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NAME : Khoo Eng Tze, Alvin

NRIC : S8625925G
Batch No : DBMEM 0965B
MOBILE : 9026 1377

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Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………..

Definitions of ‘Personality’ …………………………………………………………….

Determinants of Personality …………………………………………………………..

Environmental Factors ………………………………………………………………...

Locus of control …………………………………………………………………….......


Self Esteem Test …………………………………………………………………….....


Type “A” or “B” Personality Test ………………………………………………………


Implicit Personality Theory …………………………………………………………….


Personality Difference …………………………………………………………………


The Four Personalities …………………………………………………………………


Personality Strengths and Weaknesses ……………………………………………..


References .……………………………………………………………………………

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Internet Sites …………………………………………………………………………..


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Question 2: What is “Personality”? Discuss the determinants of
personality. Describe your personality by using any four personality type


What is Personality?

Personality – Each individual brings to an organization a different personality a

unique combination of personal skills and abilities that contributes to successful
job performance.

Workers experience their work environments from their own particular

perspectives. They bring their personal expectations to their jobs presume that
these jobs will provide them something they value. Employees do not like to do
the same things, nor do they all see the same things as being important.

Along with personal characteristics of individual workers comes a set of

corresponding behaviours. For instance, an entry-level accountant who views
using spreadsheet applications as tedious and boring and wishes to do
something else may lack commitment to that particular job. As a result, he or she
may come to work late, frequently call in sick, or even quit. But another
accountant who likes to work with spreadsheets and sees the job as a stepping
stone to a business manager position may flourish. Research has shown that
unless individuals are working in a job that gives them the opportunity to develop
a positive self-concept and do the things they think are important, their success
may be limited. (See K. Onstad, December 1995. J. Aley, February 5, 1996)

Personality is the supreme realization of the innate idiosyncrasy of a living being.

It is an act of high courage flung in the face of life, the absolute affirmation of all
that constitutes the individual, the most successful adaptation to the universal

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condition of existence coupled with the greatest possible freedom for self-
determination.” (Carl Gustav Jung, 1934)

Definition of ‘Personality’

Lay usage of the term "personality"

We use the term personality frequently but what does it actually mean?

“She has a wonderful personality.”

“He has no personality.”
“He has personality plus.”
“We seem to have a personality conflict.”
“It’s just her personality.”
“She has her mother’s personality.”
“He’s a real personality.”

Personality comes from the Greek word "persona", meaning "mask"

The word ‘personality’ derives from the Latin word ‘persona’ which means ‘mask’.
The study of personality can be understood as the study of ‘masks’ that people
wear. These are the personas that people project and display, but also includes
the inner parts of psychological experience which we collectively call our ‘self’.

"I" is for personality

According to Adams (1954, cited in Schultz & Schultz, 1994) personality is “I”.

Adams suggested that we get a good idea of what personality is by listening to

what we say when we use "I". When you say I, you are, in effect, summing up
everything about yourself - your likes and dislikes, fears and virtues, strengths
and weaknesses.

The word I is what defined you as an individual, as a person separate from all
others.” (Schultz & Schultz, 1994, p.8)

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Various definitions of personality

• "Deceptive masquerade or mimicry."

• "The entire organization of a human being at any stage of development."

• "Levels or layers of dispositions, usually with a unifying or integrative

principle at the top."

• "The integration of those systems or habits that represent an individual’s

characteristic adjustments to the environment."

• "The way in which the person does such things as remembering, thinking
or loving."

• "Those characteristics that account for consistent patterns of behaviour"

• "Personality is not an existing substantive entity to be searched for but a

complex construct to be developed and defined by the observer."
(Smith & Vetter, 1982, p.5)

• A contemporary definition for personality is offered by Carver and Scheier

(2000, p.5): “Personality is a dynamic organization, inside the person, of
psychophysical systems that create a person’s characteristic patterns of
behavior, thoughts, and feelings.” Carver & Scheier (2000, p.5)

o Dynamic Organization: suggests ongoing readjustments,

adaptation to experience, continual upgrading and maintaining
Personality doesn’t just lie there. It has process and it’s organized.

o Inside the Person: suggests internal storage of patterns, supporting

the notion that personality influences behaviours, etc.

o Psychophysical systems: suggests that the physical is also involved

in ‘who we are’
Characteristic Patterns: implies that consistency/continuity which
are uniquely identifying of an individual

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o Behaviour, Thoughts, and Feelings: indicates that personality
includes a wide range of psychological experience/manifestation:
that personality is displayed in MANY ways.

• Carver & Scheier (2000, p.5) suggest that the word personality “conveys a
sense of consistency, internal causality, and personal distinctiveness”.
This issue of “personal distinctiveness is very important. There are certain
universal characteristics of the human race and particular features of
individuals. We all for example experience stress and the elevated cortical
that goes with it, and we all suffer the immune suppressive effects thereof.
But each of us is unique too.

Determinants of Personality

Personality is the outcome of a continuous personal quality development

process. The role of personality becomes clear in a particular situation.
Personality is recognised in a situation. It is the result of personal quality
interaction in a particular condition. The major determinants of personality of an
individual are given below:

Biological Factors

Heredity: Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception.

Physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex, temperament, muscle composition
and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are characteristics that are
generally considered to be either completely or substantially influenced by who
your parents were; that is, by their biological, physiological, and inherent
psychological makeup. The contribution of heredity to personality development is
vividly clear for developing external appearance, behaviour, social stimuli, self
inner awareness, organising traits, etc.

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Brain: Brain has a great impact on personality. The psychologists are unable to
prove empirically the contribution of human brain in influencing personality.
Father and children generally adopt the same type of brain stimulation. The
differences are caused by environment. Electrical stimulation of brain (ESB) and
split brain psychology (SBP) are the outcome of genetic transmission. They are
helpful in moulding employee's behaviour. ESB is used for motivating employees
towards better performances. Managers are trained to use SBP for mobilising
employees for proper behaviour.

Physical Features: Perhaps the most outstanding factor that contributes to

personality is the physical stature of an individual. An individual's external
appearance is proved to be having a tremendous effect on personality. For
example, the fact that a person is short or tall, fat or thin, handsome or ugly,
black or whitish will undoubtedly influence the person's effect on others and in
turn will affect the self-concept. A person's physical characteristics may be
related to his approach to the social environment, to the expectancies of others,
and to their reactions, to him. These in turn may have impact on personality

Environmental Factors

Cultural Factors: The accepted norms of social behaviour are known as culture.
Culture was traditionally considered as the major determinant of an individual's
personality. The way in which people behave with others and the driving force of
such functions are considered significant components of culture. The ideology of
the culture is imitated by the following generations. The personality attributes of
independence, aggression, competition and cooperation are the outcomes of
cultural interaction.

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Religion: Religion plays a significant role in shaping one's personality. Hindus
have different personalities from those of Sikhs and Muslims. Children in Hindu
societies learn from the very beginning about hard work and god-fearing
attitudes. Christians are open, independent and cooperative.

Family: Children learn from their parents, sisters and brothers. Family is the first
factor affecting personality development, after hereditary characteristics are
endowed. Rich people have different personalities from those of poor. Children
nurtured under a warm, loving environment are positive and active as compared
to children neglected by their parents.

Parental Influences: The positive and negative personalities of children are

dependent on their parent’s characteristics and mutual behaviour. Children
develop negative personalities if their parents don't have good relationship.
Proper parental guidance to children makes them active and efficient.

Situation Factors

Situation further influences the effects of heredity and environment on

personality. An individual's personality, while generally stable and consistent,
does change in different situations. Different demands in different situations call
forth different aspects of one's personality.
It has been observed that many arrogant and indiscipline employees become
humble and disciplined in a particular situation. Those having a criminal
background may become powerful and strong administrators, dominant
politicians, etc.

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Locus of control
Locus of control is a personality construct referring to an individual's perception
of the locus of events as determined internally by his/her own behavior vs. fate,
luck, or external circumstances.

Some research (McCombs, 1991) suggests that what underlies the internal locus
of control is the concept of "self as agent." This means that our thoughts control
our actions and that when we realize this executive function of thinking we can
positively affect our beliefs, motivation, and academic performance. "The self as
agent can consciously or unconsciously direct, select, and regulate the use of all
knowledge structures and intellectual processes in support of personal goals,
intentions, and choices" (p. 6). McCombs asserts that "the degree to which one
chooses to be self-determining is a function of one's realization of the source of
agency and personal control" (p. 7). In other words, we can say to ourselves, "I
choose to direct my thoughts and energies toward accomplishment. I choose not
to be daunted by my anxieties or feelings of inadequacy. (McCombs, B., 1991).

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Self Esteem Test

This self esteem test is quick and simple, answer TRUE or FALSE to each
question (if you cannot answer 100% TRUE then answer FALSE - check below
how to score):

1. Other people are not better off or more fortunate than me.
2. I accept myself as I am and am happy with myself.
3. I enjoy socializing.
4. I deserve love and respect.
5. I feel valued and needed.
6. I don't need others to tell me I have done a good job.
7. Being myself is important.
8. I make friends easily.
9. I can accept criticism without feeling put down.
10. I admit my mistakes openly.
11. I never hide my true feelings.
12. I always speak up for myself and put my views across.
13. I am a happy, carefree person.
14. I don't worry what others think of my views.
15. I don't need others' approval to feel good.
16. I don't feel guilty about doing or saying what I want.

TEST SCORE: Total number of TRUE answers you gave, EACH ONE POINT:

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15 - 16 Points - You have a high level of self esteem!

12 - 14 Points - Not bad but room for you to improve

8 - 11 Points - Low self esteem is holding you back

Below 8 Points - Your esteem is drastically low!

Type A vs Type B Personality Test

Type A Type B
Hyper active Easy going
Short tempered Calm
Impatient Patient
Always pressurized Hardly stressed
Aggressive Complaisant
Competitive Reflective
Very ambitious Do not mind losing

Personality Test

1. When facing an unfamiliar problem, what do you usually do?

o Address the problem immediately.

o Think about what to do and then take action.

o Sit back and let things work out for themselves.

2. If you have to wait for someone or something for about thirty minutes,
what do you do?

o Keep checking the watch.

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o Get impatient and somewhat angry.

o Do not mind; spend your time looking around.

3. Someone does something nice for you. How do you react? What are your
immediate thoughts?

o You wonder what it is that they want.

o You feel a little uncomfortable but definitely appreciate the gesture.

o You think it's very kind of them and go out of your way to return the

4. What is a normal day in your life like?

o Full of problems.

o A mixture of problems and fun.

o There are never enough things to keep me busy.

5. There is something good in every person, you think of this statement as:

o Over-rated.

o Yes, because you have experienced it.

o Absolutely true.

6. Do you often finish other people's sentences because they speak too

o Yes, frequently

o Yes, sometimes

o No, never

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7. What do you think of praising others?

o Shouldn't praise, as praise makes people proud and lazy.

o Should praise sometimes.

o Should always be praised, as it helps boost their performance.

8. Do you keep a daily schedule plan?

o Yes

o Once in a while

o No

9. Do you think scientific approach is the best approach to anything?

o Yes, definitely

o Depends on the situation

o No

10. When conversing with someone, who has less knowledge than you

(e.g. lower education level) you:

o Feel superior

o Find an excuse to end the conversation.

o Try to adjust your speech to make him/her comfortable.

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Maximum A's mean your personality type is 'A', maximum 'B's mean you are a
mixed personality i.e. AB and maximum 'C's mean you are type B personality.

Implicit Personality Theory

Where do such misguided judgements come from? As suggested by Asch’s

research on central traits, our knowledge about people is structured by our prior
set of beliefs about which traits go together, and the resulting personality
judgements we make often defy the rules of cold logic. These assumptions or
naïve belief systems that we have about the associations among personality
traits are called an implicit personality theory. In these personality assumptions,
we tend to assume that all good things occur together in persons and that all bad
things do as well, with little overlap between the two. Believing that an individual
possesses one trait leads to the inference of other traits or behaviors assumed to
be associated with the observed trait (Leyens, 1991). This is why many young
adults perceive that someone whom they know and like could not be HIV-
positive. This conslusion is arrived at because the alternative judgment is
inconsistent with their assumptions about the relationships among traits and

In an implicit personality theory, as in impression formation generally, there

appears to be operating a principle of evaluative consistency – a tendency to
view others in a way that is internally consistent. Even when contradictory
information is made available, we still generally persist in viewing people as
either consistently good or bad. In this effort toward consisitency, we will often
distort or explain away contradictory information.

Although implicit personality theories are commonly employed in making

social judgments, some people rely on them more than others. Research by Chi-

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yue Chiu and his coworkers (1997) indicates that implicit theories are used more
often by people who believe that personality consists of fixed, static traits than by
those who believe that personality is dynamic and changing. This relation was
found both in the individualist culture of the United States and in collectivist Hong
Kong. These findings are important because they suggest that although implicit
personality theories may used by people around the world, there is a good deal
of individual variation in the extent to which they are used. Additionally, findings
by Chiu et al. point toward a possible cultural variation in the use of implicit
personality theories. They found that more Americans than Chinese believe in
fixed personality traits, which suggests that implicit personality theories are used
more often by Americans.

Personality Difference

Even though our attraction to others appears to be part of out genetic makeup,
there is clear evidence, both anecdotal and scientific, that we differ in our
motivation to seek social contact (Wong & Csikzsentmihalyi, 1991).

People who have a high need for affiliation tend to be very active in pursuing
social contacts and place a high premium on positive outcomes in such pursuits
(Crouse & Mehrabian, 1997).

In contrast, those with a low need for affiliation are less likely to respond
negatively when their social interactions become less rewarding (Hill, 1991).

High need for affiliation individuals are indeed “people persons” – they don’t like
being alone and when interacting, they seek approval and avoid conflict (Stewart
& Chester, 1982).

Their desire for affiliation is also associated with being less competitive and less
likely to talk negatively about others (McClelland et al.,1982).

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Social affiliation model proposes that the process underlying everyday affiliation
operates according to a homeostatic principle, meaning that we all seek to
maintain an optimal range of social contact, but what is optimal differs for each of
us. Compared with those who have a low need for affiliation, people with a high
need simply have a higher optimal affiliation range. According to this model,
when we deviate from our optimal affiliation range, we seek to re-establish it.
Thus, excess contact causes us to seek solitude, while too much solitude causes
us to pursue affiliation. (Shawn O’Connor and Lorne Rosenblood’s, 1996)



Popular Powerful

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Making initial contact with people Motivating people to action
Creating enthusiasm and excitement Giving quick and clear instruction
Encouraging and uplifting others Getting it done
Insuring the group has fun Leading


Outgoing and engaging Authoritative and convincing


Fun and adventure Action and excitement


Peaceful Perfect


Staying calm and functional Planning and explaining the details
Not over reacting to a negative situation Doing it right
Effective listener Sensitive to the needs of others
Making sure the group is relaxed and Good with numbers, charts, graphs, etc.


Believable Accurate and sincere


Rest and quiet time Order and understanding



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Appealing personality
Compulsive talker
Talkative, storyteller
Exaggerates and elaborates
Life of the party
Dwells on trivia
Good sense of humor
Can’t remember names
Memory for color
Scares others off
Physically holds on to listener
Too happy for some
Emotional and demonstrative
Has restless energy
Enthusiastic and expressive
Cheerful and bubbling over
Naive, gets taken in

Has loud voice and laugh
Good on stage
Controlled by circumstances
Lives in the present
Seems phony to some
Changeable disposition
Hates to be alone
Makes friends easily
Needs to be center stage
Loves people
Wants to be popular
Thrives on compliments
Looks for credit

Seems exciting
Dominates conversations
Envied by others
Interrupts and doesn’t listen
Doesn’t hold grudges
Answers for others
Prevents dull moments
Likes spontaneous activities

Would rather talk

Volunteers for jobs
Forgets obligations
Thinks up new activities
Doesn’t follow through
Looks great on the surface
Confidence fades fast


Creative and colorful

Has energy and enthusiasm
Priorities out of order
Starts in a flashy way
Decides by feelings
Inspires others to join
Easily distracted
Charms others to work
Wastes time talking


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Quick tempered
Can’t relax
Born leader Too impetuous
Dynamic and active Enjoys controversy & arguments
Compulsive need for change Won’t give up when losing
Must correct wrongs Comes on too strong
Strong willed Inflexible
and decisive Is not complimentary

Not easily discouraged Dislikes tears and emotions
Independent and self-sufficient Is unsympathetic
Exudes confidence Tends to use people
Has little need for friends Dominates others
Will work for group activity Decides for others
Will lead and organize Knows everything

Is usually right Can do everything better

Is too independent
Possessive of friends and mate
Can’t say, “I’m sorry”
May be right but unpopular

Goal-oriented Little tolerance for mistakes

Sees the whole picture Doesn’t analyze details
Organizes well Bored by trivia
Seeks practical solutions May make rash decisions


Moves quickly to action May be rude or tactless

Delegates work Manipulates people
Insists on production Demanding of others
Makes the goal End justifies the means
Stimulates activity Work may become his god
Thrives on opposition Demands loyalty in the ranks.


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Easygoing and relaxed
Calm, cool, and collected
Fearful and worried
Patient, wellbalanced
Consistent life
Avoids responsibility
Quiet, but witty
Quiet will of iron
Sympathetic and kind
Too shy and reticent
Keeps emotions hidden
Too compromising
Happily reconciled to life

Dampens enthusiasm
Stays uninvolved
Easy to get along with
Is not exciting
Pleasant and enjoyable
Indifferent to plans
Judges others
Good listener
Sarcastic and teasing

Dry sense of humor

Resists change
Enjoys watching people
Has many friends
Has compassion and concern

Competent and steady

Not goaloriented
Peaceful and agreeable
Lacks selfmotivation
Has administrative ability


Hard to get moving

Mediates problems
Resents being pushed
Avoids conflicts
Lazy and careless
Good under pressure
Would rather watch
Finds the easy way


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Deep and thoughtful
Remembers the negatives
Moody and depressed
Serious and purposeful
Off in another world
Low selfimage
Talented and creative
Has selective hearing
Artistic or musical
Philosophical and poetic
Too introspective
Appreciative of beauty
Guilt feelings
Sensitive to others
Persecution complex

Tends to hypochondria
Lives through others
Insecure socially
Makes friends cautiously
Withdrawn and remote
Content to stay in background
Critical of others
Avoids causing attention
Holds back affection
Faithful and devoted

Dislikes those in opposition

Will listen to complaints
Suspicious of people
Can solve other’s problems
Antagonistic and vengeful
Deep concern for other people
Full of contradictions
Moved to tears with compassion

Perfectionist, high standards Not peopleoriented
Detailconscious Depressed over imperfections
Persistent and thorough Chooses difficult work
Orderly and organized Hesitant to start projects


Neat and tidy Spends too much time planning

Economical Prefers analysis to work
Sees the problems Selfdeprecating
Finds creative solutions Hard to please
Needs to finish what he starts Standards often too high
Likes charts, graphs, figures, Deep need for approval.

Source :


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o See K. Onstad (December 1995). No Jobs? No Problem!. Canadian

o J. Aley (February 5, 1996). Wall Street’s King Quant. Fortune.

o Crouse, B. B., & Mehrabian, A. (1977) Affiliation of opposite-sexed

strangers. Journal of Research in Personality

o Hill, C. A. (1991) Seeking emotional support: The influence of affiliative

need and partner warmth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

o Stewart, A.J., & Chester, N. L. (1982). Sex differences in human social

motives: Achievement, affiliation and power. In A. J. Stewart (Ed.), Motivation
and society. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

o Leyens, J.-P. (Ed.). (1991). Prolegomena for the concept of implicit

theories of personality. European Bulletin of Conitive Psychology.

o Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2000). Perspectives on personality (4th

ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

o Burger, J. M. (1993). Personality (3rd ed.) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

o Ridley, M (1999). Genome: The autobiography of a species in 23

chapters. London: Fourth Estate.

o Schultz, D., & Schultz, S.E. (1994). Theories of personality (5th ed.)
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

o McCombs, B. (1991). Metacognition and motivation in higher level

thinking. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational
Research Association, Chicago, IL.

Internet Sites

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