Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company

November 3, 2010
Kaleigh Wood Jack Dupee Christina Montford Colby Whitehead

Introduction:

Baking soda, also known as sodium bicarbonate, is used in many aspects of our daily lives. With the chemical formula of NaHCO3, baking soda is a chemical salt. Baking soda is able to neutralize many acids and can break down many proteins. Therefore, baking soda is often used as leavening agent when baking; it causes the dough to rise. Also, with the ability to act as a neutralizer allows it to commonly be used as a deodorizer. As a result of its many common uses the Athenium Baking Soda Company has decided to produce it. In order to produce their baking soda, the company uses the following method of reacting ammonium bicarbonate and brine (sodium chloride/ salt water) NH4HCO3(s) + NaCl(aq) NaHCO3(aq)+ NH4Cl(aq) While this is a valid means the brine that the company uses contains unknown amounts of potassium chloride (KCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), and calcium chloride (CaCl2). Therefore when the baking soda is dried to form the solid, final product, that the company wants, the product may contain any of the three previously mentioned chlorides. In order to determine the product¶s quality (purity) and definite composition we will perform two experimental procedures. The first procedure will be a thermal gravimetric analysis. This procedure will be used in order to calculate the percent composition of the sodium bicarbonate in the company¶s sample just like the first procedure did. In this experiment, we will begin by adding a sample of a known mass of the company¶s baking soda to a crucible. Then, the sample will be heated until it has decomposed to form solid sodium bicarbonate, gaseous water, and gaseous carbon dioxide. 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + H2O(g) + CO2(g)

this solution will be used to titrate an aqueous solution of the company¶s baking soda (NaHCO3).After we have reheated the crucible to ensure accuracy. Once we have determined if there are. Also. This information is then used to determine the mass of NaHCO3 present in the company¶s sample. Then. We will then titrate the KCl solution with the baking soda to determine the amount of sodium bicarbonate in the baking soda. then it will be determined that there are contaminants in the sample. The second procedure will be the titration of a solution that contains a sample of the company¶s baking soda. The possible contaminants we are looking for are lithium chloride. If the percent by mass does not equal 100%. We are now titrating the sodium carbonate with the sodium bicarbonate. and calcium chloride. This process is just like we did in the last experiment in class were we used the one acid to standardize the molarity of NaOH before we titrated it with the vinegar. Finally. we can then determine from this information the percent by mass of the NaHCO3 in the sample. This experiment will help to determine the percent by mass of the sodium bicarbonate in the solution. The sodium carbonate will be used to standardize the hcl so we know the true molarity of HCl solution. After the titration is complete. From the molarity. Further. then we will know that there are contaminants in the company¶s baking soda. potassium chloride. To begin this experiment we will measure in nanometers the wavelengths of Comment [JD1]: Hey we are titrating each base with HCl solution. . we will then determine the mass of the NaHCO3 present in the solution. the stoichometric ratio for the mass loss of H2O and CO2 per gram of NaHCO3 can be determined. If the calculated mass is not equal to the mass of the baking soda sample. we will use emission analysis to determine which contaminants are present in the sample. we will prepare the solution by adding the solid sodium bicarbonate (Na 2CO3) into an aqueous solution which will act as a standard base. or really close. The titration curve will start with a high value then drop. in fact. the equivalence point and the amount of Na2CO3(aq) needed will be used to determine the molarity of the sodium bicarbonate in the solution. First. contaminants in the company¶s baking soda. We are doing a second procedure in order to check the accuracy of the first experimental procedure. we will be able to determine the mass of H2O and CO2 lost when heating. the mass of the acetic acid in the solution is used along with the mass of the sodium bicarbonate in order to determine the percent by mass of the baking soda in the solution.

After we have successfully performed these three procedures we will have determined the percent by mass of the NaHCO3 in the Athenium Baking Soda Company¶s sample. . In doing so. K+.the metal ions that could be present in the sample (Li +. we will have determined if any of the possible contaminants are in the company¶s baking soda. Also. From the gathered information. we will be able to determine which contaminants are present in the company¶s sample. we will determine the most intense wavelengths found in an aqueous sample of the company¶s baking soda by comparing them to the known wavelengths. Ca2-) by using emission spectroscopy.

. 9. 4.Procedures Part 1: Decomposition of Baking soda for determination of Percent by mass 1. 6. 5. Obtain a Bunsen burner. Add ~1 gram of Baking soda. The wire gauze will be used for cooling. Remove crucible from triangle to wire gauze to cool. Find the mass of the crucible and lid 11. Rinse out crucible with copious amounts of distilled water. Record the exact mass. Let sit for 5 minutes. Set up clay triangle on the iron ring above the Bunsen burner. 8. Pour residue and remaining acid into the waste container. Allow cooling until room temperature. Obtain a crucible and lid. Heat crucible with lid not completely covering the top for five minutes. Weighing a hot crucible can cause a miss reading. The bottom of the crucible should be glowing red. Add 3 mL of 6 M HCl. and wire gauze. 2. 3. Clean out the excess residue with a spatula. 10. iron ring. clay triangle. 7.

Calculate the mass of sodium bicarbonate in the original baking soda 25. . lid.005 g of each other. 22. make sure the baking soda is not melt. 15. Put crucible containing baking soda in the clay triangle.12. Clean crucible as done in steps 2-5. Remove crucible from flame and allow cooling until room temperature. vigorously heat for 15 minutes. 13. 17. Calculate the percent by mass of sodium bicarbonate in the baking soda. 24. 16. 23. Weight and record mass. The following steps should be done outside of class. Allow cooling. Repeat steps 1-18 with a second sample. 20. Weigh crucible and record mass. Record the final mass of the cool crucible. Repeat step 16 until they are. Gently heat for 5 minutes. 19. After the 5-minute gentle heating. Calculate the stoichiometric ratio for the mass of the lost from carbon dioxide and water per gram of sodium bicarbonate decomposition. 18. 21. Heat crucible again gently for 5 minutes and vigorously for 5 minutes. If the mass from 15 and 16 are not within . 14. and mixture. Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide and water lost from the baking soda.

00 pH buffer solution. Make sure tip is closed. Fill buret with the 1. Obtain a 50-mL buret. Drain one mL to insure there are no air bubbles in the tip. and be sure to rinse tip. .Part 2: Standardization of Hydrochloric acid solution 1. Make sure tip is closed. Insert the Temperature and press enter.0 M HCl solution. d. b. Add sufficient distilled water to dissolve the Sodium Carbonate. e. Drain the solution through the tip. Hit Calibrate. Rinse with distilled water. c. Record the volume used. Make sure there is enough water to completely submerge the cut-out notch on the tip of the pH electrode. Measure the temperature. Discard HCl in to the waste container. Add 5 mL of HCl solution to buret. Place pH probe in 7. Hit Main Menu then F3 pH/mV. Record the exact mass of Sodium Carbonate 2. a. Record the volume. Set up the MeasureNet drop counter. Press the on button to turn on the MeasureNet workstation. and buret 2 3. Flush out buret with copious amounts to distilled water. pH probe. Rinse buret by tilting it on its side and spinning. f. Weigh out approximately 1 grams of Sodium Carbonate in to a 250 mL beaker.

l. When the pH levels off the titration is over. Press enter. Hit File Options then F3 and insert the three-digit code. Return the cleaned pH probe to the buffer solution. Rinse the pH probe with distilled water then dry with a KimWipe carefully. This should be no higher then between levels 2 and 3. They will first decrease slowly. When prompted for pH of the buffer solution insert 7. Wait for pH level on the display screen to level out then press enter. h. . k.g. record in notebook as well. n. Press start and insert the initial volume of HCl in the buret. Double check that the buret is lined up correctly with the drop counter. i. Place pH probe into the solution. Press stop. if not add distilled water. 4. Press enter. Then rapidly decrease. p. m. Then level out. Watch the pH levels. Make sure the red light on the drop counter is flashing each time a drop passes through. o. Record in lab the initial volume as well. The probe should be completely submerged. Record the final volume and press enter. j.00 and hit enter. Turn magnetic stir bar on to a low level. q. The titration above should be done a total of two times with the Sodium Carbonate solution. Press start and open the buret just enough to create drops.

5. Email graph to your group i. f. Part 3: Determination of the moles of NaHCO3 1. Create a titration curve with data obtained above 2. Turn on the MeasureNet spectrophotometer by pressing the on button. This does not mean the slope is negative. a. This is where the slope of the line goes from increasing to decreasing. Go to insert graph and select scatter smooth line. b. Select Chart title and name graph. Find the equivalence point. Copy and paste information in to excel. e. Repeat all steps above however replace the Sodium Carbonate with Baking soda. X is volume in mL and Y is pH levels of solution g. Select Layout and delete legend. Select axis titles. c. Set up a Bunsen burner near a MeasureNet spectrophotometer 2. Open information obtained above. Print graph. Open chart tools. h. This should be done out side of class. d. . Part 4: Emission Analysis 1.

Between each test the burner must be cleaned. 5.3. It is now time to calibrate the spectroscopy. Calcium chloride solution in to another. 7. Then rinse with water. Press Setup Then press F1 to set the limits. Potassium chloride solution in to another. Pour a small amount of the baking soda solution in to one. 9. This is done by placing the wire in the acid for 30 seconds. Press Main Menu. 12. leave as default. Create a baking soda sample solution to be tested by completely dissolving ~ 1 gram of baking soda in 25 mL of distilled water in a clean beaker. 8. . Make sure to keep track of which one is which. Obtain a small beaker with hydrochloric acid solution in it to be used to clean the nichrome wire between each use. Place wire in to water to allow water vapor to go through the burner and clean it of any particles. 10. distilled water must be poured onto a watch glass. Then heat the testing wire until red-hot. For the Y-axis they should me 0 to 1500. 11. and Lithium chloride solution in to the final. 6. The MeasureNet is now set up and ready to record. Hold watch glass close to the bottom air intake of the burner. For the x axis. then F5 Spectroscopy Then press F1 Emission 4. Next obtain 4 other watch glasses. Then heat in flame until all water is gone. This can be done by this process.

It is now time to test each solution. Press Intensity. Heat the wire until glowing orange. Create a XY scatter plot for each scan. This is done out side of class. This is done by tilling the watch glass so the solution is right under the burner. Make sure to leave covered until workstation reads ³ready to scan´ 15. Repeat steps 17-20 for each solution. Clean the burner with distilled water. 21. Ready to scan will reappear 16. 22. Heat wire until glowing hot. Enter the station number into the MeasureNet system and press Enter. Make sure to keep track of the saved number for each. 14. Pour out remaining solution in to the waste container. Record the color made. Press file options. 20. Adjust the fiber optic cable until reading is somewhere between 2500-4000. Repeat multiple times to make sure there is no left over residue from past experiments. Press F3 to save the scan. . Place the tip into the solution. **a lab partner must press sample on the spectrophotomer right before the wire makes contact to get a good sample** 19. 17.13. 18. Press intensity. Cover the end of the fiber optic cable with your finger and press Zero.

Compare the graphs of the 3 known solutions to the baking soda. What can be told from the comparisons? .23.

. Trial 1 data Mass of crucible = 36.2934391252 grams of water For every 1 gram ofNaHCO3.087 grams of baking soda ± 36.99 grams of NaHCO3)(1 mol water/ 2 mol NaHCO3)(18 grams of water/1 mol water) = .721 grams of baking soda after heating = .4134551273 grams of water and carbon dioxide) = .087 Mass of crucible and Baking Soda after 1st heating = 36.726 Mass of crucible and Baking Soda after 2nd heating = 36.721 Comment [JD2]: I added space between each so that there is more space to write down info and do math 2.01 grams of carbon dioxide/1 mol carbon dioxide) = .366 grams of water and carbon dioxide)(1 gram of NaHCO3/ . Stiochiometric ratio for loss of carbon dioxide and water per gram of sodium bicarbonate 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + H2O(g) + CO2(g) Grams of water per gram of NaHCO3 = (1 gram NaHCO3)(1 mol of NaHCO3/ 74. Calculate the mass of sodium bicarbonate.99 grams of NaHCO3)(1 mol carbon dioxide/ 2 mol NaHCO3)(44. 37.Results Part 1 1.88522 grams with significant figures .8852230287 grams of NaHCO3 .4134551273 grams of water and carbon dioxide are produced 3.1200160021 grams of water Grams of carbon dioxide per gram of NaHCO3= (1 gram NaHCO3)(1 mol of NaHCO3/ 74.366 grams of water and carbon dioxide (.085 grams Mass of crucible and Baking Soda = 37.

trial 1 3. Standardization of HCl with Sodium Carbonate . Calculate the percent by mass.4.002 grams of baking soda)](100) = 88. Preparation of HCl solution 2.trial 2 .8852230287 grams of NaHCO3)/(1. [(. Standardization of HCl with Sodium Carbonate .34 % by mass of NaHCO3 Part 2 1.

What is the average molarity . What is the molarity of the HCl solution used in trial 1 and 2 5.4.

Part 3 1. Preparation of Baking soda solution data. Titration of baking soda solution with standardized HCl ± trial 1 3. Titration of baking soda solution with standardized HCl ± trial 2 . 2.

4. 5. Determine the moles of HCl required to neutralize the solution. What is the average molarity of the solution? 6. What is the percent by mass of NaHCO3 in the baking soda? What is the average? .

Compare the baking soda emission spectrum to the three known solution spectrums. What can we tell from this comparison? .7. What does it say about the baking soda? Part 4 1.

Lithium Potassium .

Calcium Baking Soda Based on the graphs there appears to be calcium in the baking soda .

"What Is Baking Soda?" WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions. . Vol. Whitten/Staton/Atwood. Whitten/Davis/Peck/Stanley.com/what-is-baking-soda. 2010. Print. 1. 01 Nov. Web. General Chemistry Supplement.htm>. Print. 3. California: Mary Finch.wisegeek. 2009. <http://www. Mason: Cengage. Chemistry.Bibliography: 1. 2.

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