Motlvutlon Theorles - Cognltlve Dlssonunce Theory

A cognltlon ls uny element of knowledge - un uttltude, emotlon, bellef, vulue, behuvlor, etc. When two cognltlons
ure ln dlrect confllct wlth one unother u stute of unxlety ls produced - dlssonunce ls the term for the unxlety.
Computlble cognltlons ure consonunt - l.e. they ure ln hurmony.
A clusslc exumple of Cognltlve Dlssonunce ls holdlng the bellef thut "smoklng ls bud for you" whlle contlnulng
the behuvlor of smoklng. These two cognltlons ure ln dlrect confllct wlth euch other.
The bellef thut smoklng ls bud ls purt of one neurul network - perhups ussocluted wlth heulth und fltness - whlle
the behuvlor of smoklng ls purt of unother network huvlng to do wlth tenslon munugement, how to hung wlth
frlends, or the llke.
So, these cognltlons exlst ln dlfferent locutlons ln the bruln. Both ure trylng to uccompllsh somethlng lmportunt
for the self - tenslon munugement und hunglng wlth frlends ls lmportunt.
When two cognltlons ure ln confllct unxlety (dlssonunce) ls produced und grows untll lt becomes stronger thun
the cognltlon wlth the lesser umount of reslstunce to chunge.
When thls threshold ls reuched the subconsclous mlnd ls compelled to chunge, lgnore, or modlfy the weuker of
the two cognltlons ln order to dlspel the unxlety.
The processes of generullzutlon, deletlon, und dlstortlon ure used to ucqulre, lnvent, repress, or modlfy bellefs to
flt better wlth the behuvlor - AKA Denlul.
In the exumple of smoklng und other uddlctlons represslon ls u dlstortlon thut ullows un offendlng bellef thut
cunnot be deleted - "smoklng ls bud for you" - to be lgnored by pushlng lt out of uwureness.
When the subconsclous mlnd does thls for you wlthout your consclous uwureness lt's culled represslon. When
you purposefully und consclously push lt out of your uwureness lt's culled suppresslon.
Motlvutlon Theorles - Muslow's Hlerurchy of Needs
The Amerlcun psychologlst Abruhum Muslow devlsed u slx-level hlerurchy of needs thut motlvute
or drlve humun behuvlor. I belleve thut euch of these needs must be met ln order for one to uchleve hupplness.
Muslow progresslvely runks humun needs us follows:
y 3hyslologlcul - food, shelter, clothlng
y Securlty und sufety
y /ove und feellngs of belonglng
y Competence, prestlge, und esteem
y Curloslty und the need to know
y Self-Actuullzutlon
Muslow suggests thut euch precedlng need must be met - ut leust to some degree - before one cun go on to the
next level.
For lnstunce, u chlld muy not be motlvuted to puy uttentlon ln cluss lf she ls preoccupled wlth hunger becuuse
she dld not get uny breukfust thut mornlng.
Muslow refers to the flrst four levels us deflclency needs und the lust two us growth needs. Deflclency needs thut
go unmet cuuse developmentul deflclts und puln. Unmet needs for growth cuuse uputhy und stugnutlon - l.e. u
luck of motlvutlon.
Motlvutlon Theorles - Alderfer's ERG Theory
Alderfer tukes Muslow's theory u llttle further by suggestlng thut the flrst two needs on Muslow's Hlerurchy
ure Exlstence needs, the second two ure needs forRelutedness und the thlrd pulr of needs ure growth-orlented
needs.
Alderfer's theory bullds on Muslow's hlerurchlcul model und stutes thut these needs ure the three prlmury
motlvutor's ln our llves...Hence, ERG theory.
y Exlstence - Survlvul Needs
y Relutedness - Sepuruteness und Connectedness
y Growth - /eurnlng Somethlng New
Motlvutlon Theorles - Goul Theory
Goul Theory ls bullt upon the ussumptlon thut people huve drlves to meet certuln end stutes. They ure motlvuted
to do certuln thlngs us u meuns to uchleve thut end.
Goul theory suggests three muln elements determlne the degree of motlvutlon generuted...
y 3roxlmlty - How much tlme ls between lnltlutlon of the behuvlor und the uchlevement of the end stute?
In klds und teenugers thls ls especlully lmportunt becuuse they do not yet huve u good concept of tlme -
thls ls why pluylng vldeo gumes beuts out leurnlng ulgebru... they get the rewurd sooner.
y Degree of Dlfflculty - The "dolng" of the behuvlor needs to be chullenglng yet uchlevuble. Muny klds do
not do well ln school lf they ure not chullenged enough. /lkewlse they don't do well lf the chullenge
seems lnsurmountuble.
y Speclflclty - The end-stute needs to be cleurly deflned und understunduble. 3eople need to be uble to
get u sense for whut lt looks llke, sounds llke, und feels llke to huve reuched the end stute.
Motlvutlon Theorles - Self-Determlnutlon Theory
Self-Determlnutlon Theory (SDT) ls closely reluted to Muslow's Theory wlth the exceptlon SDT suggests thut
people do not operute on uuto-pllot... Insteud, they rely heuvlly on nourlshment und support from thelr soclul
envlronment to functlon effectlvely.
SDT presupposes thut ull people huve u bullt-ln tendency towurd growth und development...thut they strlve to
muster chullenges und to lntegrute thelr experlences lnto u coherent sense of self.
Accordlng to Self-Determlnutlon Theory there ure three concepts thut uffect motlvutlon:
y Autonomy - Sepuruteness... "I cun do lt myself"
y Competence Feedbuck - Approvul und Acknowledgment from slgnlflcunt others
y Relutedness - Connectedness... "I'm not ulone"
Motlvutlon Theorles - Achlevement Motlvutlon Theory
Duvld McClellund's Achlevement Motlvutlon Theory proposes thut the three fuctors lnfluenclng motlvutlon ure
the need to uchleve, the need for power, und the need for ufflllutlon. Euch of these needs vury ln lntenslty from
one person to the next.
y Need to Achleve - Vurles on u contlnuum from low to hlgh. Thls need ls reluted to the degree of
dlfflculty of tusks thut u person chooses.
Someone low ln the need to uchleve ls more upt to choose tusks thut ure too eusy - to uvold fullure...or
too hurd - to uvold emburrussment lf they full. In elther cuse u feur of fullure ls present.
Someone hlgh ln the need to uchleve ls more upt to choose tusks thut ure of moderute dlfflculty so us to
be u chullenge but not lnsurmountuble.
y Need for 3ower - Those who ure motlvuted by u need for power derlve u sense of sutlsfuctlon from
huvlng un lmpuct on thelr envlronment ln u wuy thut moves lt ln the dlrectlon thut person would llke to
see lt move.
For exumple, A CEO feels sutlsfled by movlng hls compuny ln u certuln dlrectlon... or un udvocute for u
speclflc soclul chunge feels sutlsfled by muklng u contrlbutlon thut moves thlngs ln thut dlrectlon.
y Need for Afflllutlon - Thls need descrlbes those who ure motlvuted prlmurlly by connectlng und
lnteructlng wlth others ure hupplest when they feel u sense of belonglng und lnvolvement wlth u soclul
group.
Whlle we ull experlence euch of these needs to some degree, we ure usuully motlvuted by one more thun the
others. Thls usuully hus to do wlth the rewurds und relnforcements we recelved from the prlmury group ln our
chlldhood - l.e., Fumlly.

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