Tile of the project:


The project, Design of the wingtip, is a unique project that will deal with the design of the wingtip. The project will deal with all the various aspects related to the speculative and analytical factors required to study the design of the wingtip and also to design the wingtip. There are various types of the wingtips that are used on the aircrafts like the squared-off wingtip; rounded wingtip; tip tanked wingtip; sails wingtips; winglets; etc. Out of all of these and various other designs of the wingtips, winglets are the type of the wingtips that are extensively used in this eon of the aircraft industry. Though the design of the wingtips varies, the aim of the wingtips is always the same that is to reduce the drag of the aircraft by altering the flow of the air near the wingtips. Wingtips are also used to improve the aircraft handling physiognomies and also used to augment the safety of the aircraft during its flight. The winglets are used so widely that it has many other shapes that are used in different aircrafts according to the aircrafts configuration and design. Some of the common designs used are the wingtip fences; ranked winglets and blended winglets. This project shall deal with the design of the winglet with a helical shape. The helical shape winglet is a most unusual type of winglet that is used. Hence, for this very reason it becomes a supreme theme for the final year presentation as it is unfamiliar and with high levels of complications to be faced. Thehelical shaped winglet shall be designed for the military support aircraft specifically in my case that is Hercules C -130 which is a fast military transport aircraft. The main characteristics that are to be considered about the aircraft are:     Autonomy: 5,000 km; Lightweight approx.: 5 tons; Maximum high: 10,000 m; Cruising speed approx.: 550km/hr.

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This project will be a part of the group project that was started by the 2010 batch students in supervision of Dr. Zourbir. They had designed the fuselage, wing and the tail of the same aircraft. And now under the supervision of the same professor I will conduct the individual project that is to design of the wingtip of the aircraft HERCULES C130 and ultimately it will add in as design of another important part of the aircraft. The design of the helical shaped wingtip will have certain main milestones that I have to undertake and get it done by doing a vast research and stacks of use to the program GAMBIT and FLUENT. Some the milestones that can be briefly specified are as follows:
y y y y

Study the section corresponding to the wingtip; To design the wingtip section in 3-D CFD-program; Studying the 3-D wingtip from Gambit Program; Perceptive the outcomes achieved from Fluent Program.

To design the helical shape winglet, I have to design the winglet section in the Gambit and Fluent Programs. The Gambit program will help me make the winglet section in the 3-D section from the 2-D section. This helps in visualizing the winglet with various images and graphics which ultimately helps in achieving closest and accurate results. This 3-D wingtip section will then imported to the Fluent to get all the various results.

The aim of the project is to design the HELICAL SHAPED WINGLET;  The design of the winglet shall be done in the Pro-Engineer, Gambit and Fluent Environment ;  The design shall be finally tested in the wind tunnel which is in the university¶s laboratory for its authenticity;  It shall that be compared with another normal wingtip to justify is advantages and effectiveness.

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I have to understand all the aspects and basics of the aerodynamics. 3-D modeling of winglet in Pro-Engineer. An object has decent aerodynamics when its geometry provides a leastopposition to forward and the air that ambiances it does not become very tempestuous. speed and temperature depending on the case that is to be studied. Import model in Gambit and Mesh it. BACKGROUND: AERODYNAMICS: As I am making a project that deals with aerodynamics field of the science of engineering. Testing the model in Fluent to obtain various results for different ANGLE OF ATTACKS. Aerodynamics is the study of forces and movements that result in objects that pass through the medium of air. All the objects like commercial aircrafts. density. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 3 .DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) OJECTIVES/PROJECT PLAN OF THE PROJECT:     Obtain a specific shape of the winglet and aerofoil.  To compare the design with the normal wingtip. To put the definition in precise scientific words we can put it as ³the branch of fluid mechanics that studies the actions appear in solid bodies when there is relative motion between these and the fluid that surrounds´ or ³a branch of dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other gaseous fluids and with the forces acting on bodies in motion relative to such fluids´. To study any problem related to the aerodynamics it is required to calculate various properties of the aerodynamics such as pressure. rockets or even an apple falling from the tree requires a complete study of aerodynamics to know it true working.  Test and Analyse the model in WIND TUNNEL.

or propulsion. thrust.  Trailing Edge: It is the point that is behind the wing profile.  Chord: A straight line joining the trailing and leadingedges of an airfoil section. such as a wing. direction.  Leading Edge: The point that first hits the airflow is known as the leading edge. The velocity is less than it is found on the upper surface. The flow of the velocity is greater than the lower surface of the wing profile.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) AERODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND THEIR DEFINITIONS:  Aerofoil: A device that provides reactive force when in motion relative to the surrounding air. whose shape and orientation control stability. OR An imaginary line connecting the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing aerofoil section. Also the pressure is high on the lower surface. propeller blade. It is also known as the most radical point in the wing profile. The pressure is low as well in the upper surface.  Upper Surface: The upper surface denotes the upper side of the wing profile. lift.  Lower Surface: The surface is the lower surface of the wing profile. can lift or control a plane in flight OR A part or surface. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 4 . or rudder.

whereas a low aspect ratio indicates short. The angle of attack should not be confused with the pitch angle or attitude of aircraft.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT)  Aspect Ratio: The aspect ratio of a wing is the length of the wing compared with the breadth (chord) of the wing. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 5 . stubby wings. It is referred to also as alpha ( ). Also the aspect ratio is an airplane's wing's span divided by its standard mean chord (SMC). It can be calculated more easily. The conflict of these forces is the key toall manoeuvresaccomplished in the air. narrow wings. however as span squared divided by wing area.  Angle of Attack: The acute angle between the chord of an aerofoil and a line representing the undisturbed relative airflow. A high aspect ratio indicates long. which are angles relative to the horizontal while the angle of attack is in respect to the relative airflow. Angle of attack is the angle between the wing chord plane and the relative air flow. PHYSICAL JUSTIFICATIONS:  Forces that affect the aircraft: An aircraft in flight is in the interior of anunremittingencounter of forces.

inclination. and flow conditions on aircraft drag. The lift coefficient Cl is equal to the lift L divided by the quantity: density r times half the velocity V squared times the wing area A. and drag. inclination. The drag coefficient Cd is identical to the drag D divided by the quantity: density r times half the velocity V squared times the reference area A. Cl = L / (A * . thrust. This equation is basically a reorganization of the lift equation where we solve for the lift coefficient in terms of the other variables.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) There is nothingenigmatic about these forces²they are definite andrecognised. This equation is merely a reorganization of the drag equation where we elucidate for the drag coefficient in terms of the further variables.  Lift Coefficient: The lift coefficient is a number that aerodynamicists use to ideal all of the intricateenslavements of shape. These forces are lift. Cd = D / (A * .5 * r * V^2) The quantity one half the density times the velocity squared is called the dynamic pressure q. weight.  Drag Coefficient: The drag coefficient is a number that aerodynamicists use to ideal all of the intricate enslavements of shape. and some flow conditions on lift.5 * r * V^2) The quantity one half the density times the velocity square off is called the dynamic pressure q. The course in which each acts can beplanned. So ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 6 . The aircraft is designed to take gain of each force. So Cl = L / (q * A) The lift coefficient then expresses the ratio of the lift force to the force produced by the dynamic pressure times the area.

is typically getting the most out of. which results in the greatest aerodynamic proficiency.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) Cd = D / (q * A) The drag coefficient then couriers the ratio of the drag force to the force fashioned by the dynamic pressure times the area.  Lift to Drag Ratio: The lift-to-drag ratio of an aircraft is the ratio of the lift force to the drag force. This means ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 7 . and is commonly abbreviated to L/D. The L/D of an aircraft is one of its most significant design variables. pronounced "l over d". The value of L/D. in the circumstance of commercial aircraft. This number is dimensionless.

. There is no definite frequency as there is in wave motion.and is independent of density .Shear stress depends almost only on the viscosity .  Laminar Flow: Laminar flow generally happens when dealing with small pipes and low flow velocities.The ratio of the coefficient of lift to the coefficient of drag of an aerofoil at various angles of attack. where the innermost parts flow the fastest. In turbulent flow vortices. It is a amount of the aerofoil¶s proficiency. Shear stress for turbulent flow is a function of the density . this also depends upon the mode of the flow. The particles travel in irregular paths with noobservable pattern and no definite layers. The type of the flow should be known as it affects the design and functioning of the object that will be functioning in the fluid envelope. and the cylinder touching the pipe isn't moving at all.. The angle of attack that gives the best lift-by-drag ratio is the most proficient angle of attack. this normally parallels to 4°.. eddies and wakes make the flow unpredictable.  Turbulent Flow: Turbulent flow is characterized by the irregular movement of particles of the fluid. For example the amount of fluid friction regulates the amount of energy required to be sustained to acquire the preferred flow. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 8 . This sometimes in some cases is an imperative factor to be known.  Flow systems: All the fluids are categorized into two chief groups which are frequently known as the laminar flow and the turbulent flow. Turbulent flow happens in general at high flow rates and with larger pipes.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) better fuel economy and thus lower costs. In normal aerofoils. Laminar flow can be regarded as a series of liquid cylinders in the pipe.

 The result. the increase and approach of aerodrome or airport transit/landing/take-off traffic more safely. the invention enables the use of low traction systems. tip vortex and to increase lift-drag ratio. pusher or propelled airscrew tips such as wind turbine blades or for craft such as boats or submarines using lift or steering in their three-axis movement. can be adapted to all profiles.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) Theory of the Helical Wingtip:  The invention concerns a device having the shape of a spiral and/or helical slot cylindrical cavity for reducing induced drag. the use of greater loads. vertical. in particular to aeroplane wings. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF THE HELICAL SHAPED WINGLET:  Minix works on the principle that the vortex will hit the wing at exactly the same distance from its tip as the measurement of thickness of the wing. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 9 .  It is designed to allow the vortex to escape through slits in its tubelike body as pressure increases.  The device securely fixed to the wing tip or securely articulated to said wing tip. the vortex dissipates into a linear flow through an opening at the back of the winglet.  For existing rates of efficiency. horizontal and yawing. to helicopter blades and to driving. longer and faster trips while consuming less energy or while producing more as with wind turbines for example. to gliders.

DE I F E I IP I ERI REP R TI E I E ti ti li P ESS l THE P i t i i t ft j tt ft i t t ti . At t f t t I lli t t i A i t i t j t tt ll t i i i fl t. E T: tt j t i t ti t t ft j t l i l . iff tt i t . It t ft P j t t ft . t t t i ki j  St 1: Created : i mbi l ms si Z I ¡  RI eometry i ambit rogram: P .

DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) In an external flow such as that above an aerofoil.00019628 -0. y The first 255 set of vertices are connected to form the edge corresponding to the upper surface. After using these values and using some functions and steps like Geometry Create in the Gambit program. Import Edge To specify the airfoil geometry. Thefar field boundary that I will use is the line ABCDEFA in the figure above. I have defined a far field boundary and mesh the region between the aerofoil geometry and the far field boundary.002495536 0.000300443 y The first line of the file represents the number of points on each edge (255) and the number of edges (2). we obtain the following aerofoil: ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 11 .dat file is 1.00306332 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0.001759397 0. y The chord length.002793415 0. The following is the naca4412. c for the geometry in naca4412. the less effect it has on the flow and so more accurate is the far field boundary condition. The farther we are from the aerofoil.000275577 -0. the next 255 are connected to form the edge for the lower surface.000247836 -0.002158277 0. I have placed the far field boundary well away from the aerofoil since I have to use the ambient conditions to define the boundary conditions at the far field.000290986 -0. µC¶ is the chord length.000298515 -0. so x varies between 0 and 1. I have then split these edges into 4 distinct edges to help us control the mesh size at the surface.dat file that will be used: 255 0 0 2 0 0. I have to import a file containing a list of vertices along the surface and have GAMBIT join these vertices to create two edges. corresponding to the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil.001241474 0.

5c 0 0 0 -11.: we use the following coordinates to create the vertices: Label x A B C D E F G c 21c 21c 21c c y z 12. To do so we need to following certain steps like creating vertices and joining them appropriately to form edges.5 0 c 0 After using steps from operation command in Gambit to create the vertices we get the following: ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 12 .5c 0 0 0 -12.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) After this I will now create the boundary field.5c 0 -12.5c 0 12.

we create the edges of the aerofoil and obtain the following:  Step:2 Mesh the Geometry: I have mesh each of the 3 faces separately to get the final mesh. We need to define the point distribution for each of the edges that form the face i. first length and last length.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) Similarly. the length of the division at the start of the edge) rather than the Successive Ratio .15 45 Page 13 . I have to first have to mesh the edges to mesh the faces.e. Edge Arrow Direction Succe ive Ratio Interval Count GA and BC Upwards ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) 1. Each edge has a direction as indicated by the arrow in the graphics window. I have set the First Length (i. The edge mesh parameters we'll use for controlling the stretching are successive ratio. For edges AB and CG. The successive ratio Ris the ratio of the length of any two successive divisions.e.

Initially. I will group up AF and EF together and by using the command Geometry Command Button in the Operation Toolpad I will form their group as follows: ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 14 .02c 60 With this I have used Gambit functions like operational tootlpad which has Mesh Command Button and obtained the following result: Repeat the same steps for edges BC.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) Edge Arrow Direction Fir t Length Interval Count AB and CG Left to Right 0. AB and CG with the similar specifications and finally we get the full mesh:  Step:3 Stipulate Boundary forms in Gambit: I have created the groups of the edges initially and then will form the boundary objects from these groups.

DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) Similarly. I will define the Boundary Condition by using the function Zone Command Button in the Operational Toolpad. Now. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 15 . We then save the file. This function has an option Specify Boundary types which shall be utilized. I will follow the same procedure for the rest of them as well. After selecting all the appropriate options I have selected the Apply button and in the message block we receive the message that the Boundary Type has been selected.

DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT)  Step:4 Export and run the data in Fluent Program: After this we will export the data from Gambit to the Fluent where we have set all the properties as follows appropriately: y y y y y y Materials. And Boundary Conditions. Operating Conditions. Residual Monitor. Viscosity. Force Monitors. etc. Models-Solver.  Step:5 Examine the results obtained: We can plot the velocity vectors in the fluent program and following is obtained: ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 16 . We will then solve it using the following from the solve option of the Fluent Program: y y y y Solution. After the iterations run we get the solution/results from it. We also set the reference values and now after setting all the options we can now run the iterations. Energy. It is ideal to save the matter first before running the iterations as it takes a long time to give complicated results. Initialize.

we can obtain the pressure coefficient in the Fluent Program as well and after following certain step in the Program changing the Y A is function to the pressure we can obtain the following result: e can also display the pressure contours in the Fluent Program by using commands li e display then contours in which we can select pressure and pressure coefficient and then we can obtain the following: his is the part where we have designed the two dimensional aerofoil till date.DE I F E I IP I ERI REP R er rface From t e diagram it an be een t at t e elocity in t e as igher speed than the elocity at the lower surface. After obtaining a Z I RI P . his will also be carried out in the ambit Program. his will be used further to create the three dimensional wing.

After this I will compare the helical shaped winglet with the regular winglet of AIRBUS. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 18 . I will then design the helical shaped winglet in Gambit and Fluent.DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) satisfactory design of the wing. This is once done I will then assemble the helical shaped winglet in the three. And then the comparing stage will start where I will compare the working and efficiency of the wing with and without the helical shaped winglet.dimensional wing which will be obtained in the former stage of the project. EXPECTED RESULTS IN WIND TUNNEL TEST: After designing stage I am expecting the following results to be achieved in the wind tunnel test: mWing without the helical shaped wingtip. mWing with the helical shaped wingtip. This will help us to distinguish and justify the efficiency of the helical shaped winglet. I have also done a detailed theory research and the designing part has almost finished with the 1st stage which I have described above.380 if time permits.

DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) m wing tested without the helical shaped wint tip. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 19 . m wing tested without the helical shaped wing tip. m wing tested with the helical shaped wing tip.

DESIGN OF THE WINGTIP(INTERIM REPORT) m wing tested with the helical shaped wing tip. Though it is a Complex Program to work with I have yet put efforts to learn it to a level where I can manage to design my helical shaped winglet satisfactorily. Conclu ion and Di cu ion: The theory part has been almost completed. then after the advice of my supervisor and advice of some friends who are well versed with these programs I changed my plan that was initially made. There some changes that I would like to mention that have been made till now. Hence. And a suitable aerofoil has also been selected that will be utilized to design the wingtip. Initially it was planned to design the wing and the wingtip in the Pro-Engineer Program and then export the design in Gambit Program and run in further. Also a thorough research has been done on the type of the wingtip that I have to design. I am lagging quite a bit behind in my project but will extra effort the project shall be completed in due time as scheduled. I have now decided to do the complete designing right from the beginning in the Gambit Program itself. But. ZAIN ANSARI(S09002954) Page 20 .