistent of and and
eliminates the need for formwork.
columns can be clssumed to
indicated floor and roof areas.
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Steel
anchored in wall
or membrane
see 7 . 1 3 ~ 7.14.
Shim and
nonshrink
Continuous
Posttensioned rod
Shim and
nonshrink
P osttensioned anchor
into
Quirk miter: to
Backer rod and sealant
(13)
minimum
, Discontinue sealant
code for detailed
structural F,rA"" tell"""","
secured
to column
nuts
• Anchor 1"
column is
Column
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(51 MasterFormat 04 20 Unit
Mnd'fHI."rfYln+ 04 21 00
(SI Mnc!'ar!-f\rmnt
walls consist of modular blocks bonded
with mortar to form walls that are fire-
rpG;Ic;t.::lrlt. and The
most common
heat-hardened
of masonry units
include structural structural and natural
or stone, 12.07 for a discussion of masonry
construction material.
solid
for masonry veneer
walls may be unreinforced or reinforced.
• Unreinforced masonry
of a wall
Exterior masonry walls must be lA/p::IThPr,r?'G;1C;1r::mT.
and control heat flow,
, Water
to water Ylon.o, r"A" !flY!
• Differential movements in masonry walls due to
in or moisture content, or to
concentrations, and
• For installation of thermal 7.44,
• For fire-resistance

of noncombustible masonry
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walls
Solid
Hollow
175
170 150
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,Truss or
ladder ties
Mnd'/lrl-"rmnt 04 20 Unit
(SI MasterFormat 04 05 23 Accessories
Solid masonry walls may be constructed of either solid
or hollow masonry units laid with
solidly filled with mortar.
walls are
units (CMU) bonded with rIIWI/""l.fll
masonry
reinforcement.
Concrete masonry units (eMUs)
reinforcement fully embedded
reinforcement not to
Vertical cells of the concrete blocks may be
reinforced with in
minimum mortar cover between ties
reinforcement and any face
minimum mortar thickness between
masonry and reinforcement
solid
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reinforcement
masonry should conform to the
masonry, 5,17,
minimum cover for coarse
Horizontal bond beam
bottom
Provide horizontal reinforcement
walls
and
(10) 0 minimum, with
maximum o,c,
, The sum of vertical and horizontal reinforcement to
0.002 x the ofthe wall.
One No, 4 or two No, 3 bars around
24" corners
the code for the
structural rPllllirpnwnt
MasterFormat 04 20 00 Unit
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0.0018 of
blocks
rpin-rnrr,on1pnt in
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. A
below the
struck from a center
line.
, A
, A Tudor arch
of curves with radii much
that
camberto allow
for
lines of thrust must coincide with the arch axis.
• A masonry arch may of brick coursework
or individual stone voussoirs.
1\ H'r'MH0n",,, soldier and rowlock courses
of
the inner of an
or
for each 411
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o Confirm with
* Limit deflection
block wi
fill
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and:
(1) At
(2) At
(3) Near corners
On both
every 100' to
unbroken wall
or thickness
and wall intersections
IIWU:::'vdIJIt; metal
-. Ivlortarfill
interlocks
wall
to break
, Brick masonry
of movement
of movement
and contract with
in r.l'mVll'r::1t.llrl'
masonry units tend to absorb water and
while concrete masonry units shrink as
manufacture. to
accommodate these dimensional should be
located and so not the
structural of the masonry wall.
it dries after construction.
controlled by
concrete masonry units and
to
of air and water and interlock
allow movement.
Wall (L) 60' m)
LlH ratio 4
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Rowlock sill
• Continuous
holes
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, Rowlock
Reinforced concrete foundation
wall
Perimeter insulation
reinforced
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• Wood
reinforcement
wall rl'fllllrPI11pnr.c;
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the
masonry unit, or
mortar in which
masonry unit laid,
the
between two masonry units,
wall.
, Concave Joint
, For
finished by
with trowel. In troweled
off with
the
mortar to
tool before
, For
, For
"T/lJrlI 'All\! with
nominal dimensions that include the
of masonry
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bond fOt'm of
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8"
masonry wall rprlIllrPtl1pnr.c;
Mnd'or>-f1rmnt 04 23
, Nominal dimensions
Structural
cells or
may have different color.
cAlmenSlons. and
or
wI
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Structural
or channel
1" minimum
beam channel anchored
to lintel construction
# 1" minimum
1" minimum
anchors welded
tube or column
movement;
minimum
Backer rod and
Wood or metal stud
Mortar
emulsion
minimum
• Provide lateral
with 1"
or with
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Adobe and have
low tensile but a
of300
construction lies
in the and nOrrlO{;lCnCOIjS
nature of the wall.
• While
is another traditional
stiff mixture
rnmnt'pC;C:;Pt1 and dried within forms
wall construction. The soil mixture should contain than
50% and maximum (610).
Saltwater should never be used in the mix.
, Structural loads cannot be
dried and cured.
Wood anchors door and window
with the earth wall.
Sound foundations and
Minimum Wall
Provide
Window and door
(710) to any corner.
The total of wall
the wall
should be limited to of
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Two vertical dowels
the
stone
cornice over a window
minimum
eMU or reinforced concrete
Slush fill voids for solid wall
continuous air wall
may be II.Ic:llPrm'nntp/i to
Noncorrosive
Plinth
course of stones
foundation of a wall.
or anchors in
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of
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columns or from floor to floor
of mullions
and
variations in
or wind
Connection should allow
differential movement between
well
information on curtain wall
7 . 2 4 ~ 7 . 2 6 .
Because the columns in steel frame structure
transfer the lateral loads down to the
There are three basic may be
established between a structural steel frame and the
, Column within the wall
, Column behind the wall
The or curtain wall may be
t;llnl1nrt.p;j in one of two ways:
columns alone
columns well by beams or
of floor
may be sustJenc,1ec,1
wall units one floor
For may be braced either:
Below the floor
Above the floor
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W
Welded * Cruciform • Welded
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Double wood beam
connector welded to column
may be used
up
• A seismic foundation connection
utilizes and anchor
bolts into concrete foundation,
A to distribute the concentrated
in not exceeded,
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steel studs
Continuous r'unner channel
, Reinforced on
metal
Trussed
cOt'ners next to
Dout71e channel
Double or nested
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into
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Foundation wall
14'
2x6
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, Exterior wall r " h , " ~ l A , " ~
and finish
,6" minimum
clearance between
finish and wood
6.21-6.22 for
Second floor wall
first floor below
Interior wall finish
conditions.
similarto
, 2xsill
see 4.28.
anchored to foundation
See 4.30 for floor/
Provide beam or wall
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Nail @8
11
o,c,
manufacturer's
MasterFormat 06 6 00 ::,neathmq
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of
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construction utilizes framework of vertical
• Roof conventional wood
and horizontal beams to carry both floor and roof loads.
The beams the floor and
see
their loads to or columns
down to the foundation
, The skeleton frame
connections, and the
by individual
Columns: not
not less than 8x6 nominal when
06130 Construction
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wood
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and beam
anchors available,
Consult manufacturer
for
and
allowable loads,
be
concrete when
to weather or water
to
to weather,
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EA Credit 1:
~
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MasterFormat 03 20 00 Concrete Kelntorclna
MasterFormat 03 30 00
MasterFormat 31 00
as
Reinforced concrete roof slabs are formed and in
illustrated the
on
of roof insulation for
may by reinforced concrete
of
7.12
reinforced concrete or walls of
or masonry,
Wear
of a concrete may in
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MasterFormat 1 00
A flat roof structure may be framed with structural
members similar to the way floors framed,
4 , 1 4 ~ 4 , 1 5 ,
may be
or continuous
Girders roof beams and
the
or by
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Steel may
noncombustible construction.
A.12 t/)" 'H"fl>1Jri/V,tiM/\
m)
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2.16 for more information on
(51 MasterFormat 05 00
Steel
structural
framework.
Members are bolted or welded with
from aeV,BIO[''1n01.
of truss members and the load
should common
range for
range for
allows them to
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• Welded connection • Bolted connection , Threaded contlectlons
MosterFormot 1 Frames
and six structural members.
• Illustrated
structural
or vv -c,n::Jn."c,
, Fabricated
, Consult manufacturer for
and allowable
the members.
module
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wall wall
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MosterFormat 21 00 Joist
Joists may frame into
wall to form
or bear on the
wall to form flush or
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to
or more
for thermal insulation and membrane
to
beams and to
tothe
with screws, welds,
til::lr:ll1r::l/lm and transfer lateral loads
In
thermal insulation and membrane
To for the ad hesion of
wide and flat. If the
may have to be meC;harllcallly
1U to
vary. Consult manufacturer for available
allowable and installation details.
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an
two inclined
, Knee walls short walls
intermediate
their
some
the horizontal line of intersection
between two roof.
louver.
the end of
roof.
from
structural horizontal member "'"vW'AV"h",A
at the of a roof.
With sufficient natural
and <JIH'TWlT If'"
may habitable.
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similar to floor
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v Double
v Corner
, Double
Tail
• Common
MasterFormat 05 40 00
end wall of dot'mer
be
and be an extension of the
exterior wall illustrated
with shed dormer.
may be constructed
with steel members in manner
members may also be screwed or welded
form roof trusses similarto
those described on 6.29.
and
on
of exterior stud wall.
for roof forms and
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• Ventilation at the
with continuous
or by louvered vents in the
7.47.
, Critical
• Eave detail
NG
board
be construction; 1x material
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Wood or metal
7.19.
CtvlU welll
or
Wood wall
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20/0
24/0
24/0
40/20
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and
fifinctn,rf.'Hrr1nt 06 1
Construction
A reinforced concrete or
masonry wall
should be sufficient to ensure the
ofthe beam and
structural members
,
construction if the structure
by Ijust;, Die. fI rp"rpC;,IC;T.lIIP
exterior walls and the wood members and
meet the minimum
in the
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, For
washers
counterbored into beams. ~ ~ ~ ' < " < l " ~ " ' ~ ~ ' ~ ' ~ ' ~ ~ " ~ ~ "
Solid wood
for the number of bolts
connector.
, The ends of roof beams
may be
ornamental
not end to
weather.
wind forces.
wood
wI middle
member continuous
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SES
connectors. These wood
loads than trussed rafters and
Consult a structural
to
stjffened by
and either
suslJen'slOn rods.
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similar to those for conventional
o.c" but
Vented soffit
(SI MasterFormat 06 17
may be
Soffit returns may
be fabricated wi
units.
or masonry
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due to variations within the
radiation and
by
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interior wall line,
Ib,
lb.
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lIfl(1ctrlfi-'HrYlf1t 07 31 29
~ l o t
recommended
trim to form
canted with
eliminate
Valley
cut from red white
may available, Red cedar
resistant to water, rot, and
,18
11
and 2411
construction
'Preformed and hip units
available.
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1x4minimum
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installation details.
12" to

, Random
have either a n base or
surfaced on the weather side with colored
mineral or ceramic
have excellent fire
only
Minimum recommended
4:12
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Ml1ctnrJ,.f'lrml1t 07
cover units
Cover unit
, Arris tiles cover the
Field tries
Cement mortar
cover units
Wood nailer
• Closure with mortar
or with fixture units
felt
Eave
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of metal
Minimum recommended
Mndnr;'I1rmnt 07 41 1
between roof
The
finish
full
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The construction of a flat roof the elements:
1 . Th e wea r co u rse
mechanical abrasion. It may be
deck
7.14.

membrane. For more information on
to maintain the desired
rfH1,i;1';nVlr and be and
or area dividers. For these and

IIIlnCT'Ofrnrml1t 07 50
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no
any unevenness between units must
with a vented or fill.
retarder and and the Underwriters'
Laboratories (UL) Classification
of the
MasterFormat 07 51 00 Bituminous
Minimum recommended 1:48
Maximum
, For
and
for
for roofs
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Metal fascia
Galvanized metal dam
nails
membrane
Treated wood nailer
After the thermal insulation boards have l7een I11Pr h/lnir:/lll\/
the secured to the
in the membrane
minimum
Both the Insulation and membrane are laid
over the roof deck a nd covered with
roof Vlpr1.ptrcltinI1t:;
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(5107600
07620
07650
of sheet metal or
of
and
in
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(100) minimum
In wind-driven
snow and roof ice buildup, eave
over solid C14D'Tf14""/l
7.3,
Formed metal vent
with weather baffle
1111 minimum
for wood and
other
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, Draw band
Metal hood
minimum
minimum
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NG
Turn up 2"
, Turnup2
11
Turn up
to
, Threshold
1%
, Finish
• Threshold
Bose Course
• Bond wi IAI::lt,p.rnr'nntlnfl
membrane
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Structural
reinforced

or
masonry, or metal
wall
A curtain wall an exterior wall r"'0'V,,,,r.n,"
or concrete structural frame of a ancl no loads
other than own and wind loads, A curtain wall may
of metal
masonry, or metal.
curtain wall construction,
wall able
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wind-driven under
within the wall must
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of various metal devices may
wall to structural
, For t:lCCeSSiIDilI1N
fixed
best.
to curtain
accommodate
frame
thermal
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J
j!
.« < ~ ~ «
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, Wood or metal rafters
MasterFormat 04 13.13 Veneer
veneer construction consists of a
of masonry weather barrier and anchored but
not bonded to structural frame. In residential
construction, wood or metal stud walls with
a brick veneer.
• Wood or lilA 1 I 1 , ~ I Mil liAr. meta I studs
5.14-5.18 for unreinforced and
reinforced masonry wall
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• Metal wall 16
11
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• Monolithic the
, Reinforced
(SI MasterFormat 04 00
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m)
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(SI MosterFormot 07 46 29
6" minimum clearance
above
which must be {WlliPI
other very noticeable,
therefore be coordinated with other exterior wall elements
such window and door
IIII1I
II jill
II1III
II !II,'
II' I
Ii III
flashed
Galvanized or other
noncorrosive metal
rabbeted
corner
boards ....
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nailable fiberboard
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for t>VVl'Ji1CIf111
fJ,,>rl!h",""'D before installation,
Continuous
(51 MasterFormat 07
Horizontal board available in different forms.
IJIlAl, UtJl IIUI board
Clal\lamzecl,
done to allow the individual boards to
in moisture content. Board ends should meet over a stud or
corner boards or window and
board installation and
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v
i
~
I
I
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Wood or metal
stud frame,
walls
Concrete walls
Concrete
wire lath
(SI MasterFormat 09 24 23
Wall frame may be
or unsheathed, If unSr16atfled,
the
Stucco
VV"IIf'VvVV; of or masonry cement,
in
walls, This weather- and f'"",, __ >,nc-;rf'0V1f'
finish used for exterior walls and but
used for interior walls and
conditions,
in two
over a suitable masonry
or table
below for thickness,
, The
sound and
be
other contaminants that
suction or
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MasterFormat 07 00 Exterior
coat,
and finish coat onto wall
minimum of 4" (100).
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11
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Concrete
0.08
0.60
Cement mortar 0.20
Granite and marble
Alurninum
Aluminum
Wood
Wood bevel
Vinyl
11k
lie
0.20
0.20
0.11
0.0007
0.0010
0.0041
2.00
1.11
0.61
0.81
1.00
felt
Vinyl tile
Doors
Air
non reflective
reflective
0,20
0,18
0,67
0.06
0,00
1.01
The tables to the left be
lJ l/Rt
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board
in
fill
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which
o,"",nWl//nT within
installation of thermal insulation
'U OA
, R ~ v a l u e of inside air' film 0.61
air
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Solid wood
insulation within
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'of
insulation at floor and roof
wall finish
walitJoard,
Hollow of concrete
masonry can filled with
loose"fill insulation.
foam liners may
be inserted into the of
concrete masonry units.
tit'tL"t'PClct"ClM"r wall finish
such wclllboard,
Insulation
for exterior insulation and
finish
Batt or blanket insulation
insulation,
continue down below
to the line to insulate
similar material.
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0,800
2.400
50.000
15.000
0.700
0.000
mil 0.000
mil
mil
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DERS
07 26
A retarder is material of low
construction to moisture from
where it can condense into
Over
crawl
should
wall col1stt'uctiol1 to
011 the
may be
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Aluminum
Fir
101
Oak
Pine
Iron, 67
Lead Fir
Nickel 70
Oak
190
by
Where new
an structure
1 0
7
masonry
47
Limestone 44
Marble 73
76
Rubble masonry
50
Fahrenheit
All and contract in to
h " ' 4 " ' , h ~ ~ j ~ " ~ h Some also swell and shrink
a
c;pn::lr::lir.lnn of material and allow free movement
V>4 c'"4'reJ' 14114 " the of
the construction,
twice the linear
The coefficient of volume
the linear coefficient.
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in
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, As installed
, Joints should tooled full
with
(51 07 00 Joint
To
air,
cohesive and adhesive classified
the amount of extension and {,flrnnrpc,c,lllfi
can withstand before failure.
Often for where
little 1I1Ov,emelnt;
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..~ . . . . . ....... ." .. ...........................
T
i
• .. .•...•.. _-.
,
.... .......•
. .....
c ••~ : : : i ; ~ ; c .. ::.;
..
.•.•. : ...
; ...•.• N.
..
. ..
'.'
........ .......
...
i ·.
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N
when
.. ~ " .. ~ ~ . I ~ " .. ~ and threshold.
"Exterior and interior
and or
difficult to
% Exterior and interior
interior
with
, Interior
" Interior use
8.16 for doors.
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, Flush Vision/louvered
llalV.amzea for
louvers
Inverted channel
with finish
bottom
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, Throat
, Wood
anchor
% Minimum of
finish wall
masonry anchor anchor for
walls
channel
stud anchor
Backbends:
smooth,
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Wall
• Butt condition
condition
(170)
INr;rn<lrnII11rlor
condition • Condition
wall
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half the door
• Flush wi
increments
(SI MasterFormat 08 4
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·
i
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, Exterior wall
and
Shim
fill wi thermal
frames may have
, Cased may
without doors and therefore
have with no
Interior wall finish
Interior
(13)
Most door manufacturers offer doors
form varies.
Back of doorframe
may be kerfed to
for
available
trim may continue around the
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Aluminum
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Finish wall
and bottom
08 1
08 4
units
units
units
hardware
conditions for
wood frame construction
illustrated.
for hollow doors
and similar.
Consult door hardware
installation details.
Doors
Floor
Allow
Concealed door
or
width door width
for finish
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wide,
tiPf'1,"l1iJII1/l on
* Door
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(67) standard
I
I
, Continuous
bottom
and
wi locks
~ r n n n " l l \ r c Doors
$ Continuous bottom
rail wi lock
bar
consult manufacturer for
in
bar and door frame.
door
(SI Mncj"lYj,.f'I,mnt 08 41 00 Entrances
Narrow Stile
Door Section
II i!I
• Medium Stile , Wide Stile
and
t'Df1II1t'M11DI1f'C when
used an emergency exit door.
Consult manufacturerfor
frame rpl1IlIrPll1pnrC;
Door may be
direction
, Pivoted doors
and
about on a
tilC'!" 111m IICn,Dti from one
radio transmitter, electric eye, or other device.
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!
/
/
i
ee'e"e
"'ee'e
[ ]
/
e.••'c. /
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'2
I1
to4
11
to
hour,
and bottom
, Door diameter
, Enclosure flanked by within wall
f,onrilf'lCIIV'D VWIllort"I"" from Slae:IIGjtl1S
Bank of enclosures with between Enclosure within wall
MasterFormat 08 Door
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on
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• The pin in the knuckle may be removable
so that door can be
• Check !'IV'" V"J V If',"
of the door.
be concealed
• Floor door head
to enable a door to in either direction: may be
with closer mechanism.
MasterFormot 08 71 00 Door
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is covered on both
or
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(51 I\Hnctorl-flrmnt 08 00 Door
latches Panic hardware
and floor.
minimum for
Minimum door thickness:
the
may be
for locks
* A coordinator that
the inactive leaf of a
before the active leaf.
entrance
may be concealed within
the floor construction.
bar that the interior of an emergency exit door
at waist The bar should extend
least one-half the width of the door leaf on which it is
installed.
for details.
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or exterior, GH:::Jj/:;nWfl&l window unit.
, Head the Ilnnf,rl11nc;l:
of windows or t1nnn,\J::!'\Ic,
detail.
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• 100%
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, Aluminum window frames may have
or on the
nature of the wall construction.
, Thefin by
window unit and the wall construction.
The fin may ~ h e
frame to the r"""4hHhvu
or
more information on
12.09.
Metal windows may be and
bronze. Shown on this and the
air
Window dimension
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• Consult window manufacturer for stock window
Some will custom
(51
i
1
Wood frames are thicker than aluminum or steel
also more effective as thermal insulators, The
wood may be or
To minimize the need for maintenance, the
frames are now clad with vinyl or bonded
aluminum sections that no
wood windows are manufactured to
tC:PH1n,"V'nfC established National Wood Window and
Door Association (NWWDA) and
National Institute
and dimensions ofthe window frame and
the
mullions may be used
of the header or lintel.
may be when
four windows meet @ common corner
available from
many manufacturers,
or box windows
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mullion condition,
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or
comt:J0U!1C1 is laid
in the rabbet of a window
to
window frarne to form
hole
% Structural
wi
@ Mullion G,""I'II If" I ,r'fl
maximum
clearance on all
and linseed
not to
in must be
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o
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increased thermal insulation and restrict condenscltion.
air or an inert gas
171/l';;'Cd;:flflP. units are suitable for smaller in residential
and may not be installed with
gray

blue 120-154
clear +
blue 15-20
12 45 0.29-0.30 44
EA 1: Performance
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Mullions
rreclsse:mlJleCl wall
Anchors
mullion trim
Column
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details illustrate conditions of
curtain wall construction. When
standard fabricated wall
no for extensive when
modified. For more
the Aluminum Curtain Wall
American
Architectural Manufacturers Association
the
lateral wind loads and
and
determined by
loads. Consult the manufacturer for the
structural of the curtain wall
and air infiltration.
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, Vault
, Circular
0111111100"'011 to carry the
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wood curb
Interiorfinish
orwall
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block
• Metal
MosterFormot 3 34 13 Structures
vent
Thermal
heat
11"t'tlCCClrll an exhaust fan.
Clre(:mh()USI;S are available
of the
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ClUlaellnt;Soutlined on
dimensions for a
or floor-to-floor
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stair extends from one level to
K
! ~ ~ ..
1
!
t
i
L
,
I
!
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A wood
have no
of the following elements:
for wall finish
distance
off the
some
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of stair slab may
be turned up to form
curb or solid
on
A concrete stair
reinforced slab with
surface. If the is constructed after the floor
beam or wall beam.
If it is with the beam or slab
minimum @ concrete 4" (100)
minimum @ masonry walls
rule of thumb:
may be anchored to the
slab or low or to the of the
metal w/abrasive finish
Rule of thumb for slab thickness: rubber or vinyl
Horizontal wall
reinforcement as
• Stone tread w/abrasive
Beam
and
MIlCT'orl-nrmllt 03 30 00 Concrete
MllcTarJ.nrmllT 03 11 23 Permanent Stair
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weld
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*Consult
(SI Mm:i'CHt-"rmnt
16
13
IRS
literature to
71 1
dimensional
Stair
Diameter
Various connections
available to anchor the
to the floor
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It more convenient to
ladder from the
the
minimum width
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lower limit of travel.
MasterFormat 00
of the
level
floor
to
another. The two most common are electric
elevators and elevators.
Electric elevators consist of a car that
by
Bottom floor
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rail
• Elevator
Vertical
m)
floor
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, 1.75 x
t'OW tllaximum
and of elevators
of traffic to be carried
, Total vertical distance of travel
and desired
Two or more
manufacturer for recommended
the
Audible and visible
each elevator car.
and details.
and
venClla1;lOn, Bmd
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MasterFormat 04 00
Theflue draft and
offthesmokeand of a fire to
the outside.
The smoke chamber connects the
throat of a to the flue of
The smoke shelf a t ~ h e bottom of a
smoke chamber
ft'Om the
Front and Bock
downdrafts
A framed
to hold an
combustive vJ\!_vwnnllr,c
Radiate the maximum amount of heat
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lvioduladlues
Mfld·ar!-flrmflt 04 00 liner
47
108
171
240
298
.y One inch 645,16
Stone or
Reinforced c e r n e n ~ wash
should be
87
120
208
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minimum
41 minimum
(A)
(C)
more than
Additional
include:
food
consider in
mechanical
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Unit
• For
• 60"
• 30"
Oven
• 18" to 30'1 to
• 84" tall
MasterFormat
wide
Basic Unit
• 24" to 48"
in 3"
• 12"
Unit
• 39" to 48"
to
to long
Kitchen cabinets may be constructed of wood or enameled
steel. Wood cabinets have hardwood frames and
or board with
hardwood veneer, or
Stock kitchen cabinets are manufactured in 3"
modules and should conform to standards established by
the National Kitchen Cabinet There
three basic of units:
units. Consult manufacturer for available
hardware, and c:Jrrt'C;CJ1,V'IDC;
of
units allows for
for bathroom
·2T
for t w o ~ d o o r units
or
Corner Unit • Finished end and filler
• 36" available .
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illustrate basic
which can be
Recommended dimensions can be
of these and the on the
dimensions of a bathroom will vary 'Jf,/,IW/1I1r1fl
of the fixtures used.
of bathrooms and other restroom facilities should
into account the
for and locations Clrrf'c;c;r,rIPc; such as towel
mirrors, and medicine cabinets
, Number of walls and location of
vents, and horizontal runs.
Accessible bathrooms and restroom facilities
clear floor for a wheelchair to make 180
0
tum This
should be either a 60"
wide minimum and 60"
• The clear floor
and the t.1
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minimum
Width
Width
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ofthe tub,
. '.' ....~ ..~ . , - ~ ~ . , ..~ - ~ . - A
above the floor,
A
and the wall,
MasterFormat 0 Accessories
to above the floor and
should be installed on the back
ILIWI flI . .11f bar
above the rim
should be installed
of the tub,
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should not
rim of urinal.
minimum
above,
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• Bathrooms either natw'al
or mechanical ventilation in order to
remove stale air and fresh air,
, Pl'ovide natural ventilation by of
minimum
A mechanictll may
in lieu of natural ventilation,
,,,,..,hl.,"r"'>1 fan should be located
to the shower and on exterior wall
the b,;lthroorn door, It should be
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This
used to finish interior of
Interior walls should be resistant to wear and be
r'PClMCl'1IP·floors should be and to
should be
Credit4:
/11,,_1- WI ITTIVL" Materials
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Diamond
Diamond mesh
rib lath 0.31
flat rib lath
Welded or woven wire 0.19
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Flush metal
Acoustic
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• Flush wall
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to the main runners;
(3
Comer
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in
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to minimize
condensation on interior wall
frame should form
be bent and
(51 fiAlld(Hi-f'IYn1nt 09 21 6
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• Corner
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TI
Bead
C51 09 30 1 Ceramic Tiling
trim
Down corner
Runner
Field tile
Cove corner
Cove
Surface
modular
dense material that watenesistant, difficult to
stain, and do not fade.
Ceramic tile is available or
face of ceramic material fused into the
colors tend to be more muted than those
• Consult tile manufacturer for
and
and
material. These
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Cement Mortar
bond
of masonry.
board
(3 to 6) thick
tile
Mortar
Bathtub
chemical
mortar.
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in
09 00
Wood combines Iillr'1hlirr.l/
comfort and warmth,
hardwood and softwood
of hardwood
in
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in
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TI
(SI MosterFormot 09 63 40 Stone
in
slab
of cement mortar;
subflool' or cementitious backerboard
subfloor
Concrete slab
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tile
Vinyl comtJosiition tile
tile
tile wi
Linoleum
Linoleum
raw
wi fiber back wide 0
o
wi fillers .050
11
2) o
(2to
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maintain.
MasterFormat 09
floors with both visual and textural
of colors and
r'1 r'"D'n ,n 11 to absorb
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by
very
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On
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main
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and rabbet
, Dovetail dado
and rabbet
MasterFormat 06 20 00
and more I IlJ1/1 t .. Gr:1u'lr,
more
covered
the manner in which the members are
IMCOnstJICUOLJS. In
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or half+lind @ Secret dovetail or blind
tenon
or
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TI
Crown of a wall
or cornice.
of an interior
irrPI1111::lritil'c; in the floor
MasterFormat 06 00
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In
~ ~
the floor.
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MasterFormat 06 42 00
surround
It'rnllnrlllnil frame.
Horizontal
nailed
, Provide
of wood
Baseboard
Finish
over masonry or concrete walls. may also
be used over frame walls when thermal insulation
or additional wall
wood
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, A
of InC;llnnnrlPfl
Credit4,1: Adhesives
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• Conduction the transfer of heat from warmer to
of a medium or of two bodies in
without
very small of the total
mrr/!;:Jc;,"rl air motion induce more heat transmission
by convection.
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EQ Credit 7: Thermal Comfort
Canadians
conditions.
Air motion is
humid weather.
variations in climate
of the individual.
for
p\/:;Hlnr::1nnn in
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determine the amount
added or removed HVAC
an level of thermal comfort in
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nrlPni::lflnn and construction ::lc;c;,omf,ilIPc;
human c o m f o r t ~
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Forced¢air a for by means of air heated
in oil, or electric furnace and distributed by fan
ductwork to or diffusers in inhabited It the
most versatile and used for
small
crawl
Wall furnaces
heated
combustion air and vent by which
carried to the outside. Oil furnaces
Electric furnaces do not
wall and
of ducts.
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TI TI
Anthracite Coal
Oil
Natural
Btu/lb
139.000
Btu/cf
1 watt 3.41 Btu/hr
Units
Heaters
Electric more

of a conductor by virtue of which the
electric
means of
the resH3tance
or
small rooms.
window
to the floor line.
Industrial unit
elements may
furnace or ductwork
the heat
More direct
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* Hot-cold
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TI II
Concrete slab on
vVIII>llvVIJIV embedded in
the and around the
Moisture barrier
Subfloor
Cementitious I Jt1ti,?ri ::l1/Y11PYJr., minimum cover
thermal break,
Finish
minimum cover
minimum
83 16 II'nntl1nT-rlAnnnn
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Heat extracted
from air or water.
Waste
the
condenses before
to the
s
6000
ammonia.
or
form.
source to remove
water the
saline solution.
in which
U>'l v.", M;ry nt-: nV1 and
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TI 1]
(CAV)
delivers conditioned
duct
wall
duct
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with vertical
horizontal branch ducts
five in
intervals
indoor
the
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i nsta Iicltion
include:
or'f,0,rYf1cI11ro ottlf'IOn,0\/ and both the initial and life
ecwiornent may
leave
maximum amount of unobstructed
rentable
Central locations ideal for short
runs and distribution
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walls.
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from a main
Total "flVfcciLfflfl
service
minus friction head
tank maintains
It
Water utilized in
circulate water for and
in of an emergency.
desirable level of
store water for
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may
bibbs should cold
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Bathtub
Shower
Urinal
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Plumbing fixtures receive waterfrom a
the liquid
should of a
mandate the use of fixtures and valves in order
to conserve water ""C:CIII"r.{)C
Flood level is the level which water would overflow the rim
fixture.
into
A drum is
cover
drain line from bathtub.
, See ,,'" ",1"""h,Y1" fixtures.
(51 MasterFormat 22 40 00
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(l
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, Branch drain or more
storm
(SI IiIi/1crrlr>-nrnont
00
s
, Stack vent an extension of
soil or above
the
sewer.
storm drain conveys
rainwater or to
storm
to public storm sewer, combined sewer,
or other
vent to
between the first fixture and the
soil
connection of
horizontal branch to the vent
located below the
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, Valve:
transformer
(SI MasterFormat 70 00
Flow: current
120/208 V,
, 120/240 V.
three wire
three wire
The electrical of a building
of electrical eCjuiDment
to
of one volt
, Ohrn
installations which
and the
IfClAllllr:lIWIII,c,in
of a difference in electrical
the difference
constant current of one
to one watt
flow of one
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distribution.
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, Reflectors control the
(SI III1f1nelrH'lrnlf1r
Interior
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* 40% 60%
* 40%
* 10% to 40%
@ 60% to 90%
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criteria formula
luminaires may
based on
f Initial lumens lumens
EQ 6.1: nntr'nll::lIJilit\/of
x luminaire
The
the illumination
source from any
and cosine laws.
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material
limits ana
brittle
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cement and various mineral with
the cement to set and bind the entire
added to concrete mix to
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any of various
'W carbon content than that of cast iron and more than
that
round,
Manual of Steel Construction for small amount
and
heat retention rust
MasterFormat 05 1 00
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Titanium
, Nickel
, Tin
iron
Most noble
Cathode
noble
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masonry.
(SI 04 40 00 Stone Assennblies
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in its moisture content. Below moisture content
of about wood it absorbs moisture and
LnrIVlv'J.noand
and
8% ,0% 'Moisture
wood in directions.
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TI
MasterFormat 08 81 00
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Solar
to 75%
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, 4d • 6d • 8d 'lOd • 12d • 16d 20d
(100) into wood or other
, Common to
, Box nails
work to
, Cut nails wood
,
h::lmmprlt11l into masonry
Power-Driven
Power-driven into or
to drive
(51 fldor;'tHfY'flt 06 06 00 )Cf1BI[JUiBS
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drive
$ Machine bolt
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not
may
and
bond on contact and therefore
It
that
of a hole drilled in masonry or concrete.
lr::lrIPm;lrv for a brand bolt sleevelike
the bolt d raws the ends of the sheath
a hole drilled in masonry or the
tXO,1tlSIIJn shields lead or insetted into
MMbn,,"'n,," hole
or
, Characteristics: Adhesives vary in their to water.
and well
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Solvent or thinner
or
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, Circulations
• All
by with ClIStWIIII;le!::l.
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I
!
I
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I
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100
,,100
Cinder.
Henllock
, Nickel ...
, Tin ..
..
Water
, Maximum @
Snow ........
.110
.... .76
.. 120
100
. 147
... 175
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II&lhtwel&l11t ........... .
.......... ... .... 15
· ...................... 18
. ........................ ..10
............................ ..
Wood .................................. ..
Tile
........ 1
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Thousand million
One million M
One thousand Kilo
One hundred Hecto
Ten 10
One"tenth d

tv1illi m
Micro
inch millimeter mm
Area mile
ha
cubic culJic meter
cubic cubic
liter liter
cubic
cubic inch cubic millimeter
cubic
milliliter ml
liter liter
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r ~ e w t o n
Nlm
kilometer/hour km/h
meter/minute m/min
mils
unit J
w
w
w
lux
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identified by illuminated
from the from which
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for
wall
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/
~ :
r
.
: iIh
",l
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that deals with the
of sound. Sound may
JVIl,J(AV'V" stimulated in the of by
mechanical radiant
the or other medium.
when
norr'OClCIMf1 when move
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10
o
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, Gravel • Rock
, Grout • Mortar
, Firebrick
, Marble
II i
, Ceramic tile , Acoustical tile
• Plastic laminate
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Activities
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DIVISION 04
040000
0410 00 1f1-:lC:;C:;II1f1Pri
043000 InaSSIClnea
044000
04 00
046000
047000 Manufactured
00
049000
07
074000 and
075000 Membrane
076000
and 078000 Fire and Smoke Protection
079000 Joint Protection
DIVISION
080000
OPENINGS
0810 00 Doors and
082000 InaSSIClnea
30 00
40 00
Walls
085000 Windows
086000 Roof Windows and
00 Hardware
00
Vents
114000 Foodservice
and Curtain
11 00 Educational and Scientific tGlUltJment
116000 Entertainment I-rJlllnmpf1i
11 00 Athletic and Recreational
117000 Healthcare C{;IUI[)Jflullu
Other tGlUIDment
120000
1210 00 Art
00 Window Treatments
00
00
Ir'rIlc,11IF1nc, and
00 Furniture
00
00
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7000 Dam Construction and
80
DIVISIONS RESERVED
POWER GENERATION
480000 Electrical Power I_Aw,nw;1"AW
1000
00 In;;}r::;r::;lflnPri
00
40 00
00
6000
487000 Electrical Power Generation
488000 In-:lc;c;ulMP!i
90 00
DIVISION
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A10
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D10
D20
HV/\C
Demolition
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Utilities
liif"pr' ~ j l l LL Construction G9010
Other
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Floors Roof 1
Floors MR Roof 1
1
MR Credit 3.1 Materials
MR Credit Materials
MRCredit4.1
MR
1\/IClTPI'IClIt:; 20%
Renewable Materials 1
7 Certified Wood 1
Manufactured
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www.constructionl11ateriais.col11
www.eere.energy.gov
« www.floorbiz.col11
1000
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Architectural Institute of Canada
www.iso.com
NW.
Orf1f1f)1f),1\1 in
Cement Association of Canada
1 5 0 0 ~ 6 0 Queen
ON K1P
www.cernent.ca
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100
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Ceiba Foundation
2319 Cleveland
IL 60614
Panel Association
18922 Premiere Court
i7;:Jit.hArC;[lIIrfl MD
Service
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
WI
www.hardwoodinfo.com
Conservation
Association
Southern Association
2900 Indiana Avenue
LA
Western Red Lumber Association
1501}00 West Pender
V6C
www.eima.com
Association
1500
AwrM/'r""Mr Associcltion
Suite 600
www.nrca.net
North American Insulation Manufacturers
Association
44 Canal Center
AIAI!;:Jnrlt'l;:J VA
Suite 310
Suite A
Insulation
RDof Consultants Institut;e
American Architectural Manufacturers Association
1827 Walden Office
IL 60173A268
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www.aecinfo.com
www,nswrna,org
Solid
1100
www.swana,org
Association
i ~ o r t h f\rnerica
of North America
Manufclcturers Association
www.ssina.com
American Furniture
Woodland Drive
t ~ C
NJ 07840
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NW
www.aga.org
American
Old
IL
www.aecinfo.com
Suite 0
Foundation
510
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American National Standards Institute
1819 L NW
WastllnCltlon, DC 20036
American
100 Barr Harbor Drive
PO BoxC700
West f1I1Crlf1f1f1rIiN1 PA
www,asse,org
and Materials
and
International Code Council
500 Avenue NW, 6th Floor
Waslhinat:on DC 20001-2070

WWw.ul.com
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2007.
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B Bl H
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r:i.::JVllfltl[;lllIA 1.19
Columns:
C,I;;J fou ndation
Circulation: walls:
2,11
materials
foundation
ventilation,
Curtain
fmt1fH
V
1Vlf11/ 1.10-1.11
masonry veneer,
doors and 8,19
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A 0 4 ~ A 0 5
A02
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building 1.08
foundation
2.08
active, 11.15
alternative energy
Solar radiation:
12.02
>14'], £11"1']1(: 12.21
1.17
11.07
9.11
Y>1'1, LII"I'JIC 12.08
masonry:
Wood rail and stile doors
12.10
Structural forces:
2.13
2.11
Structural

Structural
arches and
steel
2.17
membrane structures.
2.16
Structural units, 2.19
moisture and thermal V1I"Lyr"Or1')11f1
curtain
thermal
thermal'Vl"">I.,1"",,
conclUctlvltv. >14 '"IT £1''1<11(2 12.02
Thermal 'Hr) d'rr,nl1 7.40
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Wall
Walls:
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N
overview,
views. Wood
Wood
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Architecture/Methods & Materials
The classic visual guide to the basics of building
construction) now with the most current information
F
or nearly three decades, BUildi?g Construction Illustrated has offered .an outstand-
ing introduction to the principles of building construction. This new edition of
the revered classi e..remains as relevant as ever-providing the latest information
in Francis D.K. Ching's signature style. Its rich and comprehensive approach clearly
presents all of t h ~ basic concepts underlying building construction and equips
readers with useful guidelines for approaching virtually q"ny new materials or
techniques they may encounter.
Laying out the material and structural choices available, it provides a full under-
standing of how these choices affect a building's form and dimensions. Complete
with more than 1,000 illustrations, the book moves through each of the key stages of
the design process, from site selection to building components, mechanical systems,
and finishes.
• Illustrated throughout with clear and accurate drawings that present the state of
the art in construction processes and materials
• Updated and revised to include the latest knowledge on sustainability, incorpora-
tion of building systems, and use of new materials
• Archetypal drawings offer clear inspiration for designers and drafters
• Reflects the most current building codes and CSI Master Format™ numbering scheme
With its comprehensive and lucid presentation of everything from foundations and
floor systems to finish work, Building Construction Illustrated, Fourth Edition equips
students and professionals in all areas of architecture and construction with use-
ful guidelines for approaching virtually any new materials or techniques they may
encounter in building planning, design, and construction.
FRANCIS D.K.CHING is the bestselling author of numerous books on architecture and
design, including Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, A Global History of Architecture,
Architectural Graphics, A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, and Interior Design Illustrated,
all published by Wiley. His works have been translated into over sixteen languages
and are regarded as classics for their renowned graphic presentation. He is a regis-
tered architect and Professor Emeritus at the University of Washington in Seattle.
$49.95 US/$54.99 CAN
Subscribe to our free Architecture e Newsletter at
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ISBN 978-0-470-08781-7
54995
I Visit www.wiley.comjarchitecture I
@WILEY
wiley.com
9 780470 087817

This book

on

Published Published

New

Printed in the United

10

76

conceived to range of human activities in economic, and and natural and built environments that constrain aeVi~l()tJmerlt. We should rh;?lAotf1Y'O consider the contextua I forces that a the and construction of
rf1Vl,'1/l"~IV1h\l

in planning

and natural habitat of a site all in the

into of the sun, the rush of the wind, and the flow

Consideration of these contextual on and cannot without a brief discussion of

license from Canadian r.:r~Virrr .~...Mr..

.

lnl'1C. and Maintenance Materials &Construction 27% and IlrPlonl1rlllc.11 Architecture 2030 is an environmental whose mission is "to information and innovative solutions in the fields of architecture and r'lts Inpr:~r.p pmr'''''''A' "r'". of and warms the may come from .p What relevant to any discussion of sustainable that most of the attributable to the While some of this infrared the and re~emitted in all directions by IlI"PtmhrlllC.

.

05 mm 10000 10000 5000 4000 7500 6000 4000 4000 2000 2000 2000 2000 479 479 192 287 192 192 96 96 96 Unsuitable None None None None lv1edium lv1edium high lv1edium lv1edium Excellent Excellent Poor Poor Excellent Excellent Fair Poor Poor <0.2 mm GW GP GIv1 SW Clean O..0479 kPa § LL liquid limit: the water content.1 Clean 6. See table below. which soil from to liquid .into soil rAVM<n"rii+.o02~0.o5~6.A'" and characteristics. • Gravel • Sand The advisable to have a ""tyr'nrMIVlir.4mm Sands wi fines SIv1 Iv1L CL OL Iv1H CH OH O.002 mm Poor Highly soils Poor Based on the ASTIv1 Unified Soil Classification tConsulta the 0.4~76.

mix .

2'. Note that contour lines are continuous and view only when of the site. of each contour line indicates the of the land formation at that elevation. and the nature of and the interval between contours. Ground over 25% erosion and difficult to build on.m::Lr'lIn'Jr\/ elevation above a datum or bench mark. or or1.f'IV1f'\/l~'JV1I1\1 refers to the of surface features which influences where and how to build and To ofa to Contour lines are . .om) (v)/ horizontal distance (h)] x100 The between contour lines in elevation and the horizontal between the two contours. Ground over 10% outdoor activities Ground informal outdoor activities and can be built on without Ground 5% are usable for most outdoor build on. For or 20' or 40' (5 or 10 m) contour intervals may be For small 1'.

& Warm Heavier cool into .

9000 .

movement. .

""1'<"""1"11. The of the sun and the latitude a site should service bureau before and . and west of south for .r U The of a should be to maintain balance between underheated when solar radiation is beneficial and overheated when radiation should be avoided.. obtained from a weather almanac or the Horizon Winter 48° 44° 40° 32° Azimuth Toronto Denver Tulsa Phoenix 18° 22° 26° 30° 34° 42° 46° 50° 54° 58° 56° 58° 60° 62° 124 122° 120 118° 116 0 0 0 of south for sunrise. . Altitude the elevation of the sun above the horizon.

nrntprti.nn on • Provide solar windows outdoor .

hlVl between the sun. used in of solar radiation on solar for solar * collection Area should be 30% to 50% of floor area in cold climates and 15% to 25% offloor area in rDW1VWV''1rn minimize .j liic. Concrete: 12 J1 to 181J • Brick: 1O" to 141J 'Adobe: to 12" . Vents.N heat the . and on the rpl::rflnt1C. the interior there ways in which indirect LEED EA Credit Renewable LEED EA Credit 6 Green Power 00 .t:rihllitinn and control of solar energy. hour W/mr'/hr). and heat distribution.

wall .

I~'" sometimes referred to very efficient in hot climates.1 moe. Louvers may be aut(Jmaticaliv with time or t:Jh01~oel. or Itonlati(. .ectr'ic controls combine the characteristics of horizontal and vertical louvers and have high ratio. r fl{H"C1I. on their form and orientation relative to the solar altitude and azimuth for the time and season of Exterior devices are more efficient than those located within interior can reach an exterior wall or solar rays before window. range of low sun . Illustrated .devices shield windows and other in warm weather. MosterFormot 10 71 13 Sun Devices . Vertical louvers western PV\!1(1G. Louver's may interfere with view. Horizontal most effective when have southern orientations.allv with time or controls to the devices. for . 50% cWt:Jt~nalllCl on shade and orientation. Their to wall.

.

for r-""..~.'''O''''WlAI'D exterior wall ass.eml?lles. roofs shed rainwater If the 60° the roof may and natural outfall on the to storm . structure. the runoff of rain and snow from constt'ucted and increases the amount of storm water that must be drained from the • Cisterns for /''''I..orr ..

.

2.(]rJrf':rl~c. EQCredit direct flow of airflow are affected more by building orientation than The ventilation of concealed roof and crawl remove attic ventilation reduce overhead \I\lln. In hot and in humid ventilation is beneficial for convective or Natural ventilation also reduces the energy fans and eCWit7ment. High inlets in . Outlets should be or inlets for maximum airflow. The of an outlet The direction and of site considerations in all climatic daily variations in wind should be structure.ND . reduce of relative calm on their on the of windbreak tJenl::I:ratlle wi ndscreen in wind shadow on the leeward side of the The structure.09 for more information on wind forces. . Wind-induced ventilation of interior aids in the necessary for health and odor removal. Flat roof up to 7:12 7:12 . . rnf'l'lnnrlPnr be anchored to or suction on the sides and leeward surfaces and normal to windward roof surfaces less than 30°.

Views txt?imSlve view .

Refer to the ordinance for LEED Credit .vVV""n n of allovvable width 01' C/A limit the with any restriction define three-dimensional which the volume of a may not extend.TJ (GxH)]/(A B) nhrr.

.

Provide for movement to transit 2. Determine the number and automobile traffic. Carre from the for the by Alvtlr Aalto.. for nl41nrAOVlr\l 11.'Onc 1."crr. MasterFormat MasterFormot 0 00 30 00 .n u N and circulation for "'D.

.Minimum Handrails or * Avoid wheelchair traffic.

ON Berth: 101 121 to • One lane: 13 lU minimum . Two lanes: 181 minimum 1 ~+W~'W_""W"& Transition main to one~half of . 31~01l 21-6 1 wheel 111 minimum .

. 7'-0 11 minimum minimum width .

..•~ erosion..N erosion from the runoff of surface water some means of stabilization.••••... to an embankment Filter fabric for Natural means of stabilization include soil hlnr:IPrc.:. .·-V11::lnr erosion by cover and network of that bind the soil.j or PVC-coated wire filled to form an abutment or structure. . :::. of Filter fabric or and of (51 MasterFormat 31 MosterFormat MasterFormat 31 00 00 00 Gabions are aalvani7P-r.•.= . The for stabilization can reduced by the runoff at the ofthe or by to reduce the ofthe runoff....

T ..T by .

or live loads. of should extend below the frostline or 21 whichever minimum minimum o.c. Wall used for counterfort one~half the when may be to relieve the behind the wall. and ver~ical ..

wi • Gravel for walls over .

Cut stone: wid~h and 1"~2" thick * Consult local and installation recommendations. Grid or turf block: thick . Granite cobble: (100 or 150 or 6" thick 150 thick) . .NG for or vehicular two and of receive moisture from 'Hi"Hf"v>cf"nAM 000 1% minimum may thick .

.

natural and built features The site of a site and describes construction in relation to these features. boundaries 7. the is an essential construction documents. location and elevations of new construction 9. Name and 2. A wmUIC::[.itiGl the items: 1. 8. to related and details . Identification and dimensions 10. Address of owner if different from owner's 6. Usually based on an land survey. of connections 20. I( ptprpnrpc. 11.

.

..ON A and boundaries of a metes-and·bounds surveyor a vvI/C1IIV1UIClI or made with reference to meridians northsouth reference lines p. -'.-··...c.mnt'mlirn.r...."'" '~I--~"~'~ The vvI/C~II(AUICl. based on and baseline ... and . at substantial landmarks for of land. """"" ..' '" '...Ji:f:i\l one numbered subdivisions mile and further subdivided (SI MasterFormat 02 21 1 Site . r·.t:8t711''lhp. .'.. Correction lines reference lines located intervals and south for the convergence of Vf1prltilC1nc... Guide meridians north·south reference lines located between correction lines at 24-mile and dimensions of each lot..·· ·"t·. _..}. ....

.

r'lVHnrH. it.'C.prl~lIC. When the art of we should VIUU'(A"V'JV KnOVVleal~e of building construction .C. The of a building • The of human activities dimension Thefunctional of the to and and unified can be embodiment of a number of SU!7~?vsGems that must be . A working only one of several critical factors in the execution of architecture. and comtJonl~nts VlOJIIIVIlVJ.I'''' construction are not 110('.'1rllll An of the methods m::lT·.

.

PI11YJIIPC. Provisions for inclement weather .~cen1ent energy and interest on invested money and rnC/1I1rr. Division of labor and coordination of constraints .C. corrosion. Control of heat and assemblies wear. and maintenance and detail . Conformance to .The manner in which we in construction should the various ..~ demolition and retJl. Fire resistance. Construction . Allowable or desirable thickness of construction ::Ic. and IUD'1rnDril1t1 Cleatnltness. . Initial maintenance and AhA'HAr". Erection time .6C .

model code may munlclpcl!rr. rA(JIIIrAtl1An't.ywith amendments.or concerns.:. .

aCC(Jralin(J to the III elements. HT) have noncombustible interior elements of solid or and without of rel7reserrGatlve A B A A B HT A Structural frame walls Exterior Interior walls Floor construction Roof construction 0 0 0 2 0 0 location on 2 0 1/HT and distance to structures 0 0 Varies with 2 11/2 2 0 0 0 0 HT HT 0 0 . have noncombustible exterior walls and material code.ON The IBe classifies the construction of a and interior floor and roof assemblies.

.

Under a in relation to .lOn.r"Y""rr"Hn often with atJtJlllcal.

.

.consistsofa of'l1nlllT"I'"n::l' vibrations induced in the earth's crust of fault lines. While these the more critical in structural In:1l'l~r:1rr\lIlnll elements of a structure have considerable reserve for additional vertical loads ...irhWlir·1Ih with distance from its source.. The shocks of an p::Irf'ht1ll::l11 the earth's 1"". An • Ground acceleration brief introduction to the way a structural must resolve all of the forces and channel them tothe .

.

.two conditions are necessary. the vector sum of all forces on it must of all moments of the forces zero. rotational Aconcentrated load of the live load on floor wall. has reactions at its maintain the equilibrium of the whole.

.

nonconcurrent which must be resisted material.Beams C. the moment of inertia of the section divided the neutral axis to the most remote from .llnYlnrtinll detll~cti(Jn. The and of the of each element of an of rotation. Deflection to transfer elements.

& Afixed~end beam .

of members Web is the truss.and bottom chords are the members of a truss from end to end and connected by web members.Yl/1 Heel c. .llmlnrt:.~rl end of a truss. Vierendeel are not true forces.nllnrl i 1'111 on an chord. the within the web of a on chord and a rnrrpc. rnMYlDrf'. Vierendeel framed beam structures vertical web members connected to and bottom chords. .

_. .

6.Plate structures are structures that with the loads /Ione)""II\.10 frames. the number of members into which shear is transferred and reduces the forces in the members.pc..1 "YnllnlAlllnl1 of a structure a reinforced concrete slab. for more information on . Inrrp"c. or structure.

The dime:Msions .

~I7IIIr.v of horizontal elements of their vertica I relaClOnSMIO between the of structural elements influences the dimensions and scale of the defined of building. The dimensions and in turn.lr Y'PI1IIIY'Pf'r1pnfc of the o 10 20 30 40 60 70 80 90 100 30 feet meters o .The cat:J. Planks 10 20 g Joist slabs . should be related to the VlrntlY'c:JWlmc:J1'. Flat Waffle .

.A may in one or two directions to accommodate the dimensional of .

, A rigid floor structure,

The structural elements building must be to form a stable structure a structural to not only carry vertical withstand lateral wind and seismic forces from The following are the basic mechanisms

or

Asteel or reinforced concrete frame with
of in

concrete, or masonry wall and lateral loads to the

Atimber or steel frame braced with

members

may be used or in combination to stabilize structure. Of the three vertical frame tends to be the be useful when p,rrlrJ'I{)VII'In form undesired barriers between Lateral forces tend to be more critical in the short direction of and more efficient shear walls or braced used in this direction. In the long f{)rr.p."rl~CiIC;L1nil elements may be used. Bents are braced or frames vertical and lateral loads transverse to the framed structure.

· A

mounted on rollers ofa tall with to

them to alJutme:nts on either

have

Adame is circular

a

that are r.nmnrpC;C;IIIP near the crown and tensile in

vertical section the surface of the dome

the movement of the meridional of a
"Dd~r'1iI4in/l

forces to of from

• Schwedler domes steel dome structures members that follow the lines of latitude and third of

, Lattice domes steel dome c;t.rllr.t.llrpc; members that follow the circles of

• Geodesic domes are steel dome c;trllrtllrpc; members that follow three at 60°,

;;U1l01IVHAIIiIA

(51

Mnd·",i-flrmnt

00

Structures

'nrm1rpc;c;inn

network of cables sustJenaea members to

, The

,;cJfllr:-C,I,,;\lccfl structures have vertical or inclined from which cables extend to members in

MosterFormot 13

IONS
The manner in which forces transferred from one structural element to the next 'dJi",j\l,",[lfJon and connections used. Structural to each other in three ways. to be continuous and element to make the connection. allow all of the connected

to form structural connection. the structural elements may be in the form or a While linear and surface connector: bolt Linear connector: weld Surface connector:

translation in direction nprvlpnflllf'lIl::lr Welded steel connections Reinforced concrete into or away from their faces. in construction or fixed connections when must allow eXD;~nSIIJn and contraction of a struc~ural element to occur.

resists translation the cable.

in the direction of

.

In some may also have to counter the thrust from arched or tensile structures.trllrlr. soil on earth soil in to the horizontal movement of a foundation. Lateral nonuniform Some shear is friction between the foundation and the IIMI110rl\IIMfl soil.Orc.The foundation is the lowest division of a t71111/11n1l~IV:.llrp above and and water below. on basement walls. or wholly below the loads it serves critical link in the distribution and resolution of building the foundation must be to both of the C. Thrust from arched or tensile structures .11Y). .

.

Concrete and thickened to carry wall and column economical foundation and floor for crt'"rr"t'DC. in where little or no occurs.Foundations utilize combination and to transmit substructures: the of DaSernt:rr\. earth .s wholly or continuous foundation wall to hold and exterior walls and columns of the installations.

.

.. foundation tAUUIJuIIG·tA..InllPrnlnt11n1l c. to new foundation wall additional until the r". . needle beams are the foundation wall and carried by and shores. """·""".rrc·nllrhpnlnll refers to the the foundation of an new excavation in foundation. foundation or on remove section of with reinforced 00 .

.

The lowest shallow foundation The contact area is transmitted and the allowable soil d for unit masonry walls d for concrete walls for shear of AMfW' II riff" .rp reinforcement Tensile reinforcement when a than half of the foundation wall thickness and wall Frostline the average the flfCIIICLf A!. can be used to make up the extra .r:'4 which soil is frozen rnml!1Clrtpt1 in 8" to 12" controlled moisture content.! tpVf1VlprClt'l..

.

tprrpt1 combination of soil friction on the bottom and the of soil foundation walls. .Foundation walls walls must Active dowels or mechanical foundation wall to is'rrcH1c.

may on • 181 x24" to crawl • Clearance is .

dowels anchor foundation wall to Full on VUlAlllJllIAA . Anchor bolts for sill and construction. Horizontal and vertical reinforcement as by 5.06. 811 minimum wall thickness .28. units in bond with minimum nominal wall thickness M mortar 3. of construction.09.formwork Anchor bolts sill and 4.

anchored to .

" ...0 )::lmVlVlrl~ntiln/l is A subsoil foundation well.to afoundation wall when subsoil conditions indicate that 14". . lower to storm or natural outfall elevation on the J:1mVlnr."'1' '11'i from the ..'1ntlnll may consist of a bituminous modified cement concrete masonry walls with not less than (10) bituminous minimum A mudslab of unreinforced concrete used when the lAl:1tprnr'nntinll membrane continues under the slab surface on unstable soil.

.

04 for concrete column details. Steel dowels anchor column to minimum reinforcement A d effective where: P Column load in 3/1 minimum cover for reinforcement when concrete is Critical section Critical A in distribute the column load over an area wide allowable of available. also be connec~ions. (51 (51 I\IInci'orf"nrmnt 1\1\f1("tr\Y~f\rn'f1t .Vertical reinforcement Lateral reinforcement also 5. Consult manufacturerfor allowable loads and installation details.

on In . Ground should not of soil or rock.$ H/3 or 40' m) width minimum .

4 W2..level to serve of a concrete slab f..rvn"r:c. may be to and MAXIMUM FEET (M) DIMENSIONS INCHES (MM) WIRE SIZE (NUMBER) 6x6 x 6x6 W1.9 (51 MasterFormat 03 30 00 (51 MasterFormat 03 31 00 (In. (oncrete .1nhll and soil Tv.9xW2.o W2. thickness on Welded wire fabric reinforcement of the differential movement in the soil bars may be heavier-than-normalfloor loads..nr.nnI1I1r..0 xW2.4x W1.llfl.

.

to transmit loads masonry wall and foundation should be used wall or column transmits or concentrated load. 6 minimum clear from any wood to finish sill 11 1211 minimum . A concrete slab may be thickened to from any .

minimum cover .

foundations elevate timber structures above the and D\lr'"lll'1T1Af' • Seismic zone Floors should transfer the I1IArJ'nrAflrYi to of the structure. have shorter When the necessary embedment is not such on a steel rod with turnbuckles or shear walls of CSI I\l\llctClrHHnlllt 06 13 6 Construction .

.• Solid or drilled holes with an connection.

n::lrHJP::lrlnll wall or tie beam with in clusters of two or more. to Reinforced concrete the heads cluster of in order to distribute the load from column or beam the 12" minimum frictional resistance of a for The skin friction aeV/.'r" the deviation of a from location or can result in reduction of its allowable load.p.IO!?13a and the soil into which the "p~r."'T'H. stratum of soil or rock MasterFormat 31 60 00 .and caisson foundations.

with concrete, For this drilled or

Caisson

or eccentric

may be or loose fill from the shaft

out

of

rock

order to Rock H-section

drilled additional frictional

solid rock in

are caissons that have a within concrete-filled

AIIncl'llY,"nrml1t

31 64 00

and movable of the floor must transfer their loads
IrY1IC;VllY1,~C;

t7e considered in the the floor. The conditions of the floor structure and foundation and wall affect of a and

The of the floor construction and the within it should be considered if it accommodate runs of mechanical or electrical lines within the floor For floor between habitable additional

or

limited

• Wood

or

Reinforced concrete beams are

clear minimum or not less than nominal bar 0 or minimum cover steel reinforcement from fire and corrosion \~'<_<_< bevel or chamfer
111

___

~I'

Beam in 211 , Rule of thumb for hr~""""~II4" concrete beam: measured from the rnmnrl'c;c;inn in 211 or 3" Beam width should be to width of column. vary reinforcement rather than beam as tension reinforcement in the section of aconcrete beam to the

extend into and down

moment. IVIIC1IIVW011IlW bars bent up or down of moment reversal in beam. vertical
Mo/lVlnnDVlT

tension.

more heavier loads than one~way

in the reinforcement

slab of uniform thickness may be reinforced in two directions and with beams and columns on all four resistance to lateral forces slabs constructed

rule of thumb for slab

structural unit over three or more lower' rnoments than

rule of thumb for total

increments. removal.

with nnC;'r.TPtlC;lnnlnll • For maximum

{)rtll'r{)f1,0\1

Waffle slabs can be cantilevered in two directions up to When no cantilever is a slab band

reinforced by or tendons within their elastic in the tendons are transferred to the concrete, section of the flexural member in rnl1'lYlrP'C;C;llln • Steel tendons are first stretched across the two abutments until

or com'entlOnallY reinforced member of the same size, ",,,,,,v'Averi,,,,, and

is then in formwork around the stretched tendons and fully cured. The tendons in order to reduce the maximum by alone.

concrete member by concrete is

the

• The deflection of the member under curvature.

tends

its

• Dead load

• Combined dead load and

• Dead load and

, Final combined

MosterFormot 03 38 00 Concrete MosterFormat 03 40 00 Precast Concrete

lost due to the combined of the concrete, relaxation of and at the c:lnrlhnr;IIlPC;

in

• For economy, standard forms should be in manner whenever

concrete

can exert on it.

for

concrete slab or beam has cured own form work removed and the slab or beam reshored until the concrete it full

5.o7~5.08

for the formwork for concrete columns and walls.

,

Lift~slab construction

raised into

by

C51

Mnd'''r~nrmnt

03 10 00 Concrete

Accessories

A2"
with

, 12'to 24'

6 ,8",10 ,12
11 11

11

20 to 48"

11

to

1211 to

, 12" or

IJJVVllA V'V'

of State

, 36'to60'(1Oto18m)

range

into

column

'f''''. Structural steel may be left in ''''1'M'Af'A. noncombustible construction.24. the concentrated load by a column or beam that the resultant unit does not exceed the allowable unit material.VlIC.nrnlnt 05 2 00 . used to from this can result in construction of a structural frame. or curtain wall 7. wi .Structural steel and columns construct a skeleton frame for structures to C.rr::Hlprc. Connections transitional such steel or The actual connections may be riveted but are more often bolted or welded. but because fire"rated assemblies or MI1MrIP?Y'rMIl connections.. (51 AIInctcH.

.

is to the steel section and shearforces within allowable rHlr""':"" D deflection for also consider the labor costs . Rules of thumb for pc:.ti:m::ltinfJ 'W I i i limits intended In addition to material for erection.or sections.

.pml-I"If1!ll1 connections.C.

connection made by the Two welded or bolted to column and web of beam connection made by (.{)W1Vl{)rl0nr of the welded to bolted to web welded to beam all around and bolted to column Frame~connections limited .

vary 8K1 lOK1 to16 1 m) m) 7m) m) to 10 m) 11m) m) m) LH .

Floor deck may consist • Metal w/concrete fill of the lateral analOiAOIJS to .. Floor deck . Floor deck .

.

Consult the manufacturer for gauges.~m\!:J. The when the VWV'i'. and allowable fifit1ctr\Y.C\rn1f1t 05 30 00 .~1! for a reinforced Itself and live load.hV>0fn/l • Rule of thumb for overall . tensile reinforcement for the bonded with rib for electrical and communications available for floor outlets... Concrete floor slab of metal nprtYl::JrJPrI 1'r..

Wto .

Reinforced .lOtlS ranges of IltllTt-tl::lIltlA . Joists may be .. Connections inserted with an electric or nnPllm::rnr welded cotllneC1:.

Metal wall Continuous runner Anchor .

construction (SI MosterFormot 06 11 .or the for construction. If floor structure can serve nlcHll1r"::l/lJ1c1 to transfer lateral loads to shear discussion of wood material.

'2xlO 101 141 to .

c. direct contact between minimum for wood beams on concrete or masonry Thicken wall to form if additional iAlSCUSSlon of balloon and .anchors or holddowns may be the wall and to the foundation or header o.

.

in of @16" .

nailed wi .

For rated Structural I 32/16 36/16 48/24 other board Consult the American Over subfloor Over board subfloor (lr:U1PC.. and thicker.:]rrm found on the back of the maximum laid Sturd+floot.T. secured with or Consult the APA for detailed recommendations. MasterFormat 06 16 00 ::>nellmmq . screw~shank nails.

.

Continuous nailerfor lateral of bottom chords Wood stud or masonry the wall Continuous Wood stud or masonry wall Wood beam or stud wall @ .consult building Wood Stud minimum wall chord.

.

.lWV1/1~T ('1_'''1)..rllnl1 beam .. beam Sill 3" minimum Foundation wall • For \AJPII~C. \Ali'1nl1.lC.r::1tlc.pr1 • Positive of of minimum of the on either side IIlprl1::1n. Provides resistance to horizontal t.tprrpl'l resisted or the connectors may be nailed or bolted.p::lC.::11 of metal attachments are manufactured for and wnn...(l-T.~Tn-nlpl.nn.nnlr\' .()~m.

column .

and ductwork. and forthermal insulation.r.n/l~i"\1 beams may over or frame of beams to reduce in sound transmission.may be left the allowable rnmnrpc. Iimitto 1/4of and concentrated loads additional to (51 MasterFormat 06 1 06 1 .c. material and labor ~Dr.i\/p material beam and not exceeded.

.

Solid $ Solid nominal . 3x . 4x . Joints in the at rows by 12" • 2x . Most efficient structural material over four or more .Mn . Plain or molded II -<-~ II II + i~~<- II end have the most deflection rf of II VU11 L'IIIUv'U::?1 v . Laminated 2x8 nominal . Limit deflection to Consult IJIc:llllllc:lLd/UJ allowable .NG Rule of thumb for ~rh'4'n+. 6x can 1 6 to 101 141 to free 1 1 12 to 20 MosterFormot 06 1 00 . Channel groove .

.

. well as the constraints of the and modular wall VlmCII. exterior walls weather for the interior their construction should control the shield and windows must constructed distributed around structural view.81:lnn.Walls are the vertical constructions of a and interior of a vertical loads. exterior wall able withstand horizontal wind can serve walls and lateral wind and seismic the foundation.

.

Y.. bars width minimum .eClB:Cl.T. Vertical reinforcement should not be less than 1% nor more than 8% four No.rpnIlDlpnc.llnYlnrr:. Reinforcement the vertical reinforcement and C. Dowels tie column to C.Orl beams and . the column minimLHl1 not over 48 the column.llnYlnrt-inll soil not eXCc. minimum for tied columns or six No. Round columns: 10" minimum 3" concrete is to earth Below frostline Contact area distributes column load to ensure that the allowable of the C. minimum. Consult a structural code forthe reinforcement. Inclined bars should not exceed 1:6 Concrete columns are vertical and lateral reinforcement in forces. (51 (51 (51 MasterFormat 03 31 00 III1f1rtrIYH'lrf11f1t /\I\f1ctr.'Arn1flt . .

.

Arrnnt of all reinforcement.0020 continuous bent in ni'1f'DVl1Df1r 03 20 00 03 30 00 Mncirnrl--nrmnt 03 31 00 Mnd'Arl.. for and wall AMe: Dr".0012 .. Minimum ratio of vertical reinforcement to concrete 0.c. for a discussion of construction material. . Anchor reinforced concrete walls to floor and walls with o....c.r for structu ral Walls more than 1011 reinforcement in two with the of the wall."rrnnt Mnd'Ar\. minimum 11 x wall thickness or 18 o... Minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement to 0. No.

.

on the outside inside groove in the surface of a These also available member.Form concrete. M" have notches or that allow their ends to be off below the concrete removed for the concrete. While various ~MA<OH' h"~n there she bolts. Concrete .

form. .

(51 03 MasterFormat 03 00 00 .Up to 48 • 1211 to 2411 1 m) cast and steam~cured in and rnW1Vlnnl>nrc Fabrication environment enables the units to have consistent of and eliminates the need for on~site formwork. and columns can be clssumed to indicated floor and roof areas.

.

13~ 7.Steel anchored in wall or membrane see 7.14. Discontinue sealant Shim and nonshrink Continuous code for detailed structural tell"""".rA"" secured Posttensioned rod Shim and nonshrink P osttensioned anchor into to column nuts • Anchor 1" column is Column ." F. Quirk miter: to Backer rod and sealant (13) minimum .

.

or to concentrations.t.1r::mT.walls consist of modular blocks bonded with mortar to form walls that are firerpG.1C. solid for masonry veneer walls may be unreinforced or reinforced.12~A.Ic. r"A" !flY! • Differential movements in masonry walls due to in or moisture content."rfYln+ 04 21 00 (SI Mnc!'ar!-f\rmnt A.::lrlt.o.r?'G. .07 for a discussion of masonry construction material.13. .44. and control heat flow. and • For installation of thermal 7. Water to water Ylon. 12D6~ 12. and The most common heat-hardened of masonry units include structural structural and natural or stone. • For fire-resistance of noncombustible masonry (51 MasterFormat 04 20 Unit Mnd'fHI. • Unreinforced masonry of a wall Exterior masonry walls must be lA/p::IThPr.

175 walls Solid Hollow 170 150 .

rIIWI/""l.Truss or ladder ties walls are units (CMU) bonded with masonry reinforcement. .fll Concrete masonry units (eMUs) reinforcement fully embedded reinforcement not to Vertical cells of the concrete blocks may be reinforced with in solid minimum mortar cover between ties reinforcement and any face minimum mortar thickness between masonry and reinforcement Mnd'/lrl-"rmnt 04 20 Unit Accessories (SI MasterFormat 04 05 23 .Solid masonry walls may be constructed of either solid or hollow masonry units laid with solidly filled with mortar.

.

The sum of vertical and horizontal reinforcement to 0. 5. .c. One No.002 xthe ofthe wall. 4 or two No.reinforcement masonry should conform to the masonry.17. minimum cover for coarse Horizontal bond beam bottom Provide horizontal reinforcement walls and (10) 0 minimum. 3 bars around 24" corners the structural rPllllirpnwnt code for the MasterFormat 04 20 00 Unit . with maximum o.

0.0018 of blocks rpin-rnrr.on1pnt in .

lines of thrust must coincide with the arch axis.. • A masonry arch may of brick coursework or individual stone voussoirs.. soldier and rowlock courses 1\ H'r'MH0n". A below the struck from acenter line. .. ATudor arch of curves with radii much that the inner camberto allow for for each 411 . Abasket~handle of of an or .

o * Confirm with Limit deflection block wi fill .

Wall LlH ratio (L) 60' 4 m) .llrl' masonry units tend to absorb water and while concrete masonry units shrink as manufacture.every 100 ' to unbroken wall and: and contract with in r. G. metal of movement -. Brick masonry IIWU:::'vdIJIt. to accommodate these dimensional should be located and so not the structural of the masonry wall. (1) At (2) At (3) Near corners On both or thickness and wall intersections .h~I'f1I1'1"D controlled by moisture~contt'Olled concrete masonry units and to of air and water and interlock allow movement. Ivlortarfill interlocks wall of movement to break it dries after construction.l'mVll'r::1t.

Rowlock sill • Continuous holes .

Rowlock reinforced Reinforced concrete foundation wall Perimeter insulation ..

.• Wood reinforcement wall rl'fllllrPI11pnr.c.

For of masonry . For . the between two masonry units.il1pi1 mortar to tool before nominal dimensions that include the . In troweled off with the c." T / l J r l I 'All\! with the masonry unit. .rlll::lrp~p. For . Concave Joint finished by with trowel. wall. or mortar in which masonry unit laid.

bond fOt'm of .

masonry wall rprlIllrPtl1pnr.c.Structural cells or cAlmenSlons. and . Nominal dimensions 8" or wI may have different color. Mnd'or>-f1rmnt 04 23 .

.

Structural or channel beam channel anchored to lintel construction Wood or metal stud # 1" minimum 1" minimum 1" minimum Mortar emulsion anchors welded tube or column movement. minimum Backer rod and minimum • Provide lateral with 1" or with .

.

The total of wall the wall should be limited to of .lCnCOIjS nature of the wall. Wood anchors with the earth wall.is another traditional stiff mixture rnmnt'pC. Sound foundations and door and window Minimum Wall Provide cross~wall Window and door (710) to any corner. • While ranm1ed~earth . Structural loads cannot be dried and cured. Saltwater should never be used in the mix.C:.Pt1 and dried within forms wall construction. The soil mixture should contain than 50% and maximum (610). Adobe and rammed~eatth have low tensile but a of300 construction lies in the and nOrrlO{.

.

.the stone cornice over a window Two vertical dowels minimum eMU or reinforced concrete Slush fill voids for solid wall continuous air wall may be II.Ic:llPrm'nntp/i to Noncorrosive or anchors in Plinth course of stones foundation of a wall.

of .

Because the columns in steel frame structure transfer the lateral loads down to the There are three basic may be established between a structural steel frame and the .1 columns or from floor to floor of mullions and variations in or wind Connection should allow differential movement between well wall units one floor For may be braced either: Below the floor Above the floor information on curtain wall 7.1ec.j in one of two ways: columns alone columns well by beams or of floor may be sustJenc. Column within the wall .llnl1nrt. .p.24~7. Column behind the wall The or curtain wall may be t.26.

W Welded * Cruciform • Welded .

A in to distribute the concentrated not exceeded. .Double wood beam connector welded to column tnJcKne~)ses may be used up • A seismic foundation connection utilizes and anchor bolts into concrete foundation.

.

Reinforced metal on Dout71e channel Trussed cOt'ners next to Double or nested .steel studs Continuous r'unner channel .

into .

Foundation wall 14' 2x6 .

.

similarto See 4.6" minimum clearance between finish and wood . 2xsill anchored to foundation see 4.28. Provide beam or wall ." ~ and finish Interior wall finish ."~lA. Exterior wall r"h.22 for Second floor wall first floor below conditions.21-6.6.30 for floor/ .

.

neathmq .Nail @8 11 o. manufacturer's MasterFormat 06 6 00 ::.c.

of .

The skeleton frame connections. The beams the floor and their loads to or columns down to the foundation Post~and"beam .• Roof see conventional wood construction utilizes framework of vertical and horizontal beams to carry both floor and roof loads. and the by individual Columns: not not less than 8x6 nominal when 06130 Construction .

wood .

be concrete when to weather or water to weather.and beam anchors available. to . Consult manufacturer for and allowable loads.

.

EA Credit 1: ~ .

.

12 of roof insulation for may by reinforced concrete reinforced concrete or walls of or masonry.as in Reinforced concrete roof slabs are formed and illustrated the on of 7. Wear of a concrete may in MasterFormat 03 20 00 Concrete Kelntorclna MasterFormat 03 30 00 MasterFormat 31 00 .

.

Aflat roof structure may be framed with structural members similar to the way floors framed.15.14~4. 4. the or by may be or continuous Girders roof beams and MasterFormat 1 00 .

A.Steel may noncombustible construction.tiM/\ m) .12 t/)" 'H"fl>1Jri/V.

16 for more information on Steel structural framework.2.BIO[''1n01. Members are bolted or welded with from aeV. of truss members and the load should common range for range for allows them to (51 MasterFormat 05 00 .

.

Consult manufacturer for and allowable the members. module • Welded connection • Bolted connection . Fabricated rAnn/)r0rA~r: .n::Jn. • Illustrated structural or vv -c. Threaded contlectlons MosterFormot 1 Frames . .and six structural members."c.

wall wall .

Joists may frame into wall to form or bear on the wall to form flush or MosterFormat 21 00 Joist .

.

. til::lr:ll1r::l/lm and transfer lateral loads In thermal insulation and membrane To for the ad hesion of wide and flat.harllcallly 1U to vary. welds.to or more for thermal insulation and membrane to beams and to tothe with screws. Consult manufacturer for available allowable and installation details. If the may have to be meC.

.

the end of roof. .A <JIH'TWlT If'" . Knee walls intermediate their short walls some With sufficient may natural habitable. and "'"vW'AV"h". an two inclined from structural horizontal member at the of a roof.the horizontal line of intersection roof. between two 'WVJ~'''C1nVJ~ louver.

similar to floor .

17 for roof forms and . Double Tail • Common end wall of dot'mer be and be an extension of the exterior wall illustrated with shed dormer.29. and v Double v Corner . MasterFormat 05 40 00 6.may be constructed with 11(j11r. on of exterior stud wall.16~6.~(j/lII(jA steel members in manner members may also be screwed or welded form roof trusses similarto those described on 6.

.

.NG board construction.47. 1x material • Ventilation at the with continuous or by louvered vents in the be 7. Critical • Eave detail .

.

CtvlU welll or Wood wall .Wood or metal 7.19.

20/0 24/0 24/0 40/20 .

fI rp"rpC.T.. and Plank~and~beam construction if the structure by non(~om Ijust. Die.IC.rf.A reinforced concrete or masonry wall should be sufficient to ensure the ofthe beam and structural members .lIIP exterior walls and the wood members and meet the minimum in the fifinctn..'Hrr1nt 06 1 Construction .

.

~~~'< "<l"~"'~~'~'~'~~"~~" wind forces. For washers counterbored into beams.. Solid wood wood for the number of bolts connector. The ends of roof beams may be ornamental not end to weather. wI middle member continuous . .

.

These wood loads than trussed rafters and Consult a structural to stjffened by and either suslJen'slOn rods. .SES connectors.

.

similar to those for conventional o. (SI MasterFormat 06 17 .c" but may be stud~framed or masonry Vented soffit Soffit returns may be fabricated wi units.

.

due to variations within the radiation and by .

p .interior wall line. ?l"nn/lrr~C.:11~llr:1TL) lb. Ib. A~Vln:1rr~C"TI'MC'+AJ J.~I.

and hip units lIfl(1ctrlfi-'HrYlf1t 07 31 29 .cut from red white may available.18 11 and 2411 ~lot recommended Valley trim to form canted with eliminate construction 'Preformed available. Red cedar resistant to water. and . rot.

1x4minimum .

Random . 12" to Minimum recommended 4:12 • Third~break .have either an base or surfaced on the weather side with colored mineral or ceramic have excellent fire only installation details.

.

Arris tiles cover the Field tries Cement mortar cover units Wood nailer • Closure with mortar or with fixture units felt Eave Ml1ctnrJ.Cover cover units unit .f'lrml1t 07 ..

.

'I1rmnt 07 41 1 .between roof The finish of Minimum recommended metal full Mndnr.

.

nVlr or area dividers. For these and 7. IIIlnCT'Ofrnrml1t 07 50 .19~7.i. mechanical abrasion. membrane.1'.The construction of a flat roof the elements: _"_"~""~~~~N"_"~-% 1 Th e wea r co urse .20. For more information on to maintain the desired and be and rfH1. It may be deck 7.14.16. 7.15~7.

.

.no Minimum recommended 1:48 Maximum any unevenness between units must with a vented or fill. For and for for smooth~surface roofs retarder and Laboratories (UL) of the Fire~Hazard and the Underwriters' Classification MasterFormat 07 51 00 Bituminous .

.

Metal fascia Galvanized metal dam nails membrane Treated wood nailer minimum After the thermal insulation boards have l7een I11Pr h/lnir:/lll\/ the secured to the r'1ctcDf1D~t:: in the membrane Both the Insulation and membrane are laid over the roof deck and covered with roof Vlpr1. .ptrcltinI1t:.

.

of sheet metal or of and in (5107600 07620 07650 .

.

(100) minimum

Formed metal vent with weather baffle

minimum for wood and other
1111

In wind-driven snow and roof ice buildup, eave over solid
C14D'Tf14""/l

7.3,

, Draw band

Metal hood

minimum minimum

NG

Turn up 2"

, Turnup2

11

Turn up
to

, Threshold 1%

, Finish

• Threshold

Bose Course

• Bond wi IAI::lt,p.rnr'nntlnfl

membrane

Structural reinforced
I~nchor's

or

A curtain wall

an exterior wall r"'0'V,,,,r.n,"

or concrete structural frame of a ancl no loads other than own and wind loads, Acurtain wall may of metal masonry, or metal.

masonry, or metal wall

curtain wall construction, wall able

wind-driven under within the wall must

, For t:lCCeSSiIDilI1N best.

of various metal devices may wall to structural fixed

to

curtain

accommodate frame thermal

J
j!

<~~«

, Wood or

metal rafters

veneer construction consists of a of masonry weather barrier and anchored but not bonded to structural frame. In residential construction, wood or metal stud walls with a brick veneer.

• Wood or

lilA

1I1,~ I Mil liAr.

meta I studs

5.14-5.18 for unreinforced and reinforced masonry wall

MasterFormat 04

13.13

Veneer

• Metal wall 16 11 .

• Monolithic the . Reinforced (SI MasterFormat 04 00 .

m) .

._. "".~ .which must be 6" minimum clearance above {WlliPI 1.~'''''?I (SI MosterFormot 07 46 29 .I~fl other very noticeable...' Ii III flashed Galvanized or other noncorrosive metal rabbeted corner boards ~~..~". therefore be coordinated with other exterior wall elements such window and door IIII1I I jill I II1III II II'!II..

nailable fiberboard .

""'D before installation. UtJl IIUI board for t>VVl'Ji1CIf111 fJ.>rl!h".Horizontal board available in different forms. IJIlAl. done to allow the individual boards to in moisture content.~t1Ir:lnpt1 Clal\lamzecl.. Board ends should meet over a stud or corner boards or window and board installation and (51 MasterFormat 07 . Continuous wi~h I1nT.

v i ~ I I .

or masonry cement. . in walls.rf'0V1f' but of Wood or metal stud frame.VV"IIf'VvVV. If unSr16atfled. the wire lath walls Concrete walls Concrete (SI MasterFormat 09 24 23 Stucco . __ >.. in two over a suitable masonry or table below for thickness.nc-. This weather.and f'"". finish used for exterior walls and used for interior walls and conditions. The sound and be other contaminants that suction or Wall frame may be or unsheathed.

.

coat. and finish coat onto wall minimum of 4" (100). MasterFormat 07 00 Exterior .

11 .

81 1.06 0.11 1.20 0.01 11k lie .67 Granite and marble Vinyl tile Alurninum 0.0010 0.20 0.00 Air non reflective reflective 1.Concrete Clnnlr~nprmpClf7lp felt The tables to the left 0.00 be Cement mortar 0.20 0.61 0.11 0.0041 Doors 2.00 lJ l/Rt Aluminum Wood Wood bevel Vinyl 0.0007 0.18 0.60 0.08 0.20 0.

board in fill .

nWl//nT within installation of thermal insulation 'U .which o."". OA 0.61 air R~value of inside air' film .

Solid wood insulation within .

rlrD"d"DCICr~jvvr wall finish insulation. ."h 'of insulation at floor and roof Hollow of concrete masonry can filled with loose"fill insulation. such Insulation for exterior insulation and finish continue down below to the line to insulate similar material..~.A~wr".. tit'tL"t'PClct"ClM"r walitJoard. Batt or blanket insulation foam liners may be inserted into the of concrete masonry units. wall finish wclllboard.

000 mil mil mil 0.000 .800 2.000 0.0.400 50.000 15.700 0.

DERS A retarder is material of low Y10~1"10c:lnrO construction to moisture from where it can condense into should wall col1stt'uctiol1 to Over 011 the may be crawl ftIInci'ar~l'\rmnt 07 26 .

.

pn::lr::lir.h~~j~"~h and contract in to Some also swell and shrink a c. Lead Nickel Limestone Marble Rubble masonry Oak 47 44 67 Fir 73 76 70 190 twice the linear The coefficient of volume the linear coefficient.Where new an structure All h"'4"'.lnn of material and allow free movement the of V>4 c'"4'reJ' 14114 " the construction. 50 Fahrenheit by . 107 Aluminum Fir masonry 101 Oak Pine Iron.

in .

As installed .c. cohesive and adhesive classified the amount of extension and {. for where (51 Mnd'Clr~nrml1t 07 00 Joint .flrnnrpc.emelnt. Joints should with tooled full Often little 1I1Ov.lllfi can withstand before failure. .To air.

.

. ._-.. ..... i ·. ........ ..~.. .... ...•.•.' . .... :.....c .......... . ....•.......•..... .... . c••~::: i.. .• N...• .... ..... . .. .::. ~.... '.... ..." ..... T i • .•.......

.

N .I~" ~ and threshold. . "Exterior and interior and difficult to or % Exterior and interior interior with .. Interior " Interior use 8..16 for doors. when ~" ~~ . . ..

amzea for louvers with finish Inverted channel bottom .. Flush Vision/louvered llalV.

Wood anchor % masonry anchor Minimum of anchor for walls channel stud anchor . .Backbends: . Throat finish wall smooth.

rn<lrnII11rlor condition • Condition wall .Wall • Butt condition condition (170) INr.

half the door • Flush wi increments (SI MasterFormat 08 4 .

· i .

nA frames may have . Cased may without doors and therefore have with no trim may continue around the .~thljnCl and Interior wall finish Interior (13) form varies.rl.v. Exterior wall she.. Shim fill wi thermal Back of doorframe may be kerfed to for Most door manufacturers offer doors available v>"n"~.

Aluminum .

for hollow doors and similar. Floor Allow for finish nfln"tr\Yh{Hn~f1t 08 1 08 4 Doors .~n::lrlPI units Finish wall and bottom hardware conditions for wood frame construction illustrated.Concealed door or Fnl"'~VVJI101 units width door width units Illl1r. Consult door hardware installation details.

tiPf'1.wide."l1iJII1/l on * Door .

f'I. Continuous and wi locks bottom ~rnnn"ll\rc $ Continuous bottom rail wi lock Narrow Stile • Medium Stile ..Dti about on a from one Door Section radio transmitter. or other device.mnt 08 41 00 Entrances . Wide Stile Doors and bar consult manufacturer for in bar and door frame. Consult manufacturerfor frame rpl1IlIrPll1pnrC. Pivoted doors tilC'!" 111m IICn. electric eye. t'Df1II1t'M11DI1f'C when and used an emergency exit door. (SI Mncj"lYj. door Door may be direction .(67) standard I I II i!I .

••'c. / ./ ! / i ee'e"e / "'ee'e [ ] e.

Door diameter .lfll~'''IHII. and bottom .'2 to4 I1 11 to hour.onrilf'lCIIV'D VWIllort"I"" from Slae:IIGjtl1S Bank of enclosures with c. Enclosure flanked by within wall f.'''' between Enclosure within wall MasterFormat 08 Door .

on .

" of the door. be concealed • Floor door head to enable adoor to in either direction: may be with closer mechanism.• The pin in the knuckle may be removable so that door can be • Check !'IV'" V"J V I f ' . MasterFormot 08 71 00 Door .

is covered on both or .

minimum for for details. Panic hardware bar that the interior of an emergency exit door at waist The bar should extend least one-half the width of the door leaf on which it is installed. entrance may be concealed within the floor construction.latches and floor. Minimum door thickness: for locks * the may be A coordinator that the inactive leaf of a before the active leaf. (51 I\Hnctorl-flrmnt 08 00 Door .

.

detail.l: of windows or t1nnn. .nWfl&l window unit.\J::!'\Ic. . Head the Ilnnf.or exterior. GH:::Jj/:.rl11nc.

• 100% .

09. Thefin by window unit and the wall construction. Shown on this and the air Window dimension or more information on 12. . Aluminum window frames may have or on the nature of the wall construction. The fin may ~he frame to the r"""4hHhvu Metal windows may be and bronze.. .

.

or box windows (51 ."V'nfC 1 • Consult window manufacturer for stock window Some will custom i mullions may be used of the header or lintel. The wood may be or To minimize the need for maintenance.Wood frames are thicker than aluminum or steel also more effective as thermal insulators. the frames are now clad with vinyl or bonded aluminum sections that no wood windows are manufactured to established National Wood Window and Door Association (NWWDA) and National Institute and dimensions ofthe window frame and the tC:PH1n. may be when four windows meet @ common corner available from many manufacturers.

mullion condition. .

or comt:J0U!1C1 is laid in the rabbet of a window to and linseed not to in must be window frarne to form hole % Structural wi maximum clearance on all @ Mullion G.""I'II If" I .r'fl .

o .

air or an inert gas units are suitable for smaller in residential and may not be installed with gray blue clear + blue 7~9 0.60 0.29-0. I1pn'.49~0.58 120-154 12 15-20 45 0..60 0.ll1r~npl1 171/l'.:flflP.30 44 EA 1: Performance .49~0.49~0.'Cd.increased thermal insulation and restrict condenscltion.

Mullions rreclsse:mlJleCl wall Anchors mullion trim Column .

details illustrate conditions of curtain wall construction. . Consult the manufacturer for the structural of the curtain wall and air infiltration. When standard fabricated wall no for extensive when modified. For more the Aluminum Curtain Wall American Architectural Manufacturers Association the and determined by lateral wind loads and loads.

.

Circular 0111111100"'011 to carry the . Vault ..

wood curb Interiorfinish orwall .

vent Thermal heat 11"t'tlCCClrll an exhaust fan.S are available of the block • Metal MosterFormot 3 34 13 Structures . Clre(:mh()USI.

.

.

Soutlined on dimensions for a or floor-to-floor .ClUlaellnt.

.

.

! I i ! .. t L .stair extends from one level to K 1 !~~ .

.

A wood of the following elements: distance off the some have no for wall finish .

.

nrmllT 03 11 23 Permanent Stair MIlCT'orl-nrmllt . If the is constructed after the floor beam or wall beam.A concrete stair reinforced slab with on surface.~r rule of thumb: 4" (100) may be anchored to the slab or low or to the of the metal w/abrasive finish Rule of thumb for slab thickness: Horizontal reinforcement as Beam wall rubber or vinyl • Stone tread w/abrasive and 03 30 00 Concrete MllcTarJ. If it is with the beam or slab of stair slab may be turned up to form curb or solid minimum @concrete minimum @masonry walls rV"rIlMn.

weld .

(SI Mm:i'CHt-"rmnt 71 1 .IRS Various connections available to anchor the to the floor r~~''''f'''Mn Stair Diameter 16 13 *Consult literature to dimensional ~Ulaellnc.S.

It more convenient to ladder from the the minimum width .

of the level floor Bottom floor MasterFormat 00 . elevators and are electric Electric elevators consist of a car that by lower limit of travel. The two most common elevators.to another.

rail Vertical m) floor • Elevator .

"I/I\lc. . manufacturer for recommended and details. Total vertical distance of travel and desired . and venClla1. Bmd t'OW tllaximum the Audible and visible each elevator car.75 x Two or more "11I~.I.lOn.and of elevators of traffic to be carried . 1.

.

c Radiate the maximum amount of heat Front and Bock MasterFormat 04 00 .A to hold an Theflue draft and offthesmokeand of a fire to the outside. The smoke chamber connects the throat of a to the flue of The smoke shelf at~he bottom of a smoke chamber downdrafts ft'Om the framed combustive vJ\!_vwnnllr.

.

Stone or Reinforced cernen~ wash should be lvioduladlues 47 87 108 171 240 298 .16 Mfld·ar!-flrmflt 04 00 liner .y 120 208 One inch 645.

.

(A) (C) food more than Additional include: consider in mechanical minimum 41 minimum .

.

Kitchen cabinets may be constructed of wood or enameled steel.V'IDC. or Stock kitchen cabinets are manufactured in 3" modules and should conform to standards established by the National Kitchen Cabinet There three basic of units: units. MasterFormat . Consult manufacturer for available hardware. and c:Jrrt'C. Unit • For • 60" • 30" Unit Basic • 24" to 48" in 3" • 12" to of units allows for for bathroom ·2T for two~door units or Oven • 18" to 30'1 to • 84" tall wide Unit • 39" to 48" to long Corner Unit • 36" • Finished end and filler available . Wood cabinets have hardwood frames and or board with hardwood veneer.CJ1.

.

such as towel mirrors.rIPc. Accessible bathrooms and restroom facilities clear floor for a wheelchair to make 180 tum This should be either a 60" 0 wide minimum and 60" • The clear floor and the IAIhp. and horizontal runs. illustrate basic which can be Recommended dimensions can be of these and the on the dimensions of a bathroom will vary of the fixtures used./.r.1 .IW/1I1r1fl of bathrooms and other restroom facilities should into account the for and locations Clrrf'c.c."lrh~jr t.hl~lC. Number of walls and location of vents.rplc:lnnnc. and medicine cabinets . 'Jf.

minimum Width Width .

~. MasterFormat 0 Accessories ..' . ..'.-~~....to above the floor and should be installed on the back ILIWI bar above the rim flI ..~ .A should be installed of the tub...11f ofthe tub. ~ -~. A and the wall. above the floor.

. minimum above.should not rim of urinal.

.hl.. Pl'ovide natural ventilation by of minimum A mechanictll may in lieu of natural ventilation.either natw'al • Bathrooms or mechanical ventilation in order to remove stale air and fresh air.. It should be ."r"'>1 fan should be located to the shower and on exterior wall the b..lthroorn door.. ... ..

.

WI ITTIVL" Materials .._1.This used to finish interior of Interior walls should be resistant to wear and be r'PClMCl'1IP·floors should be and to should be Credit4: /11.

.

31 0.Diamond Diamond mesh rib lath flat rib lath Welded or woven wire 0.19 .

.

Flush metal Acoustic .

• Flush wall .

(3 Comer .to the main runners.

in .

to minimize condensation on interior wall frame should form be bent and (51 fiAlld(Hi-f'IYn1nt 09 21 6 .

• Corner .

and do not fade. Ceramic tile is available or face of ceramic material fused into the and material.I\YrYlf1t 09 30 1 Ceramic Tiling .TI Bead modular trim dense material that watenesistant. These colors tend to be more muted than those Down corner Runner Field tile Cove corner Cove Surface • Consult tile manufacturer for and C51 Mf1~i'f\YI. difficult to stain.

.

board (3 to 6) thick tile Cement Mortar Mortar chemical rpC.of masonry. bond Bathtub .Ii~T'1f1rp mortar.

.

hardwood and softwood of hardwood in in Mf1d'''r~''rmf1t 09 00 .l/ comfort and warmth.Wood combines Iillr'1hlirr.

in .

subflool' or cementitious backerboard subfloor Concrete slab (SI MosterFormot 09 63 40 Stone .lClI1r1 cement mortar.TI in slab of 1:lIP':i~nnrT.

050 11 wi fillers 2) o (2to Linoleum Linoleum .wi fiber back tile Vinyl comtJosiition tile tile tile wi raw wide 0 o .

floors with both visual and textural of colors and r'1 r'"D'n .n 11 to absorb maintain. MasterFormat 09 .

by very .

On .

main .

Gr:1u'lr.more covered the manner in which the members are IMCOnstJICUOLJS. In and more I IlJ1/1 t . Dovetail dado and rabbet MasterFormat 06 20 00 .. and rabbet .

or half+lind @ Secret dovetail or blind tenon or .

in the floor MasterFormat 06 00 . of an interior irrPI1111::lritil'c.TI Crown or of a wall cornice.

.In ~~ the floor.

surround over masonry or concrete walls. Provide of wood Baseboard Finish MasterFormat 06 42 00 . may also be used over frame walls when thermal insulation or additional wall It'rnllnrlllnil frame. wood Horizontal nailed .

.

. A of InC.llnnnrlPfl Credit4.1: Adhesives .

.

.

:Jc.• Conduction the transfer of heat from warmer to of a medium or of two bodies in without n/!r{~/!n1~II1I/! c1IS~llaCt~melnt very small of the total mrr/!. .."rl air motion induce more heat transmission by convection.

Canadians EQ Credit 7: Thermal Comfort variations in climate of the individual. Air motion is eSD(~ClaiIIV humid weather.Hlnr::1nnn in . conditions. for p\/:.

determine the amount added or removed HVAC an level of thermal comfort in .

human comfort~ .c..nrlPni::lflnn and construction ::lc.omf.ilIPc.

.

.

.

Forced¢air a for by means of air heated in oil. . or electric furnace and distributed by fan ductwork to or diffusers in inhabited It the most versatile and used for small combustion air and vent by which carried to the outside. Oil furnaces Electric furnaces do not crawl Wall furnaces heated wall and of ducts.

.

window to the floor line. electric~resistance Anthracite Coal Oil Natural Btu/lb of a conductor by virtue of which the electric elements may furnace or ductwork the heat More direct means of the resH3tance 139.000 Btu/cf 1watt 3. Industrial unit Units Heaters .TI TI Electric more ."rr"~"r"I.41 Btu/hr or small rooms..

* Hot-cold .

Finish minimum cover minimum 83 16 II'nntl1nT-rlAnnnn .TI II Concrete slab on vVIII>llvVIJIV embedded in the Moisture barrier and around the Subfloor Cementitious I Jt1ti. minimum cover thermal break.?ri ::l1/Y11PYJr..

.

or form. ammonia. Waste the condenses before to the source to remove water the saline solution.s U>'l v. M.".ry nt-: nV1 in which and Heat extracted from air or water. 6000 .

.

~(IIIr:r: constant~air~volume (CAV) delivers conditioned duct wall duct .TI 1] C.1n(ilP.

intervals with vertical horizontal branch ducts five in indoor the .

insta Iicltion include: or'f.0\/ and both the initial and life leave maximum amount of unobstructed rentable Central locations ideal for short runs and distribution ecwiornent may .rYf1cI11ro ottlf'IOn.0.

walls. .

Water utilized in circulate water for and desirable level of store water for Total "flVfcciLfflfl service minus friction head tank maintains It from a main in of an emergency. .

may bibbs should cold .

Bathtub Shower Urinal .

.

.'" ". (51 MasterFormat 22 40 00 .{)C Flood level is the level fixture. See .1"""h. Adrum .Y1" fixtures.Plumbing fixtures receive waterfrom a the liquid should of a mandate the use of water~efficient fixtures and valves in order to conserve water ""C:CIII"r. which water would overflow the rim into is cover drain line from bathtub.

(l .

Stack vent an extension of soil or above the . Branch drain or more vent to between the first fixture and the soil connection of horizontal branch to the vent located below the sewer. or other storm (SI IiIi/1crrlr>-nrnont 00 . combined sewer. storm drain conveys rainwater or to storm to public storm sewer.s .

.

120/240 V. transformer . three wire three wire installations which (SI MasterFormat 70 00 . Ohrn 120/208 V.'''" of electrical eCjuiDment ~rr. Valve: Flow: current of one volt .in of a difference in electrical the difference constant current of one to one watt flow of one ..c.The electrical of a building A~n<'n'Y.""rilinl1 to and the IfClAllllr:lIWIII.

.

.

.

.

.distribution.

.

.

.

.

Reflectors control the (SI III1f1nelrH'lrnlf1r Interior ..

* * 40% 40% 60% * @ 10% to 40% 60% to 90% .

1: nntr'nll::lIJilit\/of .criteria luminaires may based on formula The the illumination source from any and cosine laws. f Initial lumens lumens x luminaire EQ 6.

.

limits ana brittle material .

.

cement and various mineral the cement to set and bind the entire with added to concrete mix to .

.

.

.

Manual of Steel Construction for small amount heat retention rust and MasterFormat 05 1 00 .'W any of various iron~based carbon content than that of cast iron and more than that round.

Titanium Most noble Cathode . Tin iron noble . Nickel .

(SI fifiNr+·AvLAY~nt 04 40 00 Stone Assennblies .masonry.

.

noand and 8% . . Below moisture content wood it absorbs moisture and LnrIVlv'J.of about in its moisture content.0% 'Moisture wood in directions.

.

.

.

TI MasterFormat 08 81 00 .

Solar to 75% .

Double~headed h::lmmprlt11l into masonry Power-Driven Power-driven into or to drive (51 fldor. Cut nails wood .'tHfY'flt 06 06 00 )Cf1BI[JUiBS .. Common to . Box nails work to . 4d • 6d • 8d 'lOd • 12d • 16d 20d (100) into wood or other .

drive $ Machine bolt .

lr::lrIPm.. for a brand bolt sleevelike the bolt draws the ends of the sheath a hole drilled in masonry or the tXO.1tlSIIJn shields lead or insetted into MMbn.. ."'n.lrv that of a hole drilled in masonry or concrete." hole may and bond on contact and therefore not It or .v to water. Characteristics: Adhesives vary in their and well VJI~'I/ClII'l.

Solvent or thinner or .

.

.

.

Circulations • All by with ClIStWIIII.le!::l.. .

I ! I .

I .

.110 . 175 Water .. 100 ... . 147 . Maximum @ Snow ... 120 Henllock .. Nickel .. . ....... Tin .. ..100 ...76 . 100 ~(1arble .Cinder.

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