Chapter 15 test review

Multiple choice question review
along with test essay guide.
Use with:
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Defense Mechanisms (see p. 600)
1. Repression banishes anxiely-arousing
lhoughls, feeIings, and memories from
consciousness.
2. Regression Ieads an individuaI faced vilh
anxiely lo relreal lo a more infanliIe
psychosexuaI slage.
IvaIualing lhe IsychoanaIylic
Ierspeclive
Ireud's psychoanaIylic lheory resls on lhe
repression of painfuI experiences inlo lhe
unconscious mind.
The ma|orily of chiIdren, dealh camp survivors,
and ballIe-scarred velerans are unabIe lo
repress painfuI experiences inlo lheir
unconscious mind.
Critique of Freud, continued.
• 4. We do defend ourselves from anxiety
• Terror management theory
• Protecting from fear of death by faith in
worldview and pursuit of self esteem
• 5. Some evidence for defense mechanisms.
Unconscious id
!d
contains a reservoir of unconscious
psychic energy
strives to satisfy basic sexual and
aggressive drives
operates on the pleasure principle,
demanding immediate gratification
Ego: in the middle
Ego
the largely conscious, ¨executive" part
of personality
mediates among the demands of the
id, superego and reality
operates on the reality principle,
satisfying the id's desires in ways that
will realistically bring pleasure rather
than pain
Freud on personality
• It arises as a result of conflicts between
social restraints against our biological
impulses.
CompIexes lo overcome.
During lhe phaIIic slage (ages 3-6)
A boy's sexuaI desire for his molher and
feeIings of |eaIousy and halred for lhe rivaI
falher is caIIed lhe Oc!ipus ccnp|cx.
A girI's desire for her falher is caIIed lhe ||ccira
ccnp|cx.
|rcu!. Cni|!rcn nusi |carn prcpcr scx rc|cs jrcn
incir parcnis.
IsychosexuaI Slages
Defense Mechanisms
– the ego’s protective methods of reducing
anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
The 'royaI road lo consciousness.'
Anolher melhod, Ireud used lo anaIyze lhe
unconscious mind vas lhrough inlerpreling
manifesl and Ialenl conlenls of dreams.
This aIIoved him lo access lhe royaI road lo
consciousness in order lo gain insighl inlo lhe
human personaIily.
The ßig Iive Iaclors
Today's lrail researchers beIieve lhal Iysencks'
personaIily dimensions are loo narrov and
CalleII's 16II loo Iarge. So, a middIe range (five
faclors) of lrails does a beller |ob of assessmenl.
Conscienliousness
AgreeabIeness
Neurolicism
Openness
Ixlraversion
Evaluating the Trait Perspective
• Situational influences on behavior are
important to consider
• People can fake desirable responses on self-
report measures of personality
• Averaging behavior across situations seems
to indicate that people do have distinct
personality traits
IxpIoring lhe SeIf
Research on lhe seIf has a Iong hislory because lhe
seIf organizes lhinking, feeIings, and aclions and is a
crilicaI parl of our personaIily.
1. Research focuses on lhe differenl seIves ve
possess. Some ve dream and olhers ve dread.
2. Research sludies hov ve overeslimale our
concern lhal olhers evaIuale our appearance,
performance, and bIunders (spolIighl effecl).
3. Research sludies lhe seIf-reference effecl in
recaII.
ßenefils of SeIf-Isleem
MasIov and Rogers argued lhal a successfuI Iife
resuIls from a heaIlhy seIf-image (seIf-esleem). The
foIIoving are lvo reasons vhy Iov seIf-esleem
resuIls in personaI probIems.
1. When seIf-esleem is defIaled, ve viev
ourseIves and olhers crilicaIIy.
2. Lov seIf-esleem refIecls reaIily, our faiIure in
meeling chaIIenges, or surmounling
difficuIlies.
SeIf-Serving ßias
We accepl responsibiIily for good deeds and
successes more lhan for bad deeds and
faiIures. Defensive seIf-esleem is fragiIe and
egolislic vhereas secure seIf-esleem is Iess
fragiIe and Iess dependenl on exlernaI
evaIualion.
MMPI
The Minnesola MuIliphasic IersonaIily
Invenlory (MMII) is lhe mosl videIy
researched and cIinicaIIy used of aII personaIily
lesls. Il vas originaIIy deveIoped lo idenlify
emolionaI disorders.
The MMII vas deveIoped by empiricaIIy
lesling a pooI of ilems and lhen seIecling lhose
lhal discriminaled belveen diagnoslic groups.
Humanistic Perspective:
Rogers
Carl Rogers (1902-198/)
focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals
requires three conditions:
- genuineness
- acceptance - unconditional positive regard
- empathy
Unconditional Positive Regard
an attitude of total acceptance toward another
person
Grovlh and IuIfiIImenl
CarI Rogers aIso beIieved in an individuaI's seIf-
acluaIizalion lendencies. He said lhal UncondilionaI
Iosilive Regard is an allilude of acceplance of olhers
despile lheir faiIings.
IersonaI ConlroI
IxlernaI Iocus of conlroI refers lo lhe perceplion
lhal chance or oulside forces beyond our
personaI conlroI delermine our fale.
InlernaI Iocus of conlroI refers lo lhe perceplion
lhal ve can conlroI our ovn fale.
SociaI-cognilive psychoIogisls emphasize our
sense of personaI conlroI, vhelher ve conlroI
lhe environmenl or lhe environmenl conlroIs
us.
Iosilive IsychoIogy and Humanislic
IsychoIogy
Iosilive psychoIogy, such
as humanislic
psychoIogy, allempls lo
fosler human fuIfiIImenl.
Iosilive psychoIogy, in
addilion, seeks posilive
sub|eclive veII-being,
posilive characler, and
posilive sociaI groups.
Marlin SeIigman
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Oplimism vs. Iessimism
An oplimislic or pessimislic allribulionaI slyIe is
your vay of expIaining posilive or negalive
evenls.
Mariin Sc|ignan´s pcsiiitc psucnc|cgu aims lo
discover and promole condilions lhal enabIe
individuaIs and communilies lo lhrive.
Learned HeIpIessness
When unabIe lo avoid repealed adverse evenls
an animaI or human Iearns heIpIessness.
IvaIualing lhe Trail Ierspeclive
The Ierson-Silualion Conlroversy
WaIler MischeI (1968, 1984, 2004) poinls oul lhal
lrails may be enduring, bul lhe resuIling
behavior in various silualions is differenl.
Therefore, lrails are nol good prediclors of
behavior.
Walter Mischel: Person-Situation
• Traits are actually “responses”
to your “experience.”
• Abilities, perceiving style,
expectations, values, and rules
all affect your responses to the
environment
• Mischel is an “interactionist”
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/indiv_pages/mischel.html
Mischel challenges trait theory
• behaviors are not consistent across
time and across situations
• the inner psyche of the individual
and/or the existence of traits do not
predict future behaviors very well.
The Trait Perspective:
Hans and Sybil Eysenck
• Hans and Sybil
Eysenck use two
primary personality
factors as axes for
describing personality
variation
UNSTABLE
STABLE
choleric melancholic
phlegmaticsanguine
INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED
Moody
Anxious
Rigid
Sober
Pessimistic
Reserved
Unsociable
Quiet
Sociable
Outgoing
Talkative
Responsive
Easygoing
Lively
Carefree
Leadership
Passive
Careful
Thoughtful
Peaceful
Controlled
Reliable
Even-tempered
Calm
Touchy
Restless
Aggressive
Excitable
Changeable
Impulsive
Optimistic
Active
http://www.peoples.ru/medicine/psychology/eysenck/eysenck_101.jpg
Iaclor AnaIysis
CalleII found lhal Iarge groups of lrails couId be reduced dovn lo
16 core personaIily lrails based on slalislicaI correIalions.
Impu!sivc
Excitcmcnt
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Basic
trait
5upcrIicia!
traits
Personality defined. Page 595
• Tolkien’s character Sam, a loyal companion to
Frodo Baggins, illustrates the distinctiveness and
consistency that define personality. A
characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and
acting.
• Sam appears throughout the trilogy and typically
displays cheerfulness, conscientiousness,
optimism, and loyalty.
• These characters comprise his personality
Personality defined. Page 595
• Tolkien’s character Sam, a loyal companion
to Frodo Baggins, illustrates the
distinctiveness and consistency that define
personality.
• Sam appears throughout the trilogy and
typically displays cheerfulness,
conscientiousness, optimism, and loyalty.
• These characters comprise his personality
SociaI-Cognilive Ierspeclive
ßandura (1986, 2001,
2005) beIieves lhal
personaIily is lhe
resuIl of an inleraclion
lhal lakes pIace
belveen a person and
lheir sociaI conlexl.
AIberl ßandura
ßandura caIIed lhe process of inleracling vilh
our environmenl reciprocaI delerminism.
The lhree faclors, behavior, cognilion, and
environmenl, are inlerIocking delerminanls of
each olher.
ReciprocaI InfIuences
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IndividuaIs & Invironmenls
Hov ve viev and lreal peopIe
infIuences hov lhey lreal us.
Our personaIilies shape
silualions.
Anxious peopIe reacl lo
silualions differenlIy lhan caIm
peopIe.
Our personaIilies shape hov
ve reacl lo evenls.
The schooI you allend and lhe
music you Iislen lo are parlIy
based on your disposilions.
Differenl peopIe choose
differenl environmenls.
Specific vays in vhich individuaIs and
environmenls inleracl
ßehavior
ßehavior emerges from an inlerpIay of exlernaI
and inlernaI infIuences.
IvaIualing lhe SociaI-Cognilive
Ierspeclive
Crilics say lhal sociaI-cognilive psychoIogisls
pay a Iol of allenlion lo lhe silualion and pay
Iess allenlion lo lhe individuaI, his unconscious
mind, his emolions, and his genelics.
A. Evaluating the social-
cognitive perspective
• 1. fails to consider unconscious
motivation
• 2. perhaps the predominant approach
today
• 3. focuses too little on the inner traits
Martin 8eligman's learned helplessness
research with dogs
Uncontrollable
bad events
Perceived
lack of control
Generalized
helpless behavior
see pages 625-626
Evaluation of Humanistic Theory
• 1. its concepts are vague
• 2. lack of concern for others
• 3. capacity for evil is ignored because it
emphasizes healthy ind.
• 4. has affected child rearing, management, etc.
• 5. underestimated the value of social influence
6. they criticize standardized testing of personality
Chapter 15 Essay (see your Ch.
15 test study guide)
• “Andi, a high school sophomore, lacks self
discipline, fails to plan ahead, and is excessively
anxious. She is quickly frustrated by challenging
tasks and frequently becomes overly critical of
others.”
• Use the psychoanalytic, humanistic, and social-
cognitive perspectives to give contrasting
explanations of Andi’s behavior.
Using each theory’s terminology
• Psychoanalytic: unconscious origins, childhood
issues
• Social Cognitive: interaction between person and
situations or environment
• Humanistic: not being true to real self, not setting
goals
• Essay worth 6 points: accurately using two
concepts from each theory.
• About six sentences. No intro or conclusion
needed.

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