DAY 6–7

Visual Timeline
Weedflower Reading, Discussion Questions, and Journal Prompt • On Day 6, read Chapters 9 and 10 (11½ pages) of Weedflower. • Continue to add to Handout 2-1: Character Web Graphic Organizer. • Discuss the following question as a class or in small groups: • What is the mood of people as they are selling off their possessions and boarding buses? Why? • Provide a journal prompt for students to respond to: • What would be the one thing you would take if you and your family were forced to leave your home? Draw a picture of the object and write four to five sentences explaining your choice. • On Day 7, read Chapters 11 and 12 (12 pages) of Weedflower. • Continue to add to Handout 2-1: Character Web Graphic Organizer. • Discuss the following question as a class or in small groups: • As Sumiko’s family arrives at the assembly center (racetrack), how has her daily life changed? (Refer to Day 4.) Overview In this two-day lesson, students will share their understanding of historical and story events. Through this sharing they will see how the author of Weedflower structured her historical fiction around actual events. A timeline will be constructed out of students’ recollections of both historical and story events. Essential Question • How do communities grow and change over time? Objectives

34

• Students will develop an understanding of a chronology of events related to the Japanese American experience during World War II. • Students will distinguish between actual historical events and author-created events. • Students will accurately represent events for a visual timeline. Guiding Questions • What are important events in United States history in 1941 and 1942? • What are important events in the story of Weedflower (up to current reading)? Assessment(s) • Teacher observation of students’ completed Visual Timelines. Materials • Two large sheets of paper for recording student comments • 4-x-6-inch pieces of white construction paper to use as “event cards” to represent timeline events (one per student) • Student copies of “Timeline for Japanese Americans in New Mexico,” included in this unit’s introductory materials and also available for download at http:// www.janm.org/EC-NM-Essay-Timeline.pdf/ (accessed
September 6, 2009)

• Handout 7-1: Timeline Strips (optional) • 2-inch-wide strip of paper for horizontal class timeline. It is suggested that the strip be divided into months, with approximately 24 inches allotted per month. Student event cards will be arranged along the strip.

New Mexico Curriculum

DAY 6–7

Visual Timeline

35

Activities and Teaching Strategies • Day 6 • Begin by reviewing the definition of historical fiction. Explain to students that they will be creating a parallel timeline to show events in the story as well as historical events. In order to create the timeline, they will need to identify events from both the story and lessons using document analysis and photo analysis. • Brainstorm events from both the Weedflower story and social studies lessons. Record students’ ideas on two large sheets of paper. Use one sheet to record historical events and the other sheet to record story-related events. Ask students to decide whether the event should be listed as a story event, an historical event, or both. If students know the date of an event, record it on the chart. • Day 7 • Begin by asking students what they know about timelines. Why do we use them? How do they work? (They are in chronological order and move from earliest events to later events.) • Provide students with 4-x-6-inch pieces of white construction paper that will be used as “event cards.” Also distribute copies of “Timeline for Japanese Americans in New Mexico.” Students should

refer to the timeline and the brainstorm from Day 1, select an event, and record the date, a short description of the event (two words, if possible), and an illustration. Include an “S” or “H” to show whether event came from the “Story List” or the “History List.” Writing should be about 2 inches in size so it can be read from a distance. Alternately, give the students precut pieces from Handout 7-1: Timeline Strips (optional). • After students complete event cards, ask them to arrange events on the timeline strip in correct order to create a Visual Timeline. Historical events can be placed above the strip and story events can be placed below it. Some discussion may be needed to determine how to place some events. For example, removal from neighborhoods to assembly centers took place over the course of more than one month. • Post the student-constructed Visual Timeline in the classroom. After students view their constructed timeline, ask them to share their observations and discuss these questions: When were there many things happening? When were there few events? Which events did the author use in her story? • As the unit progresses, ask students to add events to the timeline.

New Mexico Curriculum

Timeline Strips
H H H H H H H H S S S S S S S S S S S December 7, 1941 December 7 and 8, 1941 December 8, 1941 Early February 1942 March, April, May 1942 March–April 1942 March 1942 May 1942 December 6, 1941 December 7, 1941 December 8, 1941 December 1941 December 1941 Early February 1942 March 1941 March–April 1942 March–April 1942 June 1942 Summer 1942 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawai’i

Handout 7-1 (optional)

36

Japanese American Issei community members are arrested President Roosevelt addresses Congress 8 P.M. to 6 A.M. curfew is imposed on Nikkei Nikkei are taken to assembly centers (racetracks and fairgrounds) Japanese American families sell their possessions Some Nikkei trying to leave California are met at Nevada border by armed people First group of Japanese Americans arrives at Poston Relocation Center Sumiko is uninvited to the birthday party Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawai’i Jiichan and Uncle are arrested Nikkei burn many of their possessions Nikkei bank accounts are frozen 8 P.M. to 6 A.M. curfew is imposed on Nikkei Nikkei family is stopped at the state border by angry people Nikkei families sell their possessions for less than their value Nikkei are taken to assembly centers (racetracks and fairgrounds) Sumiko and her family are removed to racetrack assembly center Sumiko and her family arrive at Poston Relocation Camp

New Mexico Curriculum

and additional resource books. • Continue to add to Handout 2-1: Character Web Graphic Organizer. six groups total) • Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet (one sheet per group. In addition to sending letters. • Teacher observation and completion of Handout 1-3: Data Retrieval Chart Assessment. letters. Essential Question • How do communities grow and change over time? Objectives 37 • Students will use primary source materials as sources of historical information. Instead of synthesizing data from classmates as they did on Day 1. six groups total) • 8½-x-11-inch white construction paper or other white paper (one sheet per group) • Colored pencils and/or markers • Day 8 Resource Material Packet (one packet per group. students will add to the Data Retrieval Chart that was started on Day 1. Make your own list of the ways Sumiko’s life has changed between the beginning of the story and her arrival at Poston. images from the National Archives and Records Administration Web site. she wrote articles for Horn Book Magazine and the Library Journal speaking out about the injustice of the confinement of Japanese Americans. six groups total) • Handout 1-3: Data Retrieval Chart Assessment • The public library has additional resources that could New Mexico Curriculum . • Students will create visual images of the universals of culture related to an historic time and place. Guiding Questions • How does war change communities? • What are some features of the Japanese American community before their removal? • What are some features of the Japanese American community after their removal? • How did the lives of Japanese Americans change during the war? Assessment(s) • Teacher observation of individual worksheets and small group synthesis. During the war she corresponded with her former library patrons who were in the Poston (Arizona) concentration camp. Materials • Large class Data Retrieval Chart from Day 1 • Handout 8-1a–f: Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Task Cards (one card per group. • Students will synthesize data from resources. • Provide a journal prompt for students to respond to: • Sumiko is always making lists. • Students will identify social and cultural beliefs reflected in literature. Discussion Questions.DAY 8 Data Retrieval Chart (Part 2) Weedflower Reading. a children’s librarian in San Diego when World War II started. books. and supplies to them. students will use information from the Weedflower text. Clara Breed is an example of an ally of Japanese Americans during the war because of her actions and support. Dear Miss Breed by Joanne Oppenheim is an excellent reference for this unit. Two of the letters included in the Day 8 materials were written to a woman named Clara Breed. and Journal Prompt • Read Chapters 13 and 14 (20 pages) of Weedflower. photos. • Students will articulate understanding of one of the universals of culture. Overview On Day 8 and Day 14. drawings.

If they are assigned the same category of the universals of culture. Lila. Inc. with one part devoted to information relevant before removal and one part filled with information relevant to the assembly center and Poston.. Activities and Teaching Strategies • Review the Data Retrieval Chart from Day 1. • Group members should look through the Day 8 Resource Material Packet. The paper can be cut in half. 2006.DAY 8 Data Retrieval Chart (Part 2) 38 be helpful when students are working on this part of the Data Retrieval Chart: Oppenheim.” remind students of the discussion and ideas from Day 1. when looking at the “shelter” category. Dear Miss Breed: True Stories of the Japanese American Incarceration During World War II and a Librarian Who Made a Difference. • One student in each group should read the task card aloud. complete the Data Retrieval Chart and discuss the last two sections. • Each member of the group will draw on and label their part of the paper. New York: Benchmark Books. they will gain a more varied knowledge of the different elements. these can be the same groupings as in the first lesson. discuss what was read in Weedflower. The teacher or the students can write in these sections. It may be helpful for students to consider who did not have power during this time. When completing “Who Has Power?” and “Who Were Allies. New York: Scholastic. 2003. Joanne. • Give each group one task card from Handout 8-1a–f: Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Task Cards and one copy of Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet. Perl. ask students why there is a difference in shelter used by people before and after the removal. • In this lesson a whole class debriefing can focus on changes that students notice in the categories. • Divide the class into six small groups. which represents lives of Japanese Americans before their removal and while they were at the assembly center and Poston. New Mexico Curriculum . Pose additional questions to the students: How would those changes affect the lives of the people? What could people do in their homes that they couldn’t do in the assembly center or at Poston? • As a whole group. For example. and then complete Handout 8-2. Explain that the class will be completing the next section of the chart. Behind Barbed Wire: The Story of JapaneseAmerican Internment During World War II. if they rotate through categories.” Alternatively. then they can be an “expert group. look through resource books and the National Archives and Records Administration Web site (if computer lab access is available). Group members will decide which images and words to use on their paper.

record your group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet. resource books. Before you begin your drawings. how it was prepared. show foods that were eaten at the assembly center and at Poston.Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart— Food Handout 8-1a 39 Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Food Your group’s task is to accurately represent the food that was eaten by Sumiko’s family and also by Japanese Americans at assembly camps and at Poston. If you can. Your group can use Weedflower. New Mexico Curriculum . Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that everyone participates in drawing and cleanup. and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided by the teacher. Be sure to label the pictures. On the second sheet of paper. and where it was eaten. On one sheet of paper. show the food that was eaten before the removal of Japanese Americans. also show where the food came from.

New Mexico Curriculum . Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that everyone participates in drawing and cleanup. Before you begin your drawings. show the clothes that were worn at the assembly center and at Poston. resource books.Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart— Clothing Handout 8-1b 40 Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Clothing Your group’s task is to accurately represent the clothing that was worn by Sumiko’s family and also by Japanese Americans at assembly camps and at Poston. On the second sheet of paper. Your group can use Weedflower. On one sheet of paper. and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided by the teacher. show the clothes that were worn before the removal of Japanese Americans. record your group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet. Be sure to label the pictures.

Before you begin your drawings. On the second sheet of paper. record your group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet. resource books. Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that everyone participates in drawing and cleanup. show the tools and technology that were used at the assembly center and at Poston. New Mexico Curriculum .Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart— Tools and Technology Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Handout 8-1c 41 Tools and Technology Your group’s task is to accurately represent the tools and technology that were used by Sumiko’s family and also by Japanese Americans at assembly camps and at Poston. show the tools and technology that were used before the removal of Japanese Americans. Your group can use Weedflower. and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided by the teacher. Be sure to label the pictures. On one sheet of paper.

and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided by the teacher. On the second sheet of paper. Be sure to label the pictures. Before you begin your drawings. show the types of shelter that were used at the assembly center and at Poston. On one sheet of paper. record your group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet. show the types of shelter in which people lived before the removal of Japanese Americans. Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that everyone participates in drawing and cleanup. New Mexico Curriculum . Your group can use Weedflower.Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart— Shelter Handout 8-1d 42 Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Shelter Your group’s task is to accurately represent the shelter that Sumiko’s family had and also the shelter used by Japanese Americans at assembly camps and at Poston. resource books.

Before you begin your drawings. and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided by the teacher. Your group can use Weedflower. On the second sheet of paper. resource books. record your group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet. show the types of transportation that were used at the assembly center and at Poston. show the kinds of transportation that were used before the removal of Japanese Americans.Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart— Transportation Handout 8-1e 43 Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Transportation Your group’s task is to accurately represent the transportation that was used by Sumiko’s family and also by Japanese Americans at assembly camps and at Poston. New Mexico Curriculum . On one sheet of paper. Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that everyone participates in drawing and cleanup. Be sure to label the pictures.

On the second sheet of paper. record your group’s ideas on Handout 8-2: Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record Sheet. New Mexico Curriculum . Be sure to label the pictures. responsibilities. and other Japanese American children. Think about their activities. Your group can use Weedflower. On one sheet of paper. Make sure everyone’s ideas are shared and that everyone participates in drawing and cleanup.Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart— Lives of Children Handout 8-1f 44 Universals of Culture Data Retrieval Chart Lives of Children Your group’s task is to accurately represent the daily life of Sumiko. Before you begin your drawings. Tak-Tak. resource books. show the lives of children before the removal of Japanese Americans. and recreation. show the lives of children at the assembly center and at Poston. and the Day 8 Resource Material Packet provided by the teacher.

Universals of Culture Brainstorm Record In the spaces below. Before Removal Handout 8-2 45 Universals of Cultures Category _____________________________________________________________________ Assembly Center and Poston New Mexico Curriculum . record your group’s ideas for the data they will be sharing.

Arizona. Office force being organized at Intake center. 05/10/1942 Photographer: Fred Clark Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 536332/Local Identifier 210-G-A423 Production Date(s): 05/10/1942 New Mexico Curriculum .Day 8 Resource Material Packet Handout 8-2 46 Poston.

Businesses are being sold by owners of Japanese ancestry. Evacuation of all residents of Japanese descent from this area is due in two days. California. Photographer: Dorothea Lange Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 537885/Local Identifier 210-G-C575 Production Date(s): 05/11/1942 New Mexico Curriculum .47 Florin.

Manzanar. Photographer: Clem Albers Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 536013/Local Identifier 210-G-A17 Production Date(s): 04/02/1942 New Mexico Curriculum . Every effort is put forth to keep family groups intact in the dining halls as well as in their living quarters in the barracks. California. Mealtime at the Manzanar Relocation Center.48 Manzanar Relocation Center.

they are guided to the quarters assigned to them in the barracks.49 San Bruno. After going through the necessary procedure. Unfortunately there have been heavy rains. California. Their bedding and clothing have been delivered by truck and are seen piled in front of the former horse-stall to which they have been assigned. Bus-load after bus-load of evacuated Japanese are [sic] arriving today. This assembly center has been open for just two days. This family had just arrived. Photographer: Dorothea Lange Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 537675/Local Identifier 210-G-C332 Production Date(s): 04/29/1942 New Mexico Curriculum .

Living quarters of evacuees of Japanese ancestry at this War Relocation Authority center as seen from the top of water tower facing south west. Arizona. Photographer: Fred Clark Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 536152/Local Identifier 210-G-A190 Production Date(s): 06/01/1942 New Mexico Curriculum .50 Poston.

Photographer: Fred Clark Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 536310/Local Identifier 210-G-A398 Production Date(s): 05/23/1942 New Mexico Curriculum . Arizona.51 Poston. Buses arrive bringing evacuees of Japanese ancestry to this War Relocation Authority center to spend the duration.

52 Gila River Relocation Center. Arizona. Evacuee agricultural workers are here shown on their way to work in the fields in the morning. Photographer: Francis Stewart Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 538588/Local Identifier 210-G-D625 Production Date(s): 11/25/1942 New Mexico Curriculum . Rivers.

before evacuation. Photographer: Dorothea Lange Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 536044/Local Identifier 210-G-A67 Production Date(s): 04/07/1942 New Mexico Curriculum .53 San Francisco. View of business district on Post Street in neighborhood occupied by residents of Japanese ancestry. Evacuees will be housed in War Relocation Authority Centers for duration. California.

Photographer: Fred Clark Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 536314/Local Identifier 210-G-A402 Production Date(s): 05/06/1942 New Mexico Curriculum . Arizona.54 Poston. Light poles and wiring for electric lighting are being installed at this War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry.

55 Poston. Photographer: Francis Stewart Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 536651/Local Identifier 210-G-A848 Production Date(s): 01/04/1943 New Mexico Curriculum . Sewing school. Evacuee students are taught here not only to design but make clothing as well. Arizona.

56 Poston. They will leaving soon perhaps to continue these as profitable businesses on the outside. there are still some residents who are still practicing their skills and crafts within the camp. Arizona. Photographer: Hikaru Iwasaki Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 539883/Local Identifier 210-G-K362 Production Date(s): 09/1945 New Mexico Curriculum . Niseki shows how to make beautiful rings out the stones which may be picked up on the desert. Mr. Although most of the skilled craftsmen have left Poston from time to time.

We arrived here the 27th of August. There isn’t any school started yet but it will start in October.57 Dear Miss Breed. New Mexico Curriculum . We make all sorts of handicraft. More information is available at http://www. Elizabeth Kikuchi Letter to Clara Breed from Elizabeth Kikuchi. Arizona.31CO) All requests to publish or reproduce images in this collection must be submitted to the Hirasaki National Resource Center at the Japanese American National Museum. We are all happy. Poston. Yamada Japanese American National Museum (93.75.org/nrc/. September 19. How are you getting along? Now that school is started I suppose you are busy at the library. I go to bible school every day. 1942 Gift of Elizabeth Y. We are now in Poston Camp 3. I took the book “House for Elizabeth” and it kept me from being lonesome. I was very happy to receive it. It is dusty here + have quite a few whirlwinds. They started 5: AM and came back 7: PM. My mother sends her best regards to your mother. Truly yours. I received your book the day after I came back from the hospital. This place is just like a desert. Today we think we will have a duststorm.janm. At that time I had pneumonia. Before I came here I wrote you a letter but I didn’t send it. Last week my father. brother + sister went fishing to Colorado River it is 3 miles away. infact it is. The San Diego people are all together.

About three times a week I iron the family’s clothes. She tells me she misses going to the library and asked if I would write to you. I wash daily. or write letters. California April 23. Florence is going to school daily from 2:00 to 4:00 and enjoys it very much. and sweep out my barrack. lunch at 11:30 to 12:00. I retire every night between 9:30 to 10:00 P. Unit 1. Arcadia. but delicious and wholesome.31HY) All requests to publish or reproduce images in this collection must be submitted to the Hirasaki National Resource Center at the Japanese American National Museum. The food is simple. catch or softball. 1942 Dear Miss Breed: I hope you will forgive me for not saying goodbye. More information is available at http://www. but get my exercise playing dodge ball. eat breakfast from 6:30 to 7:00. There is really not much I may do in the afternoon. or a three on it so that we may have our meals at certain hours. but thanks heavens I do not have to do the dishes! Since I have a two and a half months brother. April 23. New Mexico Curriculum Letter to Clara Breed from Margaret and Florence Ishino. California. I went over Louise Ogawa’s barrack and saw the two very interesting books you sent her. a two. Once in a while.janm. and for not writing you sooner. I love cooking. She required her highest grades in reading. I type manuscripts for my friends. .org/nrc/. so I decided to write you a letter. and dinner at 4:30 to 5:00. 1942 Gift of Elizabeth Y.M. I having an one. I did not have to cook or wash the dishes as there are many cooks and waiters in the cafeteria. Yamada Japanese American National Museum (93. All lights should be out by 10:00 in each barrack.58 Santa Anita Assembly Center Information Office Barrack 44.75. and she truly enjoys it. We are all giving a botton which has an one. Avenue 4 Santa Anita. How is San Diego? I find “camping life” very nice. Poston. I certainly love books and miss going to the library every week.

Mead Career Books and would very much like to have any of the following books: Shirley Clayton: Secretary by Blance L. Sincerely yours. If you happen to have any discarded books. Fargo Press Box by Robert F. Kelley. Please give my regards to Miss McNary and I would certainly enjoy hearing from you both. Please keep up the good work in teaching children to read books for that is the pathway to happiness! I am enclosing dolls that Florence made in school and some stamps. Gibbs and Georgiana Adams Judy Grant: Editor by Dixie Wilson Marian-Martha by Lucile F. FLORENCE and Margaret Ishino New Mexico Curriculum . Florence and I would certainly appreciate them.59 I especially enjoy Dodd.

and Japanese descent moved into the area in the 1920s. To introduce students to what happened in Gallup during World War II. as well as actions taken by the Santa Fe Railway. Even with modification. Materials • Map of United States and/or New Mexico showing Gallup. German. and Journal Prompt • Read Chapters 15 and 16 (16½ pages) of Weedflower. Hispanic. Discussion Questions. and Frank have of each other? Are these views accurate? • Provide a journal prompt for students to respond to: • Sumiko suddenly had a lot of free time. written by Sally Noe. people of Austrian. this article may be too difficult for independent reading. the article elaborates on the cultural mix of Gallup. It is suggested that the article either be read with students in a whole group setting or read in a small group guided reading setting. and structure of the article were maintained. but the focus. Russell refers to the cultural diversity of New Mexico. Yugoslavian. Andrew B. in response to the need for workers to mine the area’s huge coal deposits during the railroad’s early years. Guiding Questions • How does war change communities? • How can war bring out the best in people? • How can communities protect the vulnerable even in time of war? Assessment(s) • Teacher observation during reading and discussion of the adapted newspaper article and the completion of Handout 9-2: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment” Questions. 2003. including railroad lines and Route 66 • Handout 9-1: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment” (one per student) • Handout 9-2: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment” Questions (one per student) • Dictionary New Mexico Curriculum . this lesson includes a reading entitled “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment—Gallup Stood Firm Against U. Government in 1942. Greek. New Mexico. Noe writes that. What do you do when you have a lot of free time? Overview This lesson will help students understand how the Gallup. 60 2003. Sachi. Russian. Another source is an article published in the Gallup Independent on October 25. • Continue to add to Handout 2-1: Character Web Graphic Organizer. message. In the historical overview “Japanese Americans in New Mexico” (found in this curriculum’s introductory materials).S. • Discuss the following question as a class or in small groups: • What ideas do Sumiko. Terms were changed and some sentences were simplified in order to bring the text to a fifth-grade level. community acted to protect their Japanese American members when faced with possible removal. • Students will identify the benefits and responsibilities of community membership.DAY 9 The Gallup Experience Weedflower Reading. Essential Question • How do communities grow and change over time? Objectives • Students will the recognize actions a New Mexico community took to protect its members.” This is an adaptation of an article written by Joe Kolb and published in the Gallup Independent on February 1.

Ask students why railroads and highways would be important during the war. does interview people who were in Gallup at the time of the event discussed. • Before beginning the reading. • Ask students to complete Handout 9-2: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment” Questions. • Explain that today’s lesson will use a newspaper article to examine some events in Gallup. Also ask students: How were the Japanese Americans in Gallup vulnerable during the war? In what ways did the Gallup community protect its more vulnerable members? • Point out that because this article was written sixty years after the event by someone who was not present at the event. Ask students: How did the Japanese Americans in Gallup feel about the community’s actions? How were Gallup’s actions the same or different from other cities in the western United States? • The final paragraph discusses two Gallup veterans who were related to two women cited in the article. it would be considered a secondary source rather than a primary source. the following vocabulary words may need to be addressed with the class: • 2nd paragraph: infamy. What actions did the Gallup community take and why? • Read the last three paragraphs. The purpose of reading the article is to identify the problems that the Gallup community faced and also examine the actions they took to solve those problems. city council • 7th paragraph: cultural mix • 8th paragraph: drafted • Introduce Handout 9-1: “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment” and read the first three paragraphs. Ask students: What was the problem facing Japanese Americans in Gallup? • Read paragraphs four through six. New Mexico. Ask students: What action did these two men take during the war? • Ask students to look up the word “vulnerable” in the dictionary. hysteria • 4th paragraph: upstanding. ask students to summarize what was happening in the country in 1942. • After reading paragraph three.DAY 9 The Gallup Experience 61 Activities and Teaching Strategies • Begin by finding Gallup on the map and locating the railroad lines and Route 66. segregated. during the war. The author. New Mexico Curriculum . however.

S. On February 19. Army in 1944. Sally Noe was a high school student at the time.Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment Gallup Stood Firm Against U. New York City pulled together following September 11. was drafted into the U. They would not be sent to internment camps. We didn’t hold the actions of Japan against ours citizens. Army. There were a lot of places in the United States that didn’t want us. Over the next three years 120.313 Japanese Americans were sent to 10 camps in the country. Sally Noe said.” “I think the City Council’s decision was wonderful. Chiyo Miyamura’s brother. “During the war Gallup had over 80 men in Japanese prisoner of war camps. Government in 1942 Adapted from the Gallup Independent article by Joe Kolb published on February 1. “People were good to us. Both Jack and Tom were Japanese Americans. They knew we didn’t have anything to do with what happened in the war. Gallup stood firm when it refused to support this order. but the war ended before he was sent to Europe. in 1941. The Gallup City Council quickly approved a decision that said Japanese Americans were upstanding members of the Gallup community. Kimio Matsutani’s brother joined the U. December 7.” said Kimiko Matsutani. People in the city of Gallup worked together to help the Japanese get other jobs.S. It still allowed them to keep living in the company’s houses. which authorized sending Japanese Americans into segregated internment camps. He was also part of the 442nd Regimental Combat team. the U. My uncle saved us when we moved to Gallup in December 1941. “As a whole. government carried out its own “Day of Infamy” when the president signed Executive Order 9066. The railroad company required all Japanese to be fired from their jobs. She had many Japanese American classmates. Roosevelt. 1941. She said the cultural mix of Gallup’s population helped people be more tolerant during the war. He was in the 442nd Regimental Combat team. She remembered that Gallup High School students even voted for Jack Shinto as their senior class president in 1944. When war with Japan began. He fought in the Korean War and received the Congressional Medal of Honor from President Eisenhower.” It is estimated that there were 35 to 40 Japanese Americans living and working in Gallup at the beginning of World War II. It was a “Nisei” unit which is well known for its combat fighting in Europe. We still said no to sending our Japanese friends and neighbors to internment camps. was declared a “Day of Infamy” by President Franklin D.S. Sixty years earlier Gallup showed the nation its character by refusing to support a government order that was based on prejudice. Chiyo Miyamura’s family owned the Lucky Lunch diner in Gallup in the 1940s. They voted for Tom Kimura to be class president in 1945. 1942. Some of the Japanese Americans who left Winslow ended up in internment camps. “They were very prejudiced in Winslow. Arizona. 2003 Handout 9-1 62 Name _________________________________________ We can tell what kind of community we are by how we respond to hardship. Gallup was very good to us. many Japanese Americans worked for the Santa Fe railroad. New Mexico Curriculum . Their diner wasn’t affected by the negative world attitudes. Meanwhile. 2001. The president responded to the mass hysteria and suspicion sweeping the United States at that time.” said Chiyo Miyamura.” Kimiko Matsutani remembered how her family lived in Winslow.S. He was responding to the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Japanese planes. Hershey Miyamura.

How did the Gallup community respond to the President’s order to remove Japanese Americans? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are some benefits the Gallup community members had because of their actions and attitudes? Think about both Japanese Americans and other people. When you answer questions three and four. 1. Why do you think the people in Gallup responded this way? What is said in the article that gives you a clue about how Gallup residents felt about their Japanese American neighbors? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Earlier this year you worked on a definition for “community.Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment Questions Handout 9-2 63 Name _________________________________________ Read the newspaper article titled “Recalling Gallup’s Shining Moment” and then answer the following questions. 3.” You discussed the benefits of being in a community and the responsibilities a person has in their community. What responsibilities did people in Gallup have to their community? What actions did they take? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ New Mexico Curriculum . you will need to think back to the lessons about community that you worked on earlier this year.

. provide a journal prompt for students to respond to: • In what ways is your community self-sustaining? If you needed to. • Students will analyze a photograph from Manzanar. This lesson will help students understand the attitudes and actions of people in the 1940s. . • Students will understand why conservation was necessary. Guiding Questions • How does war change communities? • What actions can families and communities take to be self-sustaining? • What actions can families and communities take to conserve resources? Assessment(s) • Teacher observation of responses on T-chart and whether responses represent self-sustaining and conserving actions. Discussion Questions. • Draw students’ attention to the sentence at the bottom of page 152: “The plan was to make the whole camp self-sustaining . • Students will develop actions that could support conservation and a war effort.” • Discuss the following question as a class or in small groups: • What does it mean to be self-sustaining? • How does it help the war effort? • How do the camp’s efforts compare to the efforts of communities today? • After completing the social studies lesson below. Essential Question • How do communities grow and change over time? Objectives 64 • Students will analyze posters from the World War II era which encourage conservation. • Continue to refer to Handout 2-1: Character Web Graphic Organizer. • Students will understand the ways in which the government expected people to conserve. Because resources were limited. how could you and your family support a war effort? Overview Rationing. Raising gardens in America’s World War II concentration camps was both a way to humanize a restrictive environment and also to supplement the provisions supplied by the government.DAY 10 Self-Sustaining Communities Weedflower Reading. Students of the twenty-first century may be unfamiliar with these terms and their implications. Materials • Handout 10-1: Poster Analysis Guide (one per student) • Handout 10-2: When You Ride Alone (either provide one copy per student or reproduce on overhead transparency) • Handout 10-3: Waste Helps the Enemy (either provide one copy per student or reproduce on overhead transparency) • Handout 10-4: Gardens in Manzanar (either provide one copy per student or reproduce on overhead transparency) • Handout 3-1: Photo Analysis Guide (one per student) • Handout 10-5: T-Chart on Self-Sustaining Communities New Mexico Curriculum . They will study the conservation efforts of World War II and extend the concept of self-sustainability to their current community life. and Journal Prompt • Read Chapters 17 and 18 (15 pages) of Weedflower. victory gardens. communities were asked to conserve and salvage certain items so that those items could be sent to the fighting troops. and self-sustainability were important aspects of community life during World War II.

A master chart for the class can be created and posted. • Vocabulary to address: self-sustaining and conserve • Distribute Handout 10-1: Poster Analysis Guide. As a whole group.) • Examine Handout 10-4: Gardens in Manzanar using Handout 3-1: Photo Analysis Guide. Use the Poster Analysis Guide to help focus students’ observations. . examine the poster depicted on Handout 10-3: Waste Helps the Enemy and repeat the process above. Why would the government want the camp to be self-sustaining? Explain that the activity for this lesson will help them to understand how and why communities were asked to become self-sustaining.DAY 10 Self-Sustaining Communities 65 (individual copies for students. 152 of Weedflower: “The plan was to make the whole camp selfsustaining . Ask students: What are people doing in the photo? How does their work support their camp? How does it help the war effort? • In small groups (two to four students) complete Handout 10-5: T-Chart on Self-Sustaining Communities showing actions for self-sustainability taken in the 1940s and the present. Begin with a class T-chart on a transparency to check for understanding. . as a group. ask student groups to report out.” Ask students: What does it mean to be self-sustaining. metal for machines. • Ask students: How would your family’s life change if they were asked to conserve and be more self-sustaining? How would our community change if we needed to support a war effort by conserving and being self-sustaining? New Mexico Curriculum . examine Handout 10-2: When You Ride Alone. one copy on overhead transparency for whole class recording) Activities and Teaching Strategies • Begin with excerpt from bottom of p. It is easier for students to begin with the first column. Ask students: What products were used in offices and at home? What resources would be saved if offices and homes conserved their use of products? How could those resources be used by troops? (Rubber for tires. Actions for their own community can be based on items in the first column and then additional items can be added. After the work session. Ask students: What is the message? What is another name for “car sharing”? How could car sharing or carpooling help the country? What resource is saved when people carpool? How is that resource used by troops in the war? • Next.

Words Objects and People Activities 3. record what you have observed.Poster Analysis Guide Poster title ___________________________________ 1. Observation Look at the poster for one minute. Is this poster easy or hard to understand? Explain why. What message does this poster give? (What does it want someone to do?) 6. Record In the spaces below. Handout 10-1 66 Name _________________________________________ Date poster created ______________________________ 2. What colors are used in this poster? 4. Who do you think is the intended audience for this message? 7. What symbols are used in this poster? 5. New Mexico Curriculum .

When You Ride Alone Handout 10-2 67 Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 516143 / Local Identifier 44-PA-2415 New Mexico Curriculum .

Waste Helps the Enemy Handout 10-3 68 Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 533960 / Local Identifier 179-WP-103 New Mexico Curriculum .

Manzanar.Gardens in Manzanar Handout 10-4 69 Manzanar Relocation Center. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry are growing flourishing truck crops for their own use in their “hobby gardens. Photographer: Dorothea Lange Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 537987 / Local Identifier 210-G-C690 Production Date(s): 07/02/1942 New Mexico Curriculum . California.” These crops are grown in plots 10 x 50 feet between blocks of barrack at this War Relocation Authority center.

T-Chart Communities on Self-Sustaining What did communities in the 1940s do to be self-sustaining? What did they do to conserve resources? Handout 10-5 70 Name _________________________________________ What can your community do to be self-sustaining? What can you and your family do to conserve resources? New Mexico Curriculum .

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