Chapter 12 Test

Review slides
• Drive a state of arousal triggered by a
physiological need; drives are psychological
• needs are physiological; they are
physiological states that usually trigger
motivational arousal
• Ex: hunger, sex, thirst
Drives and needs, 471
Inslincls & IvoIulionary IsychoIogy,
470
Inslincls are compIex behaviors lhal have fixed pallerns
lhroughoul differenl species and are nol Iearned
(Tinbergen, 1951).
Humans are lhoughl lo have very fev inslincls.
Maslow's Hierarchy of
Needs
begins at the
base with
physiological
needs that must
first be satisfied
then higher-level
safety needs
become active
then
psychological
needs become
active
Self-actualization needs
Need to live up to one’s
fullest and unique potential
Esteem needs
Need for self-esteem,
achievement, competence,
and independence; need for
recognition and respect from others
Safety needs
Need to feel that the world is organized and
predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable
Belongingness and love needs
Need to love and be loved, to belong
and be accepted; need to avoid
loneliness and alienation
Physiological needs
Need to satisfy hunger and thirst
Sel-Ioinl Theory, 476
ManipuIaling lhe IaleraI and lhe venlromediaI
hypolhaIamus aIlers lhe body's ´veighl
lhermoslal.¨
If veighl is Iosl, food inlake increases and energy
expendilure decreases. If veighl is gained, lhe opposile
lakes pIace.
8et Point. Basal Metabolic Rate. 476
Set Point
the point at which an individual's
¨weight thermostat" is supposedly set
when the body falls below this weight,
an increase in hunger and a lowered
metabolic rate may act to restore the
lost weight
Basal Netabolic Rate
body's base rate of energy
expenditure
GIucose and insuIin
The gIucose IeveI in bIood is mainlained.
InsuIin decreases gIucose in lhe bIood, making
us feeI hungry.
GIucose MoIecuIe
The hypothalamus. 475
The
hypothalamus
controls
eating and
other body
maintenance
functions
IaleraI hypolhaIamus, 475
The IaleraI hypolhaIamus (LH) brings on hunger
(slimuIalion). Deslroy lhe LH, and lhe animaI has
no inleresl in ealing. The reduclion of bIood
gIucose slimuIales in lhe LH, vhich Ieads
rals lo eal ravenousIy.
venlromediaI hypolhaIamus, 475
The venlromediaI hypolhaIamus (VMH)
depresses hunger (slimuIalion). Deslroy lhe VMH,
and lhe animaI eals excessiveIy.
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Anorexia characteristics
- Deliberate self-starvation with weight
loss
- !ntense, persistent fear of gaining
weight
- Refusal to eat, except tiny portions
- Continuous dieting.
Page 2 of characteristics
- Excessive facial/body hair because of
inadequate protein in the diet
- Compulsive exercise
- Abnormal weight loss
- Sensitive to cold
- Absent or irregular menstruation
- Hair loss
- Source: Rachel Ouast
Anorexia on the rise
• Key factor: cultural ideals about beauty that
increasingly promote thinness
Bulimia Nervosa
– disorder characterized by:
– episodes of overeating, usually of highly caloric
foods, followed by vomiting
– laxative use
– fasting or…
– excessive exercise
More on Bulimia
- Preoccupation with food
- Binge eating, usually in secret
- vomiting after bingeing
- Abuse of laxatives, diuretics, diet pills
Page 2 of bulimia characters
- Denial of hunger or drugs to induce
vomiting
- Compulsive exercise
- Swollen salivary glands
- Broken blood vessels in the eyes
- Source: Rachel Ouast
Reasons for Ialing Disorders
1. SexuaI Abuse: ChiIdhood sexuaI abuse does
nol cause ealing disorders.
2. IamiIy: Younger generalions deveIop ealing
disorders vhen raised in famiIies in vhich
veighl is an excessive concern.
3. Genelics: Tvin sludies shov lhal ealing
disorders are more IikeIy lo occur in
idenlicaI lvins ralher lhan fralernaI lvins.
Sexual Motivation Research:
Alfred Kinsey, 481
• 1948 Kinsey study findings:
• Americans were found to
engage in enormous variation
in sexual behavior
• But Kinsey’s research wasn’t
conducted
randomly…(sample error)
• Also, he asked leading
questions (researcher bias)
• Major publications in 1948
and 1953
Sexual Response Cycle, +81
the four stages of the human sexual
response were described by William
Nasters and virginia Johnson
The Human Sexual Response (1966)
excitement
plateau
orgasm
resolution
Sexual Motivation Research: Physiology
Origins of SexuaI Orienlalion, 488
HomosexuaIily is more IikeIy based on
bioIogicaI faclors Iike differing brain cenlers,
genelics, and parenlaI hormone exposure ralher
lhan environmenlaI faclors.
HomosexuaI parenls
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Genes & SexuaI Orienlalion, 490
A number of reasons suggesl lhal
homosexuaIily may be due lo genelic faclors.
1. IamiIy: HomosexuaIily seems lo run in famiIies.
2. Tvin sludies: HomosexuaIily is more common in
idenlicaI lvins lhan fralernaI lvins. Hovever,
lhere are mixed resuIls.
3. Iruil fIies: Genelic engineers can genelicaIIy
manipuIale femaIes lo acl Iike maIes during
courlship and maIes lo acl Iike femaIes.
Hormones & SexuaI Orienlalion,
491
IrenalaI hormones affecl sexuaI orienlalion
during crilicaI periods of felaI deveIopmenl.
1. AnimaIs: Ixposure of a felus lo lesloslerone resuIls
in femaIes (sheep) exhibiling homosexuaI behavior.
2. Humans: Ixposure of a maIe or femaIe felus lo
femaIe hormones resuIls in an allraclion lo maIes.
HelerosexuaI
maIe
HomosexuaI
HelerosexuaI
femaIe
SexuaI Orienlalion: ßioIogy, 491
Oslracism and brain aclivily, 497
ª SociaI excIusion Ieads lo
demoraIizalion,
depression, and al limes
nasly behavior.
ª Can Iead lo changes in
brain aclivily
ª One exampIe is cyber
oslracism: unansvered
emaiI Ieads one lo
deveIop increased
aclivily in lhe anlerior
cinguIale corlex
http://www.gluecksforschung.de/Hirnforschung/Anterior-Cingulate-Cortex.jpg
IIov & Revards, 498
IIov is lhe experience belveen no vork and a
Iol of vork. IIov marks immersion inlo one's
vork.
IeopIe vho ´fIov¨ in lheir vork (arlisls, dancers,
composers elc.) are driven Iess by exlrinsic revards
(money, praise, promolion) and more by inlrinsic
revards.
The Inlerviever IIIusion, 502
Inlervievers oflen overrale lheir discernmenl.
1. Inlenlion vs. Habils: Inlensions maller, bul Iong-
Iasling habils maller even more.
2. SuccessfuI ImpIoyees: Inlervievers are more IikeIy
lo laIk aboul lhose empIoyees lhal lurned oul
successfuI.
3. Iresumplions aboul Candidales: Inlervievers
presume (vrongIy) lhal vhal ve see (candidale) is
vhal ve gel.
4. Ireconceplions: An inlerviever's prior knovIedge
aboul lhe candidale may affecl her |udgmenl.
360 degree feedback, 503
Appraising performance from muIlipIe sources
resuIls in lvo lhings: 1) empIoyee relenlion,
and 2) lhe encouragemenl of beller
performance.
Henry Murray and achievement
motivation. 504
Achievement Notivation
a desire for significant
accomplishment
Desire for control
for mastery of things, people, ideas
or skills
for attaining a high standard
Defined by Henry Nurray, 1938
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Leadership SlyIes: lask and
sociaI, 508
Differenl organizalionaI demands need differenl
kinds of Ieaders. Leadership varies from a boss-
focused slyIe lo a democralic slyIe.
1. Task Leadership: InvoIves selling slandards,
organizing vork, and focusing on goaIs.
2. SociaI Leadership: InvoIves medialing confIicls and
buiIding high achieving leams.
Transformational leadership, 509
• Clearly communicating a vision goals leading to
inspiration of others to follow the leader
• Challenges workers to move beyond their own
interests for the sake of the group or team
How to write the essay
for the Chapter 12 test
• The Theme is…”Opposing Tendencies.”
• The human organism displays various reactions
that are characterized as opposing tendencies.
Use a specific physiological or psychological
mechanism to explain how both aspects of
opposing processes apply to EACH of the
following:
• Appetite, autonomic nervous system, color vision,
and nerve firing
• Remember: no intro or conclusion; 2-3 sentences
for each of the four oppositions should work.
Parts to your essay.
• Couple of sentences on each:
• A. Appetite,
• B. autonomic nervous system,
• C. color vision,
• D. nerve firing
• Essay is worth 8 points
A. Appetite, see ch. 12
1 pt. For discussing how any of the following
turn on and off hunger: hypothalamus,
glucose, or drive reduction
2
nd
pt. For discussing how a specific
mechanism regulates opposing tendencies:
Set point/metabolism or homeostasis, or drive
reduction theory
B. Points 3 and 4
B. Autonomic nervous system, see Ch. 2
Pt. 3
Describe how the sympathetic n.s. arouses our
body; give an example
Pt. 4
Describe how the parasympathetic n.s. calms
or counteracts the sympathetic; give
example
C. Color vision: Points 5 and 6
• See chapter 5, p. 186-8
• Pt. 5 for briefly describing the opponent
process theory or opponent color theory
• Pt. 6 for listing and explaining an example
such as color afterimages, color blindness or
opposing cells for particular colors
D. Nerve firing: points 7 and 8
• See chapter 2, Cognitive Neuroscience
• Pt. 9: explain how a neuron fires through
depolarization, ion activation, or action
potential
• Pt. 10: explain how the neuron polarizes or
is inhibited from action

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