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Table of Content
1. INRODUCTION:..................................................................................................................
................2
2. LIST OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES....................................................................................
..................2
3. AFRICA AND CONFLICTS...............................................................................................
..................3
3.1 BACKGROUND STATISTICS:................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4. DISPUTE VS CONFLICT.............................................................................................................
........5
5. WHAT IS CONFLICT?....................................................................................................
.....................5
6. TYPES OF CONFLICTS...............................................................................................................
........6

6.1 DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT:................................................................................................................ 6 6.2 FUNCTIONAL/CREATIVE

CONFLICT:...................................................................................................... 7 6.3 ARMED

CONFLICT:............................................................................................................................. 7
7. ALTERNATIVES TO CONFLICTS........................................................................................
............7
8. CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN AFRICA................................................................................
.............7

8.1 POVERTY:......................................................................................................................................... 8 8.2 THE LEGACY OF

COLONIALISM:........................................................................................................... 8 8.3 FORMALISATION OF EXPANSIONISM:..................................................................................................... 9

8.4 RESOURCE CONTROL AND COMPETITION:............................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.5


ETHNICITY:..................................................................................................................................... 10 8.6 EXTERNAL MILITARY

AID:................................................................................................................ 10 8.7 BASE OF THE WAR:......................................................................................................................... 10 8.8

ECONOMIC REFORM PROGRAMS:................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . 11 8.9 DYSFUNCTIONAL STAT

E:................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8.10 COMPETITION FOR THE STATE POWER:................................................................................................

11 8.11 DEVELOPMENT:............................................................................................................................. 12 8.12 PROBLEM OF POLITICAL

LIBERALISATION:......................................................................................... 12 8.13 MILITARISATION:........................................................................................................................... 12


9. IMPACTS OF CONFLICTS IN AFRICA:........................................................................
...............12
9.1 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE:............................................................................................... 13
9.2 POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS:.................................................................................................................. 14
11. SOLUTION TO CONFLICTS IN AFRICA................................................................
................... 15
12. REFERENCES........................................................................................................................
............17

1. INRODUCTION:
This assignment dealt extensively on the issue of Conflicts in Africa and how to put
and end to this malady called Conflict on our continent. Comprehensive names of all
African countries were listed alphabetically with a thorough background history of
conflicts in Africa which was traced to the era of colonialism in Africa with statistics
and comparison of Africa with rest of the world. Questions relating to conflicts, its
meaning, and the difference between dispute and conflicts are thoroughly examined
with appropriate examples. Also, critical examinations of issues like alternatives to
Conflicts and the Causes of Conflicts in Africa with statistical data to support the
reasons.
Impact of Conflicts on the African community and its social structure and the political
institutions was also examined. The role of the United Nations and the African Union
in monitoring and maintaining peace in Africa is discussed while solutions to check
and also put to a halt Conflicts in Africa are opined. Extensive use of relative maps
and graphical statistics were employed to support facts regarding the existence of
Conflict as a canker worn that has eaten deep into the fabric of Africa.
Conclusively, with appropriate references, this paper paints a clearer picture of the
devastating effects of Conflicts on the life of Africans and how to prevent Conflicts in
Africa while the efforts of the International organisations to check Conflicts in Africa
and the effects of their efforts so far are also mentioned.
2. LIST OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES
Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa,
formerly Zaire), Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon,
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), Reunion, Rwanda,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Ajibogun O Dele. Student Number 424780
2
Sao Tome & Principe, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania,
Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Western Sahara*, Zambia, Zanzibar, Zimbabwe.
3. AFRICA AND CONFLICTS
3.1 Background Statistics:
The population of Africa to the rest of the world is about 11% with a global
representation on trade of about 2% globally. Presently, 54 sovereign nations/states
are the entity of Africa as a continent and this represents 25% of states globally. The
African Unity (AU) recognises over 2000 different languages being spoken in the
continent.
Africa has witnessed more conflicts than any other continent in the world. The
United Nations security has spent not less than 75% of time and money resolving
conflicts and performing humanitarian duties in Africa than any other part of the
world. There have been over 9 million refugees and internally displaced people due
conflicts in Africa.
Fig 1: New World Maps, Stealth Conflicts, December 30, 2008 Source:
Virgil
Hawkins, Virgil Hawkins, author of Stealth Conflicts; How the World’s Worst
Violence Is Ignored (Ashgate, October 2008), provides a useful map
Ajibogun O Dele. Student Number 424780
3

representing conflict death tolls between 1990 and 2007 where the square area of
continents/regions corresponds to their proportion of conflict death tolls:
Conflicts in Africa, as everywhere, are caused by human action, and can be ended
by human action. Most of these conflicts has been characterised by extreme
brutality. In Rwanda alone, in 100 days, about a million people were massacred, a
scale of killings that is unprecedented in world history. More than 30 wars have been
fought in Africa since 1970, and most of these have been internal rather than inter-
state wars (Anup Shah 2009). From the above one can infer that most of the
Conflicts in Africa are based on internal wrangling, Example of this can be seen fron
the Ogoni land in Nigeria.
In 1996 alone records shows 14 out of the 53 countries in Africa were involved in
armed conflicts and it resulted in more that 8 million refugees and displaced people.
Zimbabwe is another bomb waiting to explode as many Zimbabweans has fled the
country to neighbouring counties in millions as a result of the political crisis in that
country which has crippled the whole country as a result of the dispute from their last
general election.(wikipaedia). From this disturbing historical statistics, it is not far
fetch to conclude that Africa is a Conflicts ridden Continent.
There are reasons for conflicts; there are no ‘good’ reasons why these conflicts
should be allowed to degenerate into violence and brutality. Other alternatives to
conflicts resolution should be embraced. Disputes and disagreement between one
another should not be allow to resort into Conflicts as between individuals, groups or
as nations.
Ajibogun O Dele. Student Number 424780
4
Fig 2: Map of Africa – African countries and year of independence
4. DISPUTE VS CONFLICT
Disputes mean those situations in which the issues are negotiable, there can be
compromise and the issue does not involve consideration of altered institutions and
sacrifice. By contrast, dispute is the behaviour which is the main concern of the
conflict. Series is the kind of behaviour on the part of the person, group or nations
that goes beyond the normal disagreement and confrontations that characterised
much of the usual social, economic and competitive life of society. Gasiye A (2003)
5. WHAT IS CONFLICT?
Conflicts refer to disputes, disagreements, quarrels, struggles, fights, and wars
between individuals, groups and countries. All over the world, there is no complete
agreement as to how wealth, among other issues like power and
Ajibogun O Dele. Student Number 424780
5
status among individuals and groups should be shared and how to use it to effect
the necessary changes and reforms. Since we all have diverse interests both as
groups, nations and individuals, our aims are bound to differ with one another.
Conflict s occurs when the deprived group, nation or individuals attempt to increase
their share of power and wealth or to modify the dominant values, norms, beliefs or
ideology. Gesiye A (2003). Conflicts involve more that one person, groups,
multinationals or nations. Issues becomes a Conflict when disputes or
disagreements cannot be resolved and that should be avoided
Conflict could be viewed as a triangle with structure, attitudes and behaviour as it
vertices. Conflict with reference to ‘structure’ means the conflicts situation, the
parties, and the conflict of interest among them. Conflict arises where the parties
come to have incompatible interests among them. Conflicts arise where the parties
come to have incompatible interests, values or goals. ‘Attitudes’ refer to the
tendency for the parties to see conflict from their own point of view, to identify with
one side, and to diminish the concerns of others and lastly, ‘behaviours’ includes
gestures and communications, which can convey either a hostile or a conciliatory
intent. Galtung (1996). Irreconcilable differences as an avenue for Conflicts is
established but no matter what the problem is, there is a need to pursue the side of
peace
6. TYPES OF CONFLICTS
There are two (3) types of conflicts
1. Dysfunctional Conflict
2. Functional or Creative Conflict
3. Armed Conflict
6.1 Dysfunctional Conflict:
This is reflected in its characteristics. It involves destruction and loss of lives,
properties, investment opportunities, hunger and starvation, diseases, insecurity,
lack of legitimate law and order and when it leads to violence, wars, mass strike,
massacres and other forms of disruption follows
Ajibogun O Dele. Student Number 424780
6

6.2 Functional/Creative Conflict:


This is a constructive way of expressing conflict. It reflects the differences and
variety of human opinion and activity which exists in any free society. Where
creative or functional conflict, which is a major source of innovations, new ideas,
institutions and social change are suppressed altogether, a nation becomes
stagnant and static.
6.3 Armed Conflict:
When a conflict turn into open combat with at least 25 battles related deaths per
year, then it is described as armed conflict. This is common between governments
(inter state) of between governments and armed groups within the states or between
opposed armed groups (intra-state).
7. ALTERNATIVES TO CONFLICTS
Avoidance: In a Conflict situation, all possible means should be encouraged
to avoid it degenerating into Conflict.
Collaboration: In a Conflict situation, one can work together with the
aggrieved party to avoid the situation resulting into Conflict.
Compromise: Sometimes to avoid Conflicts, compromised is advised for
peace to reign. That gives enough time for reconciliation. Example of this
is
the present Zimbabwe government of two parties.
Forging new ground: In a Conflict situation, the stake holders can come
together to work together
8. CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN AFRICA
The roots of social conflicts are associated with the struggle for maintaining or
challenging a dominant power status Dahrendorf (1975), frustration generated by
relative deprivation (Gurr, 1970), repression of basic needs Burton(1982), and
differences in cultural norms and values Avruch, et al (1991); LeBaron (1997). The
need for one to be able to meet his daily basic needs is very essential. Living a life
of fulfilment and contentment is non negotiable to man hence where the daily bread
is threatened, there is bound to be Conflict.
Ajibogun O Dele. Student Number 424780
7

The causes of conflicts in Africa are numerous, interconnected and interrelated,


ranging from individual to group violation, to structural inequality and injustice. Some
causes of conflicts in Africa are local while others are the result transformations in
the international structure since the end of the cold war. Continuing economic
decline and material insecurity are accompanied in many countries in Africa by
increase in political instability and conflicts.
8.1 Poverty:
Both poverty and conflict are related. Poverty can cause conflict while
conflict
can lead to poverty based on the state of insecurity and bad governance
Draman R (2003). Many communities in Africa most especially the conflict
torn areas are suffering from hunger and starvation. Africa as a continent
is
seen as a poor continent
8.2 The Legacy of Colonialism:
European nations were bickering over themselves about the spoils of Africa which
has began to be a lucrative business in order to prevent conflicts between them, the
historical Berlin Conference took place between 1884- 1885 in Berlin to lay down the
rules on how they will partition Africa between themselves.
Between 1870 and the beginning of the famous World War 1, Europeans scramble
for Africa. Colonial administration started to take hold. In some areas, the Europeans
settled and thus creating a dominant minority societies. France even planned to
incorporate Algeria into the French State; such was the dominance and confidence
of the colonial rulers at the time. In most areas where they don’t have manpower or
resources to fully administer the territory they were forced to rely on the local power
structure to help them. Throughout Africa, Europe stake claims Shah A (2009).
Ajibogun O Dele. Student Number 424780
8

Causes of Conflicts in 21st Century Africa


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The paper looks at the causes of conflicts in Africa and the contributions of the Un, AU and the
private sectors.
Likely solutions were also looke... (More) The paper looks at the causes of conflicts in Africa
and the contributions of the Un, AU and the private sectors.
Likely solutions were also looked into and recommendations offered (Less)
causes of conflicts in africa
internal causes
since independence
nations since
african nations
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causes of conflicts in africa
internal causes
since independence
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africa internal
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