Learn to Read Biblical

Hebrew






Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew
A guide to learning the Hebrew
alphabet, vocabulary and sentence
structure of the Hebrew Bible
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


By Jeff A. Benner








Cover design by Jeff A. Benner.

“Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew,” by Jeff A. Benner.

Published 2007 by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing Inc.,
P.O. Box 9949, College Station, TX 77845, US. ©2003,
Jeff A. Benner. All rights reserved. Any part of this book
may be copied for educational purposes only, without
prior permission.

Manufactured in the United States of America.



Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 7
PART 1 THE ALEPHBET ................................................................. 11
LESSON 1 – ALEPH, BEYT ..................................................................... 15
LESSON 2 – MEM, YUD ...................................................................... 17
LESSON 3 – NUN, HEY ........................................................................ 19
LESSON 4 – LAMED, VAV .................................................................... 21
LESSON 5 – RESH, SHIN ...................................................................... 23
LESSON 6 – AYIN, TET ........................................................................ 25
LESSON 7 – TAV, DALET...................................................................... 27
LESSON 8 – TSADE, QUPH ................................................................... 31
LESSON 9 – CHET, KAPH ..................................................................... 33
LESSON 10 – ZAYIN, PEY..................................................................... 35
LESSON 11 – GIMEL, SAMECH ............................................................. 37
LESSON TRANSLITERATIONS ................................................................. 39
PART 2 READING PRACTICE ......................................................... 45
THE HEBREW .................................................................................... 46
TRANSLITERATION .............................................................................. 49
PART 3 REFERENCE GUIDE ........................................................... 53
PART 4 TRANSLATING LESSONS ................................................... 59
LESSON 1 – GENESIS 1:1 .................................................................... 61
LESSON 2 – GENESIS 1:2 .................................................................... 67
LESSON 3 – GENESIS 1:3 .................................................................... 73
LESSON 4 – GENESIS 1:4 & 5 .............................................................. 77
PART 5 HEBREW/ENGLISH DICTIONARY ....................................... 79
PART 6 PARENT / CHILD ROOTS ................................................... 99
PART 7 ADOPTED ROOTS ........................................................... 125
PART 8 NOTES ........................................................................... 133










To my Father who set me on the
path of Biblical studies


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Why Learn Hebrew?

A translation of the Biblical text is a translator's
"interpretation" of the text. The translator's beliefs will
often influence how the text will be translated and anyone
using his translation is seeing it through his eyes rather
than the original authors. Only by studying the original
language of the Bible can one see the text in its original
state.

Learning the Hebrew language can be both fun and
exciting. By simply studying the pages that follow, for
just a few minutes a day, you will soon be reading
Hebrew, build a Hebrew vocabulary and even begin
translating Biblical passages for your self.

About Hebrew

The English word "alphabet" is derived from the first two
letters of the Greek Alphabet--Alpha and Beta. Hebrew
on the other hand, uses the word "alephbet," the first two
letters of the Hebrew alephbet--aleph and bet. The
Hebrew alephbet consists of 22 consonants. The vowels
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(called nikkudot, nikkud in the singular) are dots and
dashes added above and below the consonants. One
advantage to Hebrew is that the sound for each letter
remains consistent, unlike English where one has to
memorize many variations. For instance, the word circus
contains the letter "c" twice, the first time it is pronounced
like an "S" while the second time it is pronounced like a
"K." In Hebrew, the letter : is always pronounced as a
"K."

Unlike English, which is read from left to right, Hebrew
is read from right to left just as many other Semitic
languages do including Aramaic and Arabic. This may
sound difficult at first but in a very short time you will get
used to it.

When sounding out a word, it will be easier if you
remember the Consonant (C) and Vowel (V) patterns of
Hebrew words. In English, the consonants and vowels
may be arranged in any order, such as in the word "circle"
which has a C+V+C+C+C+V pattern. Hebrew on the
other hand, is very consistent, and each word will usually
follows a C+V+C+V+C... pattern. The Hebrew word ¬::
(melek - king) contains the pattern C+V+C+V+C, : : :
(meleko – his king) is C+V+C+V+C+V and ¬::¬
(hamelek – the king) is C+V+C+V+C+V+C.

The pronunciations of some of the consonants and vowels
have changed over the centuries but this does not affect
the meaning of words as the letters of the words define it,
and not the sounds. We will learn to pronounce them
according to the Modern Hebrew pronunciation. Modern
Hebrew pronunciation is also divided into two parts,
Ashkenazi and Sephardic. Since Sephardic is the
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9
pronunciation adopted by the Modern State of Israel, we
will use this pronunciation.

About this Book

When I began to study the Hebrew language I used
several different resources but found that they were not
compiled in a format for beginning Hebrew students. I
began to arrange charts and lists with the necessary
information as a ready resource for learning and reading
the Hebrew Bible.

This book is the result. Included in this book are lessons
for learning the alephbet, verbs, nouns, adjectives and
sentence structure.

If at any time you have questions about the Ancient
Hebrew Research Center, this book, its content or the
lessons, please feel free to E-mail your questions or
comments to us through our web site;

http://www.ancient-hebrew.org

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Additional Resources

It should be kept in mind that this book is not meant to be
used for in-depth Biblical study, but as a reference guide
for Biblical reading practice, vocabulary building and
sentence comprehension. More specific dictionaries and
lexicons will be necessary for more in-depth study.

Through the process of Hebraic studies, you will want to
dig deeper into the meaning of specific words and
phrases. At this point the purchase of a Hebrew Bible and
a Hebrew Lexicon will be helpful. There are several
different kinds of Hebrew Bibles. The standard Hebrew
Bible will be a Bible written only in Hebrew. The
Interlinear Bible will have the Hebrew on one line and the
English translation for each word under each Hebrew
word. A Parallel Bible will have the Hebrew text on one
page and the English translation on the other

There are several different Lexicons but be sure that the
one you purchase includes all the words of the Bible with
the prefixes and suffixes attached. This will allow you to
look up a word even if you do not know the root. I
recommend Benjamin Davidson's Hebrew and Chaldee
Lexicon of the Bible.
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P
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Each of following eleven lessons introduces two new
consonants and may or many not introduce new vowels.
Each lesson will also include a practice section, new
vocabulary words and sentences. The practice session will
allow you to practice the new letters and vowels and
refresh yourself on old ones. The vocabulary section will
consist of a few words using the new letters and vowels to
begin building your Hebrew vocabulary. The Sentences
will allow you to begin using your new words in
sentences.

To assist you in learning the letters and words, I
recommend that you put the letters and words you are
learning on flashcards so that you can study them at any
time.

Transliterations of each of the lessons are provided at the
end of the lessons to assist with pronunciation. When
reading these transliterations, remember to use the correct
Hebrew sound for each vowel. For example the
transliterated Hebrew vowel sound "o" is the long "o"
sound as in the English word "rope."

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Alephbet and Vowels

The following is a chart of all the consonants in the
Hebrew Alephbet. This chart includes all the variations
for each letter. For example the letter beyt can be written
as : or :. Several of the letters have a final form as well
and are also included (such as : and :).

Lamed
:

Aleph
x
Mem
: :

Beyt
: :
Nun
:

Gimel
.
Samech
:

Dalet
¬
Ayin
.

Hey
¬
Pey
¤ c c

Vav

Tsade
.

Zayin
:
Quph
:

Chet
¬
Resh
~

Tet
:
Shin
: :

Yud

Tav
:

Kaph
¬ : : :

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The Vowels

Below are the names for each of the Hebrew vowels. The
letter aleph is used below to show the placement of each
vowel and is not part of the vowel.

Cholam maley

Qamats
x
Qubbuts
x

Patach
x
Shuruq

Segol
x
Chataph qamats
x

Tsere
x
Chataph patach
x

Sh'va
x
Chataph segol
x

Chireq
x



Cholam
x

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Letter Comparisons

Several of the Hebrew letters are very similar and at the
beginning they are easily confused with other letters that
look alike. Below is a chart showing letters of similarity
in order to make the reader familiar with the slight
differences.

Beyt
:
Dalet
¬
Kaph
:
Kaph
:
Resh
~
Pey
c






Beyt
:
Vav

Mem
:
Pey
c
Zayin
:
Tet
:






Gimel
.
Vav

F. Mem
:
Nun
:
F. Nun

Samech
:






Hey
¬
Zayin
:
Samech
:
Chet
¬
F. Nun

Tet
:






Hey
¬
Chet
¬
Ayin
.
Tav
:
Tav
:
Tsade
.
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Lesson 1 – aleph, beyt
Consonants
x
The "Aleph" is the first letter of the Hebrew
alephbet. This consonant is silent.

:
The "Beyt" is pronounced two ways, a "b" as in
"ball," and as "v" as in "visit." When a dagesh (a
dot in the middle of the letter) appears in the
middle of the letter (:) it will have the "b" sound.
When the letter appears without the dagesh (:) the
letter is pronounced "v."
Vowels
x
This vowel, "qamats," (the little "T" shaped mark
under the aleph) is pronounced "ah" as in "father."

x
This vowel, "patach," is also pronounced "ah" as in
"father."
Practice
: x x : x x : : x : ·:
x: :x x: :x x: x: ·.


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Vocabulary
Came - x: ·. Father - :x ·:
Sentences
Father came. - x: :x ·:




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Lesson 2 – Mem, Yud
Consonants
:
The "Mem" is pronounced "m" as in "mother."

:
The "final Mem" is used only when it appears at
the end of a word. The pronunciation does not
change.


The "Yud" is pronounced "y" as in "yes." (When
the "yud" is suffixed to a word it means "of me" or
"my." Sentence #2 includes the word :x - father,
with the suffix forming the word :x - my
father.)

Vowels
x
The "chireq" is pronounced "ee" as in "bee."


x
The "tsere" is pronounced "ey" as in "grey."

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Practice

: : : : x x : : : : ·:
:x :x : : : x x ·.

Vocabulary
Who - : ·. Mother - :x ·:
Sentences
Who came? - x: : ·:
My father came. - x: :x ·.









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Lesson 3 – Nun, Hey
Consonants
:
The "Nun" is pronounced "n" as in "no."



The "final Nun" is only used when it appears at the
end of a word. The pronunciation does not change.

¬
The "Hey" is pronounced "h" as in "hello." (When
the letter ¬ is prefixed to a word it means "the"
such as in sentence #6 where the letter ¬ is
prefixed to the word x:: - prophet, forming
x::¬ - the prophet.)

Practice

:¬ ¬: : : : : : ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ·:
x: : ¬: :: ¬: ¬: ¬: ¬ ¬ ·.
¬:: ¬::
1
¬ ¬ : x: : x¬ ¬ ·

1
Hebrew words with more than one syllable usually accent the final
syllables pronouncing the final Consonant-Vowel-Consonant as one
syllable. For instance, the word : x, in the vocabulary list, is
pronounced "a-niy" rather than "an-iy."

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Vocabulary
I - :x ·. Where – x ·:
Son - : ·1 She – x¬ ·
Prophet - x:: ·· came (f.) - ¬x: ··
What - ¬: or ¬: ·:
Sentences
Who [is]
2
she? - x¬ : ·:
My son came. - x: :: ·.
I [am a]
3
father. - :x :x ·
Where [is] my father? - :x x ·1
What [is a] prophet? - x:: ¬: ··
The
4
prophet came. - x: x::¬ ··



2
The English verb "to be" and its various tenses (am, is, are, etc.) do
not exist in Hebrew and need to be added in the translation.
3
English has two indefinite articles, "a" and "an" which also do not
exist in Hebrew and must be added in the translation.
4
When the letter ¬ is prefixed to a word it means "the" such as in
sentence #6 where the letter ¬ is prefixed to the word x : : (prophet)
forming x : : ¬, meaning "the prophet."

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Lesson 4 – Lamed, Vav
Consonants
:
The "Lamed" is pronounced "l" as in "long."



The "Vav" is pronounced "v" as in "visit."

Vowels
x
The "sh'va" is pronounced "eh" as in "help" when it
is placed under the first letter of the word. When
this vowel appears anywhere else in the word, it is
usually a "syllable break" and not pronounced.

x
The "segol" is pronounced "eh" as in "help."

Practice
:
·
: : : : : : : ·:
:¬ ¬: :¬ ¬: : : : :: ·.
x:: ¬::: :: ¬:: : ·


5
When one of the "a" vowels (qamats or patach) is followed by the
consonant "yud" in the same syllable, the pronunciation is a long "i"
as in "lie" and NOT "ay" as in "lay."
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Vocabulary
God - :x ·. Night - ¬:: ·:
Believe - :x ·1 Water - :: ·
Sea - : ·· Here - ¬:¬
·
··
Sentences
Night came. - x: ¬:: ·:
Water [is] in the sea. - ::
:
:: ·.
My son came to me. - :
s
x: :: ·
Mother came in the night. - ¬::: ¬x:
9
:x
·1
¬:¬ :x
:+
:x ··

6
When the dagesh (the dot in the middle of a letter) is placed within
some letters, such as in the nun in the word ¬: ¬, it doubles the letter.
Therefore, this word is pronounced "hin-ney" rather than "hi-ney."
7
When the letter "beyt" is prefixed to a word it means "in" as in
sentence #4 - ¬ : : : - in the night.)
8
When the letter "lamed" is used as a prefix it means "to" or "for."
9
The vocabulary word ¬ x : (she came) is the feminine form of the
masculine verb x : (he came) which was given in lesson one.
10
When the letter "vav" is prefixed to a word it means "and."

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My father and my mother [are] here. -

Lesson 5 – Resh, Shin
Consonants
~
The "Resh" is pronounced "r" as in "rain."


:
The "Shin" is pronounced two ways, "sh" as in
"sharp," and "s" as in "sign." When a dot is placed
on the top right corner of the letter (:) it takes the
"sh" sound and when the dot is placed on the top
left corner of the letter (:) it takes the "s" sound.
Vowels

This consonant (vav) / vowel (cholam)
combination is called a "cholam maley" and is
pronounced "ow" as in "open."

Practice
: : ~ : : ~ ~ ~ : : : ·:
:~ :~ ~: ~: ~: ~: :: ·.
:: :¬ :: :: :: :~ ~ ~: ~: ·

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Vocabulary
Heaven - ::: ·. Peace - ::: ·:
Created (m) - x~: ·1 Said (m) - ~:x ·
Said (f) - ¬~:x ·· Name - :: ··
Day - : ·s Ruler - ~: ·:
Rabbi - :~ ·:+ Light - ~x ·»
Sentences
Ruler of Peace. - ::: ~: ·:
Day and night. - ¬:: : ·.
My name [is] Levi. -: :: ·
What [is] his name? - ::
11
¬: ·1
His name [is] Abraham. - :¬~:x :: ··
God created heaven. - ::: :x
12
x~: ··
::: : :~ ~:x
Rabbi said to me Shalom. -
·:





11
When the consonant/vowel combination "cholam maley" is
suffixed to a word it means "of him" or "his."
12
In Hebrew, the verb usually appears before the object of the verb.
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Lesson 6 – Ayin, Tet
Consonants
.
The "Ayin" is also a silent (the same as the aleph).


:
The "Tet" is pronounced "t" as in "tune."

Vowels

This consonant (vav) / vowel combination is called
a "shuruq" and is pronounced "uw" as in "tune."
Practice
.: :. x. x: : :x . : . : . ·:
~ : : : : x x ¬ ¬ ·.
:. .: :: :: :: .: :: :~ ·
Vocabulary
Evening – :~. ·. Good - :: ·:
Israel - :x~: ·1 Over, on - :. ·
She - x¬ ·· He - x¬ ··
Keep (m) - ~:: ·:


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Sentences
Good evening. - ::
13
:~. ·:
What is their name? - :::
14
¬: ·.
Their name is Israel. - :x~: :: ·
Peace over Israel. - :x~: :. ::: ·1
Who came in the evening? - :~. x: : ··
He came in the evening. - :~.: x: x¬ ··
She came in the evening. - :~.: ¬x: x¬ ·:



13
In Hebrew, the adjective proceeds the noun, such as word ::
(good) which comes after :~. (evening).
14
When the letter "Mem" is suffixed to a noun it means "of them" or
"their."
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Lesson 7 – Tav, Dalet
Consonants
:
The "Tav" is pronounced "t" as in "tune."

¬
The "Dalet" is pronounced "d" as in "dig."

Vowels
x
This vowel combination (sh'va and segol) is called
a "chataph segol" and is pronounced "eh" as in
"help."

x
The "cholam" is pronounced "o" as in "open."
Practice
: : : : : ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ·:
¬¬ :¬ :¬ ¬: ¬: :¬ :¬ :¬ :¬ ·.
¬: : :: :x :¬ :: :: ¬: ·

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Vocabulary
Moses - ¬::
15
·. God - :¬:x ·:
(With) - :x

·1 Gave (m) - :: ·
Sabbath - ::: ·· Teaching - ¬~:
::
··
¬¬::: ·s
Student (f) -
¬::: ·:
Student (m) -
:¬:: ·:+
Studies (f) -
¬:: ·»
Studies (m) -
::x~
:s
·::

15
Remembering the C+V+C+V rule, the Hebrew word for Moses,
¬ ::, appears to be missing a vowel after the "mem." Since Hebrew
requires a vowel after each consonant, the vowel is the "cholam" and
is placed above the letter "shin" in the same place as the dot above
the right leg of the shin. The dot in this case serves two purposes.
16
The Hebrew word : x is occasionally used in the text to mean
"with" but is more frequently used (about 7,000 times) as a marker
for the direct object of the verb and is untranslatable into English. For
example, in the sentence; "I made the dinner"; the phrase "the dinner"
is the direct object and would be preceded by the word : x. If the
sentence were; "I made a dinner," : x would not precede it since
"dinner" in this sentence is not a direct object.
17
The word ¬~:, while often translated as "law," actually means
"teaching" and is also the Hebrew name for the first five books of the
Bible as they contain the "teachings" of God.
18
An exception to the rule requiring the C+V+C+V pattern is the
word : :x ~. The aleph does not always require a vowel after it.
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Beginning -
Sentences
Peaceful Sabbath. - ::: ::: ·:
:::¬ :x ~::
And they will keep the Sabbath. -
·.
:¬:x x~: ::x~:
In the beginning God created. -
·
¬~: :¬:: ¬¬:::
A student studies Torah. -
·1
¬~:¬ :x ::

¬:: ::
Moses gave to us the Torah. -
··
¬~:¬ :x ¬:: ¬:::
A student studies the Torah. -
··


19
When the letter "lamed" is used as a prefix it means "to" or "for."
The suffix : means "us." combined, this prefix and suffix mean "to
us."
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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

31
Lesson 8 – Tsade, Quph
Consonants
.
The "Tsade" is pronounced "ts" as in "pots."



The "final Tsade" is used when this letter appears
at the end of a word. The pronunciation does not
change.

:
The "Quph" is pronounced "q" as in "quiet."

Vowels
x
This vowel combination (sh'va and patach) is
called a "chataph patach" and is pronounced "ah"
as in "father."

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Practice
: : : : : : . . . . . . ·:
~ :~ : : :. :. : x x ·.
¬ ¬: ¬: x: ¬. x. x. : . ·
Vocabulary
Land - ~x ·. existed (m) - ¬¬ ·:
Sentences - Genesis 1:14
20

.:~: :~x: ¬ :¬:x ~:x
¬ ¬::¬ : :¬ : :::¬
::: :¬.:: ::x: :¬:¬:
:::

20
From this point on the alephbet lessons will include Biblical
passages. While most of the words will not be recognizable at this
time, remember that our objective is to "read" the text, not necessarily
understand it.
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Lesson 9 – Chet, Kaph
Consonants
¬
The "Chet" is pronounced "ch" as in the German
word "ich" or the name "Bach."

:
The "Kaph" is pronounced two ways, "k" as in
kick, and "kh" as in the German word "ich" or the
name "Bach." If the dagesh appears in the middle
of the letter (:) it is pronounced "k." When the
dagesh does not appear in the letter (:) it is
pronounced "kh."

:
The "final kaph" may also appear with the dagesh
(¬) or without the dagesh (:) with the
pronunciations being the same as the "kaph." All
words will end with a consonant, the only
exception to this is the "final kaph" which will
usually be followed by a vowel.
Vowels
x
The "qubbuts" is pronounced "u" as in "tune."
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Practice
¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ : : : : : : ·:
¬: ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬: ¬: ¬¬ ·.
¬x ¬¬ ¬x ¬~ ¬~ ¬~ ·
Vocabulary
Grass, herb - ::. ·. Yes, so - : ·:
Noah – ¬:
21
·1 Tree - . ·
Sentences - Genesis 1:5
x~: ::¬: : ~x: :¬:x x~:
¬¬x : ~::¬ :~.¬ ¬::



21
According to the standard form of Hebrew pronunciation the name
¬ : should be pronounced "nocha" but, when the patach vowel
appears below the letter "chet" at the end of a word, the two sounds
trade places and is in fact pronounced "no'ach." This is unique only to
this letter and vowel combination.
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35
Lesson 10 – Zayin, Pey
Consonants
:
The "Zayin" is pronounced "z" as in "zebra."


c
The "Pey" is pronounced two ways, "p" as in
"pad," and "ph" as "phone." If the dagesh appears
in the middle of the letter (c) it is pronounced "p."
When the dagesh does not appear in the letter (c) it
is pronounced "ph."

¤
The "final Pey" is only used when this letter
appears at the end of a word. The "final pey" will
never appear with the dagesh and will therefore be
pronounced "ph."
Vowels
x
This vowel combination (sh'va and qamats) is
called a "chataph qamats" and is pronounced "ah"
as in "father."
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Practice
: : : : : c c c c c c ·:
¤: :c x: :¬ :x ¤x x: ¬: ·.
¤ : ¬: ¤: :: :: :c ¬c ·
Vocabulary
To do, make - ¬:. ·. Which, who - ~:x ·:
Face - ::c ·
Sentences - Genesis 1:11
::. x:¬ ~x¬ x:¬: :¬:x ~:x
::: ~c ¬:. ~c . .~: .~::
:¬ ~x¬:. :.~: ~:x

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37
Lesson 11 – Gimel, Samech
Consonants
.
The "Gimel" is pronounced "g" as in "game."


:
The "Samech" is pronounced "s" as in "sand."


Practice
. . . . . . . : : : : : ·:
¬. ¬. x. .x x. ¬: :x :¬ ·.
¬: ~: :. .: ¤: :: :: ¬: ·
Vocabulary
Man - :¬x ·. All - ::
..
·:
Fish - ¬.¬ ·1 Bird - ¤. ·



22
This word appears to be pronounced "kal" but, is actually
pronounced "kol." In this one instance the qamats vowel represents a
rare vowel pronounced "o."
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38
Sentences - Genesis 1:26
:::.: :¬x ¬:.: :¬:x ~:x
¤.: :¬ :.¬: ¬~ :::¬:
::: ~x¬::: ¬:¬:: :::¬
~x¬:. ::~¬ ::~¬





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Lesson Transliterations

Lesson 1
P1: bah ah vah bah ah ah bah ah ah vah
P2: vah bah ahv bah ahv bah
V1: ahv
V2: bah
S1: ahv bah

Lesson 2
P1: vee bey vey bee ey ee mee mey mah mah
P2: ey ee vee bee mee eym eem
V1: eym
V2: mee
S1: mee bah
S2: ah-vee bah

Lesson 3
P1: hah hah hee hey nah nee ney ney beyn bah hahv
P2: hahn heyn nah nee ney nahv mah meen nah
P3: hee hee nee nee ney hey heen nah-vah bah-nah
V1: ey
V2: ah-nee
V3: hee
V4: beyn
V5: bah-ah
V6: nah-vee
V7: mah
S1: mee hee
S2: bey-nee bah
S3: ah-nee ahv
S4: ey ah-vee
S5: mah nah-vee
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S6: hah-nah-vee bah

Lesson 4
P1: ley lah leh lee lah veh vah vee lie lee lie vie vey
P2: vehv vahv leyl vehl veyl vahl ley heyl lah hahl
P3: vah-veem lee-bah lah-yeel leyv-mah mah-ley
V1: lie-lah
V2: eyl
V3: mah-yeem
V4: ah-meyn
V5: hee-ney
V6: yahm
S1: lie-lah bah
S2: mah-yeem bah-yahm
S3: bey-nee bah lee
S4: eym bah-ah bah-lie-lah
S5: ah-vee veh-ey-mee hee-ney

Lesson 5
P1: sheh shah sey rey ree rie shey sehy row show sow
P2: sheysh sahr sheer showr seer rahsh rowsh
P3: bahr neyr yahr rahv meesh sahv seem heysh shehl
V1: shah-lowm
V2: shah-mah-yeem
V3: ah-mahr
V4: bah-rah
V5: sheym
V6: ahm-rah
V7: sahr
V8: yowm
V9: owr
V10: rah-bee
S1: sahr shah-lowm
S2: yowm veh-lie-lah
S3: sh'mee ley-vee
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S4: mah sh'mow
S5: sh'mow ahv-rah-hahm
S6: bah-rah eyl shah-mah-yeem
S7: ah-mahr rah-bee lee shah-lowm

Lesson 6
P1: eh teh ey tee ee eht tuw teh eh eht teh
P2: how huw ow uw bow buw low luw ruw own uwn
P3: reht seht beh veht shuwl tuwv tuw uwt
V1: towv
V2: eh-rehv
V3: ahl
V4: yees-rah-eyl
V5: huw
V6: hee
V7: show-meyr
S1: eh-rehv towv
S2: mah sh'muw
S3: sh'muw yees-rah-eyl
S4: shah-lowm ahl yees-rah-eyl
S5: mee bah eh-rehv
S6: huw bah bah-eh-rehv
S7: hee bah-ah bah-eh-rehv

Lesson 7
P1: deh dah deh dey dee dah dow dow teh teh tey tee tah
P2: daht deht dowt dowt towd tehd deht deyt dahd
P3: towd veyt vaht dahv ehl mowt tahn meed
V1: eh-low-heem
V2: mow-sheh
V3: rey-sheet
V4: eht
V5: tahl-meed
V6: tahl-mee-dah
V7: low-meyd
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V8: low-meh-deht
V9: tow-rah
V10: shah-baht
V11: nah-tahn
S1: shah-baht shah-lowm
S2: veh-shahm-ruw eht hah-shah-baht
S3: beh-rey-sheet bah-rah eh-low-heem
S4: tahl-mee-dah low-meh-deht tow-rah
S5: nah-tahn mow-sheh lah-nuw eht hah-tow-rah
S6: tahl-meed low-meyd eht hah-tow-rah

Lesson 8
P1: tsey tsah tsah tsow tsah tseh qee qow qah qah qeh
qah
P2: ehts owts qeyts tsahq tseeq qeets qowts rahq rehts
P3: tsey qee tsey tseh tsow qah qah qow howts
V1: hah-yah
V2: eh-rehts
S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee meh-ow-rowt
beer-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem beyn hah-yowm
uw-veyn hah-lie-lah veh-hie-uw leh-hahv-deel leh-
owt-owt uwl-mow-ah-deem uwl-yah-meem veh-
shah-neem

Lesson 9
P1: kah khah kee kheh key khuw cheh chey chee chow
P2: chahkh kow-ahch khahch chey-khah cheykh keech
P3: row-ahch ruw-ahch rahk ahkh chah-khah ahch
V1: keyn
V2: eh-sehv
V3: eyts
V4: now-ahch
S1: vie-yeeq-rah eh-low-heem lah-owr yowm veh-lah-
chow-shehkh qah-rah lie-lah vie-hee eh-rehv vie-
hee vow-qehr yowm eh-chahd
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Lesson 10
P1: pheh pah peh phey pah pow zuw zey zah zee zow
P2: zeh zey ahph eyz hehz zeh phahz zehph
P3: pow-ahch pahm sahz shahz kahph zeykh quwph
V1: ah-shehr
V2: ah-sah
V3: pah-neem
S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem tahd-shey hah-ah-rehts
deh-sheh ey-sehv mahz-ree-ah zeh-rah eyts peh-ree
ow-seh peh-ree leh-mee-now ah-shehr zahr-ow vow
ahl hah-ah-rehts vie-hee kheyn

Lesson 11
P1: sow suw sah sey see geh gah geh gow gee gah gah
P2: hehs ahs sey gow ahg geh gow gah
P3: sow-ahch mahs seym seyph seyg gahs suwr sowd
V1: kowl
V2: ah-dahm
V3: owph
V4: dah-gah
S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem nah-ah-seh ah-dahm
beh-tsahl-mey-nuw hah-reh-mehs veh-yeer-duw
veed-gaht hah-yowm uwv-owph hah-shah-mah-
yeem keed-muw-tey-nuw uwv-khowl hah-ah-rehts
uwv-khowl uw-vah-beh-hey-mah hah-row-meys ahl
hah-ah-rehts

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Below is the first chapter of the book of Genesis in
Hebrew. The name "Genesis" comes from the Greek
name for this book and means "origins." The Hebrew
name for this book is "Bereshiyt." The Hebrew names for
the first five books of the Bible is derived from the first
word (or first principle word) of the book. In this case, the
first word in the book is "bereshiyt" and means "in the
beginning."

The purpose of this section is to allow you to practice
reading. Also included is a transliteration of the chapter
for pronunciation help. Again, remember to use the
correct Hebrew pronunciation for each vowel.
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The Hebrew
~x¬ :x :::¬ :x :¬:x x~: ::x~: :
:¬: :c:. ::¬ ¬: ¬: ¬:¬ ~x¬ .
::¬ :c:. :c¬~: :¬:x ¬~
~x¬ ~x ¬ :¬:x ~:x
:¬: ::: ~x¬:x :¬:x x~ 1
::¬¬ : ~x¬ : :¬:x
x~: ::¬: : ~x: :¬:x x~: ·
¬¬x : ~::¬ :~.¬ ¬::
¬ ::¬ ::: .:~ ¬ :¬:x ~:x ·
::: :: : :¬::
::¬ : :¬: .:~¬:x :¬:x :. :
~:x ::¬ : .:~: :¬:: ~:x
:¬ .:~: :.:
:~.¬ ::: .:~: :¬:x x~: s
:: : ~::¬
:::¬ :¬:: ::¬ : :¬:x ~:x »
:¬ ¬::¬ ¬x~: ¬¬x ::::x
::¬ ¬::: ~x ¬::: :¬:x x~: :+
::: :¬:x x~ :: x~:
::. x:¬ ~x¬ x:¬: :¬:x ~:x ::
~:x ::: ~c ¬:. ~c . .~: .~::
:¬ ~x¬:. :.~:
.~: .~:: ::. x:¬ ~x¬ x.: :.
:.~: ~:x ~c¬:. . ¬:::
::: :¬:x x~ ¬:::
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::: : ~::¬ :~.¬ :
:::¬ .:~: :~x: ¬ :¬:x ~:x :1
::x: ¬ ¬::¬ : :¬ : :¬:¬:
::: ::: :¬.::
:. ~x¬: :::¬ .:~: :~x:: ¬ :·
:¬ ~x¬
:x ::¬.¬ :~x:¬ :::x :¬:x :. :·
~x:¬:x :¬ :::::: :¬.¬ ~x:¬
::::¬ :x ¬::¬ :::::: ::¬
~x¬: :::¬ .:~: :¬:x ::x : ::
~x¬:.
~x¬ : :¬:¬: ¬::: :: :::: :s
::: :¬:x x~ ::¬¬ :
.:~ : ~::¬ :~.¬ :»
¬¬ :c: ~: ::¬ .~: :¬:x ~:x .+
:::¬ .:~ :c:. ~x¬:. ¤c. ¤.
:: :x ::¬.¬ ::::¬:x :¬:x x~: .:
:¬::: ::¬ .~: ~:x :::~¬ ¬¬¬ :c:
::: :¬:x x~ ¬::: ¤:: ¤.:: :x
x:: :~ ~c ~:x: :¬:x ::x :~: ..
~x: :~ ¤.¬ ::: ::¬:x
::¬ : ~::¬ :~.¬ .
¬::: ¬¬ :c: ~x¬ x.: :¬:x ~:x .1
:¬ ¬::: ~x:¬ ::~ ¬:¬:
:x ¬::: ~x¬ :¬:x :¬:x :. .·
¬::: ¬:¬x¬ ::~:: :x ¬::: ¬:¬:¬
::: :¬:x x~
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:::.: :¬x ¬:.: :¬:x ~:x .·
:::¬ ¤.: :¬ :.¬: ¬~ :::¬:
::~¬ ::~¬::: ~x¬::: ¬:¬::
~x¬:.
::.: ::.: :¬x¬:x :¬:x x~: .:
::x x~: ¬::: ~:: :x x~: :¬:x
:¬:x :¬: ~:x :¬:x ::x :~: .s
:.¬: ¬~ ¬::: ~x¬:x x:: :~ ~c
:::~¬ ¬¬::: :::¬ ¤.: :¬
~x¬:.
::.:::x ::: ::: ¬:¬ :¬:x ~:x .»
.¬:::x ~x¬:: :c:. ~:x .~: .~:
¬::x: ¬¬ ::: .~: .~: .~c :~:x
::: :::¬ ¤.::: ~x¬ :¬::: +
:~:::x ¬¬ :c: :~:x ~x¬:. ::~
:¬ ¬::x: ::.
::¬:¬ ¬:. ~:x:::x :¬:x x~ :
::¬ : ~::¬ :~.¬ ¬x:
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Transliteration

1. bey-rey-sheet bah-rah eh-lo-heem eyt hah-shah-mah-
yeem veh-eyt hah-ah-rets 2. veh-hah-ah-rets hie-tah tow-
huw vah-vow-huw veh-chow-shekh ahl peh-ney teh-
howm veh-ruw-ahch eh-low-heem meh-rah-cheh-pheht
ahl peh-ney hah-mah-yeem 3. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem
yeh-hee owr vie-hee owr 4. vie-yahr eh-low-heem eht
hah-owr kee towv vie-yahv-deyl eh-low-heem beyn hah-
owr uw-veyn hah-chow-shehkh 5. vie-yeeq-rah eh-low-
heem lah-owr yowm veh-lah-chow-shehkh qah-rah lie-lah
vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm eh-chahd 6. vie-
yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee rah-qee-ah beh-towkh
hah-mah-yeem vee-hee mahv-deel beyn mah-yeem lah-
mah-yeem 7. vie-yah-ahs eh-low-heem eht hah-rah-qee-
ah vie-yahv-deyl beyn hah-mah-yeem ah-shehr mee-tah-
chaht lah-rah-qee-ah uw-veyn hah-mah-yeem ah-shehr
mey-ahl lah-rah-qee-ah vie-hee kheyn 8. vie-yeeq-rah eh-
low-heem lah-rah-qee-ah shah-mah-yeem vie-hee eh-rehv
vie-hee vow-qehr yowm shey-nee 9. vie-yow-mehr eh-
low-heem yee-qahv-vuw hah-mah-yeem mee-tah-chaht
hah-shah-mah-yeem ehl mah-qowm eh-chahd veh-tey-
rah-eh hie-yah-bah-shah vie-hee kheyn 10. vie-yeeq-rah
eh-low-heem lie-yah-bah-shah eh-rehts uwl-meeq-vey
hah-mah-yeem qah-rah yahm-meem vie-yahr eh-low-
heem kee towv 11. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem tahd-shey
hah-ah-rehts deh-sheh ey-sehv mahz-ree-ah zeh-rah eyts
peh-ree ow-seh peh-ree leh-mee-now ah-shehr zahr-ow
vow ahl hah-ah-rets vie-hee kheyn 12. vah-tow-tsey hah-
ah-rehts deh-sheh ey-sehv mahz-ree-ah zeh-rah leh-mee-
ney-huw veh-eyts ow-seh peh-ree ah-shehr zahr-ow vow
leh-mee-ney-huw vie-yahr eh-low-heem kee tow 13. vie-
hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm sheh-lee-shee 14.
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vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee meh-ow-rowt beer-
qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem leh-hahv-deel beyn hah-
yowm uw-veyn hah-lie-lah veh-hie-uw leh-owt-owt uwl-
mow-ah-deem uwl-yah-meem veh-shah-neem 15. veh-
hie-uw leem-ow-rowt beer-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem
leh-hah-eer ahl hah-ah-rets vie-hee kheyn 16. vie-yah-ahs
eh-low-heem eht sheh-ney hah-meh-ow-rowt hahg-dow-
leem eht hah-mah-owr hah-gah-dowl leh-mehm-sheh-leht
hah-yowm veh-eht hah-mah-owr hah-qah-town leh-
mehm-sheh-leht hah-lie-lah veh-eyt hah-kow-khah-veem
17. vie-yee-teyn ow-tahm eh-low-heem beer-qee-ah hah-
shah-mah-yeem leh-hah-eer ahl hah-ah-rehts 18. veh-
leem-showl bah-yowm uw-vah-lie-lah uw-lah-hahv-deel
beyn hah-owr uw-veyn hah-chow-shehkh vie-yahr eh-
low-heem kee towv 19. vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr
yowm reh-vee-ee 20. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeesh-
reh-tsuw hah-mah-yeem sheh-rehts neh-phehsh hie-yah
veh-uwph yeh-ow-pheyph ahl hah-ah-rehts ahl peh-ney
reh-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem 21. vie-yeev-rah eh-low-
heem eht hah-tah-nee-neem hahg-dow-leem veh-eyt kowl
neh-phehsh hah-chie-yah hah-row-meh-sheht ah-shehr
shahr-tsuw hah-mah-yeem leh-mee-ney-hehm veh-eyt
kowl owph kah-nahph leh-mee-ney-huw vie-yahr eh-low-
heem kee towv 22. vie-vah-rekh ow-tahm eh-low-heem
ley-mowr peh-ruw uwr-vuw uw-meel-uw eht hah-mah-
yeem bah-yah-meem veh-hah-owph yee-rehv bah-ah-
rehts 23. vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm chah-
mee-shee 24. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem tow-tsey hah-
ah-rehts neh-phehsh chie-yah leh-mee-nah beh-hey-mah
vah-reh-mehs veh-chie-tow eh-rehts leh-mee-nah vie-hee
kheyn 25. vie-yah-ahs eh-low-heem eht chie-yaht hah-ah-
rets leh-mee-nah veh-eht hah-beh-hey-mah leh-mee-nah
veh-eyt kowl reh-mehs hah-ah-dah-mah leh-mee-ney-huw
vie-yahr eh-low-heem kee towv 26. vie-yow-mehr eh-
low-heem nah-ah-seh ah-dahm beh-tsahl-mey-nuw keed-
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muw-tey-nuw veh-yeer-duw veed-gaht hah-yahm uwv-
owph hah-shah-mah-yeem uw-vah-beh-hey-mah uwv-
khowl hah-ah-rehts uwv-khowl hah-reh-mehs hah-row-
meys ahl hah-ah-rets 27. vie-yeev-rah eh-low-heem eht
hah-ah-dahm beh-tsahl-mow beh-tseh-lehm eh-low-heem
bah-rah ow-tow zah-khahr uw-neh-qey-vah bah-rah ow-
tahm 28. vie-vah-rehkh ow-tahm eh-low-heem vie-yow-
mehr lah-hehm eh-low-heem peh-ruw uwr-vuw uw-meel-
uw eht hah-ah-rehts veh-kheev-shuw-ah uwr-duw beed-
gaht hah-yahm uwv-owph hah-shah-mah-yeem uwv-
khowl chie-yah hah-row-meh-seht ahl hah-ah-rehts 29.
vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem heen-ney nah-tah-tee lah-
khehm eht kowl ey-sehv zow-rey-ah zeh-rah ah-shehr ahl
peh-ney khowl hah-ah-rehts veh-eht kowl hah-eyts ah-
shehr bow peh-ree eyts zow-rey-ah zah-rah lah-khehm
yee-yeh leh-ahkh-lah 30. uwl-khowl chie-yaht hah-ah-
rehts uwl-khowl owph hah-shah-mah-yeem uwl-khowl
row-meys ahl hah-ah-rehts ah-shehr bow neh-phehsh
chie-yah eht kowl yeh-rehq ey-sehv leh-ahkh-lah vie-hee
kheyn 31. vie-yahr eh-low-heem eht kowl ah-shehr ah-sah
veh-heen-ney towv meh-owd vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee
vow-qehr yowm hah-shee-shee

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The purpose of the Reference Guide is to be an aid to the
Hebrew student to assist with recognzing the prefixes and
suffixes of Hebrew nouns and verbs.

Uncovering the root word

One Hebrew word may contain a root, one or two prefixes
as well as one or two suffixes. As an example, let us look
at the word :~:¬. To find the root word, we first
identify the prefixes and suffixes. The prefix means
"and." The is another prefix identifying the subject of
the verb as a "he." The suffix : identifies the object of the
verb as "them." Once the suffix and prefixes are removed
we have the root ~:¬, meaning "speak," remaining. The
Hebrew word :~:¬, means "and he spoke to them."

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Identification of the prefixes and suffixes of a verb will
assist you in translating each word correctly. This will
also allow you to uncover the root of the word, which can
then be looked up in the root dictionary below.
Prefixes - The article, conjunction and
prepositions

Some of the most common words found in the Bible are
actually written as prefixes, such as : (in), (and), ¬ (the)
and : (to). The two prefixes : (like) and : (which) are
also used but occur infrequently. Combining a prefix with
a suffix also forms words. For example, the word :: is
the prefix : meaning "to" and the suffix : meaning "you"
(see possessive pronouns below) forming a word meaning
"to you."

Prefixes
The
¬
And

To
:
In
:
From
:
Like
:
Which, who
:


Plural

Nouns are made plural by adding the following suffixes.
There are a few exceptions to these gender specific
suffixes. For example :x (father) and ~x (light) are
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masculine words yet carry the feminine suffix, ::x and
:~x, but still remain masculine.

Plural Suffixes
Masculine Feminine
:

:


Noun derivatives

Included in this section is a list of the most common
prefixes, infixes and suffixes added to a root to form a
new noun. Each noun derivitive will be related in
meaning to the original root word. By recognizing these
"fixes," one can easily uncover the original root word
assisting the reader with identifying the meaning of the
word. For example, the words :¬. and ¬:¬. are derived
from the root :¬. (righteous). The word :¬. is formed
by infixing the letter and has the meaning of "a righteous
one." The word ¬:¬. is formed by suffixing the letter ¬
and has the meaning of "righteousness."

Noun Derivitives
: :
: :
¬ :
:
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Pronouns

The following pronouns are very common and a good
understanding of them will assist the student in reading
the text.

Pronouns
Singular Plural
Masculine
I
:x
We
:x
You
¬ : x
You
::x
He

They

Feminine
I
:x
We
:x
You
: x
You
: x
She

They
¬


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Possessive Pronouns (Nouns)
Singular Plural
Masculine
My

Our
:
Your
¬
Your
::
His

Their
:
Feminine
My

Our
:
Your
¬
Your
:
Her
¬
Their

Hebrew Tenses

Hebrew verb tenses are not related to time (past, present
or future), as in English, but to action. There are two
Hebrew tenses, perfect and imperfect. The perfect tense is
complete action and is similar to past tense. The imperfect
tense is incomplete action (action that has started but not
finished or action that has not started) and is similar to our
present and future tense.

Each verb will also identify the person, gender and
number of the subject of the verb. The person is expressed
as first, second or third person, the gender will be either
masculine or feminine and the number will be singular or
plural.

Using the Hebrew root word ~:: (to guard), the letter x is
prefixed to form the verb ~::x. The addition of this letter
indicates that the verb is first person, masculine, singular
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and imperfect tense - "I am guarding" or "I will guard."
By suffixing the letters :, the verb :~:: is formed, and
is first person, masculine, singular, perfect tense - "I
guarded."

When the conjuction (meaning "and") is prefixed to a
verb, the tense is reversed. While ~::x means "I will
guard" (imperfect tense), ~::x becomes "I guarded"
(perfect tense). While :~:: means "I gaurded" (perfect
tense), :~:: becomes "I will guard" (imperfect tense).

Verb Subjects (Perfect Tense)
Singular Plural
Masculine
I
:
We
:
You
:
You
::
He

They

Feminine
I

We
:
You
:
You
:
She
¬
They

Verb Subjects (Imperfect Tense)
Singular Plural
Masculine
I
x
We
:
You
:
You
:
He

They

Feminine
I
x
We
:
You
:
You
¬::
She
:
They
¬::
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59

P
P
a
a
r
r
t
t
4
4

T
T
r
r
a
a
n
n
s
s
l
l
a
a
t
t
i
i
n
n
g
g
L
L
e
e
s
s
s
s
o
o
n
n
s
s

______________________________________________





Your next step in Biblical Hebrew studies is to learn
sentence and word structure. The following is the first
five verses of Genesis chapter one where we will examine
each word, one at a time, explaining their construction
and relationship within the sentence. These lessons will
frequently refer to prefixes, suffixes and roots that can be
found in Referene Guide of this book.



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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

61
Lesson 1 – Genesis 1:1


~x¬ :x :::¬ :x :¬:x x~: ::x~:


::x~:
The : is a prefix meaning "inside" or "in." This letter is
an abbreviated form of the Hebrew word :: (beyt)
meaning, "house." Inside the house is where the family
resides. (For a list of the common prefixes see the chart
labeled "Prefixes" in Part 3)

The root word is :x~ (rosh) meaning, "head." Adding
certain letters to the root commonly forms words related
in meaning to the root and all of the words derived from
the same root will be related in meaning. In this case, the
letters : are added to the root to form a noun, ::x~.
This word means "beginning," the head of a time or space
as in the beginning of an event or a river. (For a list of
common letters used to form new nouns, see the chart
labeled "Noun Derivatives" in Part 3)

By being able to recognize the letters added to a root to
form noun derivatives, one can easily find the root within
the word. There are approximately 8,000 different words
in the Hebrew Bible, all of which are derived from only
about 1,500 roots. Of these 1,500, about half are rarely
used in the Bible. This means that with a good
understanding of about 750 roots one can easily read the
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

62
Biblical text without memorizing all 8,000 words used
within it.


x~:
This is a verb usually translated as "create."

Each verb identifies person (first, second or third), gender
(masculine or feminine), number (singular or plural) and
tense (perfect or imperfect). This verb would be literally
translated as "he created." The construction of the verb
identifies the subject of the verb as third person,
masculine, singular and perfect tense. (For the various
prefixes and suffixes added to the verb to identify person,
gender, number and tense, see the verb charts in Part 3)

Perfect tense is completed action and is similar to our past
tense. Imperfect tense is incomplete action and is similar
to our present or future tense. Notice the difference of
tenses between Hebrew and English. English tenses are
related to time (past, present or future) while Hebrew is
related to action (complete or incomplete).


:¬:x
This word is the subject of the verb, the "he" in "he
created." Generally the subject of the verb will follow the
verb rather than precede it as in English. In English we
say "God created" but in Hebrew this would be written as
"created God."

The root word for this noun is ¬:x meaning "power."
This word is used for anyone or anything which, has
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

63
"power" and is often translated as "God." The suffix :
denotes a plural for masculine nouns. While English
plurals convey quantity (more than one), Hebrew plurals
convey quantity or quality (very large or great). The word
:¬:x can be translated as "gods" (quantity) or "a great
god" (quality). The idea of "a great god" is generally
written in English as "God."

Only through context can it be determined if the plural
noun is identifying quantity or quality. This can be the
context within the passage or the sentence structure itself.
In this verse the context of the sentence structure requires
this word to be understood as qualitative since the verb
preceding it states "he (singular) created" and not "they
(plural) created."


:x
This word :x is used over 11,000 times (and never
translated into English as there is no equivalent) to point
to the direct object of the verb. Some examples of a direct
object are "Bible," "the book" and "his book" where the
"book" is specifically identified." Conversely, an example
of an indirect object would be "a book" where the book is
not specifically identified.


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64
:::¬
The first letter, ¬, is another prefix and is usually
translated as "the" (definite article). This prefix is the
short form of the word :¬ meaning, "to look at
something."

The root word is ::: meaning, "sky" or "heaven."
Several Hebrew words are always written in the plural
form such as this word.

Because the ¬ (the) precedes the word :::, this word is
a direct object of the verb x~:, hence, the reason for the
word :x before it.


:x
Another very common prefix is the letter , usually
translated as "and." This is the abbreviated form of the
word meaning, peg or nail. As a nail attaches two items
together, this prefix attaches two or more things together
in a sentence, in this case "the skies and the land."

Added to this prefix is the word :x which was previously
discussed. Because of this word we know that the word
which follows is also a direct object of the verb x~:.


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65
~x¬
The letter ¬ is the prefix meaning "the." The word ~x
is a common word meaning, "land" or "earth."

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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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Lesson 2 – Genesis 1:2


:¬: :c:. ::¬ ¬: ¬: ¬:¬ ~x¬
::¬ :c:. :c¬~: :¬:x ¬~ :¬:


~x¬
As previously discussed the prefix is used to attach two
parts of a sentence together but is also used to attach two
or more sentences together, in other words bringing all of
the words of one story together. In fact, the entire chapter
of Genesis chapter one is one long story as each sentence
begins with a .

The letter ¬ is the prefix meaning "the" and the word
~x, as previously discussed, means "land."


¬:¬
The root of this verb is ¬¬, a very common root literally
meaning, "to exist" or "breath" as one who exists breaths
but is usually translated with a form of the English verb
"to be." This verb is made feminine, singular, and perfect
tense by adding the ¬ to the end of the root (¬¬¬).
When a ¬ is added as a suffix to a root that ends with a ¬,
this ¬ is changed to a : (¬:¬). This verb would be
literally translated as "she existed" where the "she" is the
"land," the previous word.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

68

¬:
The root word here is ¬: meaning "empty." By adding
the suffix letter to the root, a noun derivative is formed
meaning, "empty" or "void."


¬:
The first letter, , is the prefix meaning "and" and is used
to connect this word with the previous word.

The root word is ¬: meaning, "to fill a void." A common
Hebrew word also derived from this root is x: (bo') and
is usually translated as "come" or "go." The English
translations of this word imply movement in a certain
direction but the Hebrew meaning of the word x: is to
"fill a void" and can be either fill a void here (come) or
fill a void there (go).

The added after the root forms a noun derivative
meaning, "void."

The phrase ¬: ¬: is a common style of poetry where
similar sounding words are grouped together. While the
phrase "The painter painted a painting with paint," would
be poor English, it is a perfect example of Hebrew poetry.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

69
::¬
The first letter is the prefix , meaning "and." The word
::¬ means "dark" or "darkness."


:.
This word is very common and means "over" or "on."


:c
The root for this word is ¬:c meaning, face. This word is
always used in the plural form ::c (the ¬ is dropped
when the masculine plural suffix is added). This word is
in the construct state "faces of....."

When a masculine plural noun is used in the Construct
State, the letter : is always dropped.


:¬:
A noun derived from the root :¬ meaning "sea," closely
related in form to the more common word for sea, :.
This noun derivative is formed by adding the prefix letter
:, and has the more specific meaning of "deep sea." This
and the previous word form the Construct phrase "faces of
the deep."


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70
¬~
The first letter is the prefix meaning "and." The word
¬~ is another Hebrew word meaning, "wind." Though
this word is often translated as "spirit" the more Hebraic
understanding is "wind" or "breath."


:¬:x
This is the same word discussed previously. When two
nouns appear together they are in the Construct State.
This word and the preceding word, ¬~, would be
translated as "wind/breath of God."


:c¬~:
The root to this verb is ¤¬~ meaning, "hover over" such
as a bird does over the nest. The letter : is a prefix added
to the verb to form a conjugation. The letter : indicates
this verb is feminine singular perfect tense and literally
translated as "she hovered." The "she" of this word is the
previous word ¬~, a feminine word. While most
consider the "Spirit" (wind/breath) a "he," Biblically, it is
a "she."


:.
This is the same word previously discussed meaning
"over" or "on."


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71
:c
This word was also previously discussed meaning "faces"
and is in the construct state with the following word.


::¬
The first letter ¬ is the prefix meaning "the." The root
word is ::, a very common word meaning, "water."

Notice that the previous sentence contains no verb. While
a verb is required in every English sentence it is not in
Biblical Hebrew.

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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

73
Lesson 3 – Genesis 1:3


~x¬ ~x ¬ :¬:x ~:x


~:x
The first letter is the prefix meaning "and." The root
word is ~:x.

Hebrew root words can be used as a noun or a verb. As a
noun this root would mean a "word" while as a verb it
means, "to say." We see a similar occurrence in English
as in the sentence; "He will play Moses in the play." The
first use of the word "play" is a verb while the second is a
noun. The context of the sentence as well as the type of
prefixes and suffixes added to the word will tell you if the
word is a verb or a noun.

When the letter is added to the root ~:x, the word is
identified as a verb and can literally be translated as "he
says" or "he will say" (masculine, singular, perfect tense).

When the letter vav is prefixed to a verb, the tense of the
verb is reversed. Therefore, the word ~:x is "he says"
(masculine, singular, imperfect tense) while the word
~:x is "he said" (masculine, singular, perfect tense).
This vav, when used in this instance, is called the "vav
consecutive."

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74
:¬:x
This word has been discussed previously and is the
subject of the previous verb.


¬
The root of this word is ¬¬ as discussed previously
meaning, "to exist." When the letter is prefixed to the
root, the word ¬¬ (masculine, singular, imperfect
tense) is formed, meaning, "he exists."

When a root ends with a ¬, it is often dropped when used
as a verb. Hence, ¬¬ becomes ¬. Another letter that
frequently drops off a root when used as a verb is the
letter : when it is the first letter of the root. All verb roots
consist of three letters. If you come across a verb and
remove the prefixes and suffixes and find only two letters
remaining, most likely the verb has dropped the final ¬ or
the beginning :. For example, in Genesis 17:3 we find
the word :c. The letter is the vav consecutive
meaning "and" and reverses the tense of the verb. The
letter is the prefix identifying the subject of the verb as
masculine singular. We are then left with the word :c.
The missing third letter for this root is the dropped : as
the root is :c:.


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75
~x
This is a root word meaning "light." This word is the
subject of the previous verb.


¬
This is the same verb with the same conjugation as the
previous verb but includes the , which reverses the tense
from imperfect to perfect, and becomes "and he existed."


~x
The same word meaning, light, and again, the subject of
the previous verb.
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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

77
Lesson 4 – Genesis 1:4 & 5


:¬: ::: ~x¬:x :¬:x x~
::¬¬ : ~x¬ : :¬:x
x~: ::¬: : ~x: :¬:x x~:
¬¬x : ~::¬ :~.¬ ¬::


At this point you should be able to translate verses 4 and
5. Most of the words as well as the prefixes and suffixes
have been covered above with the exception of those
listed below. Once you have translated the verses you can
use your English Bible to check your translation.

To see
¬x~
To call
x~:
To separate
:¬:
Good
::
Between
:
That, it is
:
Night
¬::
Day
:
Evening
:~.
Morning
~::
One
¬¬x
To (prefix)
:







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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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P
P
a
a
r
r
t
t
5
5

H
H
e
e
b
b
r
r
e
e
w
w
/
/
E
E
n
n
g
g
l
l
i
i
s
s
h
h

D
D
i
i
c
c
t
t
i
i
o
o
n
n
a
a
r
r
y
y

______________________________________________



This list contains all the words used in the Bible
which occur twenty-five times or more. For example, the
word :x~ (used 182 times) is derived from the root :x~
(used 615 times), both being included in the list. The
word ::x~ (used 1 time) is also derived from the same
root, but is used less than twenty-five times in the Bible
and is not included in the dictionary.

The Hebrew words in this dictionary do not contain
any of the prefixes or suffixes as found in the Hebrew
text. By removing the prefixes and suffixes of the Hebrew
words in the text, the word can be found. For example the
word :::¬, includes the prefix ¬ meaning "the." When
this is removed, the word :::, meaning "heavens,"
remains and is found in the dictionary. As another
example, the word ~:x, meaning "and they said,"
contains two prefixes ( and ), and one suffix (). When
these are removed, the word ~:x meaning "to say,"
remains and is also found in the dictionary.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

80

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Father
: x
Brother
¬ x
To destroy
~:x
One
¬ ¬ x
Consent
¬ : x
Back, Future
~¬x
Needy
:x
Sister
:¬x
To mourn
: : x
To seize
:¬x
Stone
:x
Possession
¬¬x
Lord
¬x
After
~¬x
Nobles
~¬x
Other
~¬x
Mankind
: ¬ x
Last
~¬x
Ground
¬ : ¬ x
Future
:~¬x
Base
¬x
Where
x
Lord
:¬x
Island
x
To love
: ¬ x
Enemy
:x
Love
¬ : ¬ x
Where
¬x
Tent
: ¬ x
How
¬x
Or
x
Ram
:x
Desire
¬x
Arch
::x
Fool
:x
Not exist
x
Perhaps
:x
Man
:x
Folly
::x
But
¬x
Evil
x
To eat
: : x
Wheel
cx
Food
: : x
Treasure
~.x
Not
: x
To Shine
~x
God
: x
Light
~x
To
: x
Sign
:x
Oath
¬ : x
Then
:x
These
¬ : x
To Listen
:x
God(s)
:¬:x
Ear
:x
God
¬:x
English Hebrew English Hebrew
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81
Chief
¤:x
Four
.:~x
Widow
¬:::x
Forty
::~x
Thousand
¤:x
Purple
:.¬x
Mother
: x
Chest
¬x
If
: x
Cedar
:~x
Maidservant
¬ : x
Path
¬~x
Cubit
¬ : x
Lion
~x
Faithfulness
¬::x
To lengthen
¬~x
To believe
:x
Length
¬~x
Amen
:x
Fortress
:¬x
Courageous
: x
Earth, land
~x
To say
~:x
To curse
~~x
Word
~:x
Fire
:x
Promise
¬~:x
Off. by fire
¬:x
Truth, faith
: : x
Woman
¬:x
Where
x
To bear guilt
::x
Man
:: x
Guilt (off.)
::x
We
:¬:x
Which
~:x
I
:x
Blessed
~:x
Ship
¬:x
[with]
: x
I
::x
You
¬ : x
To gather
¤:x
Donkey (f)
:x
To bind
~:x
Well
~x:
And
¤x
To be unfaithful
¬.:
Nose, anger
¤x
Clothes
¬.:
End
: c x
Pole, alone
¬ :
Finger
. : . x
To set apart
: ¬ :
Beside
: . x
To terrify
: ¬ :
To ambush
:~x
Animal
¬ : ¬ :
English Hebrew English Hebrew
To come
x:
Master
: . :
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Pit
~:
To burn
~.:
To disgrace
::
To fortify
~.:
Plunder
::
To divide
. : :
Despise
¬::
Herd
~::
To carry off
:::
Morning
~::
Young man
~¬:
To seek
:::
To test
¬:
To create
x~:
To choose
~¬:
Hail
¬~:
To trust
¬ : :
Iron
::~:
Safety
¬ : :
To flee
¬~:
Womb
::
Bar
¬~:
To understand
:
Covenant
:~:
Between
:
To bless
¬~:
Understanding
¬::
Knee
¬~:
House
::
Blessing
¬:~:
To weep
¬ : :
To cook
:::
Firstborn
~::
Spice
:::
Weep
::
Flesh
~::
Not, less
: :
Shame
:::
Not, Without
::
Daughter
: :
Wicked
:.::
Virgin
¬:¬:
To mix
: : :
Pride
x.
To swallow
. : :
To redeem
: x .
Not, Without
:::
To make high
¬ : .
High place
¬ : :
High
¬ : .
Son
:
Territory
::.
To build
¬::
Mighty
~:.
For
¬ . :
Power
¬~:.
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83

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Hill
¬ . : .
Plague
~:¬
To strengthen
~:.
Honey
::¬
Strong man
~:.
Grain

Roof
..
Uncle
¬¬
Troops
¬¬.
Generation

Great
:¬.
Enough
¬
To make great
: ¬ .
Poor
: ¬
Nation
.
Door
: : ¬
Exile
¬:.
Blood
: ¬
To be alien
~.
To compare
¬ : ¬
Lot
:~.
Likeness
::¬
To rob
::.
Knowledge
: . ¬
Valley
x.
To tread
¬~¬
To rejoice
:.
Way
¬~¬
To exile
¬ : .
To seek
:~¬
Idols
::.
Meaningless
: : ¬
Also
: .
To mutter
¬.¬
To wean
: : .
Splendor
~¬¬
Camel
: : .
He

Garden
.
Woe
¬
To steal
::.
Wealth
¬
Vine
c.
To exist
¬¬
Alien
~.
Temple
::¬
Threshing floor
~.
To go/walk
¬:¬
To drive out
:~.
To praise
: : ¬
Rain
::.
They
: ¬
To cling
: : ¬
To roar
¬ : ¬
To speak
~:¬
Crowd

Word
~:¬
Surely
¬
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84

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Here
¬:¬
Feast

Look
¬:¬
To put on
~.¬
To turn
¬c¬
To stop
: ¬ ¬
Mountain

Bedroom
~¬¬
To kill
.~¬
New
:¬¬
To conceive
¬~¬
New moon
:¬¬
To tear down
:~¬
To anguish

To sacrifice
¬ : :
Wall
¬:¬
Sacrifice
¬ : :
Street
¬
This
¬ :
To see
¬:¬
Gold
: ¬ :
Vision
: ¬
To flow
::
To strengthen
::¬
Olive
::
Strong
::¬
To remember
~::
To sin
x : ¬
Male
~¬:
Sin
x : ¬
Lewdness
¬ : :
Sin (off.)
:x : ¬
To make music
~::
Wheat
¬ : ¬
To prostitute
¬::
Life
¬
To cry out
: . :
To live
¬¬
Old, elder
::
Army

To scatter
¬~:
Outer

Arm
.~:
Bosom

To plant
.~:
To be wise
: : ¬
Seed
.~:
Wise
: : ¬
To sprinkle
:~:
Wisdom
¬ : : ¬
To hide
x : ¬
Fat
: : ¬
Rope
: : ¬
Milk
: : ¬
To join
~:¬
To be ill
¬ : ¬
To saddle
::¬
Dream
::¬
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Window

To search
~:¬
To begin
: : ¬
To lay waste
:~¬
Slain
: : ¬
Sword
:~¬
To dream
: : ¬
Ruins
¬:~¬
To change
¤:¬
To tremble
¬~¬
To divide
: : ¬
Anger
¬~¬
Portion
: : ¬
Fierce
~ ¬
Wrath
¬ : ¬
To destroy
: ¬ ¬
Donkey (m)
~:¬
Destroy
: ¬ ¬
Fifth
::¬
To insult
¤~¬
To spare
: : ¬
Disgrace
¬c~¬
Violence
: : ¬
To plow
:~¬
Five
::¬
Craftsman
:~¬
Grace
¬
To plan
::¬
To camp
¬:¬
To hold back
¬:¬
Spear
::¬
Darkness
¬:¬
For no reason
::¬
Breastpiece

To have grace

To seal
: : ¬
Love
¬ : ¬
To frighten
: : ¬
To take refuge
¬ : ¬
Guard
¬ : :
Saints
¬:¬
Ring
: . : :
Delight
c ¬
Pure
~¬:
Delight
c ¬
To be pure
~¬:
Arrow
¬
Good
::
half

Goodness
::
Trumpet
¬~..¬
Good
¬::
Courtyard
~.¬
Row
~:
Decree
: ¬
Dew
: :
Decree
¬ : ¬
To be unclean
x : :
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Unclean
x : :
To discipline
~:
Uncleanness
¬ x : :
To meet
¬ .
To hide
::
Because
.
Children
¤:
To give advise
.
Before
:~:
Forest
~.
To tear
¤~:
Beautiful
¬ c
To dry up
::
To come out
¬ .
To be weary
..
To stand
: .
Hand
¬
To pour out
: .
To throw
¬ ¬
To form
~.
To know
. ¬
To set fire
: .
Day
:
Precious
~:
Day
::
To fear
x~
Dove
¬:
Fear
¬x~
Together
¬ ¬
To come down
¬~
Together
¬¬
To shoot
¬~
To hope
: ¬
Moon
¬~
To do good
: :
Curtain
¬.~
Wine

Side
¬~
To rebuke
¬ :
Far, end
¬:~
Could
: :
To take possession
:~
To bear child
¬ :
There is
:
Child
¬ :
To settle
::
To wail
: :
Salvation
¬.:
Sea, West
:
To save
.:
Right
:
Salvation
.:
Right
::
To straighten
~:
To lay found.
¬ :
Upright
~:
To add
¤:
Peg
¬ :
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Fatherless
::
Harp
~: :
To be left
~:
To humble
.::
Other
~:
Wing, Corner
¤::
Heavy
¬ : :
Throne
x : :
Glory
¬::
To cover
¬ : :
To wash
: : :
Fool
:::
Lamb (m)
:::
Silver
¤::
This is what
¬ :
To mk angry
: . :
Priest
¬:
Palm, Sole
¤:
Star
:::
Young lion
~c:
To hold
::
To atone
~c:
To prepare
:
Mercy seat
:~c:
Cup
::
Vineyard
:~:
To lie
:::
To bow down
.~:
Strength
¬ :
To cut off
:~:
To hide
¬ ¬ :
To stumble
:::
For
:
To write
: : :
This is how
¬ : :
Robe
::::
Talent, plain
~::
Side
¤::
All
: :
No, Not
x :
Dog
: : :
People
: x :
To finish
¬ : :
Heart
: :
Daughter in-law
¬ : :
Heart
: : :
Article
::
Clothing
:::
Kidney
¬::
White
::
To disgrace
: : :
To clothe
:::
Disgrace
¬ : : :
If
:
Like
::
Tablet
¬:
So
:
To stay a night
:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

88

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To fight
: ¬ :
To circumcise
::
Bread
: ¬ :
Near
::
Night
¬::
To discipline
~::
To catch
¬ : :
Meeting
¬.:
To learn
¬ : :
Wonders
:c:
To take
¬ : :
Exit
¬.:
To gather
: : :
Snare
:::
Tongue
: :
Settlement
:::
Room
¬:::
To die
::
Very
¬ x :
Death
::
Hundred
¬ x :
Altar
¬:::
Anything
¬:x:
Psalm
~:::
Food
: : x :
East
¬~::
To refuse
x:
Sprinkle bowl
:~::
To reject
: x :
To blot out
¬ ¬ :
Fortified
~.::
Division
: : : ¬ :
Tower
:¬.:
Camp
¬:¬:
Shield
.:
Tomorrow
~¬:
Plague
¬c.:
Next day
:~¬:
Pastureland
:~.:
Plans
¬ : : ¬ :
Desert
~:¬:
Tribe
¬ : :
To measure
¬ ¬ :
Bed
¬ : :
Measurement
¬ ¬ :
Rain
~::
Quarrel
¬:
Who
:
Why
.¬:
Water
::
Province
¬:¬:
Kind
:
What
¬ :
Wound
¬ : :
Quickly
~¬:
Stand
¬:::
To shake
::
To sell
~::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

89

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To fill
x : :
To be unfaithful
: . :
Full
x : :
Unfaithfulness
: . :
All in
x : :
Top
: . :
Messenger
¬x::
Step
¬ : . :
Work
¬ :x : :
Action
: : . :
Speaking
¬ : :
So that
.:
Kingdom
¬:::
Cave
¬~.:
Salt
¬ : :
Work
¬:.:
Battle
¬ : ¬ : :
Tenth
~:.:
To escape
: : :
To find
x . :
To reign
¬::
Sacred stone
¬ : . :
King
¬::
Unleavened Brd
¬ . :
Queen
¬ : : :
Command
¬.:
Kingdom
::::
Sanctuary
:¬::
Kingdom
¬ : : : :
Place
:::
From
:
Livestock
¬:::
To count
¬::
Bitter
~:
Lampstand
¬~::
Appearance
¬x~:
Grain (off.)
¬¬::
To rebel
~~:
From
::
To rebel
¬~:
To keep
.::
On high
:~:
Curtain
¬::
Chariot
¬::~:
Cast idol
¬ : : :
Deceit
¬:~:
Road
¬ : : :
Load, oracle
x::
Number
~c::
To anoint
¬::
Stomach
¬ . :
Anointed
¬::
Fortress
:.:
To pull
¬::
Little
: . :
Bed
::::
Robe
:.:
Tabernacle
:::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

90

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To rule
:::
Noble
:¬:
Proverb
:::
To make a vow
~¬:
Duties
:~:::
River
~¬:
Second
¬:::
To sway
¬:
Clan
¬ ¬ c : :
Pasture
¬:
Justice
:c::
To give rest
¬:
Weight
::::
To flee
::
Banquet
¬:::
To shake
.:
How long
::
To wave
¤:
Please
x :
Crown
~::
Declares
: x :
To lead
¬ ¬ :
To com. adultery
¤x:
To inherit
: ¬ :
To prophecy
x : :
Valley
: ¬ :
To look
: : :
Inheritance
¬ : ¬ :
Prophet
x::
To comfort
: ¬ :
Lyre
: : :
Snake
:¬:
Dead body
¬ : : :
Bronze
::¬:
South
:.:
To stretch out
¬ : :
To tell
¬.:
To plant
. : :
in front of
¬.:
To abandon
:::
Ruler
¬.:
Pleasing
¬¬:
To touch
..:
Lamp
~ :
Mildew
..:
To strike down
¬ : :
To be defeated
¤.:
Opposite
¬ : :
To approach
:.:
To recognize
~::
Freewill off.
¬ : ¬ :
Foriegn
~::
To flee
¬ ¬ :
Foreigner
~::
Monthly period
¬ ¬ :
To test
¬ : :
To banish
¬ ¬ :
To leave
. : :
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

91

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Youth
:~.:
Booth
¬ : :
Young man
~.:
To forgive
¬ : :
Young girl
¬~.:
Rocky craig
. : :
To fall
: c :
Fine flour
: : :
Soul
:c:
To sustain
¬::
To stand
: . :
Threshold
¤:
To supervise
¬ . :
To mourn
¬ c :
Preferred
¬ . :
To record
~c:
To rescue
: . :
Scroll
~c:
To watch
~.:
Secretary
~c:
To be clean
¬ : :
Eunuch
:~:
Innocent
::
To hide
~::
To avenge
: : :
Secret
~::
To avenge
¬ : : :
Think cloud
: .
To lift up
x::
To serve
¬ : .
To overtake
.::
Servant
¬ : .
Leader
x::
Service
¬ ¬ : .
To kiss
:::
For the sake of
~:.
Eagle
~::
To cross over
~:.
To give
::
Other side
~:.
To bring down
: :
Wrath
¬~:.
To break
: : :
Calf
:..
To circle round
: : :
Ever
¬ .
All around
:::
Until
¬ .
To shut
~.:
Witness
¬ .
Horse
::
Community
¬ ¬ .
Reeds
¤:
Testimony
:¬.
To remove
~:
Flock
~¬.
Pot
~ :
To duplicate
¬.
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92

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Again
¬.
Valley
: : .
Wicked
¬:.
To answer
¬:.
Everlasting
::.
To humble
¬:.
Sin
.
Humble
:.
To fly
¤.
Affliction
:.
Bird
¤.
Poor, Humble
:.
To awake
~.
Cloud
:.
Skin
~.
Dust
~c.
Blind
~.
Tree
.
Goat
:.
Counsel
¬ . .
Strength
:.
Strong
:..
To forsake
::.
Bone
: . .
To help
~:.
To close
~..
Help
¬~:.
Evening
:~.
Eye
.
Desert
¬:~.
City
~ .
Nakedness
¬~.
On
: .
To be in order
¬~.
Yoke
: .
Value
¬~.
To go up
¬ : .
Uncircumcised
:~.
Burnt off.
¬ : .
Neck
¤~.
Most high
:.
Grass
::.
To close
: : .
To do
¬:.
People
: .
Tenth
~:.
With
: .
Smoke
:.
To stand
¬ : .
Ten
~:.
With
¬ : .
Ten
~:.
Near, beside
¬ : .
Tenth
~ : .
Pillar
¬:.
Twenty
:~:.
Trouble
: : .
To oppress
::.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

93

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Wealth
~:.
Punishment
¬ ¬ : c
Time
: .
Bull
~c
Now
¬ : .
To separate
¬~c
Goat (m)
¬:.
Fruitful
¬~c
Side
¬ x c
Cow
¬~c
To strike
..c
To blossom
¬~c
To ransom
¬ ¬ c
Fruit
~c
Mouth
¬ c
Curtain
: : ¬ c
Here
¬ c
To break
~c
To scatter
c
To break
~~c
To tremble
¬ ¬ c
To spread
:~c
Fear
¬ ¬ c
To strip off
::c
Governor
¬ ¬ c
To rebel
.:c
Concubine
:.:c
Rebellion
.:c
Wonderful
x : c
Sudden
: x : c
To deliver
: : c
To deceive
¬ : c
Remnant
¬::c
To open
¬ : c
To pray
: : c
Entrance
¬ : c
Or
c
Sheep
x.
To turn
¬:c
Army
x : .
Corner
¬:c
Side
¬ .
Face
¬:c
Righteous
:¬.
Inner
::c
To be righteous
: ¬ .
Passover Lamb
¬ : c
Righteousness
c ¬ .
Idol
: : c
Righteousness
¬ : ¬ .
To do
: . c
Neck
~x.
Deed
: . c
To command
¬.
Time
: . c
To fast
:.
To punish
¬ : c
To lay siege
~.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

94

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Rock
~.
High
¬::
To prosper
¬ : .
Small
::
Side
. : .
To burn incense
~::
To grow
¬ : .
Incense
:~::
To cry out
: . .
Wall
~ :
Watchman
¬ c .
To curse
: : :
To overlay
¬ c .
Curse
¬ : : :
North
c.
To be jealous
x::
Bird
~c.
Jealousy
¬x::
To store up
c.
To buy
¬::
Distress
~.
Rod
¬::
Trouble
¬~.
End
:
Disease
:.~.
End
¬ . :
Refine
¤~.
End
¬ . :
To be distressed
~~.
Harvest
~.:
To assemble
: : :
To be angry
¤.:
To bury
~::
Wrath
¤.:
Grave
~::
To harvest
~.:
Holy
:¬:
To call
x~:
East
:¬:
To meet
x~:
To come, to meet
: ¬ :
To come near
:~:
East, of old
: ¬ :
Among
:~:
To consecrate
:¬:
Offering
:~:
Holy
:¬:
To happen
¬~:
To assemble
: ¬ :
Near
:~:
Assembly
: ¬ :
City
¬~:
To bind together
¬:
Horn
~:
Voice
::
To tear
.~:
To rise up
::
Frame
:~:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

95

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To listen
:::
To wash
¬ ~
Harden
¬::
To go far
: ¬ ~
Harsh
¬::
To quarrel
:~
To conspire
~::
Dispute
:~
Bow
:::
Aroma
¬~
To see
¬ x ~
To ride
: : ~
Head
:x~
Chariot
: : ~
First
:x~
Possession
::~
First,Beginning
::x~
Pomegranate
:~
Many, Great
: ~
Song of joy
¬:~
Many, Great
: ~
To sing for joy
:~
To increase
¬ : ~
Evil
. ~
Fourth
.:~
Neighbor
. ~
To lie down
: ~
Famine
: . ~
To tremble
:.~
Shepherd
¬ . ~
To spy out
:.~
Disaster
¬ . ~
Foot
:.~
To do evil
. . ~
To pursue
¤¬~
To shake
:.~
Wind, spirit
¬~
To heal
x c ~
To exalt
:~
To leave
¬ c ~
To shout
.~
To accept
¬ . ~
To run
~
Will
.~
To enlarge
: ¬ ~
To murder
¬ . ~
Street, square
: ¬ ~
Only
: ~
Width
: ¬ ~
To condemn
.:~
Far
:¬~
Wicked
.:~
To compassion
: ¬ ~
Wicked
.:~
Compassion
: ¬ ~
Grave
:x:
Womb
: ¬ ~
To ask
: x :
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

96

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To remain
~x:
To laugh
: ¬ :
Remnant
~x:
To corrupt
: ¬ :
Remnant
:~x:
Acacia
¬ : :
To tk captive
¬ : :
Accuser, Satan
::
Oath
¬.::
To sweep away
¤::
Fortune
:::
Official
~::
Tribe
: : :
To sing
~ :
Captivity
::
Song
~ :
Seventh
.::
To set
::
To swear
. : :
To lie down
: : :
To satisfy
. : :
To forget
¬ : :
Seven
. : :
To be wise
: : :
To break
~::
To get up early
: : :
Destruction
~::
To dwell
::
To stop, end
: : :
Wages, Reward
~::
Sabbath
: : :
Fullness, Peace
:::
Destruction
¬ :
Three
:::
To destroy
¬ ¬ :
To send
¬ : :
Field
¬ ¬ :
Table
¬::
Almighty
¬:
Third
:::
Sheep
¬ :
To throw
¬::
Vain
:
Plunder
: : :
To return
::
To make full
: : :
To put, set
::
Peace off.
: : :
Gatekeeper
~.:
To draw
¤::
Ram's horn
~c:
Three days
::::
Ox
~:
There
: :
To rejoice
::
Name
: :
To slaughter
: ¬ :
Left
: x : :
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

97

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To destroy
¬ : :
To bring low
: c :
Desolate
¬ : :
To give drink
¬ : :
News
¬.::
Detestable
::
To rejoice
¬ : :
To be quiet
: : :
Joy
¬ ¬ : :
Shekel
: : :
Heaven
:::
Untruth
~::
Eighth
:::
Official
~:
Clothes
¬ : : :
Survivor
¬~:
To be desolate
: : :
To burn
¤~:
Desolate
¬ : : :
Root
:~:
Oil
::
To minister
:~:
Eight
¬:::
Linen
::
To hear
. : :
Six
::
To keep
~::
Sixth
::
Sun
:::
To drink
¬ : :
Teeth
:
Fig
¬:x:
To hate
x::
Ark
¬ : :
Year
¬::
Harvest
¬x::
Scarlet
::
Understanding
¬:::
Second
::
World
: : :
Two
:::
Deep
:¬:
Goat
~.:
Praise
¬ : ¬ :
Gate
~.:
Thanksgiving
¬¬:
Hair
~.:
Center
¬:
Barley
¬~.:
Geneology
:¬ :. :
Lip, Edge
¬ c :
Worm
¬.::
Maidservant
¬ ¬ c :
Detestable
¬:.:
To deliver
: c :
Out
:x .. :
To pour out
¬c:
Torah
¬~:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

98

English Hebrew
To plea
¬:¬:

Under
: ¬ :

New wine
:~ :

Blue
: : : :

To hang
¬ : :

Blameless
::

Regular
¬::

Without defect
:::

To be perfect
: : :

Wave off.
¬c::

To stray
¬ . :

Glorious
:~xc:

Prayer
¬ : c :

To seize
:c:

Hope
¬::

To blow
. : :

Offering
¬:~:

Shout, Trumpet
¬.~:

Deliverance
¬.::

Nine
.::















Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

99
P
P
a
a
r
r
t
t
6
6

P
P
a
a
r
r
e
e
n
n
t
t
/
/
C
C
h
h
i
i
l
l
d
d
R
R
o
o
o
o
t
t
s
s

______________________________________________



The most ancient Hebrew words are all derived from a
tw-letter parent root such as :: (flow). A child root is
formed by placing a vowel (, , ¬, x) in front, between or
at the end of the two letters of the parent root. The
following child roots are derived from the parent ::
meaning, "flow."

::x (wilt; a flowing away of life)
::¬ (empty; a flowing away of contents)
:¬: (panic; a flowing of the insides)
¬:: (aged; a flowing away of youth)
:: (flood; a heavy flowing of water)
:: (stream; a flowing of water).

As you will notice, all the child roots are related in
meaning to each other and the parent root.

Since approximately 80% of the Hebrew words in the
Bible are a parent or child root or a word derived from
these roots, it is relatively easy to find the meaning of a
word based on the root of the word. For example the child
root :x~ has the meaning of "head" or "top." The words
::x~, :x~ and ¬:x~ are derived from this child root
and all have a meaning of "the head or top of something."
At times the meaning of a word derived from the root
appear to be very different from the root. This is due to
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

100
our modern understanding of words, which are often
times very different from the ancient Hebrews
understanding of words. When the word does not appear
to be related, a more concise dictionary should be
consulted.

The following list will only include those roots whose
words derived from it are found in the Hebrew Bible. For
example, the two words :: and :: are found in the
Hebrew Bible and are derived from the child root :. The
following list will include the entry : but not :: and
::.

Occasionally a letter of a word will change to another
letter of a similar sound but will retain a meaning
resembling the original root. For example the root ~:
(kor; meaning dig) has evolved into the following forms.

~: (qor) ~. (gor) ~¬ (chor) ~: (bor) ~. (ghor)

Each of these words is similar in sound and each have the
meaning of "dig" and will be included under the child root
of ~:. In this case, the entry ~: will have the word ~:
to the right, indicating that you will find this word there.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

101

:x

Begin
:x
Father
:x

:x
Bear fruit
::x

Mother, if
:x
Wineskin, medium
:x

Cubit, community
::x
Desire
:x

Bondwoman
¬:x
Hostile, enemy
:x

x
¬x

Idol, nothing
x
Fog, mist
¬x

Idol, nothing
:x
Befall
¬¬x

Idol, nothing
x
Fire poker
¬x

¤x
Calamity
¬x

Nose, anger
¤x
¬x

Aroma, baking
¬cx
Desire
¬x

x
Desire
x

Press
x
Desire
x

~x
Desire
¬x

Light
~x
Desire
¬x

:x
Desire
¬x

Fire
:x
:x

Foundation, cake
::x
Time, place
:x

Foundation
¬:x
¬x

Despair
:x
Brother, hearth
¬x

:x
:x

Mark, with, plow
:x
Gentle
:x

Mark
x:x
:x

Arrive, you
¬:x
: :x

Mark
:x
:x

::
God, chief
:x

Pupil of the eye
¬::
Strong
::x

Cry out
::
Oath
¬:x

¬:
Strong
:x

Alone, branch
¬:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

102

Alone, branch
¬¬:

Flow
::
Wander
¬:x

::
Lie
x¬:

High
:¬:
¬:

High
¬::
Void
¬¬:
Brother-in-law
::
Need
¬:x

:
Come
x:

Son
:
::

Stone
:x
Plunder
::

Thumb
¬:
Plunder
:::

Structure, children
¬::
Plunder
x::

intelligence
:
Plunder
¬::

Seperate
:
Plunder
::

::
¬:

Trample
::
Remain
¬:x

.:
::

Gush, request
¬.:
Marble
:¬:

:
Idle talk
¬::

White clay
:
::

Swamp
.:
Roll, swell
::x

White, linen, egg
:
Weep
x::

::
Weep
¬::

Pour out, destroy
:::
Wander
::

Powder, dust
::x
::

Rash
:¬:
Nothing
::

Empty
::
Mixture
:::

~:
Lamend
::x

Clean, soap, grain
~:
Vain, empty
::¬

Clean, pure
~~:
Panic, anticipation
:¬:

Strong wing
~:x
Fail, aged
¬::

~: ~x:
Flood
::

Fat
x~:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

103

White
~¬:

Back, body
¬.
Food, soap
¬~:

Grieve
¬.
~: ~:

Valley
¬.
::

Back, body
¤.
Shame, dried up
::

Arch, body
¤.
Shame
::

:.
::

Fleece, mow
:.
Defined
:::

Sheer
::.
Desolate
¬::

Fleece
¬:.
Household
::

Sweep
:.
:.

:.
Bent back, dig
:.

Round, role, stone
:.
Cistern
x:.

Round, role, log
::.
High
¬:.

Collect
:.x
Locust, cut, dig
:.

Redeem
:x.
Dig
:.

Naked, exile
¬:.
..

Rejoice, fear
:.
Roof
..
2nd time around
::.
¬.

:.
Attack, troop
¬.

Also
:.
Attack, furrow
¬¬.

Marsh
:.x
Troop, band
¬.x

Drink, reed
x:.
Riverbank
¬¬.

Gather
¬:.
Attack, troop
¬.

.
Tendon
¬.

Garden
.
¬.

Protect
:.
Pride
x.

Bowl
.x
Back
.

..
Valley
.

Gasp
..
Pride
¬x.

Bellow
¬..
Heal
¬¬.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

104


Last breath
..

¬¬
¤.

Enough
¬
¬. ¤.

Dart
¬x¬
¬. ¤.

Sick
¬¬
Non-native, chalk
~.

Rapid flight
¬¬
Throat, drag
~~.

¬¬
Gather, collect
~.x

Thrust
¬¬¬
Prostrate
~¬.

Push down
¬¬¬
Anger
¬~.

Push away
¬¬
Fear, guest
~.


Fear
~.

Crush

Plaster
~.

Trample
x:¬
:.

Collaps
¬:¬
Grope
::.

Crush

Cloud
:.


:.

Dangle

Winepress
:.

Week, poor
::¬
Slow


Draw water
¬:¬
Slow
::¬


Flow
:x¬

Blood

Sluggish
x:¬

Silent
::¬
Mope


Red, man
:¬x


Silent
:¬¬
Fish


Likeness, silent
¬:¬
anxious
.x¬

¬
Increase
¬.¬

Ruler, lord
¬x
Fishing


Quarrel
¬
¬¬

Rule
¬
Breasts
¬¬


Gentle walk
¬¬¬

Know

Pot, basket, uncle
¬¬

Inteligence

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

105


Know


Shout
¬¬¬
¤¬

Stretch out hand
¬¬¬
Push
¬c¬

Splendor
¬¬
¬

¬¬
Leap
¬

Behold, look
¬¬


Behold, look

Thin, canopy


Behold, look
¬
Crumble
::¬

Behold, look
¬
Crumble


He, she



Grief, desire
¬¬
Circle, round


Exist
¬¬
Swallow, free
~~¬


Wide
~¬x

Dream
¬:¬
Wide
~x¬


Turn, honor
~¬¬

Shine
::¬
Gallop
~¬¬

Tent
:¬x
circle, generation


Far away
x:¬



Sprout
x:¬

Abundant, rich

Tread


Commotion
::¬


Noise
¬:¬
Law


Uproar



¬
Privelidge


Behold, here, if
¬
Love, affection
:¬x

Heavy, rich
¬
Give


Hin (a measure)
¬



Meditate
..¬

Still

Murmer, remove
¬.¬

Silent, still
¬:¬
¬¬


Shout
¬¬

Mount, hill

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

106


High, arrogant
~~¬

::
Pregnant
¬~¬

Shake
:::
High


Depart
::x


Except
::
Break in, assail
::¬

Shake, settle
::.


::
hood, peg, nail

Plan
:::
::

:
Hyssop
::x

Kinds
:
Gold, yellow
:¬:

Heavy, stout
:
Puss
::

Broad, ear
:x
Gold
:¬.

Whoredom
¬::
.:

Fat
:
Grapeskin
.:

.:
¬:

Tremble
.:
Waves, soup
¬:

Sweat
.:
Waves, soup
¬:

¤:
¬:

Flow
¤:
This
¬:

Sheet over
¬c.
Shine, beauty
¬¬:

Overflow
¤.
¬: ¬:

::
::

Fuse, refine
::
Move, rich
::

Chains
:::
¬:

~:
Remove
¬¬:

Stranger
~:
::

Sneeze
~~:
Clear
::

~. ~~:
Clear
:::

~. ~:x
Pure
¬::

Loath, turn away
~x:

Warn
~¬:

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

107


Scatter, winnow
¬~:


Loath, turn away
~:

Gaze
::¬
~. ~:

Possess
:¬x
::

Gaze
¬:¬
Olive
::

Enclose



¬¬
Bosom


Thistle, hook
¬¬
Bosom
::¬

Hook
¬¬
Refuge, secret
x:¬


Hide
¬:¬

Miss, sin
x:¬
Debt


Cord




Festival


Roof of the mouth

Festival
..¬

Wait
¬:¬
Revolve
x.¬


Refuge
¬.¬

Common

Circle


Common, pierce
::¬
¬¬

Sick, rust
x:¬
Unite
¬¬

Sick, pierce
¬:¬
Unite
¬¬¬

Turn

One, unite
¬¬x

~¬ :¬
Glad
¬¬¬


Riddle
¬¬

Hot

Unite
¬¬

Hot
::¬
¬¬

Curdled
x:¬
Life
¬¬

Wall
¬:¬
Life
¬

Burned, black

Life
¬¬

Passion, anger

Life
¬¬

¬
Life
¬

Camp, grace
¬

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

108


Camp, grace


Wait

Pole, spear
¬:¬

Patient

Camp, grace
¬




Quiet
¬:¬
Trust, refuge
¬:¬

Hurry

Compassion


Lineage

¤¬

Hurry
:.
Clean, pure
¤¬


Secret
xc¬

Break, crumble

Clean, pure
¤c¬

Break, crumble
::¬
Cover, protect
¬c¬

Sieze
¬:¬
Haven
¤¬

::
¬

Good
::
Arrow
¬

Good
::
Divide, arrow


Good
::
Half
¬.¬

¬:
Outside
¬

Thorn
¬:x
Wall
¬

¬:


Spun
¬:
Appointment


Sweep
x:
Appoint, inscribe
::¬

¬:
Inscribe
¬:¬

Lay out, kidney
¬¬:
Bosom


Overlay
¬:


::
Glow hot, noble


Mud
::
Heated by the sun
~~¬

::
Remain, after
~¬x

Dew
::
Dung, privy
x~¬

Covering
:::
Anger
¬~¬

Cover
x::
White


Spotting
¬::
~: ~¬

Strew
::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

109


::

.
Unclean
::

Shovel
.
Unclean
x::

Brush
¬.
Unclean
¬::

¤
:

Beauty
¬c
Basket
x::

~
.:

River
~x
Wander
¬.:

Fear
x~
¤:

Point, rain, teach
¬~
Children
¤:

:
Trip
¤c:

Exist
:
Surround
¤:

Aged
::
~:

Exist
¬:
Closed
~:x

::
Pure
~¬:

Pain
:x:
Wall
~:

Extinguish
¬::
::

¬:
Pounce
::

Jar
¬:
.

Strike
¬¬:
Grieve
¬.

Strike
¬:
¬

¬:
Hand
¬

Brand
:
Handle
¬¬

Sespond
¬x:
Hand out
¬¬

Weak
¬¬:
:

Burn
¬:
Sea
:

¬:
Terror
:x

Strength
¬:
Day
:

Chastise
¬:


::
Mud

Complete
::
Wine

Complete
:::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

110


Eat
::x

~: ¬~:
Keep
x::

Dig
~:
Complete
¬::

Hole
~x:
Sustain
::

Dig
~:
Able, Could
::

Dig

::

Dig
~.
Desire, long for
¬::

Trench
~:
:

::
Stand upright
:

:: ¬::
Plant
::

Terror
::
Priest
¬:

::
Eulogy
¬::

Crush
:::
Stand
:

::
Sure
:x

Heart
::
::

Heart
:::
Estimate
:::

Thirst
:x:
Covering
x::

Lion
x::
Cover
¬::

Glisten
:¬:
Cup, pocket
::

Lion
¬::
Fat
¬::

.:
Cup
::

Log (measure)
.:
¤:

Study
.¬:
Palm
¤:

¬:
Bend
¤c:

Offspring, child
¬:
Bow
¤:x

Offspring, child
¬:
Tame
¬c:

¬:
~:

If, no, not
x:
Leap,cor(measure)
~:

If
:
Leap
~~:

Weary, faint
¬x:
Farm
~:x

Weary, faint
¬¬:
Dig
¬~:

Nothing, foolish
:x
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

111


Nothing, foolish
::x

::
Nothing, foolish
:x

Silent, tied up
::x
Nothing, foolish
:x

Community
:x:
¬:

Wound
:¬:
Join, lend
¬:

:
If
x:

Encamp
:
::

.:
Turn aside
¬::

Throat
.:
Turn aside
::

Swallow
.:
¬:

Blurt
.:
Moist, fresh
¬:

:
Cheek
¬¬:

Mock, interpret
.:
Corrupt
¬:x

Urge
:x
Clay tablet
¬:

Mock, interpret
:
Lick
::

::
::

¬: ::
Veil
::

::
Veil, cover
:x:

Knead
::
Lizard
x::

.:
Flames
:¬:

Magi
.:
Secret, cover
::

Melt
.:
::

¬:
Messenger
:x:

Carpet, measure
¬:
Walk
::¬

Carpet, measure
¬¬:
Walk
::

Extend
¬¬:
::

Stretch out
¬:
Howl
::x

¬:
Loop
x::

What
¬:
Stairway
::

What
:
Howl
::

Who
:
Night
::

Hundred
¬x:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

112


Question
¬¬:

Spurn
:x:
¬:

Disolve, faint
¬::
Marrow, rich
¬:

.:
Marrow
¬¬:

Bowels, soft
.:
Strike
x¬:

Bowels, soft
¬.:
Strike
¬¬:

:
::

Chaff, oppression
:
Shake, yoke
::

Suck, matsa
.:
Branch
¬::

Strong
:x
::

Find
x.:
Thin, poor
::

Suck
¬.:
Thin, poor
:::

Chaff, oppression
:
::

::
Reduce, discourse
:::

Dissipate
::
Sick
::x

Dissipate
:::
Fill
x::

Mock
::
Reduce
:¬:

~:
uncircumcised
::

Bitter, rebel
~:
::

Bitter, rebel
~~:
Blemish
:x:

Say
~:x
:

Bitter, rebel
~x:
Kind, from
:

Hurry, exchange
~¬:
Kind, from
::

Bitter, rebel
¬~:
Strong
:x

Exchange
~:
Refuse
x:

Exchange
~:
Assign, count
¬::

::
Likeness
:

Grope
:::
Right hand
:

Drawn out
¬::
::

Drawn out
::
Disolve, faint
::

Grope
::
Disolve, faint
:::

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

113


::

Rest
¬:
Death
::

::
Death
::

Spread out
¬::
Death
¬::

Shake
::
::

::
Bore
:::

Beat
x::
Prophecy
x::

Beat
¬::
High
¬::

::
Produce
::

Complete
¬::
.:

Rubble
::
Drive
.¬:

::
Bright
¬.:

Sleep
::
¬:

:
Flee, wander
¬:

Sprout, continue
:
Flee, wander
¬¬:

::
Toss about
¬¬:

Flag
::
Flee, wander
¬:

Beacon, glee
:::
¬:

:: :::
Please
x:

Test
¬::
Lament
:

Flee
::
sit, dwell
¬x:

Lift up
x::
Lament
¬¬:

.:
sit, dwell
¬:

Shake
.:
Disposses
¬:

¤:
Forbid
x:

Wave
¤:
Raw
x:

:
::

Shine
.:
Sprinkle
¬::

Dispise
x:
¬:

Fly
x.:
Sigh
¬:x

Quarrel
¬.:
Lead
¬¬:

Fly away
:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

114


::

Forget
:
Cry out
::x

Forget
¬¬:
Cry out
:¬:

Rise
x:
Innocent
¬::

Elevate
x:
Suckle
::

Conceal, hide
¬:
Suckle
::

¬:
~:

Sweep away
¬¬:
Lamp
~:

Meditate
¬:
River
~¬:

Swim, float
¬¬:
Lamp, yoke
~:

Meditate
¬:
::

Ponder, plant
¬:
Lend
x::

::
Lend
¬::

Turn aside
::
Sick
::

:: ::
Sick
:::

Depart
::
::

Turn aside
::
Turn
:::

Deviate
¬::
Drunk
x::

Turn aside
::
Old
::

::
¬:

Booth
::
Foundation
¬:

Cover
:::
Assembly
¬:

Anoint
::
Foundation
¬:

Thorn, hedge
::
Level
¬¬:

Cover, thorn
:::
Witness
¬¬:

View
¬::
Field
¬¬:

Cover
::
Plaster
¬:

::
¬:

Raise, basket
::
seah (measure)
¬x:

Raise
:::
Veil
¬:

Weigh
x::
Sheep
¬:

Raise
¬::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

115


Quail
::

::
::

Sack
::
Smell
::

Sack
:::
Smell
:::

~:
Storehouse
::x

Sad, anger
~:
Poison
:::

Sad, anger
~~:
Garlic
::

Bind, yoke
~:x
:

Round
~¬:
Shoe
x:

Instruct
~:
Thistle
x::

pot, fishhook
~:
Thorn
.

Commander
~:
Sharp, protect
:.

Rule
~~:
Flock
x.

Bind
~:x
Flock
.

Yeast
~x:
Thistle
¬::

Rule
~:
Hate
x::

::
::

Winter
¬::
Cheerful, moth
::

Entice
::
Horse, swallow
::

:.
Cheerful
::

Dark covering
:.
.:

Thick, dense
¬:.
Rush
¬.:

Dark covering
:.
¤:

..
Lip, edge
¤:

Baked bread
..
Door
¤c:

¬.
Take, gather
¤:x

Appointed time
¬¬.
Feed
xc:

Pass, ornament
¬¬.
Scrape
¬c:

Testify, witness
¬.
Take, gather
¤:

Appointed
¬.
Lip
¬c:


Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

116


¬.

Watch, depress
¬:.
Evil
.

Abode
.
Ruins
.

Watch
.
Sweep away
¬.

Eye
.
:.

:.
Goat
:.

Tread
::.
Strong
::.

Do
¬:.
Bold
¬:.

¤.
Stronghold
:.

Branch
¬c.
Strong
:.

Fly
¤.
:.

Exhausted
¤.
Stylus, pen
:.

Exhausted
¤.
Wrap
¬:.

.
Dig in
:.

Tree
.
Wrap
:.

Spine
¬..
Bird of prey
:.

Counsel
.
. :.

Counsel
.
:.

Counsel
:.
Yoke, top, high
:.

:.
Work
::.

Parepet
¬:.
:. ::.

Oppress
:.
Ascend
¬:.

~.
Give milk
:.

Enemy, bare
~.
Ascend
:.

Naked
~~.
:.

Naked
¬~.
Flock, with
:.

Watch, wake, bare
~.
Hidden
::.

~: ~.
Neighbor
¬:.

Forest
~.
Violence
:.

:.
.

Waste away
::.
Cover, cloud
:.

:. ¬:.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

117


:¬ :.

Darkness
:cx
:.

Wonder
x:c
Help
:.

Wonder
¬:c
.c

Bean
:c
Unripe, unfit
.c

:c
Unripe, unfit
..c

Fat
:c
Unripe, unfit
.c

c
¬c

Face, turn
c
Girdle
¬cx

Face, turn
:c
Redeem
¬¬c

Wheel
cx
Disappear
¬c

Face
¬:c
¬c

Turn
c
Mouth, edge, word
¬c

:c
Beard, blow
¬xc

Ankle, wrist, end
:c
Beard, blow
¬c

Ankle, wrist, end
::c
:c

Ankle, wrist
:cx
Refine
:c

.c
Refine, leap
::c

Viper
.cx
¬c

Quiet scream
¬.c
Spread
¬c

c
Net
¬¬c

Disperse, scatter
.c
Governor
¬¬c

Open
¬.c
Blow, dust
¬c

Scatter
c
Breathe
¬c

:c
:c

Restrain
:cx
Flask
:c

Waver, unsteady
:c
Overturn
:c¬

~c
Pour
¬:c

Bull
~c
Eye paint
:c

Break
~~c
:c

Abundance, dust
~cx
Intercede
::c

Adorn, honor
~xc
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

118


~: ~xc

Glare
¬¬.
Wild donkey
x~c

Dig
¬¬.
Fruit
¬~c

Cry out
¬.
Winepress
~c

Desert
¬.
:c

:.
Leopresy
¬:c

Shade
:.
Spread
:c

Shade
::.
:c

:: ::.
Pudenda, socket
:c

Near
:.x
Entice
¬:c

Neigh
:¬.
:.

Roast
¬:.
Wall
:.

Deep
:.
Army
x:.

:.
:: :¬.

Cover the mouth
::.
Swell
¬:.

Thirst
x:.
Stand erect
:.

Fast
:.
..

.
Set
..

: .
¬.

: :.
Side
¬.

: x.
Lay down
¬¬.

: .
Hunt
¬.

..
¬.

Wander
¬..
Issue
x.

Sheet, floor
..
Command
.

¤.
Ship
.

Whisper
¤c.
Command
¬.

Watch
¬c.
Desert, nomad
¬.

¤: ¬c.
Issue
x.

¤: ¤.
¬.

.
Desert
¬.

Blossom
.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

119


:.

Vomit
¬:
Funnel
:.

Vomit
x:
Pour
:.

::
~.

Little
::
Wraped, pressed
~.

Cut off
:::
Wraped, pressed
~~.

Cut off
::
Store up
~.x

::
Pain
~x.

Light, quick
::
Olive oil
~¬.

Light, quick
:::
Pressed, rock
~.

Assemble
:¬:
Pressed
~.

Roast
¬::
Journey
~.

Voice, sound
::
Bind
~~:

::
Bind
~:x

Raise
::
Press
~:

:
Lie in wait
~~:

Nest
:
:.

Nest
::
Kindle
:.

Jealous
x::
Kindle
:.

Acquire
¬::
::

lament
:
Jar, tent, belly
::

::
Jar, tent, belly
:::

:: :::
¬:

: ::
Bow the head
¬¬:

.:
Burn
¬:

Brand
.:
¬:

Hang, shrivel
.:
Cord
:

¤:
Gourd
:

Condense
xc:
Dull
¬¬:

Go around
¤:
Cord, collect
¬:

:
Obey
¬:

Cut, end
:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

120


Cut, end
¬.:

¬~
Cut, end, loathe
:

Tread
¬¬~
Cut
:::

Flee
¬~x
~:

Tread
¬~¬
Cool, quiet
~:

Wander
¬~
Meet, call
x~:

Descend
¬~
Meet
¬~:

¬~
Precious
~:

Rain
~
Purchase
¬~:

Lion, box
¬~x
~: ~:

See
¬x~
::

Fear, awe
¬¬~
Straw, bend
::

Rain
¬~
Gather
:::

Fear, awe
¬~
Melon
x::

Fear, awe
x~
Hard
¬::

:~
Bend
::

Ceder
:~x
Snare
::

Thin
¬:~
:~

¬~
Abundant
:~

Traveler
¬~x
Abundant
::~

Handmill
¬¬~
Ambush
:~x

Wind, spirit
¬~
Bold
:¬~

Moon
¬~
Abundant
¬:~

:~
Defend, quarrel
:~

Trough
:¬~
.~

Cast down
:~
Weave
.~x

:~
Kill
.~¬

Loins
:~
Bad, loud
.~

Loins
::~
Bad, break
..~

Long
:~x
Loud
.~

:~
Break up
.~

Lift up, worm
::~
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

121


Lift up
:~x

Accept
¬.~
Lift up
:x~

Run
~
Throw, betray
¬:~

:~
Lift up
:~

Thin, spit
:~
Lift up
:~

Thin, spit
::~
~

Empty
:~
Shout
~

Spit, green
:~
Shout
:~

~~
Nimble
~x

Spit
~~
Rattle
¬:~

Curse
~~x
:~

Spit, egg white
~~
Dew, pieces
::~

:~
Betroth
:~x

Divide
::~
Break, pull down
:~¬

Request
:~x
Betroth
:~x

:~ :~x
.~

Head
:x~
Companion
.~

Permission
x:~
.~ .~

Permission
¬:~
.~ ..~

Needy
:~
Shepherd
¬.~

Possession
:~
.~ .~

::
.~ .~

Split
:::
¤~

:: :x:
Heal
xc~

Captive
¬::
Feeble
¬c~

Turn back
::
Pulverize
¤~

Sit, dwell
::
~

:: ::
Pieces
~

.:
Broken pieces
.~

Mistake
..:
Land
~x

Groan
.x:
Run
x.~

Mistake
x.:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

122


Mistake
¬.:

::
Mistake
.:

:: ::
¬:

Flog
:::
Breast, goat
¬:

Despise
:x:
Power
¬¬:

Accasia tree
¬::
¬: ¬¬:

:: ¬::
Ravine
¬:x

lash, whip
::
¬: ¬¬:

:: ::
¬: ¬¬:

Stretch out
::
Power
¬:

::
¬: ¬:

:: ::
¬:

Bow down, lower
:::
¬: ¬:

:: :::
Gift
:

Wander
¬::
¬: :

:: ¬::
Storm
¬x:

:: ::
Storm
¬:

::
False
x:

Draw out
::
¬: x:

Plunder
:::
¬: x:

Tamerisk tree
::x
¬:

Ask
:x:
Pit, bow
¬:

Draw out
¬::
¬: ¬:

Shirt
::
Pit, bow, submit
¬¬:

:: ::
Pit, bow
¬¬:

::
¬: ¬¬:

Name
::
Pit, bow
¬:

Desolate
:::
¬: ¬:

:: :::
Empty
¬:

Guilt
::x
¬: ¬:

High
x::

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

123


Onyx
:¬:

::
High
¬::

Leg
::
Garlic
::

:: ::
:: ::

Greed, eager
:::
Desolate
::

:: :::
:

Drink
¬::
Teeth
:

Leg, trough, street
::
Sharp
::

~:
: x::

Cord, rope, sinew
~:
Rest, quiet
x:

~: ~:
Repeat, year
¬::

Twist together
~~:
Urine
:

~. ~~:
Sleep
:

~: ~~:
::

Happy
~:x
Plunder
:::

~: ~:x
Plunder
:x:

Relative
~x:
Plunder
¬::

~: ~x:
Plunder
::

Untie
¬~:
.:

Over, wall
~:
Delight, blind
..:

~: ~:
Watch
¬.:

Straight
~:
Cry out, deliver
.:

Song
~:
Free, safe
.:

::
¤:

White, six
::
Serpent
¤c:

Lead, drag
x::
Quiver
¤:x

White
::
Draw in wind
¤x:

:: ::
Stand out
¬c:

Old man
::
¤: ¬c:

::
Strike
¤:

Buttock,foundation
::
Draw in
:x:

Banquet
¬::
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Set
::

:
::

Patient, monster
:
Box
¬::

Patient, monster
::
¬:

Gift, wage, donkey
:x
Peg, stake
¬:

Gift, wage
¬::
¬:

Permanent, river
:
Room
x:

¤:
Mark, sign
:

Drum
¤:
mark, sign
¬x:

Beat
¤c:
Empty
¬¬:

Spit
¤:
Mark, sign
¬:

~:
Empty
¬:

Outline
~x:
¬:

Travel
~:
Sink down, bow
¬:

Remain, much
~:
::

::
Oppress, bend
::
He-goat
::
Oppress, bend
:::

Bow down, sit
¬::

Middle
::

::

Mound
::

Mound
:::

Hang, suspend
x::

Hang, suspend
¬::

::

Whole, full
::

Whole, full
:::

Twins
:x:

Amaze
¬::



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P
a
a
r
r
t
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7

A
A
d
d
o
o
p
p
t
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d
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R
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o
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Adopted roots are three consonant roots that evolved
out of the parent or child root. This list includes all the
adopted roots where all the words derived from it are used
more than 25 times inclusively, in the Hebrew Bible.

Just as in the parent and child root list, this list only
contains the root and not the words derived from it,
though the words are closely related in meaning to the
adopted root.

While 80% of the words in the Bible are words
derived from the parent or child roots, another 15% are
derived from these adopted roots providing a fairly
comprehensive root dictionary.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

126

English Root English Root
thousand, chief, join
¤:x

bent, vine
c.
covering, clothing
¬.:

angry, stone, lots
:~.
seperate
:¬:

level,threshing floor
~.
choose, select
~¬:

take away, detract
.~.
cling, trust, secure
¬::

cast out
:~.
firstborn, firstfruit
~::

rain
::.
wallow, destroy .:::

adhere
::¬
distant, behind
¬.:

speak, order
~:¬
lord, husband
:.:

honey
::¬
burn, destroy
~.:

weep
.:¬
break, cut, plunder
..:

tread, way, walk
:~¬
cut off the vine
~.:

fat

break through/open
.::

slaughter, sacrifice
¬::
plow, cattle
~::

remember, male
~::
seek, request
:::

cut, divide, sing
~::
iron
::~:

angry, insolent
:.:
pass, flee
¬~:

call out, assemble
:.:
knee, bless
:~:

beard, chin, old
::
boil, ripen
:::

rise
¬~:
sweet, pleasent
:::

scatter, sow, seed
.~:
flesh, good news
~::

scatter, dish
:~:
boundary
::.

writh, twist, bind
::¬
high, hill
.:.

bind, join
~:¬
strong, warrior
~:.

bind, gird
::¬
great
:¬.

bind, gird
~.¬
wall, fence
~¬.

cease, omit
:¬¬
cut off/down, divide
¬:.

enclise, chamber
~¬¬
ripe, wean, camel
::.

new
:¬¬
steal
::.

strong
::¬
rebuke, reproof
~..

fat
::¬
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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English Root English Root
fat, dream
::¬

taste, decree
:.:
pass by
¤:¬

not yet
:~:
smooth
::¬

tear in pieces, feed
¤~:
desire
¬:¬

heavy, honor, liver
¬::
compassion
::¬

wash, fuller
:::
violence, injure
::¬

abundant
~::
rise, ferment
~:¬

lamb
:::
five
::¬

trample
:::
embalm
::¬

lie, decieve
:::
dedicate
::¬

heep back, conceal
¬¬:
kindness
¬:¬

fail, false, lie
:¬:
want, be without
~:¬

dog, bark, basket
:::
bend, incline


shame
:::
enclose, village
~.¬

bow down, subdue
.::
search
~:¬

wind, corner
¤::
dry, wasted
:~¬

harp, lyre
¬::
trembled, fear
¬~¬

fool, inward part
:::
flat nose, devoted
:~¬

desire, silver
¤::
autumn, scorn
¤~¬

cover
~c:
sharp, wound


vineyard
:~:
plow, engrave, silent
:~¬

bow down
.~:
think
::¬

cut
:~:
restrain
::¬

totter, stumble
:::
dark, obsure
::¬

write
:::
ornament


shoulder
¤::
seal up, finish
::¬

crown, surround
~::
marry


white
::
slaughter, kill
¬::

dress, garment
:::
sink, eminence
.::

eat, battle, bread
:¬:
hide
::

press, squeeze
¬:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

128

English Root English Root
take, catch
¬::

vow
~¬:
learn, teach
¬::

seperate, withdraw
~::
mock, scorn
..:

obtain, possess
:¬:
take
¬::

sigh, comfort
:¬:
collect, gather
:::

serpent
:¬:
join, attack
:::

settle, establish
.::
tongue, speech
::

watch, gaurd, retain
~::
rain
~::

leave, abandon
:::
sell, deliver
~::

opposite
¬::
salt
¬::

strange, alien
~::
deliver, eggs
:::

pour out
:::
reign, king
:::

cover
:::
present, offering
¬::
pull, break up/out
.::
restrain, withhold
.::

tie, fasten
:.:
mix
:::

pleasent, agreeable
:.:
perverse, treachery
:.:

shake
~.:
rebel
¬~:

fall
:c:
smear, anoint
¬::

break into pieces
c:
draw out/away/in
:::

set, place, erect
:.:
rule
:::

innocent, faithful
¬.:
look
:::

strip, snatch, take
:.:
wither, fade, foolish
:::

gaurd
~.:
dry, desert, south
:.:

branch
~.:
declare, tell, show
¬.:

spot, speck
¬::
instrument, song
.:

avenge, revenge
:::
touch
..:

go, come around
¤::
strike, smite
¤.:

reach, overtake
.::
approach, brought
:.:

bite, usury
:::
willing, impell
:¬:

arm, battle, arrange
:::
impell, expell,
thrust
¬¬:

saw
~::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

129

English Root English Root
give
::

heel
::.
break out
.::

exchange
:~.
tear, break down
::

evening, raven
:~.
pluck, draw away
:::

order, prepare
:~.
fold together
:::

uncircumsiced
:~.
carry, burden
:::

cunning, subtle
:~.
shut
~.:

heap
:~.
travel, go about
~¬:

drop, cloud
¤~.
foolish
:::

turn the neck
¤~.
forgive
¬::

fear, tremble
~.
flour
:::

green herb
::.
lean, lay
:::

smoke
:.
mourn, lament
¬c:

oppress, violence
::.
write, scroll
~c:

ten
~:.
castrate
:~:

smooth, polish
::.
hide, conceal
~::

ready, prepare
¬:.
work, serve
¬:.

meet, occure, attack
..c
twist, weave, round
::.

weary, exhausted
~.c
roll, revolve
:..

tremble, fear
¬:c
order, arrange, flock
~¬.

escape
::c
help
~:.

leap, limp, hop
¬:c
surround, crown
~:.

cut, hew, idol
::c
hide, eternity
::.

work, wages
:.c
stand
¬:.

impel, urge, move
:.c
labor, toil, mischief
::.

visit
¬:c
deep, profound
::.

seperate, divide
¬~c
earth, dust
~:.

sprout, blossom
¬~c
suffer, pain, grieve
:..

oppress
:~c
close, strong, bone
:..

break, divide
:~c
restrain, detain
~..

break, scatter
~c
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

130

English Root English Root
break, crush, tear
:~c

cut
:~:
scatter, decide
:~c

attend, listen
:::
strip, pull off
::c

bind, tie
~::
rebel, sin
.:c

lie with, copulate
.:~
flax, wick, linen
::c

four
.:~
open
¬:c

lie down
:~
sudden
.:c

shake, tremble
:.~
righteous
:¬.

foot, walk
:.~
pass over, prosper
¬:.

tremble,sudden
..~
side
.:.

follow after, chase
¤¬~
spring, grow up
¬:.

wide, spacious
:¬~
cry out, assemble
:..

mercy, compassion
:¬~
small, young
~..

wash, bathe
¬~
turn, leap, goat, bird
~c.

distant
:.~
leprosy, wasp
.~.

ride, rider
::~
refine
¤~.

go about, trade
::~
collect, company
::

get, gain, acquire
::~
bury, sepulcher
~::

tread
::~
precede, early, east
:¬:

creep, reptile
::~
seperated, devout
:¬:

hungry
:.~
little, small
::

shake, tremble
:.~
burn
~::

murder, slay
¬.~
bind, join
~::

stamp, spread out
.:~
sling, cut/cast out
.::

wicked
.:~
divination
:::

staff, tribe
:::
anger
¤.:

flow, hair, robe
:::
draw or come near
:~:

satisfy, fill
.::
bald
¬~:

seven, swear
.::
horn
~:

break
~::
tear, rend
.~:

cease, rest
:::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

131

English Root English Root
raise, high
:.:

measure, horrible
~.:
give presents, bribe
¬¬:

fear, storm, hair
~.:
slaughter, kill
:¬:

family
¬c:
lion
:¬:

judge, justice
:c:
laugh, scorn
:¬:

pour out
:c:
bruise, pound
:¬:

low
:c:
black, early, dusk
~¬:

bright, pleasent
~c:
corrupt, destroy
:¬:

rest, quiet
:::
adversary, hostile
::

weigh, weight
:::
wash, overflow
¤::

cover, covering
¤::
write
~::

loath, pollute
::
lay down, layer
:::

lie, false
~::
forget, neglect
¬::

remnant
¬~:
childless
:::

burn, consume
¤~:
act wisely
:::

swarm, abound
~:
shoulder, journey
:::

hiss
:~:
rest, dwell
::

weave, comb
:~:
drink full, intoxicate
~::

root,spring up,origin
:~:
bribe, hire, wage
~::

weigh, ponder
::
send
¬::

palm tree
¬::
throw
:::

abhore, abomination
:.:
entire, complete
:::

strike, nail, note
.::
draw or pull out
¤::

three
:::

destroy
¬::

fat
::

hear, obey
.::

gaurd, protect
~::

sun, windows
:::

lean, rest
.:

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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew
alphabet, vocabulary and sentence structure of the Hebrew Bible ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A guide to learning the Hebrew

By Jeff A. Benner

O. Benner. “Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew. College Station.. Any part of this book may be copied for educational purposes only. . TX 77845. All rights reserved. P. ©2003.” by Jeff A.Cover design by Jeff A. Box 9949. Manufactured in the United States of America. Jeff A.com Publishing Inc. Published 2007 by Virtualbookworm. Benner. US. without prior permission. Benner.

.................................................................. 53 PART 4 TRANSLATING LESSONS ....................................46 TRANSLITERATION .....................................37 LESSON TRANSLITERATIONS ........................................................... 99 PART 7 ADOPTED ROOTS ..............27 LESSON 8 – TSADE..........................15 LESSON 2 – MEM................ DALET..................................35 LESSON 11 – GIMEL............................................................................................................. VAV ................. 59 LESSON 1 – GENESIS 1:1 ...25 LESSON 7 – TAV................................................................................................................ KAPH ......31 LESSON 9 – CHET........... BEYT .............. 133 ....77 PART 5 HEBREW/ENGLISH DICTIONARY ..21 LESSON 5 – RESH....................................73 LESSON 4 – GENESIS 1:4 & 5 .19 LESSON 4 – LAMED................................................. 125 PART 8 NOTES ....................................................33 LESSON 10 – ZAYIN.. YUD ................................ 45 THE HEBREW ..................................................... SHIN ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................67 LESSON 3 – GENESIS 1:3 ................................................................................... 11 LESSON 1 – ALEPH................................................................................................................................................ QUPH ..................................................................................................49 PART 3 REFERENCE GUIDE ...........17 LESSON 3 – NUN.................................................... PEY.................................................................Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ............ 7 PART 1 THE ALEPHBET ...... SAMECH ......... HEY.............................................. TET ......................................................... 79 PART 6 PARENT / CHILD ROOTS .....................................................................23 LESSON 6 – AYIN................61 LESSON 2 – GENESIS 1:2 ....................39 PART 2 READING PRACTICE ..............................................................................

To my Father who set me on the path of Biblical studies .

The Hebrew alephbet consists of 22 consonants. you will soon be reading Hebrew. About Hebrew The English word "alphabet" is derived from the first two letters of the Greek Alphabet--Alpha and Beta." the first two letters of the Hebrew alephbet--aleph and bet. build a Hebrew vocabulary and even begin translating Biblical passages for your self. for just a few minutes a day.______________________________________________ Introduction Why Learn Hebrew? A translation of the Biblical text is a translator's "interpretation" of the text. Only by studying the original language of the Bible can one see the text in its original state. uses the word "alephbet. Hebrew on the other hand. By simply studying the pages that follow. The translator's beliefs will often influence how the text will be translated and anyone using his translation is seeing it through his eyes rather than the original authors. Learning the Hebrew language can be both fun and exciting. The vowels 7 .

. Hebrew on the other hand. When sounding out a word.lm . is very consistent. We will learn to pronounce them according to the Modern Hebrew pronunciation. This may sound difficult at first but in a very short time you will get used to it.king) contains the pattern C+V+C+V+C. and each word will usually follows a C+V+C+V+C." In Hebrew. Ak. nikkud in the singular) are dots and dashes added above and below the consonants. the word circus contains the letter "c" twice. and not the sounds. Hebrew is read from right to left just as many other Semitic languages do including Aramaic and Arabic. (meleko – his king) is C+V+C+V+C+V and %. For instance. the consonants and vowels may be arranged in any order. Since Sephardic is the 8 . One advantage to Hebrew is that the sound for each letter remains consistent. the first time it is pronounced like an "S" while the second time it is pronounced like a "K." Unlike English.m (melek . In English.l. the letter K is always pronounced as a "K. The pronunciations of some of the consonants and vowels have changed over the centuries but this does not affect the meaning of words as the letters of the words define it.l. pattern. Ashkenazi and Sephardic. The Hebrew word %..m'h (hamelek – the king) is C+V+C+V+C+V+C. Modern Hebrew pronunciation is also divided into two parts. it will be easier if you remember the Consonant (C) and Vowel (V) patterns of Hebrew words. which is read from left to right.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew (called nikkudot. such as in the word "circle" which has a C+V+C+C+C+V pattern. unlike English where one has to memorize many variations.

this book. please feel free to E-mail your questions or comments to us through our web site. adjectives and sentence structure. This book is the result. verbs. nouns.org 9 . its content or the lessons.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew pronunciation adopted by the Modern State of Israel. About this Book When I began to study the Hebrew language I used several different resources but found that they were not compiled in a format for beginning Hebrew students. Included in this book are lessons for learning the alephbet. If at any time you have questions about the Ancient Hebrew Research Center. we will use this pronunciation. http://www.ancient-hebrew. I began to arrange charts and lists with the necessary information as a ready resource for learning and reading the Hebrew Bible.

At this point the purchase of a Hebrew Bible and a Hebrew Lexicon will be helpful. A Parallel Bible will have the Hebrew text on one page and the English translation on the other There are several different Lexicons but be sure that the one you purchase includes all the words of the Bible with the prefixes and suffixes attached. I recommend Benjamin Davidson's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon of the Bible. you will want to dig deeper into the meaning of specific words and phrases. vocabulary building and sentence comprehension. 10 . but as a reference guide for Biblical reading practice. This will allow you to look up a word even if you do not know the root. There are several different kinds of Hebrew Bibles.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Additional Resources It should be kept in mind that this book is not meant to be used for in-depth Biblical study. The Interlinear Bible will have the Hebrew on one line and the English translation for each word under each Hebrew word. The standard Hebrew Bible will be a Bible written only in Hebrew. Through the process of Hebraic studies. More specific dictionaries and lexicons will be necessary for more in-depth study.

Transliterations of each of the lessons are provided at the end of the lessons to assist with pronunciation. remember to use the correct Hebrew sound for each vowel.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ Part 1 The Alephbet Each of following eleven lessons introduces two new consonants and may or many not introduce new vowels. The vocabulary section will consist of a few words using the new letters and vowels to begin building your Hebrew vocabulary. Each lesson will also include a practice section. When reading these transliterations. To assist you in learning the letters and words. I recommend that you put the letters and words you are learning on flashcards so that you can study them at any time. The Sentences will allow you to begin using your new words in sentences. The practice session will allow you to practice the new letters and vowels and refresh yourself on old ones. new vocabulary words and sentences." 11 . For example the transliterated Hebrew vowel sound "o" is the long "o" sound as in the English word "rope.

For example the letter beyt can be written as B or b. This chart includes all the variations for each letter. Lamed Mem Nun Samech Ayin Pey Tsade Quph Resh Shin Tav l ~m !n s [ @Pp #c q r fv t Aleph Beyt Gimel Dalet Hey Vav Zayin Chet Tet Yud Kaph a Bb g d h w z x j y &$Kk 12 . Several of the letters have a final form as well and are also included (such as m and ~).Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Alephbet and Vowels The following is a chart of all the consonants in the Hebrew Alephbet.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew The Vowels Below are the names for each of the Hebrew vowels.a . Cholam maley Qubbuts Shuruq Chataph qamats Chataph patach Chataph segol A ua W \a ]a /a Qamats Patach Segol Tsere Sh'va Chireq Cholam 'a . The letter aleph is used below to show the placement of each vowel and is not part of the vowel.a ia oa 13 .a ea .

Nun F. Nun Samech Tet Hey Tav Chet Tav Ayin Tsade . Below is a chart showing letters of similarity in order to make the reader familiar with the slight differences.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Letter Comparisons Several of the Hebrew letters are very similar and at the beginning they are easily confused with other letters that look alike. Beyt Kaph b k b p g n h x h t Dalet Resh d r w z w ! z ! x t 14 Kaph Pey k p m j ~ s s j [ c Beyt Pey Vav Zayin Mem Tet Gimel Nun Vav F. Mem Samech Hey Chet Zayin F.

" and as "v" as in "visit." Vowels 'a ." This vowel.a 'a 'B . When the letter appears without the dagesh (b) the letter is pronounced "v. "patach. This consonant is silent.B 'b .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 1 – aleph.a ." Practice 'b .B a'b `2 15 .a 'a . "qamats." When a dagesh (a dot in the middle of the letter) appears in the middle of the letter (B) it will have the "b" sound." (the little "T" shaped mark under the aleph) is pronounced "ah" as in "father.a This vowel.B `1 a'B b'a a'B b'a a. beyt Consonants a b The "Aleph" is the first letter of the Hebrew alephbet. a "b" as in "ball." is also pronounced "ah" as in "father. The "Beyt" is pronounced two ways.

- Father - b'a `1 Sentences a'B b'a `1 16 .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Vocabulary Came - a'B `2 Father came.

) y forming the word yib'a ." 17 ." Sentence #2 includes the word b'a ." The "final Mem" is used only when it appears at the end of a word." The "tsere" is pronounced "ey" as in "grey. with the suffix father." (When the "yud" is suffixed to a word it means "of me" or "my. Yud Consonants m ~ y The "Mem" is pronounced "m" as in "mother.father.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 2 – Mem.my Vowels ia ea The "chireq" is pronounced "ee" as in "bee. The pronunciation does not change. The "Yud" is pronounced "y" as in "yes.

.a'B yib'a `2 Who came? - 18 .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Practice .m '~ em im ia ea iB eb eB ib `1 ~ia ~ea yim yiB yib yia yea `2 Vocabulary Who - yim `2 Mother - ~ea `1 Sentences a'B yim `1 My father came.

" 1 19 .h h'B !eB yEn En In :n eh ih . forming b. is pronounced "a-niy" rather than "an-iy.h `2 h"n'B h'b"n1 !ih yeh yEn ayIn yIn ayih yih `3 Hebrew words with more than one syllable usually accent the final syllables pronouncing the final Consonant-Vowel-Consonant as one ' syllable. the word yIna.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 3 – Nun.prophet. in the vocabulary list.the prophet. For instance." (When the letter h is prefixed to a word it means "the" such as in sentence #6 where the letter prefixed to the word ayib"n'h . The pronunciation does not change." The "final Nun" is only used when it appears at the end of a word. The "Hey" is pronounced "h" as in "hello.h 'h `1 a"n !im h'm b"n hEn hIn h"n !eh !. Hey Consonants n ! h The "Nun" is pronounced "n" as in "no.) Practice ayib"n h is .

is. .a'B yIneB 3 I [am a] father. "a" and "an" which also do not exist in Hebrew and must be added in the translation.b'a yIn'a Where [is] my father? .) ." "' 4 20 . . etc. English has two indefinite articles.ayib"n h'm The prophet came. meaning "the prophet.yib'a yea What [is a] prophet? .h'a'B What .m Where – 2 `1 `3 `5 `7 `1 `2 `3 `4 `5 `6 Sentences ayih yim My son came.) do not exist in Hebrew and need to be added in the translation. are.ayib"n `6 I- yea She – ayih came (f. 3 When the letter h is prefixed to a word it means "the" such as in sentence #6 where the letter h is prefixed to the word ayibn (prophet) " forming ayibnh.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Vocabulary yIn'a `2 Son .!eB `4 Prophet . .h'm or h.a'B ayib"n'h Who [is] she? 4 2 The English verb "to be" and its various tenses (am.

the pronunciation is a long "i" as in "lie" and NOT "ay" as in "lay. it is usually a "syllable break" and not pronounced." 21 . The "segol" is pronounced "eh" as in "help.a .l h'Bil ~yIw"w `3 5 When one of the "a" vowels (qamats or patach) is followed by the consonant "yud" in the same syllable.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 4 – Lamed.l w"w w<w `2 ael'm h'm." The "Vav" is pronounced "v" as in "visit.a The "Lamed" is pronounced "l" as in "long." Vowels The "sh'va" is pronounced "eh" as in "help" when it is placed under the first letter of the word.bel lIy. Vav Consonants l w .l yIw "w <w 'l il .l el `1 l'h h'l leh hel l:w lEw l<w l." Practice yEw y:w y'l5 yil y. When this vowel appears anywhere else in the word.l .

) When the letter "lamed" is used as a prefix it means "to" or "for. 9 10 When the letter "vav" is prefixed to a word it means "and. such as in the nun in the word hENh." 7 8 The vocabulary word h'aB (she came) is the feminine form of the ' masculine verb a'B (he came) which was given in lesson one. Therefore. 6 When the dagesh (the dot in the middle of a letter) is placed within i some letters. . .h'l>y. it doubles the letter. sentence #4 ." 22 .m `3 6 Here .y.l 7 Water [is] in the sea.in the night.l `1 Water . .l.~Iy.m 8 My son came to me.y. this word is pronounced "hin-ney" rather than "hi-ney. .h'lylB .yil a'B yIneB 9 Mother came in the night.B h'a'B ~ea 10 hENih yiMea>w yib'a Night came.hENih `5 `1 `2 `3 `4 `5 Sentences a'B h'l.!em'a `4 Sea .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Vocabulary lea `2 Believe .~"y." When the letter "beyt" is prefixed to a word it means "in" as in >.~"y `6 God - Night - h'l.B ~Iy.

Shin Consonants r X The "Resh" is pronounced "r" as in "rain. - Lesson 5 – Resh." Practice Af Av Ar y.f vev `2 l. Vowels A This consonant (vav) / vowel (cholam) combination is called a "cholam maley" and is pronounced "ow" as in "open.v ." The "Shin" is pronounced two ways.f yev y.v `1 vAr v'r rif rAv ryiv r.y rEn r'B `3 23 .r ir er ef . "sh" as in "sharp." When a dot is placed on the top right corner of the letter (v) it takes the "sh" sound and when the dot is placed on the top left corner of the letter (f) it takes the "s" sound.v veh ~yif b.r r.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew My father and my mother [are] here." and "s" as in "sign.f vim b.

v 12 God created heaven.v h.r r.m'a Ruler of Peace. . .m'a `6 Day .l>y'l>w ~Ay My name [is] Levi.m His name [is] Abraham. - When the consonant/vowel combination "cholam maley" is suffixed to a word it means "of him" or "his.m'v `2 Created (m) . Rabbi said to me Shalom.~ev Ruler .Am.a Am. -yIwel yim.h. .v 11 What [is] his name? .r.f Light .a'r'B `4 Said (f) .rAa Peace - `1 `3 `5 `7 `9 `1 `2 `3 `4 `5 `6 `7 Sentences ~Al'v r.f Day and night.~Ay `8 Rabbi .h'r.m'a Name .r.m'v lea a'r'B ~Al'v yil yiB.~'h'r. the verb usually appears before the object of the verb." 12 11 In Hebrew.yiB.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Vocabulary ~Iy.b.~Iy. 24 .r `10 Heaven - ~Al'v Said (m) .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 6 – Ayin.[ `1 !W !A Wr Wl Al WB AB Wa Aa Wh Ah `2 jW[ [Wj bWj lWv j. Tet Consonants [ j W The "Ayin" is also a silent (the same as the aleph).fIy `4 She .[ a.r.[ `2 Israel .j Wj j." Practice [.l.[ He .j .remAv Good 25 `1 `3 `5 `7 .ayih `6 Evening – bAj Over.f j.b [.aWh Keep (m) . on .[ a.lea'r.r `3 Vocabulary b.j j. The "Tet" is pronounced "t" as in "tune." Vowels This consonant (vav) / vowel combination is called a "shuruq" and is pronounced "uw" as in "tune.B j.a i[ ij e[ .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

Sentences

bAj13 b,r,[ 14 What is their name? - ~'m.v h;m Their name is Israel. - lea'r.fIy Wm.v Peace over Israel. - lea'r.fIy l;[ ~Al'v Who came in the evening? - b,r,[ a'B yim He came in the evening. - b,r,['B a'B aWh She came in the evening. - b,r,['B h'a'B ayih
Good evening. -

`1 `2 `3 `4 `5 `6 `7

In Hebrew, the adjective proceeds the noun, such as word (good) which comes after b,r,[ (evening).
14

13

bAj

When the letter "Mem" is suffixed to a noun it means "of them" or "their."

26

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

Lesson 7 – Tav, Dalet
Consonants

t d /a oa

The "Tav" is pronounced "t" as in "tune." The "Dalet" is pronounced "d" as in "dig."

Vowels
This vowel combination (sh'va and segol) is called a "chataph segol" and is pronounced "eh" as in "help." The "cholam" is pronounced "o" as in "open."

Practice

;t it et ,t ?t Ad od ;d id ed ,d 'd ?d `1 d;d ted t,d d?t dot tAd tod t?d t'd `2 dyim !;t tom l?a b'd t;b tyeb dAt `3

27

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

Vocabulary
Moses -

h,vm15 `2 16 (With) - t,a `4 Sabbath - t;B;v `6 h'dyim.l;T `8

~yihol?a `1 Gave (m) - !;t'n `3 17 Teaching - h'rAt `5 dyim.l;T `7
God Student (m) -

Student (f) -

t,d,mAl `10
Studies (f) Studies (m) -

demAl `9 tyivaer18 `11

15

Remembering the C+V+C+V rule, the Hebrew word for Moses,

h,vm, appears to be missing a vowel after the "mem." Since Hebrew
requires a vowel after each consonant, the vowel is the "cholam" and is placed above the letter "shin" in the same place as the dot above the right leg of the shin. The dot in this case serves two purposes. The Hebrew word t,a is occasionally used in the text to mean "with" but is more frequently used (about 7,000 times) as a marker for the direct object of the verb and is untranslatable into English. For example, in the sentence; "I made the dinner"; the phrase "the dinner" is the direct object and would be preceded by the word t,a. If the sentence were; "I made a dinner," t,a would not precede it since "dinner" in this sentence is not a direct object.
16 17

The word hrAt, while often translated as "law," actually means "teaching" and is also the Hebrew name for the first five books of the Bible as they contain the "teachings" of God.

An exception to the rule requiring the C+V+C+V pattern is the word tyivaer. The aleph does not always require a vowel after it.

18

28

m'v.mAl h'dyim. this prefix and suffix mean "to us.T `6 Moses gave to us the Torah. - hr'AT t.vm !.a Wn'l19 h.B.w `2 ~yihol?a a'r'B tyivaer." combined." 19 29 . A student studies the Torah.a Wr.T `4 A student studies Torah.h t.t'n `5 h'rAt.l.h t.B `3 In the beginning God created. - ~Al'v t. - When the letter "lamed" is used as a prefix it means "to" or "for.v `1 t'B.V.d. And they will keep the Sabbath.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Beginning - Sentences Peaceful Sabbath.l.a demAl dyim.h t." The suffix Wn means "us. - h'rAt.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew 30 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 8 – Tsade. The pronunciation does not change. The "Quph" is pronounced "q" as in "quiet. Quph Consonants c # q ]a The "Tsade" is pronounced "ts" as in "pots." 31 ." Vowels This vowel combination (sh'va and patach) is called a "chataph patach" and is pronounced "ah" as in "father." The "final Tsade" is used when this letter appears at the end of a word.

h !yeB ~Iy.c 'c oc ]c .r q. While most of the words will not be recognizable at this time.[yiq.m'V.b.h !yebW ~AY.Genesis 1:1420 .c aec yiq yec `3 Vocabulary Land - #.l ~yin'v.r #oq #iq qic q]c #eq #oa #. 20 32 .r.lW t{t{a.m yih.q .y ~yih{l/a r.h ~yim'y.w Wy'h.w From this point on the alephbet lessons will include Biblical passages.l lyiD.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Practice e]q .w h'l.h.lW ~yid][A{m.q 'q oq iq . remember that our objective is to "read" the text.a `2 existed (m) - h"y'h `1 Sentences .c ec `1 #.q hoc a.y'L.ma{Y.a `2 #oh hoq h]q a. not necessarily understand it.riB t{r{a.

" The "Kaph" is pronounced two ways. Kaph Consonants x k The "Chet" is pronounced "ch" as in the German word "ich" or the name "Bach." When the dagesh does not appear in the letter (k) it is pronounced "kh." If the dagesh appears in the middle of the letter (K) it is pronounced "k.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 9 – Chet. the only exception to this is the "final kaph" which will usually be followed by a vowel." All words will end with a consonant. $ Vowels ua The "qubbuts" is pronounced "u" as in "tune." 33 . and "kh" as in the German word "ich" or the name "Bach. "k" as in kick." The "final kaph" may also appear with the dagesh (&) or without the dagesh ($) with the pronunciations being the same as the "kaph.

y.a ~Ay r.l.q{b-yih.[-yih.r .K `1 xiK %ex ^ex x'k .xon `4 Yes.x `2 x.xur .v{x.y. so - !eK `1 Tree . the two sounds trade places and is in fact pronounced "no'ach.f.w ~Ay rAa'l ~yih{l/a a'r.qiY.#e[ `3 Sentences . 34 .xoK %.a ^.x %.xor `3 Vocabulary Grass.w d'x.w h'l.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Practice ox ix ex .a &.Genesis 1:5 a'r'q .r." This is unique only to this letter and vowel combination. herb - b. when the patach vowel .$.x uk eK .k iK 'k .xno appears below the letter "chet" at the end of a word.w b.[ `2 21 Noah – .y'l 21 According to the standard form of Hebrew pronunciation the name should be pronounced "nocha" but.

" The "final Pey" is only used when this letter appears at the end of a word." When the dagesh does not appear in the letter (p) it is pronounced "ph." If the dagesh appears in the middle of the letter (P) it is pronounced "p. Pey Consonants z p @ \a The "Zayin" is pronounced "z" as in "zebra." and "ph" as "phone. The "final pey" will never appear with the dagesh and will therefore be pronounced "ph." 35 ." The "Pey" is pronounced two ways." Vowels This vowel combination (sh'va and qamats) is called a "chataph qamats" and is pronounced "ah" as in "father. "p" as in "pad.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 10 – Zayin.

T ~yih{l/a r.xoP `3 Vocabulary To do.w Anyim.P h.m !ek-yih.r'a'h-l.r.v z'f ~'P .w #. who - r.[ Ab-A[.K z.f{[ yir.r'a'h aev.h zea @.D #.P #e[ [.ma{Y.l yir.[yir.r.z r.a aEz h<z `2 @uq %Ez @. make - h'f'[ `2 Which.z .z.Genesis 1:11 b.v.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Practice Az Iz "z Ez uz oP .P ep .P \P ?p `1 @.fe[ a.z z]p a<z z.~yin'P `3 Sentences .d.y.v]a `1 Face .v]a 36 .

is actually pronounced "kol.h `2 dos rus s:g ges @es ~es s." Practice |g :g Ig og <g "g ?g is es ]s us os `1 h:g hog a<g g.@A[ `3 All - This word appears to be pronounced "kal" but.xos `3 Vocabulary Man - ~'d'a `2 Fish .h"g'D `4 l'K22 `1 Bird .m .a aAg hes s'a s." In this one instance the qamats vowel represents a rare vowel pronounced "o." The "Samech" is pronounced "s" as in "sand. Samech Consonants g s The "Gimel" is pronounced "g" as in "game.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 11 – Gimel." 22 37 .

c.m.bW #.B ~'d'a h.h #.l.w WnetWm.r'a'h-l'k.g.rIy.m'V.B.h t.Genesis 1:26 Wnem.n ~yih{l/a r.r'h 38 .ma{Y.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Sentences .bW h'meh.diK -l'k.bW ~'Y.f][.dib WD.bW ~Iy.w @A[.r'a'h-l.[ fem{r'h f.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson Transliterations Lesson 1 P1: bah ah vah bah ah ah bah ah ah vah P2: vah bah ahv bah ahv bah V1: ahv V2: bah S1: ahv bah Lesson 2 P1: vee bey vey bee ey ee mee mey mah mah P2: ey ee vee bee mee eym eem V1: eym V2: mee S1: mee bah S2: ah-vee bah Lesson 3 P1: hah hah hee hey nah nee ney ney beyn bah hahv P2: hahn heyn nah nee ney nahv mah meen nah P3: hee hee nee nee ney hey heen nah-vah bah-nah V1: ey V2: ah-nee V3: hee V4: beyn V5: bah-ah V6: nah-vee V7: mah S1: mee hee S2: bey-nee bah S3: ah-nee ahv S4: ey ah-vee S5: mah nah-vee 39 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew S6: hah-nah-vee bah Lesson 4 P1: ley lah leh lee lah veh vah vee lie lee lie vie vey P2: vehv vahv leyl vehl veyl vahl ley heyl lah hahl P3: vah-veem lee-bah lah-yeel leyv-mah mah-ley V1: lie-lah V2: eyl V3: mah-yeem V4: ah-meyn V5: hee-ney V6: yahm S1: lie-lah bah S2: mah-yeem bah-yahm S3: bey-nee bah lee S4: eym bah-ah bah-lie-lah S5: ah-vee veh-ey-mee hee-ney Lesson 5 P1: sheh shah sey rey ree rie shey sehy row show sow P2: sheysh sahr sheer showr seer rahsh rowsh P3: bahr neyr yahr rahv meesh sahv seem heysh shehl V1: shah-lowm V2: shah-mah-yeem V3: ah-mahr V4: bah-rah V5: sheym V6: ahm-rah V7: sahr V8: yowm V9: owr V10: rah-bee S1: sahr shah-lowm S2: yowm veh-lie-lah S3: sh'mee ley-vee 40 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew S4: S5: S6: S7: mah sh'mow sh'mow ahv-rah-hahm bah-rah eyl shah-mah-yeem ah-mahr rah-bee lee shah-lowm Lesson 6 P1: eh teh ey tee ee eht tuw teh eh eht teh P2: how huw ow uw bow buw low luw ruw own uwn P3: reht seht beh veht shuwl tuwv tuw uwt V1: towv V2: eh-rehv V3: ahl V4: yees-rah-eyl V5: huw V6: hee V7: show-meyr S1: eh-rehv towv S2: mah sh'muw S3: sh'muw yees-rah-eyl S4: shah-lowm ahl yees-rah-eyl S5: mee bah eh-rehv S6: huw bah bah-eh-rehv S7: hee bah-ah bah-eh-rehv Lesson 7 P1: deh dah deh dey dee dah dow dow teh teh tey tee tah P2: daht deht dowt dowt towd tehd deht deyt dahd P3: towd veyt vaht dahv ehl mowt tahn meed V1: eh-low-heem V2: mow-sheh V3: rey-sheet V4: eht V5: tahl-meed V6: tahl-mee-dah V7: low-meyd 41 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew V8: low-meh-deht V9: tow-rah V10: shah-baht V11: nah-tahn S1: shah-baht shah-lowm S2: veh-shahm-ruw eht hah-shah-baht S3: beh-rey-sheet bah-rah eh-low-heem S4: tahl-mee-dah low-meh-deht tow-rah S5: nah-tahn mow-sheh lah-nuw eht hah-tow-rah S6: tahl-meed low-meyd eht hah-tow-rah Lesson 8 P1: tsey tsah tsah tsow tsah tseh qee qow qah qah qeh qah P2: ehts owts qeyts tsahq tseeq qeets qowts rahq rehts P3: tsey qee tsey tseh tsow qah qah qow howts V1: hah-yah V2: eh-rehts S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee meh-ow-rowt beer-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem beyn hah-yowm uw-veyn hah-lie-lah veh-hie-uw leh-hahv-deel lehowt-owt uwl-mow-ah-deem uwl-yah-meem vehshah-neem Lesson 9 P1: kah khah kee kheh key khuw cheh chey chee chow P2: chahkh kow-ahch khahch chey-khah cheykh keech P3: row-ahch ruw-ahch rahk ahkh chah-khah ahch V1: keyn V2: eh-sehv V3: eyts V4: now-ahch S1: vie-yeeq-rah eh-low-heem lah-owr yowm veh-lahchow-shehkh qah-rah lie-lah vie-hee eh-rehv viehee vow-qehr yowm eh-chahd 42 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 10 P1: pheh pah peh phey pah pow zuw zey zah zee zow P2: zeh zey ahph eyz hehz zeh phahz zehph P3: pow-ahch pahm sahz shahz kahph zeykh quwph V1: ah-shehr V2: ah-sah V3: pah-neem S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem tahd-shey hah-ah-rehts deh-sheh ey-sehv mahz-ree-ah zeh-rah eyts peh-ree ow-seh peh-ree leh-mee-now ah-shehr zahr-ow vow ahl hah-ah-rehts vie-hee kheyn Lesson 11 P1: sow suw sah sey see geh gah geh gow gee gah gah P2: hehs ahs sey gow ahg geh gow gah P3: sow-ahch mahs seym seyph seyg gahs suwr sowd V1: kowl V2: ah-dahm V3: owph V4: dah-gah S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem nah-ah-seh ah-dahm beh-tsahl-mey-nuw hah-reh-mehs veh-yeer-duw veed-gaht hah-yowm uwv-owph hah-shah-mahyeem keed-muw-tey-nuw uwv-khowl hah-ah-rehts uwv-khowl uw-vah-beh-hey-mah hah-row-meys ahl hah-ah-rehts 43 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew 44 .

The name "Genesis" comes from the Greek name for this book and means "origins." The Hebrew names for the first five books of the Bible is derived from the first word (or first principle word) of the book.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ Part 2 Reading Practice Below is the first chapter of the book of Genesis in Hebrew." The Hebrew name for this book is "Bereshiyt. Again. Also included is a transliteration of the chapter for pronunciation help. 45 . the first word in the book is "bereshiyt" and means "in the beginning. In this case." The purpose of this section is to allow you to practice reading. remember to use the correct Hebrew pronunciation for each vowel.

r.w 5 d'x.b.l 46 .r.[ t.Y.ma{Y.v{x.x.w d'x.B 1 ~Ah.a ~yih{l/a f.D #.w b.[yiq'r'l l.h Ww'QIy ~yih{l/a r.v.w 8 yinev ~Ay r.v]a !ek-yih.P-h.ma{Y.x.w #.m ~Iy.z .b.[ Ab-A[.w rAa-yih.a ~Iy.l.f{[ #e[.q{b-yih.b.l ~yih{l/a a'r.l bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.P h.Y.M.Y.P-l.Y.z r.w h'v'B.lW #.p.T ~yih{l/a r.h !yebW rAa'h !yeB ~yih{l/a a'r'q .w ~Iy.w 6 ~Iy'm'l ~Iy.h !yebW .[.y.P #e[ [.a'ret.q{b-yih.z .w ~Iy'm'v .d.w 12 Ab-A[.v]a ~Iy.z [.y.$.[yir.w rAa yih.r.m ~yih{l/a .y'l yihyiw ~Iy'M.v.h t.ma{Y.w 7 r.f{[ yir.y.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew The Hebrew #.r.B .r.M.r.w Whenyim.a ~Aq'm-l.z.Tim r.r'a'h-l.xWr.w .v]a yir.r'a'h aev.y.m'V.[yiq'r'l t.x.Tim ~Iy.r.w ~yiM.w Whenyim.$.m b.y ~yih{l/a r.w 11 r.[em b.a h'v'B.l yir.D #.y.$.r.h .[yiq'r'h-t.y ~yih{l/a r.[ .fe[ a.Y.y.r.y.P-l.m !yeB lyiD.r.qiY.w 10 bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.r'a'h.v{x.fe[ a.v{x.h !yeB leD.y'h #.y.w 4 .ma{Y.h h.Y.Y.w .h hew.r.z.v]a Anyim.r'a'h aecAT.[-yih.w Wh{b'w Wh{t h't.[yiq'r yih.M.qiY.h yen.w 2 ~Iy'M.qiY.a ~yih{l/a a.Y.y a'r'q b.w ~Iy.w ~Ay rAa'l ~yih{l/a a'r.m !ek-yih.a ~Ay r.h tea ~yih{l/a a'r'B tyivaer.t yen.[-yih.$At.w 9 !ek-yih.w h'l.M.qim.[yir.r'a'h tea.m'V.w 3 leD.w bAj-yiK rAa'h-t.[yiq'r'l ~yih{l/a a'r.

h !yebW yi[yib.h bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.w h'l.w Wa.w 25 Whenyim.n bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.x v.m.n #.v-t.w h'l.v]a t.x-t.r.l h'm'd]a'h f.[-yih.y.riB t{r{a.v ~Iy.p.r ~Ay r.h Wc.w H'nyim.B l{v.l ~Iy'm'V.h v.r yen.n #.w ~yim'y.$.l #.h t.r.h rAa'M.r.l #.r.M.m.y'L.h t.y.f.B ~Iy.w 22 #.y.Y.w ~yil{d.v{x.w #.x v.L.w ~yiM.h-t.mil.x.G.[yiq.M.w 18 bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.l.[yiq.bW ~AY.w ~AY.h]lW h'l.w 15 !ek-yih.r.p.w H'nyim.m.w b.w 16 rAa'M.a yivyim]x ~Ay r.ma{Y.ma{Y.h tea.Y.[ ryia'h.h t{r{a.w 21 ~.w f.B.G.y.v.v.ma{Y.h .w b.l h'meh.r'v r.r'a'B b.h-t.riB t{rAa.r'a'h aecAT ~yih{l/a r.Y.mil Wy'h.Y.m.[-yih.h !yebW ~AY.r.m.h .v ~Ay r.M.riB ~yih{l/a ~'t{a !eTiY.l.b.a ~yih{l/a a'r.[.P-l.h yen.q{b-yih.m{r'h h'Y.m'V.Y.a-At.T.y.[ rAa'h !yeB lyiD.r-l'K tea.h-t.w b.w H'nyim.[-yih.w 13 ~Iy.w 23 H'nyim.l ~Iy.P r{mael ~yih{l/a ~'t{a .r'a'h t.[ @epA[.w 19 h'Y.r'w h'meh.l l{d'G.r'a'h-l.l !{j'Q.l ~Iy.h.y.y.h ~inyiN.r'a'h -t.w 24 !ek-yih.a ~yih{l/a f.w Whenyim.rW Wr.biY.h ~yib'kAK.m.h .a ~yil{d.B -t.[.w 47 .m yih.h ryia'h.w .M.p.$.h .w 20 ~Iy'm'V.q{b-yih.y.r.rIy @A['h.h !yeB lyiD.a.b.y @A[.Y.w 17 #.y.[yiq.q{b-yih.r'a'h-l.r.h Wc.w 14 t{t{a.x.a.a ~yih{l/a f.r'b.limW Wb.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew yivyil.l Wy'h.l @'n'K @A[-l'K tea.y ~yih{l/a r.henyim.Y.y.w -l'K tea.vIy ~yih{l/a r.r.l ~yin'v.l h'Y.y.[ #.lW -l.m'V.y.L.lW ~yid][A{m.[yiq.

r'a'h t.P t.r.r'a'h-l'k.w 27 ~'t{a a'r'B h'beq.a ~.fe[-l'K-t.r'a'h-l.l.m 48 .v]a l{k.l.p.bW ~Iy.m{r'h h'Y.w ~yih{l/a ~'t{a .h @A[.[er{z #e[-yir.q{b-yih.h'l r.rW 'hUv.h #.r.f.r.a h'Y.Y.w 29 #e['h-l'K-t.ma{Y.r'h-l'k.m.w d{a.l.diB Wd.dib WD.ma{Y.z .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Wnem.v]a #.c.r'a'h-l'k yen.lW 30 q.w b.biY.B ~'d'a'h-t.[ r.a Wa.k'a.$.y.B.w #.m'V.P-l.v]a-l'K-t.diK fem{r'h f.f][.[ b.y.y-l'K-t.Y.[ ~.y.l h.w WnetWm.a ~yih{l/a a.n AB-r.fe[ bAj-heNih.r'a'h-l.r'z .rIy.p AB-r.bW ~'Y.x-l'k.a.m'V.n ~yih{l/a r.B ~'d'a h.rW Wr.h @A[-l'k.c.[-yih.lW ~Iy.l b.k'a.nW r'k'z At{a a'r'B ~yih{l/a ~yih{l/a ~.[er{z h'l.m'V.r'a'h-t.y.ma{Y.g.h ~Ay r.w h'l.k'l [.w 31 yiViV.k'l yiT.r.a ~yih{l/a a'r.lW #.hIy ~.x-l'k.r'b.bik.g.v]a [.y.t'n heNih ~yih{l/a r.[ femAr !ek-yih.x v.bW ~'Y.w h'f'[ r.bW #.B Am.h @A[.w 26 ~Iy.bW h'meh.limW Wb.w #.h t.bW #.c.w 28 t.r'a'h-l.

vieyow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee rah-qee-ah beh-towkh hah-mah-yeem vee-hee mahv-deel beyn mah-yeem lahmah-yeem 7. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee owr vie-hee owr 4.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Transliteration 1. veh-hah-ah-rets hie-tah towhuw vah-vow-huw veh-chow-shekh ahl peh-ney tehhowm veh-ruw-ahch eh-low-heem meh-rah-cheh-pheht ahl peh-ney hah-mah-yeem 3. 49 . vie-yow-mehr ehlow-heem yee-qahv-vuw hah-mah-yeem mee-tah-chaht hah-shah-mah-yeem ehl mah-qowm eh-chahd veh-teyrah-eh hie-yah-bah-shah vie-hee kheyn 10. vie-yeeq-rah eh-lowheem lah-owr yowm veh-lah-chow-shehkh qah-rah lie-lah vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm eh-chahd 6. vah-tow-tsey hahah-rehts deh-sheh ey-sehv mahz-ree-ah zeh-rah leh-meeney-huw veh-eyts ow-seh peh-ree ah-shehr zahr-ow vow leh-mee-ney-huw vie-yahr eh-low-heem kee tow 13. vie-yahr eh-low-heem eht hah-owr kee towv vie-yahv-deyl eh-low-heem beyn hahowr uw-veyn hah-chow-shehkh 5. bey-rey-sheet bah-rah eh-lo-heem eyt hah-shah-mahyeem veh-eyt hah-ah-rets 2. vie-yeeq-rah ehlow-heem lah-rah-qee-ah shah-mah-yeem vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm shey-nee 9. vie-yeeq-rah eh-low-heem lie-yah-bah-shah eh-rehts uwl-meeq-vey hah-mah-yeem qah-rah yahm-meem vie-yahr eh-lowheem kee towv 11. vie-yah-ahs eh-low-heem eht hah-rah-qeeah vie-yahv-deyl beyn hah-mah-yeem ah-shehr mee-tahchaht lah-rah-qee-ah uw-veyn hah-mah-yeem ah-shehr mey-ahl lah-rah-qee-ah vie-hee kheyn 8. viehee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm sheh-lee-shee 14. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem tahd-shey hah-ah-rehts deh-sheh ey-sehv mahz-ree-ah zeh-rah eyts peh-ree ow-seh peh-ree leh-mee-now ah-shehr zahr-ow vow ahl hah-ah-rets vie-hee kheyn 12.

vehhie-uw leem-ow-rowt beer-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem leh-hah-eer ahl hah-ah-rets vie-hee kheyn 16. vehleem-showl bah-yowm uw-vah-lie-lah uw-lah-hahv-deel beyn hah-owr uw-veyn hah-chow-shehkh vie-yahr ehlow-heem kee towv 19. vie-yow-mehr ehlow-heem nah-ah-seh ah-dahm beh-tsahl-mey-nuw keed50 . vie-vah-rekh ow-tahm eh-low-heem ley-mowr peh-ruw uwr-vuw uw-meel-uw eht hah-mahyeem bah-yah-meem veh-hah-owph yee-rehv bah-ahrehts 23. vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm chahmee-shee 24. vie-yah-ahs eh-low-heem eht chie-yaht hah-ahrets leh-mee-nah veh-eht hah-beh-hey-mah leh-mee-nah veh-eyt kowl reh-mehs hah-ah-dah-mah leh-mee-ney-huw vie-yahr eh-low-heem kee towv 26. vie-yeev-rah eh-lowheem eht hah-tah-nee-neem hahg-dow-leem veh-eyt kowl neh-phehsh hah-chie-yah hah-row-meh-sheht ah-shehr shahr-tsuw hah-mah-yeem leh-mee-ney-hehm veh-eyt kowl owph kah-nahph leh-mee-ney-huw vie-yahr eh-lowheem kee towv 22. vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm reh-vee-ee 20. vie-yee-teyn ow-tahm eh-low-heem beer-qee-ah hahshah-mah-yeem leh-hah-eer ahl hah-ah-rehts 18. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem tow-tsey hahah-rehts neh-phehsh chie-yah leh-mee-nah beh-hey-mah vah-reh-mehs veh-chie-tow eh-rehts leh-mee-nah vie-hee kheyn 25. vie-yah-ahs eh-low-heem eht sheh-ney hah-meh-ow-rowt hahg-dowleem eht hah-mah-owr hah-gah-dowl leh-mehm-sheh-leht hah-yowm veh-eht hah-mah-owr hah-qah-town lehmehm-sheh-leht hah-lie-lah veh-eyt hah-kow-khah-veem 17.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee meh-ow-rowt beerqee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem leh-hahv-deel beyn hahyowm uw-veyn hah-lie-lah veh-hie-uw leh-owt-owt uwlmow-ah-deem uwl-yah-meem veh-shah-neem 15. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeeshreh-tsuw hah-mah-yeem sheh-rehts neh-phehsh hie-yah veh-uwph yeh-ow-pheyph ahl hah-ah-rehts ahl peh-ney reh-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem 21.

uwl-khowl chie-yaht hah-ahrehts uwl-khowl owph hah-shah-mah-yeem uwl-khowl row-meys ahl hah-ah-rehts ah-shehr bow neh-phehsh chie-yah eht kowl yeh-rehq ey-sehv leh-ahkh-lah vie-hee kheyn 31. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem heen-ney nah-tah-tee lahkhehm eht kowl ey-sehv zow-rey-ah zeh-rah ah-shehr ahl peh-ney khowl hah-ah-rehts veh-eht kowl hah-eyts ahshehr bow peh-ree eyts zow-rey-ah zah-rah lah-khehm yee-yeh leh-ahkh-lah 30. vie-yahr eh-low-heem eht kowl ah-shehr ah-sah veh-heen-ney towv meh-owd vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm hah-shee-shee 51 .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew muw-tey-nuw veh-yeer-duw veed-gaht hah-yahm uwvowph hah-shah-mah-yeem uw-vah-beh-hey-mah uwvkhowl hah-ah-rehts uwv-khowl hah-reh-mehs hah-rowmeys ahl hah-ah-rets 27. vie-yeev-rah eh-low-heem eht hah-ah-dahm beh-tsahl-mow beh-tseh-lehm eh-low-heem bah-rah ow-tow zah-khahr uw-neh-qey-vah bah-rah owtahm 28. vie-vah-rehkh ow-tahm eh-low-heem vie-yowmehr lah-hehm eh-low-heem peh-ruw uwr-vuw uw-meeluw eht hah-ah-rehts veh-kheev-shuw-ah uwr-duw beedgaht hah-yahm uwv-owph hah-shah-mah-yeem uwvkhowl chie-yah hah-row-meh-seht ahl hah-ah-rehts 29.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew 52 .

To find the root word. As an example." The suffix ~ identifies the object of the verb as "them.d.d. The Hebrew word ~er. Uncovering the root word One Hebrew word may contain a root.w.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ Part 3 Reference Guide The purpose of the Reference Guide is to be an aid to the Hebrew student to assist with recognzing the prefixes and suffixes of Hebrew nouns and verbs.B." The y is another prefix identifying the subject of the verb as a "he." 53 . meaning "speak." remaining." Once the suffix and prefixes are removed we have the root rbd.y.B.y. we first identify the prefixes and suffixes. means "and he spoke to them. one or two prefixes as well as one or two suffixes.w. let us look at the word ~er. The prefix w means "and.

w (and). who And In Like --w --b --k --X Plural Nouns are made plural by adding the following suffixes. h (the) and l (to). conjunction and prepositions Some of the most common words found in the Bible are actually written as prefixes. the word $l is the prefix l meaning "to" and the suffix $ meaning "you" (see possessive pronouns below) forming a word meaning "to you. This will also allow you to uncover the root of the word. which can then be looked up in the root dictionary below. There are a few exceptions to these gender specific suffixes.The article. Prefixes . For example ba (father) and rwa (light) are 54 .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Identification of the prefixes and suffixes of a verb will assist you in translating each word correctly." Prefixes The To From --h --l --m Which. such as b (in). For example. The two prefixes k (like) and X (which) are also used but occur infrequently. Combining a prefix with a suffix also forms words.

" one can easily uncover the original root word assisting the reader with identifying the meaning of the word. By recognizing these "fixes. but still remain masculine. Plural Suffixes Masculine Feminine ~y-- tw-- Noun derivatives Included in this section is a list of the most common prefixes. twba and twrwa. the words qydc and hqdc are derived from the root qdc (righteous). The word qydc is formed by infixing the letter y and has the meaning of "a righteous one.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew masculine words yet carry the feminine suffix." Noun Derivitives --m --t h-- m-t-tA-ty-- -y--A-!A-- 55 . Each noun derivitive will be related in meaning to the original root word. infixes and suffixes added to a root to form a new noun." The word hqdc is formed by suffixing the letter h and has the meaning of "righteousness. For example.

Pronouns Singular Masculine I You He I You She Plural We You They Feminine We You They yin]a h'Ta .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Pronouns The following pronouns are very common and a good understanding of them will assist the student in reading the text. ayih Wn]a ~.T. !eh 56 .Ta .a ~eh Wn]a !. aWh yin]a Ta . .

k-Her Their h"-!<-- Hebrew Tenses Hebrew verb tenses are not related to time (past. present or future). second or third person. perfect and imperfect.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Possessive Pronouns (Nouns) Singular Plural Masculine My Our yI-Wn-Your Your ^-~. The perfect tense is complete action and is similar to past tense. the letter a is prefixed to form the verb rmXa. Using the Hebrew root word rmX (to guard). The imperfect tense is incomplete action (action that has started but not finished or action that has not started) and is similar to our present and future tense. The person is expressed as first. Each verb will also identify the person.-Feminine Our My yI-Wn-Your Your %-!. as in English. singular 57 .k-His Their A-~. gender and number of the subject of the verb. the gender will be either masculine or feminine and the number will be singular or plural. There are two Hebrew tenses. but to action. The addition of this letter indicates that the verb is first person. masculine.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew and imperfect tense ."I guarded.t-!."I am guarding" or "I will guard.t-She They h"-W-Verb Subjects (Imperfect Tense) Singular Plural Masculine I We --a --n You You --t W--t He They --y W--y Feminine I We --a --n You You y--t hn--t She They --t hn--t 58 . Verb Subjects (Perfect Tense) Singular Plural Masculine I We yit-Wn-You You 't-~. the verb ytrmX is formed." By suffixing the letters yt. masculine. singular. While ytrmX means "I gaurded" (perfect tense). While rmXa means "I will guard" (imperfect tense)." When the conjuction w (meaning "and") is prefixed to a verb.t-He They -W-Feminine We I y-Wn-You You . the tense is reversed. ytrmXw becomes "I will guard" (imperfect tense). perfect tense . and is first person. rmXaw becomes "I guarded" (perfect tense).

explaining their construction and relationship within the sentence.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ Part 4 Translating Lessons Your next step in Biblical Hebrew studies is to learn sentence and word structure. These lessons will frequently refer to prefixes. The following is the first five verses of Genesis chapter one where we will examine each word. 59 . suffixes and roots that can be found in Referene Guide of this book. one at a time.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew 60 .

all of which are derived from only about 1. "house." This letter is abbreviated form of the Hebrew word tyb (beyt) 61 . This means that with a good understanding of about 750 roots one can easily read the b is a prefix meaning "inside" or "in.500 roots. one can easily find the root within the word. In this case.r'a'h tea.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 1 – Genesis 1:1 #. tyXar." Adding certain letters to the root commonly forms words related in meaning to the root and all of the words derived from the same root will be related in meaning. (For a list of common letters used to form new nouns." the head of a time or space as in the beginning of an event or a river. (For a list of the common prefixes see the chart labeled "Prefixes" in Part 3) The root word is Xar (rosh) meaning.m'V. This word means "beginning. the letters ty are added to the root to form a noun. see the chart labeled "Noun Derivatives" in Part 3) By being able to recognize the letters added to a root to form noun derivatives. There are approximately 8.500.w ~Iy.000 different words in the Hebrew Bible.h tea ~yih{l/a a'r'B tyivaer. about half are rarely used in the Bible.B tyXarb The an meaning." Inside the house is where the family resides. "head. Of these 1.

English tenses are related to time (past." Each verb identifies person (first. gender (masculine or feminine). masculine. Notice the difference of tenses between Hebrew and English. This verb would be literally translated as "he created. the "he" in "he created.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Biblical text without memorizing all 8.000 words used within it. see the verb charts in Part 3) Perfect tense is completed action and is similar to our past tense. arb This is a verb usually translated as "create. (For the various prefixes and suffixes added to the verb to identify person. number (singular or plural) and tense (perfect or imperfect). number and tense. gender." This word is used for anyone or anything which. second or third). ~yhla This word is the subject of the verb. has 62 . In English we say "God created" but in Hebrew this would be written as "created God." The root word for this noun is hla meaning "power." The construction of the verb identifies the subject of the verb as third person. singular and perfect tense. present or future) while Hebrew is related to action (complete or incomplete). Imperfect tense is incomplete action and is similar to our present or future tense." Generally the subject of the verb will follow the verb rather than precede it as in English.

" This word ta is used over 11.000 times (and never translated into English as there is no equivalent) to point to the direct object of the verb." Conversely. In this verse the context of the sentence structure requires this word to be understood as qualitative since the verb preceding it states "he (singular) created" and not "they (plural) created.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew "power" and is often translated as "God. Some examples of a direct object are "Bible. This can be the context within the passage or the sentence structure itself. Hebrew plurals convey quantity or quality (very large or great)." Only through context can it be determined if the plural noun is identifying quantity or quality. ta 63 . While English plurals convey quantity (more than one)." "the book" and "his book" where the "book" is specifically identified. The idea of "a great god" is generally written in English as "God." The suffix ~y denotes a plural for masculine nouns. The word ~yhla can be translated as "gods" (quantity) or "a great god" (quality). an example of an indirect object would be "a book" where the book is not specifically identified.

" Added to this prefix is the word ta which was previously discussed. As a nail attaches two items together. this prefix attaches two or more things together in a sentence. Because of this word we know that the word which follows is also a direct object of the verb arb.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew The first letter. the reason for the Another very common prefix is the letter w. this word is word ta before it. usually translated as "and. Because the h (the) precedes the word ~ymX. "sky" or "heaven. taw 64 . peg or nail. is another prefix and is usually translated as "the" (definite article)." This is the abbreviated form of the word ww meaning. h. "to look at something. ~ymXh a direct object of the verb arb. in this case "the skies and the land. hence. This prefix is the short form of the word lh meaning." The root word is ~ymX meaning." Several Hebrew words are always written in the plural form such as this word.

" #rah #ra 65 ." The word is a common word meaning. "land" or "earth.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew The letter h is the prefix meaning "the.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

66

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

Lesson 2 – Genesis 1:2 ~Ah.t yen.P-l;[ .$,v{x.w Wh{b'w Wh{t h't.y'h #,r'a'h.w ~Iy'M;h yen.P-l;[ t,p,x;r.m ~yih{l/a ;xWr.w ~Ah.t

As previously discussed the prefix w is used to attach two parts of a sentence together but is also used to attach two or more sentences together, in other words bringing all of the words of one story together. In fact, the entire chapter of Genesis chapter one is one long story as each sentence begins with a w. The letter

#rahw

#ra, as previously discussed, means "land."

h

is the prefix meaning "the" and the word

this h is changed to a t (htyh). This verb would be literally translated as "she existed" where the "she" is the "land," the previous word. 67

When a h is added as a suffix to a root that ends with a h,

The root of this verb is hyh, a very common root literally meaning, "to exist" or "breath" as one who exists breaths but is usually translated with a form of the English verb "to be." This verb is made feminine, singular, and perfect tense by adding the h to the end of the root (hhyh).

htyh

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

wht
The root word here is

the suffix letter w to the root, a noun derivative is formed meaning, "empty" or "void."

ht meaning "empty." By adding

whbw

The first letter, w, is the prefix meaning "and" and is used to connect this word with the previous word. The root word is hb meaning, "to fill a void." A common

Hebrew word also derived from this root is awb (bo') and is usually translated as "come" or "go." The English translations of this word imply movement in a certain direction but the Hebrew meaning of the word awb is to "fill a void" and can be either fill a void here (come) or fill a void there (go).

The w added after the root forms a noun derivative meaning, "void." The phrase whbw wht is a common style of poetry where similar sounding words are grouped together. While the phrase "The painter painted a painting with paint," would be poor English, it is a perfect example of Hebrew poetry.

68

~wy.. This word is in the construct state "faces of... the letter ~ is always dropped." This and the previous word form the Construct phrase "faces of the deep. meaning "and. and has the more specific meaning of "deep sea." ynp The root for this word is hnp meaning." closely 69 ." A noun derived from the root ~wh meaning "sea." When a masculine plural noun is used in the Construct State.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew $Xxw The first letter is the prefix w." l[ This word is very common and means "over" or "on. This noun derivative is formed by adding the prefix letter t." The word $Xx means "dark" or "darkness. This word is always used in the plural form ~ynp (the h is dropped when the masculine plural suffix is added). face.. ~wht related in form to the more common word for sea.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew xwrw The first letter xwr is another Hebrew word meaning. The letter m is a prefix added to the verb to form a conjugation. The letter t indicates this verb is feminine singular perfect tense and literally translated as "she hovered." ~yhla This is the same word discussed previously." Biblically." The root to this verb is @xr meaning." The word this word is often translated as "spirit" the more Hebraic understanding is "wind" or "breath. would be translated as "wind/breath of God. This word and the preceding word. When two nouns appear together they are in the Construct State." The "she" of this word is the previous word xwr. "hover over" such as a bird does over the nest." Though w is the prefix meaning "and. While most consider the "Spirit" (wind/breath) a "he. a feminine word." tpxrm l[ This is the same word previously discussed meaning "over" or "on. xwr." 70 . it is a "she. "wind.

~ymh The first letter word is ~ym. 71 ." The root Notice that the previous sentence contains no verb. While a verb is required in every English sentence it is not in Biblical Hebrew." h is the prefix meaning "the.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ynp This word was also previously discussed meaning "faces" and is in the construct state with the following word. a very common word meaning. "water.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew 72 .

perfect tense). is called the "vav consecutive. When the letter vav is prefixed to a verb.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 3 – Genesis 1:3 rAa-yih. As a noun this root would mean a "word" while as a verb it means.y." The root Hebrew root words can be used as a noun or a verb. When the letter y is added to the root rma. the tense of the verb is reversed." 73 .w rmayw The first letter word is rma. "to say. perfect tense). when used in this instance. This vav. "He will play Moses in the play. singular. singular.y ~yih{l/a r. the word rmay is "he says" (masculine. singular." The first use of the word "play" is a verb while the second is a noun. the word is identified as a verb and can literally be translated as "he says" or "he will say" (masculine. imperfect tense) while the word rmayw is "he said" (masculine. The context of the sentence as well as the type of prefixes and suffixes added to the word will tell you if the word is a verb or a noun. w is the prefix meaning "and.w rAa yih.ma{Y." We see a similar occurrence in English as in the sentence. Therefore.

meaning. singular.w. All verb roots consist of three letters." When the letter root. "to exist. in Genesis 17:3 we find loPiy.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ~yhla This word has been discussed previously and is the subject of the previous verb." When a root ends with a h. Another letter that frequently drops off a root when used as a verb is the letter n when it is the first letter of the root. yhy The root of this word is hyh as discussed previously meaning. masculine singular. The missing third letter for this root is the dropped n as the root is lpn. If you come across a verb and remove the prefixes and suffixes and find only two letters remaining. hyhy becomes yhy. it is often dropped when used y is prefixed to the as a verb. imperfect tense) is formed. the word hyhy (masculine. We are then left with the word the word meaning "and" and reverses the tense of the verb. most likely the verb has dropped the final h or the beginning lp. For example. Hence. "he exists. The letter y is the prefix identifying the subject of the verb as n. The letter w is the vav consecutive 74 .

" rwa The same word meaning.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew rwa This is a root word meaning "light. the subject of the previous verb. light. and becomes "and he existed. yhyw This is the same verb with the same conjugation as the previous verb but includes the w. 75 ." This word is the subject of the previous verb. and again. which reverses the tense from imperfect to perfect.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew 76 .

$.w bAj-yiK rAa'h-t.$.y.b.w .w ~Ay rAa'l ~yih{l/a a'r. Most of the words as well as the prefixes and suffixes have been covered above with the exception of those listed below.r. it is Day Morning To (prefix) arq bwj !k ~wy rqb l 77 .l. To see To separate Between Night Evening One har ldb !yb hlyl br[ dxa To call Good That.qiY.a ~yih{l/a a.a ~Ay r.y.Y.w h'l.y'l At this point you should be able to translate verses 4 and 5.Y.h !yebW rAa'h !yeB ~yih{l/a a'r'q .w d'x.v{x. Once you have translated the verses you can use your English Bible to check your translation.w b.q{b-yih.v{x.r.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 4 – Genesis 1:4 & 5 leD.[-yih.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew 78 .

As another example." remains and is found in the dictionary. By removing the prefixes and suffixes of the Hebrew words in the text. The word tyXar (used 1 time) is also derived from the same root. meaning "heavens. and one suffix (w). For example." When this is removed. the word !wXar (used 182 times) is derived from the root Xar (used 615 times). The Hebrew words in this dictionary do not contain any of the prefixes or suffixes as found in the Hebrew text. the word wrmayw." contains two prefixes (w and y). 79 . both being included in the list. For example the word ~ymXh. includes the prefix h meaning "the. When these are removed. meaning "and they said.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ Part 5 Hebrew/English Dictionary This list contains all the words used in the Bible which occur twenty-five times or more. the word ~ymX." remains and is also found in the dictionary. but is used less than twenty-five times in the Bible and is not included in the dictionary. the word can be found. the word rma meaning "to say.

pAa r'cAa rAa rAa tAa z.a ~'lyea !iy. Future Sister To seize Possession After Other Last Future Where Island Enemy Where How Ram Arch Not exist Man But To eat Food Not God To Oath These God(s) God Hebrew b'a r.ha ' h'bha } .a l.a !.La e ~yihol/a .w'a !.lWa t.a rex.hAl/a Hebrew English English .a d'xa .a %yea liy.a lea lea h'la ' h.da ' h.l.b'a h'ba ' !Ay.b.ba ' !.a y'nod}a b.ka ' leka o l.a tyir\x.a yea yia beyoa heY.a l.bea !Ad'a ryiD'a ~. l.mda ' } !.a vyia %.d.ha o Aa h'w'a lyiw/a y.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Father To destroy Consent Needy To mourn Stone Lord Nobles Mankind Ground Base Lord To love Love Tent Or Desire Fool Perhaps Folly Evil Wheel Treasure To Shine Light Sign Then To Listen Ear Hebrew English Brother One Back. rAx'a tAx'a z.x.a !Ar\x.z'a !.zoa Hebrew 80 x.Wia !.x'a h'WUx\a r.

a @.l.mea h'r.a @.dB ' l.a ~y.pa e [. by fire Woman To bear guilt Guilt (off.r.B d. faith Where Man We I Ship I To gather To bind And Nose. alone To set apart To terrify Animal [.B.a ~ea ~ia h'ma ' h'Ma .m'a !em'a #ema ' r.r'a Hebrew Four Forty Purple Chest Cedar Path Lion To lengthen Length Fortress Earth. l.l.mia t. .roa !Am.r'a %.via h'via ~.r.a !Ad. .a #. Hebrew English To come English Master aAB 81 l.r.a .[B .r.a h'n'm.ma e !'a vAn|a Wn. land To curse Fire Off.v'a ~'v'a rev]a yer.a z.a r.r'a vea h. anger End Finger Beside To ambush @WL.B.m'a r.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Chief Widow Thousand Mother If Maidservant Cubit Faithfulness To believe Amen Courageous To say Word Promise Truth.g.B l.x:n}a yin\a h"Yin/a yikon'a @.a s.) Which Blessed [with] You Donkey (f) Well To be unfaithful Clothes Pole.xroa yir]a %. h'nWm|a !.Bca .hB ' h'mhB e . !At'a rea.a tea h'Ta .B d.d.v.ca e b.g'B d.s'a r.a !'m'G.s'a @.d.

Without Wicked To mix To swallow Not.B l.B h'lWh.bG ' hobG ' lWb.r'B d'r'B l.q'B a.B !yiB !iy'B h'nyiB tiy.r.B h'kB ' rOk.voB t.x'B x.jB ' x.lB ' [.[:yil.B tyir.z.['B r.r.B h'z'B z:z'B rWx.G 82 .B x. Without High place Son To build For rAB vAB z.B l.liB h'mB ' !eB h'n'B d.[B . To burn To fortify To divide Herd Morning To seek To create Hail Iron To flee Bar Covenant To bless Knee Blessing To cook Spice Flesh Shame Daughter Virgin Pride To redeem To make high High Territory Mighty Power r.B h'k'r.qB ' r'q'B r.x'B r.lB ' yiT.B !Aa'G l.xyir.B %. less Not.r'B .aG ' x.qoB v. !.B yil.B yikiB l.j.B !.r'B %.foB r'f'B t.G rAbiG h'rWb.c'B [.jB .B l.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Pit To disgrace Plunder Despise To carry off Young man To test To choose To trust Safety Womb To understand Between Understanding House To weep Firstborn Weep Not.v'B ~.

r'G ~.D v.p. i r.z'G a>y.G b.roG v.b.b'G r.lD .G l.D v.r'D l.bD ' r.b'D r'b'D 83 r.D !'g'D dAD rAD y.l'h l.lh ' ~eh h'mh ' !Am'h !eh .G q.r'D %.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Hill To strengthen Strong man Roof Troops Great To make great Hebrew English Plague Honey Grain Uncle Generation Enough Poor Door Blood To compare Likeness Knowledge To tread Way To seek Meaningless To mutter Splendor He Woe Wealth To exist Temple To go/walk To praise They To roar Crowd Surely Hebrew Nation Exile To be alien Lot To rob Valley To rejoice To exile Idols Also To wean Camel Garden To steal Vine Alien Threshing floor To drive out Rain To cling To speak Word h'[bG .G g'G dWd.mG ' l'mG ' !.G lAd'G l.b.D t.G lyiG h'lG ' lWLiG ~. h'g'h r'd'h aWh yAh !Ah h'y'h l'kyeh %.dG ' yAG h'lAG rWG l'rAG l.[D .v.G reG !. %.b.D t. ~'D h'mD ' tWm.bh .D l.n'G !.r.

r.m'z h'n'z q.z r.h g. r.z [.x h'y'x liy.r'h h'r'h s.z q.r'z a'bx ' l.b'x 84 Strong To sin Sin Sin (off.x r.r.z'x q'z'x a.q'z h'r'z .[z ' !.p'h r.bx .bz .x !Acyix qyex ~. ' b.jx ' a.lx e b'lx ' h'lx ' ~Al]x .) Wheat Life To live Army Outer Bosom To be wise Wise Wisdom Fat Milk To be ill Dream g.[Ar.k'z r'x'z h'mz i r. elder To scatter Arm To plant Seed To sprinkle To hide Rope To join To saddle h'Neh heNih %.x v'd'x v.b'x v.dox lWx h'mAx #Wx h'z'x !Az'x q.dx ' r.kx ' ~'kx ' h'mkx .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Here Look To turn Mountain To kill To conceive To tear down To sacrifice Sacrifice This Gold To flow Olive To remember Male Lewdness To make music Hebrew English Feast To put on To stop Bedroom New New moon To anguish Wall Street To see Vision To strengthen Hebrew To prostitute To cry out Old.jx e ta'Jx .r'h x.bz ' x. hez b'hz ' bWz tiy.g'x l.z [.d. h'Jx i y.

x l.lx ' @. rAh'j reh'j bAj bWj h'bAj rWj l'j aemj ' . vem'x !ex h'n'x tyin]x ~'Nix !.px e #ex yic]x x'r.l'x q.dx ' ~.coc]x rec'x qox h'Qx U 85 Darkness Breastpiece To seal To frighten Guard Ring Pure To be pure Good Goodness Good Row Dew To be unclean r.r'x h'P.x v.dx e @.sx .tx ' x'Bj .x yivyim]x l.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Window To begin Slain To dream To change To divide Portion Wrath Donkey (m) Fifth To spare Violence Five Grace To camp Spear For no reason To have grace Love To take refuge Hebrew English To search To lay waste Sword Ruins To tremble Anger Fierce To destroy Destroy To insult Disgrace To plow Craftsman To plan To hold back Hebrew Saints Delight Delight Arrow half Trumpet Courtyard Decree Decree !Al.vox !. t.v'x %.r'x v'r'x b. .v'x %.lx ' l'lx ' ~.mx ' s'mx . h'sx ' dyis'x #epx ' #.x h'b.r.n'x d.lx e h'mx e rAm.lx ' q.r'x h'r'x !Ar'x ~.r'x d.vox ~.q'x ber'x bir.[Bj .tx ' t.

[yir.[y ' !.sy ' @.r'y vey b.y r. end To take possession There is To settle Salvation To save Salvation To straighten Upright Peg r.y d.[.ly ' ~'y !yim'y yin'm.v'y r'v'y dety ' .xy ' b.cy ' r.j @er'j veb'y [.y [.c'y t.v'y h'[Wv.['y #.v'y [.r.dy ' [.cy ' r'q'y aer'y h'a.s'y d. West Right Right To lay found.ly ' d.py ' h'cy ' b.y h.xy .v. U !.dy ' ~Ay ~'mAy h'nAy d.cy ' q.j ~.xer'y h. l.ly .y l.y x.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Unclean Uncleanness To hide Children Before To tear To dry up To be weary Hand To throw To know Day Day Dove Together Together To hope To do good Wine To rebuke Could To bear child Child To wail Sea.jy ' !iy.y v.ky ' loky ' d.s'y 86 To meet Because To give advise Forest Beautiful To come out To stand To pour out To form To set fire Precious To fear Fear To come down To shoot Moon Curtain Side Far.[y ' r.x. w'D.m'j @.y %er'y h'ker. To add Hebrew English To discipline Hebrew aemj ' h'amj .g'y d'y h.riy d.r'y h'r'y .

Corner Hebrew Article Kidney To disgrace Disgrace Like So ~At'y r.l !'b'l v. o d. Sole Young lion To atone Mercy seat Vineyard To bow down To cut off To stumble To write Robe Side No.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Fatherless To be left Other Heavy Glory To wash Lamb (m) This is what Priest Star To hold To prepare Cup To lie Strength To hide For This is how Talent.n'K @'n'K aeSK i h'sK ' lyis.xWl !Wl .K h'y.r.[K ' @.bl e vWb.noTUK @et'K aol ~oal .v'K b. Am.s.lK e h'lK ' h'lK .t'y r.K !eK 87 Throne To cover Fool Silver To mk angry Palm.tK ' t.bK ' veb.rop. Not People Heart Heart Clothing White To clothe If Tablet To stay a night rANiK [.K hoK !ehoK b'kAK lWK !WK sAK b. plain All Dog To finish Daughter in-law Hebrew English Harp To humble Wing.p'K t.b'l Wl .K s.K @.K [.K r.xK ' yiK h'kK ' r'KiK loK b.z'K xK . bel b.r'K l.K ~.K ryip.r'K t.t.liK ~ilK ' h'MlK i . yil.y debK ' dAb'K s.

h'Jm i r'j'm yim ~iy.m h'm r.bim l'd.k'm .gim r'B.w'm .y'l d.M h'nyid.Jm .kl ' d. !.ql ' !Av'l h'K. h.m r'x'm t'r\x'm h'bvxm ' ] .zim rAm.n.ml ' x.vil doam .gim !eg'm h'peG.h'm jAm 88 Near To discipline Meeting Wonders Exit Snare Settlement To die Death Altar Psalm East Sprinkle bowl To blot out Division Camp Tomorrow Next day Plans Tribe Bed Rain Who Water Kind Wound Stand To sell lWm lWm r'sWm de[Am tepAm h'cAm veqAm b'vAm tWm t.m l'kam ] . h'l.[WD.qlxm o ] .xl ' ~exl .zim h'xm ' t.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English To fight Bread Night To catch To learn To take To gather Tongue Room Very Hundred Anything Food To refuse To reject Fortified Tower Shield Plague Pastureland Desert To measure Measurement Quarrel Why Province What Quickly To shake Hebrew English To circumcise Hebrew ~. h.zim x'rzim q'r.m v'r.xeB.dim d.a'm s.ql ' j. h'am e h'mWa.dm ' h'Dm i !Ad'm .m r.am ' r'c.m !yim h'Km ' h'nAk.x.

[m ' l.m r.qim r.l.m h'klmm ' i . lyi[.m h.[m e zA['m j.[m . h'cm .l.m h'r'[. l'l[m ] .rim a'f.m a'cm ' h'bcm ' e .l'm %. h'mxlm ' .[. h'l[m ] . !.xyiv.r.m h'm.vim .r'm ~Ar'm h'b'K.a. tWk.lem h'Klm i .m h. i j. %'a.v'm .f][.m %.[m . !im h'n'm h'rAn.n.m 89 Top Step Action So that Cave Work Tenth To find Sacred stone Unleavened Brd Command Sanctuary Place Livestock Bitter Appearance To rebel To rebel On high Chariot Deceit Load.n'm %'s'm h'kSm e .f][.cim v'D.vim !'k.v'm b'K.lm ' %.m x. h'w. r'P. l.m x.m h'ka'lm i h'Lm i h'kWl.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English To fill Full All in Messenger Work Speaking Kingdom Salt Battle To escape To reign King Queen Kingdom Kingdom From To count Lampstand Grain (off.m h'x.[m . oracle To anoint Anointed To pull Bed Tabernacle l.sim h.nim yiNim [.lm .r'm h.qim ~Aq'm h.) From To keep Curtain Cast idol Road Number Stomach Fortress Little Robe Hebrew English To be unfaithful Unfaithfulness Hebrew aelm ' aelm ' aolm . h'Lsm i .m r.r.

r. To flee Monthly period To banish l.vim l'q.xn ' l.n d.g'n [.g.bn e h'lbn e .k'n r'ken yir.n h'jn ' [.a'n a'bn ' j.n.m.bn ' ayib'n l.vim h'xPvm ' . h'lxn ] . d.gin @.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English To rule Proverb Duties Second Clan Justice Weight Banquet How long Please Declares To com.dn ' 90 River To sway Pasture To give rest To flee To shake To wave Crown To lead To inherit Valley Inheritance To comfort Snake Bronze To stretch out To plant To abandon Pleasing Lamp To strike down Opposite To recognize Foriegn Foreigner To test To leave byid'n r.[Wn @WN rizen h'xn ' l.xn ' v'x'n t.vim y.k'n h'sn ' [.dn ' h'Dn i h.jn ' v. adultery Hebrew English Noble To make a vow Hebrew To prophecy To look Prophet Lyre Dead body South To tell in front of Ruler To touch Mildew To be defeated To approach Freewill off.xn .g'n v.vim h.vox.xoxyin ryin h'kn ' x.vim h. @.g'n d.j'n .g'n h'bdn ' .sn ' .w'n .g.t'm a'n ~Uan .d'n r'h'n dWn h.v'm l'v'm t.kn o r.xWn sWn . ~.T. b.n dyig'n [. i j'P.

c'n h'qn ' yiq'n ~.tn ' q.[ d.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Youth Young man Young girl To fall Soul To stand To supervise Preferred To rescue To watch To be clean Innocent To avenge To avenge To lift up To overtake Leader To kiss Eagle To give To bring down Hebrew English Booth To forgive Rocky craig Fine flour To sustain Threshold To mourn To record Scroll Secretary Eunuch To hide Secret Think cloud To serve Servant Service For the sake of To cross over Hebrew To break To circle round All around To shut Horse Reeds To remove Pot ~yirW[. h'db[ o ] rWb][ r.p's r.t'n #.g's sWs @Ws rWs ryis 91 Other side Wrath Calf Ever Until Witness Community Testimony Flock To duplicate h'Ks U x.cn ' x.m's @.[ d.n b.v'n r.ls . t.pn ' v.b[ ' d.v.n h'r]['n l.ls ' [.be[ h'r.n !.bs ' byib's r.cn ' r.qn ' h'mqn ' .ps ' r.p.f'n ayif'n q.tes b.[ lege[ d. a'f'n g.n r.t's r.tn ' b.[ de[ h'd[ e tWde[ r.de[ dW[ .b[ .ls o %.s repos syir's r.cn e l.b.s d.cn ' x.[.p.b'[ r.

m[ ' d.f.[ lo[ h'l[ ' h'l[ o !Ay.r.l[ ' ~.z'[ h'r.c'[ b.[ r'f'[ !Ar'fi[ ~yir.[ !iy.[ h'b'r][ h'w.r.z'[ r.re[ ler'[ @ero[ b. Most high To close People With To stand With Near. beside Pillar Trouble Hebrew English Valley To answer To humble Humble Affliction Poor.m[ . Humble Hebrew dA[ h'liw.z.[ l'm[ ' 92 Cloud Dust Tree Counsel Strong Bone To close Evening Desert Nakedness To be in order Value Uncircumcised Neck Grass To do Tenth Smoke Ten Ten Tenth Twenty To oppress q.m[ ' h'M[ U dWM. h'n'[ h'n'[ w'n'[ yin\[ yin'[ !'n'[ r'p'[ #e[ h'c[ e ~Wc'[ ~.[ ~.[ ryi[ l.f.r'[ %.[ %.fe[ h'f'[ yiryif][ !'v'[ r.v'[ .[ ~'lA[ !A'[ @A[ @A[ rW[ rA[ reWi[ ze[ ze[ b.[ q.l.[ ~i[ d.c[ e r.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Again Wicked Everlasting Sin To fly Bird To awake Skin Blind Goat Strength To forsake To help Help Eye City On Yoke To go up Burnt off.

r. dWT. !aoc a'bc ' d.P h'n'P h'NiP h. l. d.r'P h'r'P h'r'P x.[P .lP ' !.v.sP . l.c h'w'c ~Ac rWc .r'P r.g'P h'dP ' h. ra'W.[P ' l.tP ' x.fo[ te[ h't[ .lP ' h'jyel.r'P yir.P t. v.tP .P d.yiP a'lP ' j.v'P [.n'P yimyin.P moatP .dc .gel.kdP o ' #.v'P [.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Wealth Time Now Goat (m) Side To strike To ransom Mouth Here To scatter To tremble Fear Governor Concubine Wonderful To deliver Remnant To pray Or To turn Corner Face Inner Passover Lamb Hebrew English Punishment Bull To separate Fruitful Cow To blossom Fruit Curtain To break To break To spread To strip off To rebel Rebellion Sudden To deceive To open Entrance Sheep Army Side Righteous To be righteous Hebrew Idol To do Deed Time To punish r.dc ' p.r'P j.P l.xP ' d.sP . i h'tP ' x.[ h'aP e [.xP .c qyiD.r'P v.[P o ~.P hoP #WP d.P x.c q. h'xP .qP ' 93 Righteousness Righteousness Neck To command To fast To lay siege h'DqP U . h'qdc ' .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English Rock To prosper Side To grow To cry out Watchman To overlay North Bird To store up Distress Trouble Disease Refine To be distressed Hebrew English High Small To burn incense Hebrew To assemble To bury Grave Holy East To come.doq l.bq ' r.r'c r.b'q r.n'q #eq h.q .q vAd'q ~yid'q ~.p'c r.q r.[c ' h'pc ' h'pc ' !Ap'c rAPic !.riq !. a'n'q h'a.r'c @.cq ' h'cq ' ryic'q @.q ryiq l.r.r'q b.q !'b.lc ' ['lc e x.roj.r'q h'r'q bAr'q h'y.mc ' q.c'q @.q [.r.dq ' ~.r'c l.d'q v.hq ' l'hq ' h'w'q lAq ~Wq 94 Incense Wall To curse Curse To be jealous Jealousy To buy Rod End End End Harvest To be angry Wrath To harvest To call To meet To come near Among Offering To happen Near City Horn To tear Frame h'mAq !'j'q r.c'q a'r'q a'r'q b.niq h'n'q h.c h'r'c t.c.j'q t.b.lq ' h'llq ' . of old To consecrate Holy To assemble Assembly To bind together Voice To rise up rWc x.r'q v.r.dq e v.[. to meet East.

kr .xr ' byir byir .g.av ' .v.d'r .v'q t.q h. b.r ['v'r lAa.xWr ~Wr . 95 Evil Neighbor Famine Shepherd Disaster To do evil To shake To heal To leave To accept Will To murder Only To condemn Wicked Wicked Grave To ask #.v'q r.n'r [.br ' z.r [.xr ' q.kr ' b.Beginning Many. vWk.xr . square Width Far To compassion Compassion Womb Hebrew English To wash To go far To quarrel Dispute Aroma To ride Chariot Possession Pomegranate Song of joy To sing for joy Hebrew b.g'r l.xr .['r a'pr ' h'pr ' h'cr ' !Ac'r x.xr ' boxr .r [r .xyer b.[r ' v. Great To increase Fourth To lie down To tremble To spy out Foot To pursue Wind. spirit To exalt To shout To run To enlarge Street. e b'[r ' h'[r ' h'[r ' [.xr o qAx'r ~.ar ' vaor !Avair tyivaer b'r bor h'br ' yi[yib.v.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English To listen Harden Harsh To conspire Bow To see Head First First.cr ' q.v l.g'r l.xr ' ~.[Wr #Wr b. ~.v'q h'v'q h.r #.r !Amir h'Nir !.r @. Great Many.v'r [.

f yiw'v bWv ~yif re[Av r'pAv rAv fWf j.v %il'v l'lv ' ~. Reward Fullness.v j.xv ' h'jv i !'j'f @.v [. dov d.kv ' ~.dv ' h. To draw Three days There Name Left q.b.lv ' ~elv . set Gatekeeper Ram's horn Ox To rejoice To slaughter Hebrew English To laugh To corrupt Acacia Accuser.bv e yib.lUv yivyil.v h'bv ' h'[Wb.bv ' t'Bv .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English To remain Remnant Remnant To tk captive Oath Fortune Tribe Captivity Seventh To swear To satisfy Seven To break Destruction To stop. .j'v r.a'v r''a.v tWb.b'v r.l'v ~Av.lv ' !'x.kv ' l.kv ' !.bv . r. Satan To sweep away Hebrew r.xv ' 96 Official To sing Song To set To lie down To forget To be wise To get up early To dwell Wages.kv ' h.bv ' [.liv ~'v ~ev leamf o .j'v ryiv ryiv tyiv b.df ' y.v t. Peace Three To send Table Third To throw Plunder To make full Peace off.v tyirae. end Sabbath Destruction To destroy Field Almighty Sheep Vain To return To put.k'v r'k'v ~Al'v vAl'v x.xf ' t.v yi[yib. @.D'v h.bv ' [.

qv ' l.rov t.mv ' h'mv .n.v x.v [.q. Edge Maidservant To deliver To pour out d.v ryi['f r.mf ' h'xmf .p'v 97 World Deep Praise Thanksgiving Center Geneology Worm Detestable Out Torah lepv ' h'qv ' #WQiv j.qv e r.f h'pf ' h'xpv .v r.T lebT e ~Ah.r'f v.f dyir'f @.m.mv ' r.v !ev aen'f h'n'v yin'v yinev ~iy. i ~iy.r'v vev vev yiviv x'tv ' h'nea.l[oT h'[elAT h'be[AT tAa'c[oT h'rAT .T h'LhT i i h'dAT %.T h'bT e h'aWb.pv ' %. h'[Wm.nom. i j. i ~emv ' h'mmv ' . !.w'T tAd.m'v v.T h'nWb.v h'lmf .v h.m.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English To destroy Desolate News To rejoice Joy Heaven Eighth Clothes To be desolate Hebrew English To bring low To give drink Detestable To be quiet Shekel Untruth Official Survivor To burn Root To minister Linen Six Sixth To drink Fig Ark Harvest Understanding Hebrew Desolate Oil Eight To hear To keep Sun Teeth To hate Year Scarlet Second Two Goat Gate Hair Barley Lip.m'v yinyim.[.v r'[ef h'ro[.

T h'[Wr.T t.T [.rea.lkT e .veT 98 . h'lT ' ~AT dyim'T ~iyim'T ~.T h'[T ' t.mT ' h'pWn.p'T h'w.T h'[Wv.qT ' h'mWr. Trumpet Deliverance Nine Hebrew h'Nix. f.xT .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English To plea Under New wine Blue To hang Blameless Regular Without defect To be perfect Wave off. vAryiT t. To stray Glorious Prayer To seize Hope To blow Offering Shout.qiT [.piT h'LpT i .

a flowing of water). a flowing away of contents) lhb (panic. This is due to 99 . all the child roots are related in meaning to each other and the parent root. a) in front. As you will notice. a flowing of the insides) hlb (aged. h. A child root is formed by placing a vowel (y. a flowing away of youth) lwb (flood.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ Part 6 Parent / Child Roots The most ancient Hebrew words are all derived from a tw-letter parent root such as lb (flow)." At times the meaning of a word derived from the root appear to be very different from the root. "flow. The following child roots are derived from the parent lb meaning. a flowing away of life) lbh (empty. a heavy flowing of water) lby (stream. between or at the end of the two letters of the parent root." The words tyXar. w. it is relatively easy to find the meaning of a word based on the root of the word." lba (wilt. Since approximately 80% of the Hebrew words in the Bible are a parent or child root or a word derived from these roots. For example the child root Xar has the meaning of "head" or "top. !wXar and hXar are derived from this child root and all have a meaning of "the head or top of something.

For example the root rwk (kor. Occasionally a letter of a word will change to another letter of a similar sound but will retain a meaning resembling the original root. In this case. The following list will only include those roots whose words derived from it are found in the Hebrew Bible. rwq (qor) rwg (gor) rwx (chor) rwb (bor) rw[ (ghor) Each of these words is similar in sound and each have the meaning of "dig" and will be included under the child root of rwk. The following list will include the entry !wb but not !wbm and !wbt. indicating that you will find this word there.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew our modern understanding of words. 100 . a more concise dictionary should be consulted. which are often times very different from the ancient Hebrews understanding of words. the entry rwq will have the word rwk to the right. meaning dig) has evolved into the following forms. When the word does not appear to be related. the two words !wbm and !wbt are found in the Hebrew Bible and are derived from the child root !wb. For example.

place Brother. baking da Fog. community Bondwoman !a Idol. chief Strong Oath Strong bb Pupil of the eye Cry out db Alone. medium Desire Hostile. branch . cake Foundation Despair Time. nothing Nose. mist Befall Fire poker Calamity ha Desire Desire Desire Desire Desire Desire ha wa ya hwa hay hya za za xa xa ja $a $a la la lla hla lwa 101 #a Press Light Fire Foundation. anger Aroma. you Mark ja Gentle !k God. enemy Begin lay ~a ~a ~ma hma !a !na !ya @a @a hpa #wa ra rwa Xa Xa XXa hXa Xay ta ata hta twa hbb bby db ba bba bwa bay bya da dda dwa dya Mother. if Cubit. with. nothing Idol.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ba Father Bear fruit Wineskin. nothing Idol. hearth ta Mark. plow Mark Arrive.

swell Weep Weep Wander Nothing Mixture Lamend Vain. anticipation Fail. soap. dust Rash Empty rb Clean. destroy Powder.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Alone. empty Panic. egg Remain Marble Idle talk Roll. aged Flood qb Pour out. grain Clean. branch Wander Lie ddb dba adb hhb hba awb Flow lby ~b ~hb hmb ~by !b !ba !hb hnb !wb !yb swb [b h[b #b #cb #wb qqb qba qhb qwb rb rrb rba rab arb #b hb Void Need Come High High Brother-in-law !b Son Stone Thumb Structure. linen. pure Strong wing rk Fat . request White clay Swamp White. children intelligence Seperate zb Plunder Plunder Plunder Plunder Plunder zb zzb azb hzb zwb xb xba jb jhb hjb $b $ba akb hkb $wb lb lb llb lba lbh lhb hlb lwb 102 sb Trample Gush.

role. troop Tendon 2nd time around ~g Also Marsh Drink. dried up Shame rhb hrb rwb Xwb Xyb ttb htb tyb bg bg abg hbg bwg bgy gg dg dg ddg dga hdg dwg dyg ag wg yg hag hhg 103 Back. cut.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew White Food. body Arch. role. band Riverbank Attack. soap rk Xb Shame. dig Cistern High Locust. log Collect Redeem Naked. dig Dig Fleece. reed Gather Garden Protect Bowl Gasp Bellow hg Pride Back Valley Pride Heal . body hwg hgy hyg @g @wg zg zg zzg hzg zwg lg lg llg lga lag hlg lwg ll[ ~g ~ga amg hmg !g !g !ng !ga [g [gy h[g tb Defined Desolate Household Bent back. exile Rejoice. body Grieve Valley Back. troop Attack. furrow Troop. fear gg Roof Attack. mow Sheer Fleece Sweep Round. stone Round.

uncle Crush Trample Collaps Crush Dangle Week. drag Gather.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Last breath [wg @g @g @wg rg rrg rga rhg hrg rwg rgy ryg XXg Xyg tg tg bd bbd bad abd bwd gd gd gad hgd gwd dd dd hdd dyd 104 Enough Dart Sick Rapid flight hd yd had hwd hyd xd Thrust Push down Push away hg hg Non-native. poor Draw water Blood Silent Red. guest Fear Plaster xxd hxd xwd $d $d akd hkd $wd ld ld lld hld ~d ~d ~md ~da ~hd hmd !da !wd !yd [d [d [wd Xg Grope Cloud Winepress Slow Slow Flow Sluggish Mope Fish anxious Increase Fishing Breasts Gentle walk Pot. silent !d Ruler. collect Prostrate Anger Fear. lord Quarrel Rule Know Inteligence . man Silent Likeness. basket. chalk Throat.

generation zh Dream hzh lh llh lha alh ~h ~h ~mh hmh ~wh !h !wh !yh sh hsh rh rh Shine Tent Far away Abundant. rich Hin (a measure) gh Meditate Murmer. rich Commotion Noise Uproar Xd Sprout Tread Law Privelidge Love. round Swallow. affection Give !h Behold.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Know [dy @d hpd #d #wd qd qd qqd qyd rd rrd rda rad rdh rhd rwd aXd Xwd td td bh bh bha bhy ggh hgh dh 105 Push Leap Thin. look Behold. if Heavy. canopy Crumble Crumble Shout Stretch out hand Splendor ddh hdh dwh hh ah wh yh awh hwh hyh hh Behold. she Grief. still Mount. free Wide Wide Turn. hill sh dh Shout . here. honor Gallop circle. remove Still Silent. look Behold. desire Exist rd Circle. look Behold. look He.

soup This Shine. arrogant Pregnant High rrh hrh rhy tth ww bza bhz bwz bhc lz Shake Depart Except Shake. nail Plan Kinds Heavy. stout Broad. soup Waves. ear Whoredom Fat Tremble Sweat Flow Sheet over Overflow Fuse. assail llz lza lwz llc ~z ~mz !z !z !zy !za hnz !wz [z [wz [zy @z @wz hpc @wc qz qz qqz rz rz rrz rrz rza raz rhz ww hood. yellow Puss Gold gz Grapeskin gz dz dz dwz hz hz hhz hwz zz zwz xz xxz $z $z $kz hkz Waves. refine Chains Stranger Sneeze bz Hyssop Gold. rich Remove Clear Clear Pure rc rc Loath. peg.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew High. settle th Break in. turn away Warn 106 . beauty hs Move.

secret Hide Debt bx bbx abx hbx bwx gx ggx agx hgx gwx Thistle. unite Glad Riddle Unite dx ddx dxa hdx dwx dxy hx hx yx hwx hyx yyx 107 rx ~x Hot Hot Curdled Wall Burned. sin Cord Roof of the mouth Wait gx Festival Festival Revolve Refuge Circle lx Common Common. rust Sick. winnow Loath.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Scatter. grace . pierce Sick. turn away rc tz Olive hrz rwz rwz tyz zx Gaze Possess Gaze Enclose zzx zxa hzx zwx xx xx xwx ajx jwx $x $x hkx lx llx alx hlx lwx lxy ~x ~mx amx hmx ~wx ~xy !x bx Bosom Bosom Refuge. black Passion. pierce Turn dx Unite Unite One. anger Life Life Life Life Life !x Camp. hook Hook jx Miss.

pure Cover. grace !nx hnx !wx sx hsx swx @x @x apx @px hpx @wx #x #cx hcx #wx #yx qx qqx hqx qwx rx rrx rxa arx hrx rwx rwx 108 Wait Patient rxy lxy Xx hXx Xwx Xxy Xw[ tx tx ttx htx bj bjy bwj dj dja hj hwj awj xj hxj xwj jj lj lj llj alj hlj lwj Trust. noble Heated by the sun Remain. privy Anger White Mud Dew Covering Cover Spotting Strew jj rwk . refuge Compassion Clean. arrow Half Outside Wall qx Appointment Appoint. protect Haven Quiet Hurry Lineage Hurry Break.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Camp. crumble Break. kidney Overlay #x Arrow Divide. inscribe Inscribe Bosom rx Glow hot. crumble Sieze bj Good Good Good Thorn Spun Sweep Lay out. after Dung. spear Camp. pure Secret Clean. grace Pole.

rain.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ~j Unclean Unclean Unclean [y ~j amj hmj Shovel Brush [y h[y @y hpy ry ray ary hry Xy XXy hXy bk bak hbk dk dk ddk dyk hk yk hak hhk hwk xk xk xky lk lk llk !j Basket Beauty anj [j h[j @j @j @pj @wj rj rja rhj rwj Xj Xwj gy hgy dy dy ddy hdy ~y ~y ~ya ~wy !y !wy !yy 109 Wander Children Trip Surround Closed Pure Wall Pounce Grieve Hand Handle Hand out Sea Terror Day Mud Wine River Fear Point. teach Xy Exist Aged Exist Pain Extinguish Jar Strike Strike Brand Sespond Weak Burn Strength Chastise Complete Complete .

faint Weary. long for hrk rwk rab rwb rwx rw[ rwq Xk hXk Xwk tk ttk bl bl bbl bal abl bhl hbl gl gl ghl dly dlw al wl hal hhl la !k Stand upright Plant Priest Eulogy Stand Sure sk Terror Crush Heart Heart Thirst Lion Glisten Lion Log (measure) Study sk Estimate Covering Cover Cup. child Offspring. not If Weary. foolish . no. child hl If. faint Nothing. pocket Fat Cup Palm Bend Bow Tame Leap. Could lka alk hlk lwk lky ~k hmk !k !nk !hk hnk !wk $a ssk ask hsk swk hXk swq @k @k @pk @ka hpk rk rk rrk rka hrk 110 rq Dig Hole Dig Dig Dig Trench Desire.cor(measure) Leap Farm Dig dl Offspring.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Eat Keep Complete Sustain Able.

foolish Nothing.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Nothing. interpret ql xl Knead Magi Melt Carpet. foolish lla lwa lay hwl awl ~l Silent. measure Carpet. lend If ~la ~al ~hl !wl !l Encamp zl Turn aside Turn aside [l hzl zwl Throat Swallow Blurt xl Moist. interpret Urge Mock. foolish Nothing. tied up Community Wound hl Join. cover Messenger Walk Walk Howl Loop Stairway Howl Night hm What What Who Hundred . fresh Cheek Corrupt Clay tablet Lick [l [wl [ly #l #cl #la #wl ql Xl Xwl gm gm gwm dm dm ddm hdm dwm hm wm ym ham xl hxl xla xwl ql jl jl jal ajl jhl jwl $l $al $lh $ly ll lla all lwl lly lyl 111 Mock. cover Lizard Flames Secret. measure Extend Stretch out Veil Veil.

rebel Say Bitter. rich Marrow Strike Strike [m Bowels. discourse Sick Fill Reduce uncircumcised #m #cm #ma acm hcm #wm qm qqm qwm qm Dissipate Dissipate Mock rm Bitter. from Kind. from Strong Refuse Assign. exchange Bitter.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Question hhm xm xm xxm axm hxm jwm hjm $m $ym $km lm llm lma alm lhm lwm ~am !m !m !nm !ma !am hnm !wm !my sm ssm 112 Spurn Disolve. count Likeness Right hand rm rrm rma ram rhm hrm rwm rmy XXm hXm Xwm Xmy Xm Grope Drawn out Drawn out Grope sm Disolve. faint sam hsm [m h[m Marrow. oppression jm Shake. rebel Hurry. yoke Branch Thin. faint Disolve. poor Reduce. soft Bowels. rebel Exchange Exchange ~m Blemish Kind. poor Thin. faint . rebel Bitter. matsa Strong Find Suck Chaff. oppression Suck. soft #m Chaff.

wander Toss about Flee. dwell Lament sit.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew tm Death Death Death Rest xwn jn hjn jwn $n akn hkn ln hln lwn ~n ~wn !n !wn sn ssn ssn hsn swn aXn [n [wn @n @wn #n #cn #an acn hcn #wn sn tm twm htm bn bbn abn hbn nwn gn ghn hgn dn dn ddn hdn dwn hn an yn han hhn hwn hny awn ayn zn hzn xn xna hxn 113 Spread out Shake Beat Beat Complete Rubble Sleep Sprout. continue Flag Beacon. wander Please Lament sit. glee Bore Prophecy High Produce Drive Bright Flee. dwell Disposses Forbid Raw Sprinkle Sigh Lead Xn Test Flee Lift up Shake Wave Shine Dispise Fly Quarrel Fly away . wander Flee.

thorn View Cover $s $ks $ws $X $kX hkX $wX ls lls als hls ls Raise. float Meditate Ponder. basket Raise Weigh Raise .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew qn Cry out Cry out Innocent Suckle Suckle qna qhn hqn qwn qny rn rn rhn rwn Xn aXn hXn Xwn ssn bs bbs abs byX ds ds dws dsy ddX dhX hdX dyX hs has hws hX 114 Forget Forget Rise Elevate Conceal. plant Lamp River Lamp. hedge Cover. yoke Lend Lend Sick Sick Turn Drunk Old Foundation Assembly Foundation Level Witness Field Plaster seah (measure) Veil Sheep js Turn aside jX Depart Turn aside Deviate Turn aside $s Booth Cover Anoint Thorn. hide yX hhX awX ayX hwz hxX hX hxX xwX xyX js js jws jX hjX jwX xs Sweep away Meditate Swim.

edge Door Take. swallow Cheerful b[ Dark covering Thick. witness Appointed dd[ hd[ dw[ d[y . dense Dark covering [s Rush Lip.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Quail wlX ~s ~s ~ms ~sa ~mX ~wX !s !as ans !c !nc !ac !wc hns anX ss sws XwX h[s @s @s @ps @sa aps hps @sy hpX 115 Sack Sack qs qX qqX rs Sad. gather Feed Scrape Take. ornament Testify. yoke Round Instruct pot. protect Flock Flock Thistle Hate rs rrs rsa rhs rsy rys rX rrX rXa raX rwX hts tws ts Winter Entice ss Cheerful. anger Bind. anger Sad. gather Lip b[ hb[ bw[ gw[ g[ Baked bread d[ Appointed time Pass. moth Horse. fishhook Commander Rule Bind Yeast Rule Smell Smell Storehouse Poison Garlic Shoe Thistle Thorn Sharp.

top. wake. bare Naked Naked Watch. cloud rwk Forest X[ Waste away s[ .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew h[ Evil Ruins Sweep away w[ y[ h[y z[ z[ zz[ hz[ zw[ z[y j[ j[ hj[ jw[ j[y jy[ j[y l[ l[ ll[ ll[ hl[ lw[ l[y ~[ ~m[ hm[ ~y[ ![ !n[ 116 Watch. bare lg Ascend Give milk Ascend ~[ Flock. high Work Tree Spine Counsel Counsel Counsel Parepet Oppress Enemy. depress Abode Watch Eye hn[ !w[ ![y !y[ ss[ hX[ s[ Tread Do Goat Strong Bold Stronghold Strong Stylus. with Hidden Neighbor Violence Cover. pen Wrap Dig in Wrap Bird of prey @[ Branch Fly Exhausted Exhausted hp[ @w[ @[y @y[ #[ #[ hc[ #w[ #[y j[y q[ hq[ qw[ r[ r[ rr[ hr[ rw[ rw[ r[y XX[ hX[ #[ Yoke.

dust Breathe Flask Overturn Pour Eye paint Intercede [p Viper Quiet scream #p Disperse. unsteady rp Bull Break Abundance. turn Wheel Face Turn Ankle. leap Spread Net Governor Blow. unfit Unripe.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Xx t[ Help Xw[ tw[ gp gp ggp gwp dp dpa hdp dwp hp hp hap hyp zp zzp xp xp xxp hxp xwp xpy $p $p $ph hkp $wp lp llp 117 Darkness Wonder Wonder Bean lpa alp hlp lwp ~p ~yp !p !p !np !pa hnp !wp sp sp ssp spa [pa h[p #cp hcp #wp qpa qwp rp rrp rpa rap Unripe. unfit Unripe. wrist. turn Face. word Beard. wrist. blow Beard. unfit Girdle Redeem Disappear Mouth. honor . edge. end Ankle. dust Adorn. blow Fat Face. scatter Open Scatter qp Restrain Waver. end Ankle. wrist zp Refine Refine.

nomad Issue !c !s !s !s !s Wander Sheet. floor Whisper Watch @z @z Blossom xc Desert .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew rk Wild donkey Fruit Winepress rap arp hrp rwp Xp hXp Xwp tp tp htp bc abc bhc hbc bcy gc gcy dc dc hdc dwc hc ac wc yc hwc hyc awc xc 118 Glare Dig Cry out Desert xxc hxc xwc xyc lc lc llc llc lca lhc hlc lwc ~c ~mc amc ~wc !c !nc !ac !wc [c h[c [cy @c @pc hpc hpc @wc #c #wc Leopresy Spread Pudenda. socket Entice Shade Shade lz Near Neigh Roast Deep Cover the mouth Thirst Fast bc Wall Army bz Swell Stand erect Set Side Lay down Hunt Issue Command Ship Command Desert.

pressed Store up Pain Olive oil Pressed. end . tent. quick Light. sound ~q Raise Nest Nest Jealous Acquire lament tc Kindle Kindle Jar.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew qc Funnel Pour qwc qcy rc rc rrc rca rac rhc rwc rcy ryc rrz rza rwz rrX twc tcy bq bq bbq ddq dqy wq yq hhq hwq hqy 119 Vomit Vomit hyq awq jq jq jjq jwq lq lq llq lhq hlq lwq ~wq !q !q !nq anq hnq !yq sq ssq swq [q [wq [qy apq @wq #q #q Wraped. belly Jar. quick Assemble Roast Voice. belly dq Bow the head Burn sk #q Brand Hang. shrivel hq Cord Gourd Dull Cord. tent. pressed Wraped. rock Pressed Journey Bind Bind Press Lie in wait Little Cut off Cut off Light. collect Obey @q Condense Go around Cut.

end Cut. awe Fear. quiet Meet. box See Fear. break Loud Break up . spirit Moon Trough Cast down Loins Loins Long Lift up. loathe Cut hcq #wq ssq rq arq hrq rqy hrk rwq dr Tread Flee Tread Wander Descend rq Cool. quarrel gr Weave Kill Bad. end. loud Bad. awe Rain Fear. worm Abundant Abundant Ambush Bold Abundant Defend. call Meet Precious Purchase ddr dra hrd dwr dry hr yr hra har hhr hwr hry ary zr zra hzr xr xra hxr xwr xry jr jhr jry $r $r $kr $ra ~r ~mr rk Xq Straw. bend Gather Melon Hard Bend Snare Xq XXq aXq hXq Xwq Xqy br br bbr bra bhr hbr bwr gra grh [r [[r [wr [ry 120 Rain Lion. awe Ceder Thin Traveler Handmill Wind.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Cut.

betray Lift up Lift up ~ra ~ar hmr ~wr ~ry !r !nr !ra hnr Accept Run hcr #wr qr qr qqr qwr qry rr rr rra rwr XXr Xra Xra Xar aXr hXr Xwr Xry bX bbX baX hbX bwX bXy byX gX ggX gaX agX !r Shout Shout Nimble Rattle Thin.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lift up Lift up Throw. spit Empty Spit. spit Thin. green Spit Curse Spit. pull down Betroth ssr sra srh Xra [r [r [[r h[r [wr [ry Xr Divide Request sr Head Permission Permission Needy Possession Split [r Companion gr gr Shepherd gr gr @r Heal Feeble Pulverize qX apr hpr @wr Captive Turn back Sit. dwell #r Pieces Broken pieces Land Run bs #r #cr #ra acr 121 Mistake Groan Mistake . egg white sr Dew. pieces Betroth Break.

lower $s Wander hs Storm Storm False $s $s lX Draw out Plunder Tamerisk tree Ask Draw out Shirt hs hs Pit. whip ds ds Power js Stretch out jX jjX jaX hjX hjX jwX jwX jXy $X $X $kX $kX hkX hkX $wX lX llX lXa laX hlX lwX wlX ~X ~mX ~mX ~Xa amX ds hs Gift $s Bow down. goat Power ds Ravine js lash. submit Pit. bow ls ~X Name Desolate xs Pit.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Mistake Mistake hgX gwX dX dX ddX ddX dXa dhX hdX dwX dyX hX hX yX yX haX hwX awX ayX awX xX xX xX xxX hxX hxX xwX xwX xXy xyX jX js Flog Despise Accasia tree Breast. bow xs Pit. bow. bow xs Empty ~s Guilt High xs 122 .

year Urine Sleep Plunder Plunder Plunder Plunder Delight. safe rs Twist together rc rs Happy rs Relative rs Untie Over.foundation Banquet tX htX . trough. rope. eager qs Drink Leg. sinew !s Rest.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Onyx High Garlic ~s Desolate ~hX hmX ~wX ~wX ~Xy !X !X !nX anX !aX hnX !wX !Xy sX ssX saX hsX swX [X [[X h[X [wX [Xy @pX @Xa @aX hpX hpX @wX baX 123 qX Leg qs Greed. street Teeth Sharp qX qX qqX qqX hqX qwX rX rX rrX rrX rrX rXa rXa raX raX hrX rwX rwX rXy ryX XX aXX XwX XwX XXy rX Cord. six Lead. deliver Free. blind Watch Cry out. wall rs Straight Song XX White. quiet Repeat. drag White @X Serpent Quiver Draw in wind Stand out ss Old man @s Strike Draw in tX Buttock.

monster Patient. donkey Gift. suspend ~t Whole. suspend Hang. sign mark. bow Oppress. wage Permanent.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Set tyX bt hbt dt dty ht at wt hat hht hwt wht xt xwt $t $kt hkt $wt lt llt alt hlt ~t ~mt ~at hmt $t !t Patient. bend Bow down. stake Room Mark. bend Oppress. wage. river Box Peg. sign Empty Sink down. full Twins Amaze 124 . much rat rwt rty Xyt Xt He-goat lt Mound Mound Hang. full Whole. monster Gift. sit Middle !t !nt !ta hnt !ty @t @pt @wt @t Drum Beat Spit rt Outline Travel Remain. sign Empty Mark.

While 80% of the words in the Bible are words derived from the parent or child roots.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ Part 7 Adopted Roots Adopted roots are three consonant roots that evolved out of the parent or child root. This list includes all the adopted roots where all the words derived from it are used more than 25 times inclusively. though the words are closely related in meaning to the adopted root. this list only contains the root and not the words derived from it. Just as in the parent and child root list. 125 . in the Hebrew Bible. another 15% are derived from these adopted roots providing a fairly comprehensive root dictionary.

behind lord. bless boil. destroy distant. destroy break. twist. warrior great wall. divide. sow. pleasent flesh. request iron pass. ripen sweet. chief. wean. sacrifice remember. divide ripe. cattle seek. chin. trust. male cut. reproof @la dgb ldb rxb xjb rkb [lbs d[b l[b r[b [cb rcb [qb rqb Xqb lzrb xrb $rb lXb ~Xb rXb lbg [bg rbg ldg rdg dzg lmg bng r[g !pg lrg !rg [rg Xrg ~Xg qbd rbd Xbd [md $rd !Xd xbz rkz rmz ~[z q[z !qz xrz [rz qrz lbx rbx Xbx rgx ldx rdx Xdx qzx blx 126 .threshing floor take away. way. firstfruit wallow. insolent call out. camel steal rebuke. walk fat slaughter. bind bind. cut. join Root English bent. secure firstborn. vine angry. gird cease. clothing seperate choose. flee knee. hill strong. select cling. lots level. fence cut off/down. omit enclise. gird bind. chamber new strong fat Root covering. seed scatter. old rise scatter. join bind. order honey weep tread. stone. detract cast out rain adhere speak. husband burn.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English thousand. dish writh. assemble beard. good news boundary high. sing angry. plunder cut off the vine break through/open plow.

be without bend. lie dog. decieve heep back. corner harp.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English fat. devoted autumn. dream pass by smooth desire compassion violence. obsure ornament seal up. finish marry slaughter. silver cover vineyard bow down cut totter. liver wash. squeeze Root think restrain dark. eminence hide ~lx @lx qlx dmx lmx smx rmx Xmx jnx $nx dsx rsx #px rcx rqx brx drx ~rx @rx #rx Xrx bXx $Xx $Xx !Xx ~tx !tx xbj [bj !mj ~[j ~rj @rj dbk sbk rbk Xbk Xbk bzk dxk Xxk blk ~lk [nk @nk dnk lsk @sk rpk ~rk [rk trk lXk btk @tk rtk !bl Xbl ~xl #xl 127 . bread press. basket shame bow down. ferment five embalm dedicate kindness want. village search dry. battle. incline enclose. bark. fear flat nose. surround white dress. stumble write shoulder crown. decree not yet tear in pieces. subdue wind. lyre fool. false. conceal fail. inward part desire. engrave. silent Root English taste. wound plow. garment eat. honor. feed heavy. scorn sharp. fuller abundant lamb trample lie. wasted trembled. kill sink. injure rise.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

English
take, catch learn, teach mock, scorn take collect, gather join, attack tongue, speech rain sell, deliver salt deliver, eggs reign, king present, offering restrain, withhold mix perverse, treachery rebel smear, anoint draw out/away/in rule look
wither, fade, foolish

Root

English
vow seperate, withdraw obtain, possess sigh, comfort serpent settle, establish
watch, gaurd, retain

Root

dry, desert, south declare, tell, show instrument, song touch strike, smite approach, brought willing, impell impell, expell, thrust

dkl dml g[l xql jql $Xl !Xl rjm rkm xlm jlm $lm xnm [nm $sm l[m drm xXm $Xm lXm jbn lbn bgn dgn !gn [gn @gn Xgn bdn xdn

leave, abandon opposite strange, alien pour out cover pull, break up/out tie, fasten pleasent, agreeable shake fall break into pieces set, place, erect innocent, faithful strip, snatch, take gaurd branch spot, speck avenge, revenge go, come around reach, overtake bite, usury arm, battle, arrange saw

rdn rzn lxn ~xn Xxn [jn rjn Xjn xkn rkn $sn $sn [sn l[n ~[n r[n lpn #pn bcn xcn lcn rcn rcn dqn ~qn @qn gXn $Xn qXn rXn

128

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

English
give break out tear, break down pluck, draw away fold together carry, burden shut travel, go about foolish forgive flour lean, lay mourn, lament write, scroll castrate hide, conceal work, serve twist, weave, round roll, revolve
order, arrange, flock

Root

English
heel exchange evening, raven order, prepare uncircumsiced cunning, subtle heap drop, cloud turn the neck fear, tremble green herb smoke oppress, violence ten smooth, polish ready, prepare meet, occure, attack weary, exhausted tremble, fear escape leap, limp, hop cut, hew, idol work, wages impel, urge, move visit seperate, divide sprout, blossom oppress break, divide break, scatter

Root

help surround, crown hide, eternity stand labor, toil, mischief deep, profound earth, dust suffer, pain, grieve close, strong, bone restrain, detain

!tn [tn #tn qtn $bs lbs rgs rxs lks xls tls $ms dps rps srs rts db[ tb[ lg[ rd[ rz[ rj[ ~l[ dm[ lm[ qm[ rq[ bc[ ~c[ rc[

bq[ br[ br[ $r[ lr[ ~r[ ~r[ @r[ @r[ #r[ bX[ !X[ qX[ rX[ tX[ dt[ [gp rgp dtp jlp xsp lsp l[p ~[p dqp drp xrp $rp srp #rp

129

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

English
break, crush, tear scatter, decide strip, pull off rebel, sin flax, wick, linen open sudden righteous pass over, prosper side spring, grow up cry out, assemble small, young
turn, leap, goat, bird

Root

English
cut attend, listen bind, tie lie with, copulate four lie down shake, tremble foot, walk tremble,sudden follow after, chase wide, spacious mercy, compassion wash, bathe distant ride, rider go about, trade get, gain, acquire tread creep, reptile hungry shake, tremble murder, slay stamp, spread out wicked staff, tribe flow, hair, robe satisfy, fill seven, swear break cease, rest

Root

leprosy, wasp refine collect, company bury, sepulcher precede, early, east seperated, devout little, small burn bind, join sling, cut/cast out divination anger draw or come near bald horn tear, rend

qrp Xrp jXp [Xp tXp xtp [tp qdc xlc [lc xmc q[c r[c rpc [rc @rc #bq rbq ~dq Xdq !jq rjq rjq [lq ~sq @cq brq xrq !rq [rq

Xrq bXq rXq [br [br #br zgr lgr [gr @dr bxr ~xr #xr qcr bkr lkr Xkr smr Xmr b[r X[r xcr [qr [Xr jbX lbX [bX [bX rbX tbX

130

abomination strike. false remnant burn. note r[X r[X xpX jpX $pX lpX rpX jqX lqX @qX #qX rqX drX @rX #rX qrX qrX XrX !kt dmt b[t [qt 131 . bribe slaughter. ponder palm tree abhore. rest bgX dxX jxX lxX qxX qxX rxX txX !jX @jX rjX bkX xkX lkX lkX ~kX !kX rkX rkX xlX $lX ~lX @lX XlX dmX !mX [mX rmX XmX ![X weigh. nail. wage send throw entire. pollute lie. consume swarm. intoxicate Root English measure. scorn bruise. hire. kill lion laugh. pound black. covering loath. complete draw or pull out three destroy fat hear.spring up. storm. hair family judge. comb root. early. high give presents. dwell drink full. quiet weigh. pleasent rest. weight cover. abound hiss weave. dusk corrupt. horrible fear. obey gaurd. windows lean. protect sun. destroy adversary. overflow write lay down.origin Root bribe. neglect childless act wisely shoulder. layer forget. hostile wash. journey rest. justice pour out low bright.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew English raise.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew 132 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ Part 8 Notes ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 133 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 134 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 135 .

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