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DAY 6–7

Visual Timeline 34

Objectives
Weedflower Reading, Discussion
Questions, and Journal Prompt • Students will develop an understanding of a chronol-
ogy of events related to the Japanese American experi-
• On Day 6, read Chapters 9 and 10 (11½ pages) of ence during World War II.
Weedflower. • Students will distinguish between actual historical
• Continue to add to Handout 2-1: Character events and author-created events.
Web Graphic Organizer. • Students will accurately represent events for a visual
• Discuss the following question as a class or timeline.
in small groups:
• What is the mood of people as they are Guiding Questions
selling off their possessions and boarding
buses? Why? • What are important events in United States history in
• Provide a journal prompt for students to 1941 and 1942?
respond to: • What are important events in the story of Weedflower
• What would be the one thing you would (up to current reading)?
take if you and your family were forced to
leave your home? Draw a picture of the Assessment(s)
object and write four to five sentences • Teacher observation of students’ completed Visual
explaining your choice. Timelines.
• On Day 7, read Chapters 11 and 12 (12 pages) of
Weedflower. Materials
• Continue to add to Handout 2-1: Character • Two large sheets of paper for recording student com-
Web Graphic Organizer. ments
• Discuss the following question as a class or • 4-x-6-inch pieces of white construction paper to use
in small groups: as “event cards” to represent timeline events (one per
• As Sumiko’s family arrives at the assembly student)
center (racetrack), how has her daily life • Student copies of “Timeline for Japanese Americans
changed? (Refer to Day 4.) in New Mexico,” included in this unit’s introductory
materials and also available for download at http://
Overview www.janm.org/EC-NM-Essay-Timeline.pdf/ (accessed
September 6, 2009)
In this two-day lesson, students will share their under- • Handout 7-1: Timeline Strips (optional)
standing of historical and story events. Through this • 2-inch-wide strip of paper for horizontal class timeline.
sharing they will see how the author of Weedflower It is suggested that the strip be divided into months,
structured her historical fiction around actual events. with approximately 24 inches allotted per month. Stu-
A timeline will be constructed out of students’ recol- dent event cards will be arranged along the strip.
lections of both historical and story events.

Essential Question
• How do communities grow and change over time?

New Mexico Curriculum


DAY 6–7
Visual Timeline

35

Activities and Teaching Strategies refer to the timeline and the brainstorm from
• Day 6 Day 1, select an event, and record the date, a short
• Begin by reviewing the definition of historical fic- description of the event (two words, if possible),
tion. Explain to students that they will be creating a and an illustration. Include an “S” or “H” to show
parallel timeline to show events in the story as well whether event came from the “Story List” or the
as historical events. In order to create the timeline, “History List.” Writing should be about 2 inches in
they will need to identify events from both the story size so it can be read from a distance. Alternately,
and lessons using document analysis and photo give the students precut pieces from Handout 7-1:
analysis. Timeline Strips (optional).
• Brainstorm events from both the Weedflower story • After students complete event cards, ask them
and social studies lessons. Record students’ ideas to arrange events on the timeline strip in correct
on two large sheets of paper. Use one sheet to order to create a Visual Timeline. Historical events
record historical events and the other sheet to can be placed above the strip and story events
record story-related events. Ask students to decide can be placed below it. Some discussion may be
whether the event should be listed as a story event, needed to determine how to place some events. For
an historical event, or both. If students know the example, removal from neighborhoods to assembly
date of an event, record it on the chart. centers took place over the course of more than one
• Day 7 month.
• Begin by asking students what they know about • Post the student-constructed Visual Timeline in the
timelines. Why do we use them? How do they work? classroom. After students view their constructed
(They are in chronological order and move from timeline, ask them to share their observations and
earliest events to later events.) discuss these questions: When were there many
• Provide students with 4-x-6-inch pieces of white things happening? When were there few events? Which
construction paper that will be used as “event events did the author use in her story?
cards.” Also distribute copies of “Timeline for Japa- • As the unit progresses, ask students to add events
nese Americans in New Mexico.” Students should to the timeline.

New Mexico Curriculum


Timeline Strips Handout 7-1 (optional) 36

H December 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawai’i

H December 7 and 8, 1941 Japanese American Issei community members are arrested

H December 8, 1941 President Roosevelt addresses Congress

H Early February 1942 8 P.M. to 6 A.M. curfew is imposed on Nikkei

H March, April, May 1942 Nikkei are taken to assembly centers (racetracks and fairgrounds)

H March–April 1942 Japanese American families sell their possessions

H March 1942 Some Nikkei trying to leave California are met at Nevada border by armed people

H May 1942 First group of Japanese Americans arrives at Poston Relocation Center

S December 6, 1941 Sumiko is uninvited to the birthday party

S December 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawai’i

S December 8, 1941 Jiichan and Uncle are arrested

S December 1941 Nikkei burn many of their possessions

S December 1941 Nikkei bank accounts are frozen

S Early February 1942 8 P.M. to 6 A.M. curfew is imposed on Nikkei

S March 1941 Nikkei family is stopped at the state border by angry people

S March–April 1942 Nikkei families sell their possessions for less than their value

S March–April 1942 Nikkei are taken to assembly centers (racetracks and fairgrounds)

S June 1942 Sumiko and her family are removed to racetrack assembly center

S Summer 1942 Sumiko and her family arrive at Poston Relocation Camp

New Mexico Curriculum


DAY 8

Data Retrieval Chart (Part 2) 37

Objectives
Weedflower Reading, Discussion
Questions, and Journal Prompt • Students will use primary source materials as sources
of historical information.
• Read Chapters 13 and 14 (20 pages) of Weed- • Students will synthesize data from resources.
flower. • Students will create visual images of the universals of
• Continue to add to Handout 2-1: Character Web culture related to an historic time and place.
Graphic Organizer. • Students will identify social and cultural beliefs
• Provide a journal prompt for students to reflected in literature.
respond to: • Students will articulate understanding of one of the
• Sumiko is always making lists. Make your universals of culture.
own list of the ways Sumiko’s life has
changed between the beginning of the story Guiding Questions
and her arrival at Poston.
• How does war change communities?
• What are some features of the Japanese American
Overview community before their removal?
On Day 8 and Day 14, students will add to the Data • What are some features of the Japanese American
Retrieval Chart that was started on Day 1. Instead of community after their removal?
synthesizing data from classmates as they did on • How did the lives of Japanese Americans change dur-
Day 1, students will use information from the Weed- ing the war?
flower text, photos, letters, drawings, images from the
National Archives and Records Administration Web Assessment(s)
site, and additional resource books. • Teacher observation of individual worksheets and
small group synthesis.
Two of the letters included in the Day 8 materials were • Teacher observation and completion of Handout 1-3:
written to a woman named Clara Breed, a children’s Data Retrieval Chart Assessment.
librarian in San Diego when World War II started.
During the war she corresponded with her former Materials
library patrons who were in the Poston (Arizona) con-
• Large class Data Retrieval Chart from Day 1
centration camp. In addition to sending letters, books,
• Handout 8-1a–f: Universals of Culture Data Retrieval
and supplies to them, she wrote articles for Horn Book
Chart Task Cards (one card per group, six groups total)
Magazine and the Library Journal speaking out about
• Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record
the injustice of the confinement of Japanese Ameri-
Sheet (one sheet per group, six groups total)
cans. Clara Breed is an example of an ally of Japanese
• 8½-x-11-inch white construction paper or other white
Americans during the war because of her actions and
paper (one sheet per group)
support. Dear Miss Breed by Joanne Oppenheim is an
• Colored pencils and/or markers
excellent reference for this unit.
• Day 8 Resource Material Packet (one packet per group,
six groups total)
Essential Question
• Handout 1-3: Data Retrieval Chart Assessment
• How do communities grow and change over time? • The public library has additional resources that could

New Mexico Curriculum


DAY 8
Data Retrieval Chart (Part 2)

38

be helpful when students are working on this part of Resource Material Packet, discuss what was read in
the Data Retrieval Chart: Weedflower, look through resource books and the
Oppenheim, Joanne. Dear Miss Breed: True Stories of National Archives and Records Administration Web
the Japanese American Incarceration During World site (if computer lab access is available), and then
War II and a Librarian Who Made a Difference. New complete Handout 8-2. Group members will decide
York: Scholastic, Inc., 2006. which images and words to use on their paper.
Perl, Lila. Behind Barbed Wire: The Story of Japanese- • Each member of the group will draw on and label
American Internment During World War II. New their part of the paper. The paper can be cut in half,
York: Benchmark Books, 2003. with one part devoted to information relevant before
removal and one part filled with information relevant
Activities and Teaching Strategies to the assembly center and Poston.
• Review the Data Retrieval Chart from Day 1. Explain • In this lesson a whole class debriefing can focus on
that the class will be completing the next section of changes that students notice in the categories. For
the chart, which represents lives of Japanese Ameri- example, when looking at the “shelter” category, ask
cans before their removal and while they were at the students why there is a difference in shelter used by
assembly center and Poston. people before and after the removal. Pose additional
• Divide the class into six small groups; these can be questions to the students: How would those changes
the same groupings as in the first lesson. If they are affect the lives of the people? What could people do in their
assigned the same category of the universals of cul- homes that they couldn’t do in the assembly center or at
ture, then they can be an “expert group.” Alternatively, Poston?
if they rotate through categories, they will gain a more • As a whole group, complete the Data Retrieval Chart
varied knowledge of the different elements. and discuss the last two sections. When completing
• Give each group one task card from Handout 8-1a–f: “Who Has Power?” and “Who Were Allies,” remind
Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Task Cards students of the discussion and ideas from Day 1. It
and one copy of Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture may be helpful for students to consider who did not
Brainstorm Record Sheet. have power during this time. The teacher or the stu-
• One student in each group should read the task dents can write in these sections.
card aloud.
• Group members should look through the Day 8

New Mexico Curriculum


Universals of Culture
Data Retrieval Chart—
Food Handout 8-1a 39

Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart

Food
Your group’s task is to accurately represent the
food that was eaten by Sumiko’s family and
also by Japanese Americans at assembly camps
and at Poston.

Before you begin your drawings, record your


group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of
Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet.

On one sheet of paper, show the food that was


eaten before the removal of Japanese Ameri-
cans. On the second sheet of paper, show foods
that were eaten at the assembly center and at
Poston. If you can, also show where the food
came from, how it was prepared, and where it
was eaten.

Your group can use Weedflower, resource


books, and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet
provided by the teacher. Be sure to label the
pictures.

Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that


everyone participates in drawing and cleanup.

New Mexico Curriculum


Universals of Culture
Data Retrieval Chart—
Clothing Handout 8-1b 40

Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart

Clothing
Your group’s task is to accurately represent the
clothing that was worn by Sumiko’s family and
also by Japanese Americans at assembly camps
and at Poston.

Before you begin your drawings, record your


group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of
Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet.

On one sheet of paper, show the clothes that


were worn before the removal of Japanese
Americans. On the second sheet of paper, show
the clothes that were worn at the assembly
center and at Poston.

Your group can use Weedflower, resource books,


and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided
by the teacher. Be sure to label the pictures.

Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that


everyone participates in drawing and cleanup.

New Mexico Curriculum


Universals of Culture
Data Retrieval Chart—
Tools and Technology Handout 8-1c 41

Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart

Tools and
Technology
Your group’s task is to accurately represent
the tools and technology that were used by
Sumiko’s family and also by Japanese Ameri-
cans at assembly camps and at Poston.

Before you begin your drawings, record your


group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of
Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet.

On one sheet of paper, show the tools and


technology that were used before the removal
of Japanese Americans. On the second sheet of
paper, show the tools and technology that were
used at the assembly center and at Poston.

Your group can use Weedflower, resource books,


and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided
by the teacher. Be sure to label the pictures.

Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that


everyone participates in drawing and cleanup.

New Mexico Curriculum


Universals of Culture
Data Retrieval Chart—
Shelter Handout 8-1d 42

Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart

Shelter
Your group’s task is to accurately represent the
shelter that Sumiko’s family had and also the
shelter used by Japanese Americans at assem-
bly camps and at Poston.

Before you begin your drawings, record your


group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of
Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet.

On one sheet of paper, show the types of shel-


ter in which people lived before the removal of
Japanese Americans. On the second sheet of
paper, show the types of shelter that were used
at the assembly center and at Poston.

Your group can use Weedflower, resource books,


and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided
by the teacher. Be sure to label the pictures.

Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that


everyone participates in drawing and cleanup.

New Mexico Curriculum


Universals of Culture
Data Retrieval Chart—
Transportation Handout 8-1e 43

Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart

Transportation
Your group’s task is to accurately represent the
transportation that was used by Sumiko’s fam-
ily and also by Japanese Americans at assembly
camps and at Poston.

Before you begin your drawings, record your


group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of
Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet.

On one sheet of paper, show the kinds of trans-


portation that were used before the removal
of Japanese Americans. On the second sheet
of paper, show the types of transportation that
were used at the assembly center and at Poston.

Your group can use Weedflower, resource books,


and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided
by the teacher. Be sure to label the pictures.

Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that


everyone participates in drawing and cleanup.

New Mexico Curriculum


Universals of Culture
Data Retrieval Chart—
Lives of Children Handout 8-1f 44

Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart

Lives of Children
Your group’s task is to accurately represent
the daily life of Sumiko, Tak-Tak, and other
Japanese American children. Think about their
activities, responsibilities, and recreation.

Before you begin your drawings, record your


group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of
Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet.

On one sheet of paper, show the lives of chil-


dren before the removal of Japanese Ameri-
cans. On the second sheet of paper, show the
lives of children at the assembly center and at
Poston.

Your group can use Weedflower, resource books,


and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided
by the teacher. Be sure to label the pictures.

Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that


everyone participates in drawing and cleanup.

New Mexico Curriculum


Universals of Culture

Brainstorm Record Handout 8-2 45

Universals of Cultures Category ______________________________________________________________________

In the spaces below, record your group’s ideas for the data they will be sharing.

Before Removal Assembly Center and Poston

New Mexico Curriculum


Day 8
Resource Material Packet Handout 8-2 46

Poston, Arizona. Office force being organized at Intake center, 05/10/1942


Photographer: Fred Clark
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 536332/Local Identifier 210-G-A423
Production Date(s): 05/10/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


47

Florin, California. Businesses are being sold by owners of Japanese ancestry. Evacuation of all residents of Japanese
descent from this area is due in two days.
Photographer: Dorothea Lange
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 537885/Local Identifier 210-G-C575
Production Date(s): 05/11/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


48

Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Mealtime at the Manzanar Relocation Center. Every effort is
put forth to keep family groups intact in the dining halls as well as in their living quarters in the barracks.
Photographer: Clem Albers
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 536013/Local Identifier 210-G-A17
Production Date(s): 04/02/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


49

San Bruno, California. This assembly center has been open for just two days. Bus-load after bus-load of evacu-
ated Japanese are [sic] arriving today. After going through the necessary procedure, they are guided to the quarters
assigned to them in the barracks. This family had just arrived. Their bedding and clothing have been delivered by
truck and are seen piled in front of the former horse-stall to which they have been assigned. Unfortunately there
have been heavy rains.
Photographer: Dorothea Lange
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 537675/Local Identifier 210-G-C332
Production Date(s): 04/29/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


50

Poston, Arizona. Living quarters of evacuees of Japanese ancestry at this War Relocation Authority center as seen
from the top of water tower facing south west.
Photographer: Fred Clark
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 536152/Local Identifier 210-G-A190
Production Date(s): 06/01/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


51

Poston, Arizona. Buses arrive bringing evacuees of Japanese ancestry to this War Relocation Authority center to
spend the duration.
Photographer: Fred Clark
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 536310/Local Identifier 210-G-A398
Production Date(s): 05/23/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


52

Gila River Relocation Center, Rivers, Arizona. Evacuee agricultural workers are here shown on their way to work in
the fields in the morning.
Photographer: Francis Stewart
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 538588/Local Identifier 210-G-D625
Production Date(s): 11/25/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


53

San Francisco, California. View of business district on Post Street in neighborhood occupied by residents of Japa-
nese ancestry, before evacuation. Evacuees will be housed in War Relocation Authority Centers for duration.
Photographer: Dorothea Lange
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 536044/Local Identifier 210-G-A67
Production Date(s): 04/07/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


54

Poston, Arizona. Light poles and wiring for electric lighting are being installed at this War Relocation Authority
center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry.
Photographer: Fred Clark
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 536314/Local Identifier 210-G-A402
Production Date(s): 05/06/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


55

Poston, Arizona. Sewing school. Evacuee students are taught here not only to design but make clothing as well.
Photographer: Francis Stewart
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 536651/Local Identifier 210-G-A848
Production Date(s): 01/04/1943

New Mexico Curriculum


56

Poston, Arizona. Mr. Niseki shows how to make beautiful rings out the stones which may be picked up on the
desert. Although most of the skilled craftsmen have left Poston from time to time, there are still some residents
who are still practicing their skills and crafts within the camp. They will leaving soon perhaps to continue these as
profitable businesses on the outside.
Photographer: Hikaru Iwasaki
Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 539883/Local Identifier 210-G-K362
Production Date(s): 09/1945

New Mexico Curriculum


57

Dear Miss Breed,

How are you getting along? Now that school is started


I suppose you are busy at the library.

We are now in Poston Camp 3. We arrived here the


27th of August. The San Diego people are all together.
We are all happy. This place is just like a desert, infact
it is. It is dusty here + have quite a few whirlwinds.
Today we think we will have a duststorm. There isn’t
any school started yet but it will start in October. I go
to bible school every day. We make all sorts of handi-
craft.

Last week my father, brother + sister went fishing to


Colorado River it is 3 miles away. They started 5: AM
and came back 7: PM.

Before I came here I wrote you a letter but I didn’t


send it. I received your book the day after I came back
from the hospital. I was very happy to receive it. At
that time I had pneumonia. I took the book “House
for Elizabeth” and it kept me from being lonesome.
My mother sends her best regards to your mother.

Truly yours,
Elizabeth Kikuchi

Letter to Clara Breed from Elizabeth Kikuchi, Poston,


Arizona, September 19, 1942

Gift of Elizabeth Y. Yamada


Japanese American National Museum (93.75.31CO)
All requests to publish or reproduce images in this collection must be
submitted to the Hirasaki National Resource Center at the Japanese American
National Museum.  More information is available at http://www.janm.org/nrc/.

New Mexico Curriculum


58

Santa Anita Assembly Center


Information Office
Barrack 44, Unit 1, Avenue 4
Santa Anita, California
April 23, 1942

Dear Miss Breed:

I hope you will forgive me for not saying goodbye, and


for not writing you sooner.

How is San Diego?

I find “camping life” very nice. We are all giving a


botton which has an one, a two, or a three on it so that
we may have our meals at certain hours. I having an
one, eat breakfast from 6:30 to 7:00, lunch at 11:30 to
12:00, and dinner at 4:30 to 5:00. The food is simple,
but delicious and wholesome. I did not have to cook or
wash the dishes as there are many cooks and waiters
in the cafeteria. I love cooking, but thanks heavens I
do not have to do the dishes! Since I have a two and a
half months brother, I wash daily, and sweep out my
barrack. About three times a week I iron the family’s
clothes. There is really not much I may do in the after-
noon, but get my exercise playing dodge ball, catch or
softball. Once in a while, I type manuscripts for my
friends, or write letters. I retire every night between
9:30 to 10:00 P.M. All lights should be out by 10:00 in
each barrack.

I went over Louise Ogawa’s barrack and saw the two


very interesting books you sent her. I certainly love
books and miss going to the library every week; so I
decided to write you a letter.
Letter to Clara Breed from Margaret and Florence
Ishino, Arcadia, California, Poston, April 23, 1942
Florence is going to school daily from 2:00 to 4:00
Gift of Elizabeth Y. Yamada and enjoys it very much. She tells me she misses
Japanese American National Museum (93.75.31HY) going to the library and asked if I would write to you.
All requests to publish or reproduce images in this collection must be
submitted to the Hirasaki National Resource Center at the Japanese American
She required her highest grades in reading, and she
National Museum.  More information is available at http://www.janm.org/nrc/. truly enjoys it.

New Mexico Curriculum


59

I especially enjoy Dodd, Mead Career Books and


would very much like to have any of the following
books:

Shirley Clayton: Secretary by Blance L. Gibbs and Geor-


giana Adams

Judy Grant: Editor by Dixie Wilson

Marian-Martha by Lucile F. Fargo

Press Box by Robert F. Kelley.

If you happen to have any discarded books, Florence


and I would certainly appreciate them.

Please give my regards to Miss McNary and I would


certainly enjoy hearing from you both.

Please keep up the good work in teaching children to


read books for that is the pathway to happiness!
I am enclosing dolls that Florence made in school and
some stamps.

Sincerely yours,
FLORENCE and Margaret Ishino

New Mexico Curriculum


DAY 9

The Gallup Experience 60

2003. Terms were changed and some sentences were


Weedflower Reading, Discussion simplified in order to bring the text to a fifth-grade
Questions, and Journal Prompt level, but the focus, message, and structure of the
• Read Chapters 15 and 16 (16½ pages) of Weed- article were maintained. Even with modification, this
flower. article may be too difficult for independent reading.
• Continue to add to Handout 2-1: Character Web It is suggested that the article either be read with
Graphic Organizer. students in a whole group setting or read in a small
• Discuss the following question as a class or in group guided reading setting.
small groups:
• What ideas do Sumiko, Sachi, and Frank Essential Question
have of each other? Are these views accurate? • How do communities grow and change over time?
• Provide a journal prompt for students to
respond to: Objectives
• Sumiko suddenly had a lot of free time. What
do you do when you have a lot of free time? • Students will the recognize actions a New Mexico
community took to protect its members.
• Students will identify the benefits and responsibilities
Overview of community membership.
This lesson will help students understand how the
Gallup, New Mexico, community acted to protect their Guiding Questions
Japanese American members when faced with pos- • How does war change communities?
sible removal, as well as actions taken by the Santa Fe • How can war bring out the best in people?
Railway. In the historical overview “Japanese Ameri- • How can communities protect the vulnerable even in
cans in New Mexico” (found in this curriculum’s time of war?
introductory materials), Andrew B. Russell refers to
the cultural diversity of New Mexico. Another source Assessment(s)
is an article published in the Gallup Independent on
• Teacher observation during reading and discussion
October 25, 2003; written by Sally Noe, the article
of the adapted newspaper article and the completion
elaborates on the cultural mix of Gallup. Noe writes
of Handout 9-2: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment”
that, in response to the need for workers to mine the
Questions.
area’s huge coal deposits during the railroad’s early
years, people of Austrian, German, Hispanic, Greek,
Materials
Russian, Yugoslavian, and Japanese descent moved
into the area in the 1920s. • Map of United States and/or New Mexico showing
Gallup, including railroad lines and Route 66
To introduce students to what happened in Gallup • Handout 9-1: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment” (one
during World War II, this lesson includes a reading per student)
entitled “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment—Gallup • Handout 9-2: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment”
Stood Firm Against U.S. Government in 1942.” This Questions (one per student)
is an adaptation of an article written by Joe Kolb and • Dictionary
published in the Gallup Independent on February 1,

New Mexico Curriculum


DAY 9
The Gallup Experience

61

Activities and Teaching Strategies • Read the last three paragraphs. Ask students: How did
• Begin by finding Gallup on the map and locating the the Japanese Americans in Gallup feel about the com-
railroad lines and Route 66. Ask students why railroads munity’s actions? How were Gallup’s actions the same or
and highways would be important during the war. different from other cities in the western United States?
• Explain that today’s lesson will use a newspaper article • The final paragraph discusses two Gallup veterans
to examine some events in Gallup, New Mexico, who were related to two women cited in the article.
during the war. The purpose of reading the article is Ask students: What action did these two men take during
to identify the problems that the Gallup community the war?
faced and also examine the actions they took to solve • Ask students to look up the word “vulnerable” in the
those problems. dictionary. Also ask students: How were the Japanese
• Before beginning the reading, the following vocabu- Americans in Gallup vulnerable during the war? In what
lary words may need to be addressed with the class: ways did the Gallup community protect its more vulner-
• 2nd paragraph: infamy, segregated, hysteria able members?
• 4th paragraph: upstanding, city council • Point out that because this article was written sixty
• 7th paragraph: cultural mix years after the event by someone who was not pres-
• 8th paragraph: drafted ent at the event, it would be considered a secondary
• Introduce Handout 9-1: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining source rather than a primary source. The author, how-
Moment” and read the first three paragraphs. ever, does interview people who were in Gallup at the
• After reading paragraph three, ask students to sum- time of the event discussed.
marize what was happening in the country in 1942. • Ask students to complete Handout 9-2: “Recalling Gal-
Ask students: What was the problem facing Japanese lup’s Shining Moment” Questions.
Americans in Gallup?
• Read paragraphs four through six. What actions did
the Gallup community take and why?

New Mexico Curriculum


Recalling Gallup’s

Shining Moment Handout 9-1 62

Name _ _________________________________________

Gallup Stood Firm Against U.S. Government in 1942


Adapted from the Gallup Independent article by Joe Kolb published on February 1, 2003

We can tell what kind of community we are by how we respond to hardship. New York City pulled together follow-
ing September 11, 2001. Sixty years earlier Gallup showed the nation its character by refusing to support a govern-
ment order that was based on prejudice.
December 7, 1941, was declared a “Day of Infamy” by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He was responding to
the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Japanese planes. On February 19, 1942, the U.S. government carried out
its own “Day of Infamy” when the president signed Executive Order 9066, which authorized sending Japanese
Americans into segregated internment camps. The president responded to the mass hysteria and suspicion sweep-
ing the United States at that time.
Over the next three years 120,313 Japanese Americans were sent to 10 camps in the country. Meanwhile, Gallup
stood firm when it refused to support this order.
The Gallup City Council quickly approved a decision that said Japanese Americans were upstanding members
of the Gallup community. They would not be sent to internment camps. When war with Japan began, many Japa-
nese Americans worked for the Santa Fe railroad. The railroad company required all Japanese to be fired from their
jobs. It still allowed them to keep living in the company’s houses.
People in the city of Gallup worked together to help the Japanese get other jobs. Sally Noe was a high school
student at the time. She had many Japanese American classmates. She remembered that Gallup High School
students even voted for Jack Shinto as their senior class president in 1944. They voted for Tom Kimura to be class
president in 1945. Both Jack and Tom were Japanese Americans.
Sally Noe said, “During the war Gallup had over 80 men in Japanese prisoner of war camps. We still said no to
sending our Japanese friends and neighbors to internment camps. We didn’t hold the actions of Japan against ours
citizens.” It is estimated that there were 35 to 40 Japanese Americans living and working in Gallup at the begin-
ning of World War II.
“As a whole, Gallup was very good to us,” said Chiyo Miyamura. She said the cultural mix of Gallup’s popula-
tion helped people be more tolerant during the war. Chiyo Miyamura’s family owned the Lucky Lunch diner in Gal-
lup in the 1940s. Their diner wasn’t affected by the negative world attitudes. “People were good to us. They knew
we didn’t have anything to do with what happened in the war.”
Kimiko Matsutani remembered how her family lived in Winslow, Arizona, in 1941. “They were very preju-
diced in Winslow. My uncle saved us when we moved to Gallup in December 1941. Some of the Japanese Ameri-
cans who left Winslow ended up in internment camps.”
“I think the City Council’s decision was wonderful. There were a lot of places in the United States that didn’t
want us,” said Kimiko Matsutani. Kimio Matsutani’s brother joined the U.S. Army. He was in the 442nd Regimen-
tal Combat team. It was a “Nisei” unit which is well known for its combat fighting in Europe. Chiyo Miyamura’s
brother, Hershey Miyamura, was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1944. He was also part of the 442nd Regimental
Combat team, but the war ended before he was sent to Europe. He fought in the Korean War and received the Con-
gressional Medal of Honor from President Eisenhower.

New Mexico Curriculum


Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment

Questions Handout 9-2 63

Name _________________________________________

Read the newspaper article titled “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment” and then answer the following questions.
When you answer questions three and four, you will need to think back to the lessons about community that you
worked on earlier this year.

1. How did the Gallup community respond to the President’s order to remove Japanese Americans?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Why do you think the people in Gallup responded this way? What is said in the article that gives you a clue
about how Gallup residents felt about their Japanese American neighbors?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Earlier this year you worked on a definition for “community.” You discussed the benefits of being in a community
and the responsibilities a person has in their community.

3. What are some benefits the Gallup community members had because of their actions and attitudes? Think
about both Japanese Americans and other people.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4. What responsibilities did people in Gallup have to their community? What actions did they take?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

New Mexico Curriculum


DAY 10

Self-Sustaining
Communities 64

Essential Question
Weedflower Reading, Discussion
Questions, and Journal Prompt • How do communities grow and change over time?

• Read Chapters 17 and 18 (15 pages) of Weedflower. Objectives


• Continue to refer to Handout 2-1: Character Web
Graphic Organizer. • Students will analyze posters from the World War II
• Draw students’ attention to the sentence at the era which encourage conservation.
bottom of page 152: “The plan was to make the • Students will analyze a photograph from Manzanar.
whole camp self-sustaining . . .” • Students will understand why conservation was
• Discuss the following question as a class or in necessary.
small groups: • Students will understand the ways in which the gov-
• What does it mean to be self-sustaining? ernment expected people to conserve.
• How does it help the war effort? • Students will develop actions that could support con-
• How do the camp’s efforts compare to the servation and a war effort.
efforts of communities today?
• After completing the social studies lesson Guiding Questions
below, provide a journal prompt for students to • How does war change communities?
respond to: • What actions can families and communities take to be
• In what ways is your community self-sus- self-sustaining?
taining? If you needed to, how could you and • What actions can families and communities take to
your family support a war effort? conserve resources?

Assessment(s)
Overview
Rationing, victory gardens, and self-sustainability were • Teacher observation of responses on T-chart and
whether responses represent self-sustaining and con-
important aspects of community life during World
serving actions.
War II. Students of the twenty-first century may be
unfamiliar with these terms and their implications.
Materials
Raising gardens in America’s World War II concentra-
tion camps was both a way to humanize a restrictive • Handout 10-1: Poster Analysis Guide (one per student)
environment and also to supplement the provisions • Handout 10-2: When You Ride Alone (either provide
supplied by the government. Because resources were one copy per student or reproduce on overhead
limited, communities were asked to conserve and transparency)
salvage certain items so that those items could be sent • Handout 10-3: Waste Helps the Enemy (either provide
to the fighting troops. This lesson will help students one copy per student or reproduce on overhead
understand the attitudes and actions of people in transparency)
the 1940s. They will study the conservation efforts of • Handout 10-4: Gardens in Manzanar (either provide
World War II and extend the concept of self-sustain- one copy per student or reproduce on overhead
ability to their current community life. transparency)
• Handout 3-1: Photo Analysis Guide (one per student)
• Handout 10-5: T-Chart on Self-Sustaining Communities

New Mexico Curriculum


DAY 10
Self-Sustaining Communities

65

(individual copies for students, one copy on overhead in offices and at home? What resources would be saved if
transparency for whole class recording) offices and homes conserved their use of products? How
could those resources be used by troops? (Rubber for tires,
Activities and Teaching Strategies metal for machines.)
• Begin with excerpt from bottom of p. 152 of Weed- • Examine Handout 10-4: Gardens in Manzanar using
flower: “The plan was to make the whole camp self- Handout 3-1: Photo Analysis Guide. Ask students: What
sustaining . . .” Ask students: What does it mean to are people doing in the photo? How does their work sup-
be self-sustaining. Why would the government want the port their camp? How does it help the war effort?
camp to be self-sustaining? Explain that the activity for • In small groups (two to four students) complete
this lesson will help them to understand how and why Handout 10-5: T-Chart on Self-Sustaining Communi-
communities were asked to become self-sustaining. ties showing actions for self-sustainability taken in
• Vocabulary to address: self-sustaining and conserve the 1940s and the present. Begin with a class T-chart
• Distribute Handout 10-1: Poster Analysis Guide. As a on a transparency to check for understanding. It is
whole group, examine Handout 10-2: When You Ride easier for students to begin with the first column.
Alone. Use the Poster Analysis Guide to help focus Actions for their own community can be based on
students’ observations. Ask students: What is the mes- items in the first column and then additional items
sage? What is another name for “car sharing”? How could can be added. After the work session, ask student
car sharing or carpooling help the country? What resource groups to report out. A master chart for the class can
is saved when people carpool? How is that resource used be created and posted.
by troops in the war? • Ask students: How would your family’s life change if they
• Next, as a group, examine the poster depicted on were asked to conserve and be more self-sustaining? How
Handout 10-3: Waste Helps the Enemy and repeat the would our community change if we needed to support a
process above. Ask students: What products were used war effort by conserving and being self-sustaining?

New Mexico Curriculum


Poster
Analysis Guide Handout 10-1 66

Name _________________________________________

Poster title ___________________________________ Date poster created ______________________________

1. Observation
Look at the poster for one minute.

2. Record
In the spaces below, record what you have observed.

Words Objects and People Activities

3. What colors are used in this poster?

4. What symbols are used in this poster?

5. What message does this poster give? (What does it want someone to do?)

6. Who do you think is the intended audience for this message?

7. Is this poster easy or hard to understand? Explain why.

New Mexico Curriculum


When You
Ride Alone Handout 10-2 67

Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration


ARC Identifier 516143 / Local Identifier 44-PA-2415

New Mexico Curriculum


Waste Helps
the Enemy Handout 10-3 68

Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration


ARC Identifier 533960 / Local Identifier 179-WP-103

New Mexico Curriculum


Gardens in
Manzanar Handout 10-4 69

Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry are growing flourishing truck
crops for their own use in their “hobby gardens.” These crops are grown in plots 10 x 50 feet between blocks of bar-
rack at this War Relocation Authority center.

Photographer: Dorothea Lange


Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration
ARC Identifier 537987 / Local Identifier 210-G-C690
Production Date(s): 07/02/1942

New Mexico Curriculum


T-Chart on
Self-Sustaining Communities Handout 10-5 70

Name _ _________________________________________

What did communities in the 1940s do to be self-sus- What can your community do to be self-sustaining?
taining? What did they do to conserve resources? What can you and your family do to conserve resources?

New Mexico Curriculum