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It is gratifying to note that education as a whole and school education in particular witness marked changes in the state of Tamil Nadu resulting in the implementation of uniform curriculum for all streams in the school education system. This is a golden opportunity given by the Government of Tamil Nadu which must be utilized for the over all improvement of education in Tamil Nadu. Mathematics, the queen of all sciences, remains and will remain as a subject with great charm having an intrinsic value and beauty of its own. It plays an indispensable role in sciences, engineering and other subjects as well. So, mathematical knowledge is essential for the growth of science and technology, and for any individual to shine well in the field of one’s choice. In addition, a rigorous mathematical training gives one not only the knowledge of mathematics but also a disciplined thought process, an ability to analyze complicated problems. Thiruvalluvar, the prophetic Tamil poet, had as far back as at least two thousand years ago, underlined the importance and the value of mathematical education by saying,

v©bz‹g Vid vG¤bj‹g Ï›éu©L« f©bz‹g thG« cæ®¡F. - FwŸ (392)

The two that are known as numbers and letters They say are the eyes of people on the earth. – Kural (392)

We need the power and prowess of mathematics to face and solve the ever increasing complex problems that we encounter in our life. Furthermore, mathematics is a supremely creative force and not just a problem solving tool. The learners will realize this fact to their immense satisfaction and advantage as they learn more and more of mathematics. Besides, a good mathematical training is very much essential to create a good work force for posterity. The rudiments of mathematics attained at the school level form the basis of higher studies in the field of mathematics and other sciences. Besides learning the basics of mathematics, it is also important to learn how to apply them in solving problems.

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Deeper understanding of basic principles and problem solving are the two important components of learning mathematics. This book is a step in this direction. It is intended to help the students to grasp the fundamentals of mathematics and apply them in problem solving. It also fosters an informed awareness of how mathematics develops and works in different situations. With this end in view, the chapters are arranged in their natural and logical order with a good number of worked out examples. Each section of a chapter is designed in such a way as to provide the students the much needed practice which promotes a thorough understanding of the concepts. We suggest that before going into the problems, the teachers and the students get themselves acquainted with the underlying mathematical ideas and their connections which precede the set of problems given in the exercises. However, be it remembered that mathematics is more than the science of numbers. The teacher in the classroom is the most important person whose help and guidance are indispensable in learning mathematics. During the stage of transition from basic mathematics to higher mathematics, the teachers have a more significant role to play. In this context we hope that this book serves the purpose and acts as a catalyst. To reap the maximum benefit out of this, the teacher should necessarily strive for a twoway communication. This endeavour will undoubtedly pave the way for learner-centered activities in the class rooms. Moreover, this text book is aimed at giving the students a space to explore mathematics and develop skills in all directions. As we have mentioned already, there are two parts in learning mathematics. One is learning the basics and the other is applying the basics in problem solving. Going through the examples in the text does help in understanding the methods; but learning basics, solving exercise problems on one’s own and then trying to create new related problems alone will help consolidate one’s mathematical knowledge. We learn Mathematics by doing Mathematics. We would be grateful for suggestions and comments from experts, teachers and students for the improvement of this book.

Chairperson

Murthy R

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X Std. Topic Content

SYLLABUS

Expected Learning Outcomes Transactional Teaching Strategy Use Venn diagrams for all illustrations No. of Periods

i. Introduction • To revise the basic concepts on Set operations ii. Properties of operations on sets • To understand the properiii. De Morgan’s laws-verifities of operations of sets cation using example Venn - commutative, associative, diagram and distributive restricted iv. Formula for to three sets. v. Functions • To understand the laws of complementation of sets. • To understand De Morgan’s laws and demonstrating them by Venn diagram as well. • To solve word problems using the formula as well as Venn diagram. • To understand the definition , types and representation of functions. • To understand the types of functions with simple examples. i. Introduction ii. Sequences iii. Arithmetic Progression (A.P) iv. Geometric Progression (G.P) v. Series • To understand to identify an Arithmetic Progression and a Geometric Progression. • Able to apply to find the nth term of an Arithmetic Progression and a Geometric Progression. • To determine the sum of n terms of an Arithmetic Progression and a Geometric Progression. • To determine the sum of some finite series. • To understand the idea about pair of linear equations in two unknowns. Solving a pair of linear equations in two variables by elimination method and cross multiplication method. • To understand the relationship between zeros and coefficients of a polynomial with particular reference to quadratic polynomials.

I. Sets and Functions

Give examples of functions from economics, medicine, science etc.

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Use pattern approach Use dot pattern as teaching aid Use patterns to derive formulae Examples to be given from real life situations

II. Sequences and Series of Real Numbers

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i. Solving linear equations ii. Polynomials iii. Synthetic division iv. Greatest common divisor (GCD) and Least common multiple (LCM) v. Rational expressions vi. Square root vii. Quadratic Equations

Illustrative examples – Use charts as teaching aids Recall GCD and LCM of numbers initially

III. Algebra

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i. Introduction ii. Types of matrices iii. Addition and subtraction iv. Multiplication v. Matrix equation IV. Matrices

• To determine the remainder and the quotient of the given polynomial using Synthetic Division Method. • To determine the factors of the given polynomial using Synthetic Division Method. • Able to understand the difference between GCD and LCM, of rational expression. • Able to simplify rational expressions (Simple Problems), • To understand square roots. • To understand the standard form of a quadratic equation . • To solve quadratic equations (only real root) - by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic formula. • Able to solve word problems based on quadratic equations. • Able to correlate relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. • Able to Form quadratic equation when the roots are given. • Able to identify the order and formation of matrices • Able to recognize the types of matrices • Able to add and subtract the given matrices. • To multiply a matrix by a scalar, and the transpose of a matrix. • To multiply the given matrices (2x2; 2x3; 3x2 Matrices). • Using matrix method solve the equations of two variables.

Compare with operations on fractions

Compare with the square root operation on numerals. Help students visualize the nature of roots algebraically and graphically. 40

III. Algebra

Using of rectangular array of numbers. Using real life situations. Arithmetic operations to be used

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V. Coordinate Geometry

i. Introduction ii. Revision :Distance between two points iii. Section formula, Mid point formula, Centroid formula iv. Area of a triangle and quadrilateral v. Straight line

• To recall the distance between two points, and locate the mid point of two given points. • To determine the point of division using section formula (internal). • To calculate the area of a triangle. • To determine the slope of a line when two points are given, equation is given. • To find an equation of line with the given information. • Able to find equation of a line in: slope-intercept form, point -slope form, two -point form, intercept form. • To find the equation of a straight line passing through a point which is (i) parallel (ii) perpendicular to a given straight line.

Simple geometrical result related to triangle and quadrilaterals to be verified as applications. the form y = mx + c to be taken as the starting point 25

i. Basic proportionality theo- • To understand the theorem (with proof) rems and apply them to ii. Converse of Basic proporsolve simple problems only. tionality theorem (with proof) iii. Angle bisector theorem (with proof - internal case only) iv. Converse of Angle bisector theorem (with proof - internal case only) v. Similar triangles (theorems without proof)

Paper folding symmetry and transformation techniques to be adopted. Formal proof to be given Drawing of figures Step by step logical proof with diagrams to be explained and discussed 20

VI. Geometry

VII. Trigonometry

i. Introduction ii. Identities iii. Heights and distances

• Able to identify the Trigonometric identities and apply them in simple problems. • To understand trigonometric ratios and applies them to calculate heights and distances. (not more than two right triangles)

By using Algebraic formulae Using trigonometric identities. The approximate nature of values to be explained

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i. Introduction • To determine volume and ii. Surface Area and Volume surface area of cylinder, of Cylinder, Cone, Sphere, cone, sphere, hemisphere, Hemisphere, Frustum frustum iii. Surface area and volume • Volume and surface area of combined figures of combined figures (only iv. Invariant volume two). • Some problems restricted to constant Volume.

VIII. Mensuration

Use 3D models to create combined shapes Use models and pictures ad teaching aids.

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IX. Practical Geometry

i. Introduction ii. Construction of tangents to circles iii. Construction of Triangles iv. Construction of cyclic quadrilateral

• •

•

i. Introduction ii. Quadratic graphs iii. Some special graphs X. Graphs

• • . •

XI. Statistics

i. Recall Measures of central • tendency ii. Measures of dispersion iii. Coefficient of variation •

• i. Introduction ii. Probability-theoretical approach iii. Addition Theorem on Probability •

•

Choose examples from real life situations. Able to construct tangents To introduce to circles. algebraic verificaAble to construct triangles, tion of length of given its base, vertical tangent segments. angle at the opposite vertex and Recall related (a) median properties of (b) altitude angles in a circle (c) bisector. before construcAble to construct a cyclic tion. quadrilateral Recall relevant theorems in theoretical geometry Able to solve quadratic Interpreting skills equations through graphs also to be taken care of graphs To solve graphically the equations of quadratics to precede algebraic treatment. Able to apply graphs to solve word problems Real life situations to be introduced. To recall Mean for grouped Use real life situaand ungrouped data situa- tions like perfortion to be avoided). mance in examiTo understand the concept nation, sports, etc. of Dispersion and able to find Range, Standard Deviation and Variance. Able to calculate the coefficient of variation. To understand Random Diagrams and experiments, Sample space investigations and Events – Mutually on coin tossing, Exclusive, Complemendie throwing and tary, certain and impossible picking up the events. cards from a deck of cards are to be To understand addition Theorem on probability used. and apply it in solving some simple problems.

15

10

16

XII. Probability

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6.4. SEQUENCES AND SERIES OF REAL NUMBERS 2.3.5 Properties of Matrix Addition 4. (ix) . Geometric Sequence 2.2.8 Quadratic Equations MATRICES 4.8. 1.7.4 Operation on Matrices 4.1.2 Formation of Matrices 4. Introduction 2. Sequences 2.2.4 Synthetic Division 3. 1.3 Types of Matrices 4.2 System of Linear Equations in Two Unknowns 3. AND FUNCTIONS Introduction Sets Operations on Sets Properties of Set Operations De Morgan’s Laws Cardinality of Sets Relations Functions 1-33 1 1 3 5 12 16 19 20 34-67 34 35 38 43 49 68-117 68 69 80 82 86 93 97 101 118-139 118 119 121 125 128 130 132 2.7 Square Root 3. 1.3 Quadratic Polynomials 3. Arithmetic Sequence 2. Series ALGEBRA 3. 1. SETS 1.1 1.4.7 Properties of Matrix Multiplication 3.6 Rational Expressions 3.CONTENTS 1. 4.5.5. 1. 1.1 Introduction 4.3.5 Greatest Common Divisor and Least Common Multiple 3.6 Multiplication of Matrices 4.1 Introduction 3.

1 Introduction 9.1 Introduction 12.266 249 250 254 259 267-278 267 267 275 279-298 279 280 299 . COORDINATE GEOMETRY 5.1 Introduction 8. 8.3 Area of a Triangle 5.1 Introduction 7. 9.1 Introduction 6.2 Surface Area 8.2 Section Formula 5. 12. 11. .1 Introduction 5.4 Construction of Cyclic Quadrilaterals GRAPHS 10.7 General form of Equation of a Straight Line GEOMETRY 6.3 Heights and Distances MENSURATION 8.4 Combination of Solids PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 9.5 Area of a Quadrilateral 5.2 Quadratic Graphs 10.2 Construction of Tangents to a Circle 9.5.3 Some special Graphs STATISTICS 11.3 Circles and Tangents TRIGONOMETRY 7.2 Measures of Dispersion PROBABILITY 12.2 Trigonometric Identities 7.1 Introduction 10.2 Classical Definition of Probability 12. 10.1 Introduction 11.2 Similar Triangles 6.4 Collinearity of Three Points 5.6 Straight Lines 5.3 Addition theorem on Probability (x) 140-170 140 140 147 148 148 151 164 171-195 171 182 189 196-218 196 196 205 219-248 219 219 230 240 249.316 299 302 309 6. 7.3 Volume 8.3 Construction of Triangles 9.

should be defined without confusion. 1. So. For example.1 SETS AND FUNCTIONS A set is Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One . we may say that set theory is the language of mathematics. First let us recall basic definitions with some examples. As the inventor of Boolean logic-the basis of modern digital computer logic . which originated from the works of George Boole (1815-1864) and Georg Cantor (1845-1918) in the later part of 19th century. we have learnt the concept of set.Georg Cantor Introduction Sets Properties of set operations De Morgan’s Laws Functions 1. Here.1 Introduction GeorGe Boole (1815-1864) England Boole believed that there was a close analogy between symbols that represent logical interactions and algebraic symbols. some operations like union. . Here. Hence this collection does not define a set. “well-defined” means that the criteria for deciding if an object belongs to the set or not. the deciding criteria “tall people” is not clearly defined. has had a profound influence on the development of all branches of mathematics in the 20th century. Although computers did not exist in his day. because here. He used mathematical symbols to express logical relations. the collection of all “tall people” in Chennai does not form a set. The concept of set is one of the fundamental concepts in mathematics.Boole is regarded in hindsight as a founder of the field of computer science. In class IX. We denote all positive integers (natural numbers) by N and all real numbers by R . The notation and terminology of set theory is useful in every part of mathematics. we shall learn some more concepts relating to sets and another important concept in mathematics namely. The objects in a set are called elements or members of that set.2 Sets Definition A set is a collection of well-defined objects. Boole would be pleased to know that his Boolean algebra is the basis of all computer arithmetic. function. It has helped in unifying many disconnected ideas and thus facilitated the advancement of mathematics. intersection and difference of two sets. This subject.

and (v) respectively. That is. (iv) The set of all integers whose square is negative. Now looking at the sets A. The set of all students either in high school or in college in Tamil Nadu.Notation We generally use capital letters like A. 2 10th Std. etc. B. (v) The set of all people who landed on the moon. Any such set is called an empty set. to denote elements of a set. (ii). Note that empty set contains no elements in it. y. the set D does not contain any element. then we denote this by X 3 Y . empty set is also a finite set. We write t b Y to mean t is not an element of the set Y . (iii). If X is a subset of Y . the number of elements in an empty set is zero. Let A. In such cases we say A is a subset of B. We denote the empty set by z . Note that square of any integer is an integer that is either zero or positive and so there is no integer whose square is negative. We say X is a subset of Y if every element of X is also an element of Y . B in the above examples. then we define the cardinality of X to be the number of elements in X . We write x ! Y to mean x is an element of the set Y . whereas the set C is an infinite set. (ii) A set which is not finite is called an infinite set. It is clear that every set is a subset of itself. B. (ii) If a set X is infinite. C. Mathematics . Thus. Subset Let X and Y be two sets. Definition (i) A set is said to be a finite set if it contains only a finite number of elements in it. Examples (i) (ii) The set of all high school students in Tamil Nadu. X is a subset of Y if z ! X implies z ! Y . we see that every element of A is also an element of B . Thus. Observe that the set A given above is a finite set. Let us recall some of the definitions that we have learnt in class IX. (iv). etc. then we denote the cardinality of X by a symbol 3 . (iii) The set of all positive even integers. That is. Definition (i) If a set X is finite. D and E denote the sets defined in (i). X. We shall use small letters like x. Cardinality of a set X is denoted by n (X) . to denote a set.

then P (A) = { z. It is clear that X 3 X . {b. We define the following new sets: Union X . z ! X and z ! Y .6 = 0 . X = Y if and only if X 3 Y and Y 3 X . Another possibility is to create a set containing only common elements from both sets. {a. {c} . We shall use the notation A\B which is widely used in mathematics for set difference. then F. Also. Y that are not in X + Y . z ! X but z b Y .Set Equality Two sets X and Y are said to be equal if both contain exactly same elements. given two sets.b. Also. we write X = Y . b}. z ! X or z ! Y .1 illustrates this. If n(A) = m. (read as “ X difference Y ”) Note that X \ Y contains only elements of X that are not in Y and the Fig. we may create a set having elements from one set that are not in the other set.c}. Now. c} } and hence n(P(A)) = 8. x . if A = {a. {b}. (read as “ X intersection Y ”) Note that X + Y contains only those elements which belong to both X and Y and the Fig. The set P (A) is called the power set of A . {a}.2 illustrates this. 1. . 1.2 . It is trivial that X + Y 3 X and also X + Y 3 Y.x . c}. Q are equivalent sets but Q ! F. let P = " x . (Y \ X ) (read as “ X symmetric difference Y ”).4 Sets and Functions 3 . X + Y = " z . Using the concept of function.B for A\B. how can we create new sets using the given sets? One possibility is to put all the elements together from both sets and create a new set. 1. Note that X 3 Y contains all elements in X . X X Y X. 1.3 X Y (iv) X3Y Fig. some authors use A . It is easy to see that both P. 1. Y. ( read as “ X union Y ”) Note that X . Q contain same elements and so P = Q . 1. then the number of elements in P (A) is given by n(P(A)) = 2 m . If F = "3. Intersection Set difference X \ Y = " z . 1. We include Venn diagram next to each definition to illustrate it. one can define the equivalent of two infinite sets Power Set Given a set A .Y Fig. Y = " z .3 (i) Operations on sets Let X and Y be two sets. Symmetric Difference X 3 Y =( X \Y ) . Following definitions give a precise way of formalizing these ideas. let P (A) denote the collection of all subsets of A .{a. . For example. c}. 2 . and Q = "3. Y and also Y 3 X . Equivalent Sets Two finite sets X and Y are said to be equivalent if n (X) = n (Y) .3 illustrates this.2 (iii) X Y X \Y Fig. . 1. {a. That is. b. Y contains all the elements of X and all the elements of Y and the Fig. 2 For example. In such a case.1 Y (ii) X+Y Fig.

4. . Let U be an universal set and A. 8. X U X Fig. 14. 12. x is a positive integer less than 12. . (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Now.13. 9.1. Let us list out some useful results. 7 . Then the following hold: (i) (iii) (v) 4 A \ B = A + Bl A\B = A + A+B = z (A \ B) + B = z (ii) (iv) (vi) B \ A = B + Al (A \ B) . = "1. 7 . 0. 10. 7. B = "1. = {1. 7. 5. 1. .3.1. B = " x . 5. ( C \ A ) = "2. 4. 6. y ! C and y ! B . 9.2.1. 6. = " x . Note that 0 is neither positive nor negative.2. where U is a universal set. 2. 0 g A . 10.10. = "2. 9. . B = A . 11. 6. B (A \ B) . = { . 8. 13. . . X and Y are disjoint if X + Y = z . However any closed curve may also be used to represent a set in a Venn diagram. then we denote U \ X by X l and is called complement of X .3.1. A' = U\A = {x : x is an integer but it should not be in A} = {x . x is a positive integer less than 12 . { 12. . 6. . B) \ (A + B) 10th Std.6 Remarks Usually circles are used to denote sets in Venn diagrams. or x = 12. 2. Now let us find the following: (i) A . 0 . Let U = {x | x is an integer} be the universal set.15.11 } . x ! A or x ! B . 4. 1.5 Y Xl (vi) Fig. 11 . That is. C + B = " y . Let A = " x . . . 6.(v) Complement If X 3 U . .12. 12. 0. 0} . 3. Mathematics . . .1. While writing the elements of a set. If underlying universal set is fixed. 9. 0. 8. Disjoint sets Two sets X and Y are said to be disjoint if they do not have any common element.2. x is either zero or a negative integer or positive integer greater than or equal to 12} = {g . Now. 10. or 15 . 1. g} = {g . 3.2.4. ". The difference set A\B can also be viewed as the complement of B with respect to A. 8. we shall see some examples. 15} . B are subsets of U . A 3 C =( A \C ) . (B \ A) = (A . 8.4. 15. . Therefore. 15 . x ! A but x b C . and C = ".14. . It is clear that n (A . 2. we do not allow repetitions of elements in that set. 4. A \ C = " x . 11 . g} . . then U \ X is called the complement of X with respect to U. 4. B) = n (A) + n (B) if A and B are disjoint finite sets.2.

B . A . Bh + (A . That is. A by the definition of B . A . Then by the definition of union of A and B we have z ! A or z ! B . A ( y ! B or y ! A y ! A or y ! B ( (2) ( y ! A . B) . Now. B . Hence. the following hold. B be an arbitrary element. B and C . A are equal. Our definition of equality of sets says that two sets are equal only if they contain same elements. by the definition of a subset. However. A) 3 (A .Let us state some properties of set operations. So. Commutative property (a) A . B ( z ! A or z ! B z ! B or z ! A ( ( z ! B . B) = (B . Instead of verifying the above properties with examples. for every y ! B . for every z ! A . ^ B + C h = ^ A . Bh . by the definition of a subset. we have (A . (A + C) A . Since (2) is true for every y ! B . A . we have (B . 1. A is also an element of A . the above work shows that every element of B . B and B . A) . This can happen only when (A . the above work shows that every element of A . to understand and appreciate a rigorous mathematical proof. A (b) A + B = B + A (set union is commutative) (set intersection is commutative) (set union is associative) (set intersection is associative) (intersection distributes over union) (union distributes over intersection) (ii) Associative property (a) (b) A . we have shown that (A . B . it is always better to give a mathematical proof. Hence. Next. Sets and Functions 5 . B . B) . (1) Since (1) is true for every z ! A . ^ B . C h = ^ A + Bh . A . B . B by the definition of A . B) 3 (B . B = B . we consider an arbitrary y ! B . C) (iii) Distributive property (a) (b) Mostly we shall verify these properties with the given sets. Let z ! A . But this is beyond the scope of this book. C h = ^ A . (i) Commutative property of union In this part we want to prove that for any two sets A and B . B) 3 (B . A and show that this y is also an element of A . B is also is an element of B .4 (i) Properties of set operations For any three sets A. is also an element of B . A) . First we shall show that every element of A . A) 3 (A . One could follow above steps to prove other properties listed above by exactly the same method. A) and (B . C A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C A + ^ B . the sets A . let us take one property and give the proof.

About proofs in Mathematics In mathematics.2. 5. let us consider a few statements: (i) Any positive odd integer is a prime number (iii) Every prime number is an odd integer (ii) Sum of all angles in a triangle is 180c (iv) For any two sets A and B . 1. A \ B = {2. A = {. it is verified that set union is commutative. 4} . .10. 4. though very many odd positive integers are prime. 9. The statement (iii) is false. By Venn diagram. B = B . Also verify it by using Venn diagram. 4. 5. 1. (ii) set intersection is commutative. 5. 2. 4.10.10. 6. for B \ A . the statement (iii) is true for every prime number except for 2. {. 4} = {. A . 0. Solution (i) Now. when we form A\B we are removing all elements of B from A .1. 5. . 0. 3. 3. A \ B = B \ A Now.2. let us consider a case where A = { 2.10. from (1) and (2) we have verified that A . In fact. 7. 0.2. {. because 2 is a prime number but it is an even integer.B = B. 9} B . Let us analyze this statement. 15. we have A 1 –10 0 9 2 4 –1 5 6 3 Fig. the statement (i) is false.1} and we have A \ B ! B \ A . Basically. B = {. 9} Thus. 3. . 2.1. . 6 10th Std. 5} . 4.10. 1. 2. . the sum of its angles equals 180c .1. Indeed. 5.1. 2.A Hence. 1. 3. For example. 45 etc. The statement (ii) is a true statement because no matter which triangle you consider. verify that (i) set union is commutative. A . 6. . So it is highly possible that the above statement is false. 4.1.2. 6. In this case. 4} . Similarly. Example 1.2. 5. 9. then the statement is said to be a false statement. 6. . where it is false.1} . If a statement is not true even in one instance. Also verify it by using Venn diagram. 2. are positive and odd but not prime. 9. . because integers like 9. 8} and B = {5.1 For the given sets A = {. If we want to disprove a statement it is enough to give an example of one instance. 1. 6. 21. So. 1. 5} and B = {. 5} (2) = {. The statement (iv) is false. 2. Hence the statement given in (iv) is false. 3. 2. a statement is called a true statement if it is always true. 0. 2. . Also. 8} and B \ A = { 7. Mathematics .7 (1) B –2 B 6 –1 –2 3 2 4 –10 5 1 9 0 A A. if we want to prove a statement we have to prove that it is true for all instances. 0.

1. 8} = {1. Bh . 2. 1. B . 2. we have A 3 5 7 8 B. 5}. 6. 4. (B . 5. 3. A .10.1. 4. Bh . 9.8 A 5 Hence. it is verified. C = {1. 5} . 0. 5}. 3. C Fig. 6. 4. we have A . 5. B = {3. 4. 8}= {1. 9. 5. {3. ^ B . 4. 5. C. 8} From (1) and (2). 2.B (3) B 1 3 5 7 4 6 A 2 1 3 5 7 8 4 6 C 8 A . 7. . 6. B + A = {. 5. 2. 7.10. 2. 4. C . 3. 3. . 4. C = {3.1. 4. 5. 2. 8} = {3. A B 2 4 A+B = B+A (1) (2) By Venn diagram. 3. we have B 5 2 4 Fig. we have A + B = B + A for the given sets A and B . 6. 1. Sets and Functions 7 . 3. 3. {5. Example 1. A = {1. 5. 4} + {. Bh . 7. { 3. 4. 8} (i) ` A . 2. 6. A + B = {. {5. Now. 7. 2. 4} = {2. 4. (ii) Using Venn diagram. we have verified that the set union is associative. 4. 8} . 4. 6} ` ^ A . 4. 6} and C = {5. (ii) Verify (i) using Venn diagram.2.C (1) (2) 4 6 B A 2 1 3 5 4 6 B C A 2 (1) B C A. 5. from (2) and (4). Also. 7. 2. Solution Now. 7. 4. 2. 8} Now.9 Thus. 5} . B = {1. 6} = {1. 6. 5} = {2. 3. 2. 7. ^ B . 4. 0.2. 5. 6} . C h = ^ A . C h = ^ A .2 Given. 5. show that (i) A .(ii) Let us verify that intersection is commutative. 6. C) = {1. 5} . Ch (2) C (4) ^ A . 4. 5. 6. Bh . ^B . From (1) and (2). 1. 3. 6} . 5} + {. 6.

Mathematics (ii) Verify (i) using Venn diagram. c. c.Example 1. e} . e} = {a. c. b. thus. We need to show A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C . d}. Solution (i) We are given A = {a. e. c. e} = {a.4 Given A = {a. (ii) Verify (i) using Venn diagram. 1. Now. Hence ^ A + Bh + C = {a. c. B = {a. (ii) Using Venn diagram. A + ^ B + C h = {a. B + C = {a. e} . b. we shall find A + B = {a. c} . . B = {a. we have A a e B A c a B C B+C C (1) A+B A a (3) A a B B C A + ^B + Ch C (2) ^ A + Bh + C (4) Fig. c. c. i. u} . d} + {a. it is verified that A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C Example 1. we first consider A + ^ B + C h . e} and C = {a. c. e.} + {a. e} + {a. from (2) and (4) . c. d. e} and C = {a. 8 10th Std. e} = {a} . b. o. d. (i) Show that A\ ^ B \ C h ! ^ A \ Bh \C . b. d}. B = {a. e} . e}.3 Let A = {a. b. d. So.10 Thus. Next. (i) Show that A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C. c} + {a. e} = {a} (1) (2) Now (1) and (2) give the desired result. u} and C = {c.

d} . Remarks Fig. d. Hence. c. so let us prove it. d. for sets which are mutually disjoint. This is very easy to prove. o} = {b. c. we have A a i o (1) (2) B A b c d B C ^ B\C h (1) C ^ A\B h (3) A b c d e B A b B C A\^ B\C h (2) C ^ A\Bh \C (4) From (2) and (4). i. i. u} = {b. A \ B = A and A. (ii) Using Venn diagram. 1. d. u} \ {c. Thus. then A\ ^ B \ C h = (A \ B) \C . c. d. u} = {b} . b. Thus. if the sets A. e} \ {a.Solution (i) First let us find A\ ^ B \ C h . we have A\ (B \ C) = A . i. C are disjoint and so we have A \ C = A. B are disjoint we have A \ B = A . Thus. Since B and C are disjoint we have B \ C = B. e} . A\ ^ B \ C h = {a.11 The set difference is not associative. e. the set difference is not associative. d} \ {c. o} . b. Next. c. e. c. From (1) and (2) we see that A\ ^ B \ C h ! ^ A \ Bh \C . Thus. To do so. i. e} \ {a. u} = {a. o. ^ A \ Bh \C = {b. Hence. Since A. o. Again. e. So we have A\ ^ B \ C h = (A \ B) \C as desired. Sets and Functions 9 . it is verified that A \ (B\C) ! (A \ B) \ C . the set difference is associative. consider ^ B \ C h = {a. d. B and C are mutually disjoint. However. e. A \ B = {a. (A \ B) \C = A . we find ^ A \ Bh \C .

2. . 1. 2. 6} = {0. 1. we have A 4 6 (1) (2) B A 0 2 1 4 3 6 –2 5 B C B+C A 0 2 1 4 (1) C A. 5. 3. 6} . 4. 7} . .1. 2. 6. 6. 3. 6. 6. 1. 6} . 7 } = {4. we find A . 4.2. 4. 4} .12 From (2) and (5) it is verified that A . 4. 7} = {0. 3. . 1. B) + (A . Thus. 7} . 5. Solution (i) First. {1.2. 4.1. (ii) Verify using Venn diagram.^ A . From (1) and (2) . 2.1. A . 3. C) 10 10th Std. 2. C h . Bh + ^ A . (i) Show that A . 4. 6} + {2. 6} . ^ B + C h = ^ A . consider A . 2. B = {0. B = {1. C h . 1. Bh + ^ A .we get A . 2. 0. ^ B + C h . 2. Bh + ^ A .C 3 6 (4) B 2 1 4 C ^ A . 1. 4.5 Let A = {0. 6} = {. 4.2. A . 3. 4} . 3. {2. C h (5) Fig. 3. 3. 0. ^ B + C h = ^ A . C = {0. 7} = {0. ^ B + C h = {0. 3. 4}. 6} and C = {2. 4. 4. 4. Bh + ^ A . 3. Mathematics . Next.Example 1. {4. C h = {. 6. 3. Consider B + C = {1. 5.1. 3. 6} . 3. (ii) Using Venn diagram. 5. 2.B A 0 2 1 4 (3) B 3 6 B 3 6 C A . (B + C) = (A . 4.1. 5. 6} + {0. 4} . ^B + Ch (2) C A 0 7 A. 2.2.2.

5. . 3} . 0. . {. 5. r. 6} . . Q = {g. 3. 1. then show that A . B = {1.3.Example 1. . .1. s} . we consider A + B = {x . we find B . . 4} . then find (i) A . 3} .3.1. 1.1. B = {x . Sets and Functions 11 . B = B (use Venn diagram). 3. 1. x ! R} + {. A = {x . 4} = {1.5. 4.1 1. x 1 5.3. ^ A + C h . 2. {. c}. 3} = {1. ^ B + C h (ii) A + ^ B .3 # x 1 4. 0} . 2. . C = {1. 0. ^ A + C h = {1. Given A = {a. 2. thus A + ^ B . .3. 2. If A 1 B. 0.10} . 3} = {. x ! R} + {1.1. x. . f. 2. 6. 2. verify the commutative property of set union. 8. (ii) Q + R (iii) R \ ^ P + Qh . s}. Next.5. 0. C h = ^ A + Bh . 2. 2. 3.5.3. e. 1.3. 4.6 For A = {x . Now. . x ! N} and C = {. 3. On the other hand the set B contains all the positive integers that are less than 5.5. that is.3 # x 1 4.1. .3 # x 1 4. then find A + B and A \ B (use Venn diagram). Solution First note that the set A contains all the real numbers (not just integers) that are greater than or equal to . y} and R = {a. 3} . x ! R } . C h = A + {1. 1. 6} and C = {1. 0. . 9}. Also. Hence.1. 1. . . C h (iii) A \ ^C \ Bh 5. Now (1) and (2) imply A + ^ B .5.} . So. 7. x 1 5. 4} . 3} . 1.3.1. . ^ A + Bh . Find the following: (i) P \ R 4.1. 4. h.3 and less than 4. 0. 2.3. 3. . . B = {x . 7. 2. 4. 3. to find ^ A + Bh . B = {2. 2. 0. ^ A + C h .1. C h = ^ A + Bh . 3. y. . . Exercise 1. Show that A + ^ B . 3. 3} . 0} = {. A consists of all real numbers from – 3 upto 4 but 4 is not included. If A 1 B. x. b.3. . x ! N} = {1. (2) If A = {4. ^ A + C h . Let P = {a. . x ! R}. and A + C = {x . 3. 3} –3 4 (1) = {.3 # x 1 4.

3. p} . Cambridge. show that (i) A . we have D' = U \ D . verify A . India. 8. C . 10}. . ^ B + C h = ^ A . 6. . Bhl = Al + Bl (ii) ^ A + Bhl = Al . 11.1. n.1}.2.7 Use Venn diagrams to verify ^ A + Bhl = Al . Tamilnadu. 8. x is a prime factor of 42} . n. 0}. For A = {5.12. Bl . 20}. d. Verify the associative property of set intersection. 2. e}. Example 1. verify whether A \ ^ B \ C h = ^ A \ Bh \ C . B = {. m. 21. 7} and B = {2. .5 De Morgan’s laws De Morgan’s father (a British national) was in the service of East India Company. C h = ^ A + Bh . . . e. Bh . B = {. but we shall learn how to apply these laws in problem solving. 5.2. De Morgan’s laws relate the three basic set operations Union.10. 6} . Find A \ ^ B \ C h and (A \ B) \ C . B = {6. B = {x . Intersection and Complementation.1. . 18. 5.10. ^ A + C h (iii) Verify (i) using Venn diagram (iv) Verify (ii) using Venn diagram. 5 1 x # 12.14. 5. e.3. Mathematics . 4.4. Observe that proof of the laws for complementation follows from that of the set difference because for any set D . 24} and C = {7. His family moved to England when he was seven months old. C h = ^ A . Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871) was born in Madurai. 7}. . 4.5. For A = {x . we have (i) A \ ^ B .1. 4. c. Bl . 5. 1. Q = {a. 10.2} . He had his education at Trinity college. u} and R = {a. 3. Given P = {a. Verify the commutative property of set intersection for A = {l. Bh + ^ A . 3. 4.10. De Morgan’s laws for complementation Let U be the universal set containing sets A and B. India. What can we conclude about set difference operation? For A = {.2.3. 9. c. 4. De Morgan’s laws for set difference For any three sets A. . . B and C . 2. Let A = {. b. 0. 7.6. 28} . o. 6} and C = {. C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h (ii) A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh . and C = {. m.15.1. England. Then (i) ^ A . ^ A \ C h . 3. Again we shall not attempt to prove these. 12 10th Std. x ! N} and C = {1.12. Justify your answer. o.6. g} .2. i. ^ B . o. C h (ii) A + ^ B .

1.8 Use Venn diagrams to verify De Morgan’s law for set difference A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh . Bl (5) Fig.13 From (2) and (5) it follows that ^ A + Bhl = Al .Solution A A B B U A B U (1) A+B (3) Al U B A U B A (2) (A + B)l Bl (4) U A B Al . Solution A B A B C A B+C B (1) C A A\B B (3) C A\ (B + C) (2) C A A\C B (4) C (5) (A\B) . (A\C) Fig. Bl . 1. ^ A \ C h . ^ A \ C h . Sets and Functions 13 .14 From (2) and (5) we have A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh . Example 1.

x. f. x.1.1. f. (1) Next.1.1. g}.1. 4. b. 5. Mathematics . b. C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h .9 Let U = {. {1. f. 10} Bl = U \ B = {. b. 8. 0.13}. 9. 10} U = {a. 5} . z} . 4. 6.1. y.. e. 2. f. 7. To do this we consider A . g. 3. d. z} . 2. x. f. f. Thus. c. f. 0. 8. 4.. Solution First. 9} = {. {d. (2) (1) Hence from (1) and (2) it follows that A \ ^ B . g} 10th Std. Solution First we shall verify ^ A . g. 0. d. f. 8. B = {1. g. b. 3.2. 10} . b. A = {5.1. 7. (2) From (1) and (2) it follows that ^ A . e} and C = {d. Exercise 1. c.Example 1.2. d. 9. e. b. we have and so A \ B = {a. 2.10} . g. 2. Example 1. Bhl = U \ {. y} = {1. 2. 2. e. which implies ^ A .2. x. z} . Bhl = Al + Bl . c. 6. . y. 5. y} . 6. b.1. 2. g. h}. 10} + {. 10} = {. 2.2. 4. 6. g. 8. x.2. 0. one can verify ^ A + Bhl = Al . y. we have Al + Bl = {. 3. 7. d. y} . . 11}. f. C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h . . 0.. c. 9} = {. B = {.2 1. 0. 9} . Bl for the given sets above. Verify De Morgan’s laws of complementation. g. e. 3. 2. Represent the following using Venn diagrams (i) (ii) 14 U = {5.1. 6. 4. 5} and B = {1. 1. e.1. 8. y} = {a. d. 4. 2. z} (A \ B) + (A \ C) = {a. Bhl = Al + Bl . 8. 5. 1.10}. g. e} . we find Al = U \ A = {. and B = {5. 7. c. 2. c. A = {. Similarly. 10. and N = {a. e. C = {1. b. c. 7. e. . z} and A \ C = { a. 7.. 3. d. 6. z} \ {1. 5. Verify A \ ^ B .10 Let A = {a. c. Then A \ (B . d. 9. 8. 3. Next. 0.2. 6. 9} . 2. M = {b. 3. d. x. C) = {a. 7. g. we find B .10} . d. We leave the details as an exercise. 2. e. 8. 6..2. 7.

Using Venn diagram. A = {8. Bl (vi) A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh . 50} . 7} and C = {3. ^ B + C h C + ^ B . 6. ^ A \ C h . 16. ^ A \ Bh = A . c. 35. 20. C h (ii) A + ^ B . 20. ^ A \ C h (iii) ^ A .10.15. 10. 8.11. 20.2. 5. 9. . 12. 16. Let A = {10. 45. Ah 4. 8. A = {a. g}. 3. ^ A + C h (iv) ^ A + Bhl = Al . and B = {a. B = {1. Write a description of each shaded area. B = {1. B. verify De Morgan’s laws of complementation. B and C illustrating the following: (i) A + B + C (iii) A + ^ B \ C h (vi) C + ^ B \ Ah (ii) (iv) (vii) A and B are disjoint but both are subsets of C ^B . Draw Venn diagram of three sets A. verify whether the following are true: (i) A . 28} . b. 25. C. 20. 7. 12. Let U = {4. 30.15. 9. C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h Sets and Functions 15 . Bh ' and ^ A + Bhl . b.15. 20. 16. Find ^ A .13. 5. C h = ^ A + Bh . 5. Verify A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh . Bh + ^ A . f. d. h} . Given that U = {a. Use symbols U. . b. Bhl = Al + Bl (v) A \ ^ B . 24} and B = {4. Use Venn diagram to verify ^ A + Bh . c}. 45. 48} .13} . 9. ^ B + C h = ^ A . A. Verify De Morgan’s laws for set difference using the sets given below: A = {1. 40. + . g. Ch \ A (v) A .15}. 30} and C = {7. f. 24. 3. 35. 2. 28} . 8. l and \ as necessary. 7. 5. e.

15 play hockey and cricket and 8 play all the three games. n^ H h = 45. C . B and A + B are known. 25 play foot ball and cricket. Alternate method The same problem can also be solved using Venn diagram.15 + 8 = 100.n^ A + Bh . Example 1. Mathematics H 17) 45-(1 + 2+8 2+8 –8 –(1 8 20 12 = +7) 65 = 18 =2 F 8 25– 17 = 8 1 5-8 =7 42-(8+17+7) = 10 Fig.1. n^ F + H h = 20 . Hence.25 .n^ F + C h + n^ F + H + C h = 65 + 45 + 42 .n^ A + Bh . Solution Let F. 1. what will be the corresponding formula? The formula in this case is given by n^ A . Following example illustrates the usage of the above formula. 45 play hockey. B and C and we want to find the cardinality of A . and n^C h = 42 .n^ A + C h + n^ A + B + C h .11 In a group of students.20 . we have learnt to solve problems involving two sets. We want to find the number of students in the whole group. C h = n^ F h + n^ H h + n^C h . that is n^ F . using the formula n^ A . Nowadays. 16 10th Std. C h . B . This formula helps us in calculating the cardinality of the set A . hockey and cricket respectively. 20 play foot ball and hockey. Suppose we have three sets A. 65 play foot ball. B when the cardinalities of A. Also. Then n^ F h = 65. Look at the diagram and try to find the number of players in the group by working carefully through the statements and fill in as you go along. H and C represent the set of students who play foot ball. we have n^ F .15 C .6 Cardinality of sets In class IX.n^ F + H h . H . the number of students in the group = 100.n^ B + C h . Number of students in the group = 28 + 12 + 18 + 7 + 10 + 17 + 8 = 100. Bh = n^ Ah + n^ Bh . The Venn diagram will have three intersecting sets. each representing a game. B . n^ F + C h = 25 . it is possible to solve some of the problems that we come across in daily life using Venn diagrams and logic. C h = n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^C h . H . Find the number of students in the group. By the formula. 42 play cricket. n^ H + C h = 15 and n^ F + H + C h = 8 .n^ H + C h .

and 14 had taken all the three courses. R U F 50-( 0) 1 9+5 +5+ 4–5 +6) 1 9 –(9 = 30 = 114 0 =9 5 1 1-5 5 15– 10 =6 = 41-(10+5+6) = 20 C Fig. 15 liked rock music and classical music. 1. The given details are filled in the Venn diagram n (M + C + Pl ) = 26 – 14 = 12 n (M + P + C l ) = 28 – 14 = 14 n (C + P + M l ) = 22 – 14 = 8 Number of students surveyed = 24 + 12 + 60 + 8 + 22 + 14 + 14 = 154 Fig. 26 had taken mathematics and computer science. 50 liked folk music. 1. 94 had taken computer science course. and 41 liked classical music. 11 liked classical music and folk music. Thus. F and C represent the sets of students who liked rock music. 58 had taken physics course. computer science and physics respectively. 22 had taken computer science and physics course.Example 1. Find how many had taken one course only. Solution Let us represent the given data in a Venn diagram. Let M. C.13 A radio station surveyed 190 students to determine the types of music they liked. Let us fill in the given details in the Venn diagram. Find the number of students who were surveyed. folk music and classical music respectively. 14 liked rock music and folk music. P represent sets of students who had taken mathematics.12 In a survey of university students. 64 had taken mathematics course.16 The number of students who had taken only mathematics = 64–(14+14+12) = 24 The number of students who had taken only computer science = 94 – (12+14+8) = 60 The number of students who had taken only physics = 58 – (14+14+8) = 22 Example 1. Find (i) how many did not like any of the 3 types? (ii) how many liked any two types only? (iii) how many liked folk music but not rock music? Solution Let R. we have n (R + F + C l ) = 14 – 5 = 9 n (R + C + F l ) = 15 – 5 = 10 n (F + C + Rl ) = 11 – 5 = 6. The survey revealed that 114 liked rock music. 28 had taken mathematics and physics. 5 liked all the three types of music.17 190 20 Sets and Functions 17 .

From the Venn diagram, the number of students who liked any one of the three types of music equals 90 + 9 + 30 + 6 + 20 + 10 + 5 = 170. Number of students surveyed = 190. Number of students who did not like any of the three types = 190 - 170 = 20 . Number of students who liked any two types only = 9 + 6 + 10 = 25. Number of students who liked folk music but not rock music = 30 + 6 = 36. Exercise 1.3 1. 2. 3. If A and B are two sets and U is the universal set such that n^U h = 700 , n^ Ah = 200, n^ Bh = 300 and n^ A + Bh = 100, find n^ Al + Blh . Given n^ Ah = 285, n^ Bh = 195, n^U h = 500, n^ A , Bh = 410, find n^ Al , Blh . For any three sets A, B and C if n^ Ah = 17 n^ Bh = 17, n^C h = 17, n^ A + Bh = 7 n (B + C) = 6 , n^ A + C h = 5 and n^ A + B + C h = 2 , find n^ A , B , C h . 4. Verify n^ A , B , C h = n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^C h - n^ A + Bh n^ B + C h - n^ A + C h + n^ A + B + C h for the sets given below: (i) A = {4, 5, 6}, B = {5, 6, 7, 8} and C = {6, 7, 8, 9} (ii) A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {x, y, z} and C = {a, e, x} . 5. In a college, 60 students enrolled in chemistry, 40 in physics, 30 in biology, 15 in chemistry and physics, 10 in physics and biology, 5 in biology and chemistry. No one enrolled in all the three. Find how many are enrolled in at least one of the subjects. In a town 85% of the people speak English, 40% speak Tamil and 20% speak Hindi. Also, 42% speak English and Tamil, 23% speak Tamil and Hindi and 10% speak English and Hindi, find the percentage of people who can speak all the three languages. An advertising agency finds that, of its 170 clients, 115 use Television, 110 use Radio and 130 use Magazines. Also, 85 use Television and Magazines, 75 use Television and Radio, 95 use Radio and Magazines, 70 use all the three. Draw Venn diagram to represent these data. Find (i) how many use only Radio? (ii) how many use only Television? (iii) how many use Television and magazine but not radio? 8. In a school of 4000 students, 2000 know French, 3000 know Tamil and 500 know Hindi, 1500 know French and Tamil, 300 know French and Hindi, 200 know Tamil and Hindi and 50 know all the three languages. (i) How many do not know any of the three languages? (ii) How many know at least one language? (iii) How many know only two languages?

18 10th Std. Mathematics

6.

7.

9.

In a village of 120 families, 93 families use firewood for cooking, 63 families use kerosene, 45 families use cooking gas, 45 families use firewood and kerosene, 24 families use kerosene and cooking gas, 27 families use cooking gas and firewood. Find how many use firewood, kerosene and cooking gas.

1.7

Relations

In the previous section, we have seen the concept of Set. We have also seen how to create new sets from the given sets by taking union, intersection and complementation. Here we shall see yet another way of creating a new set from the given two sets A and B. This new set is important in defining other important concepts of mathematics “relation, function”. Given two non empty sets A and B, we can form a new set A # B , read as‘A cross B’, called the cartesian product of A with B. It is defined as A # B = "^a, bh ; a ! A and b ! B , . Similarly, the set B cross A is defined as B # A = "^b, ah ; b ! B and a ! A , .

Note

(i) The order in the pair (a, b) is important. That is, (a, b) ! (b, a) if a ! b . (ii) It is possible that the sets A and B are equal in the cartesian product A # B . Let us look at an example. Suppose that a cell phone store sells three different types of cell phones and we call them C1 , C2 , C3 . Let us also suppose that the price of C1 is ` 1200, price of C2 is ` 2500 and price of C3 is ` 2500. We take A = { C1 , C2 , C3 } and B = { 1200, 2500 }. In this case, A # B ={(C1 , 1200), (C1 , 2500), (C2 , 1200), (C2 , 2500), (C3 , 1200), (C3 ,2500)} but B # A = {(1200, C1 ), (2500, C1 ), (1200, C2 ), (2500, C2 ,),(1200, C3 ), (2500, C3 ). It is easy to see that A # B ! B # A if A ! B. Let us consider a subset F = {(C1 , 1200), (C2 , 2500), (C3 , 2500)} of A # B . Every first component in the above ordered pairs is associated with a unique element. That is no element in the first place is paired with more than one element in the second place. For every element in F , basically the second component indicates the price of the first component. Next, consider a subset E = {(1200, C1 ), (2500, C2 ), (2500, C3 )} of B # A Here, the first component 2500 is associated with two different elements C2 and C3 .

Sets and Functions 19

Definition Let A and B be any two non empty sets. A relation R from A to B is a non-empty subset of A # B . That is, R 3 A # B . Domain of R = " x ! A ; ^ x, yh ! R for some y ! B , Range of R = " y ! B ; (x, y) ! R for some x ! A , .

1.8

Functions

Let A and B be any two non empty sets. A function from A to B is a relation f 3 A # B such that the following hold: (i) Domain of f is A. (ii) For each x ! A, there is only one y ! B such that (x, y) ! f . Note that a function from A to B is a special kind of relation that satisfies (i) and (ii). A function is also called as a mapping or a transformation. A function from A to B is denoted by f: A " B , and if ^ x, yh ! f , then we write y = f (x) . We can reformulate the definition of a function without using the idea of relation as follows: In fact, most of the time this formulation is used as a working definition of a function,

Peter Dirichlet (1805-1859) Germany

Dirichlet made major contributions in the fields of number theory, analysis and mechanics. In 1837 he introduced the modern concept of a function with notation y = f(x). He also formulated the well known Pigeonhole principle.

Definition Let A and B be any two non empty sets. A function f from A to B is a rule of correspondence that assigns each element x ! A to a unique element y ! B . We denote y = f (x) to mean y is a function of x. The set A is called the domain of the function and set B is called the co-domain of the function. Also, y is called the image of x under f and x is called a preimage of y . The set of all images of elements of A under f is called the range of f . Note that the range of a function is a subset of its co-domain. This modern definition of a function, given above, was given by Nikolai Labachevsky and Peter Dirichlet independently around 1837. Prior to this, there was no clear definition of a function.

20 10th Std. Mathematics

In the example we considered in section 1.7, prior to the above definitions, the set F = {(C1 , 1200), (C2 , 2500), (C3 , 2500)} represents a function; because F 3 A # B is a relation satisfying conditions (i) and (ii) given above. But E = {(1200, C1 ), (2500, C2 ), (2500, C3 )} does not represent a function, because condition (ii) given above is not satisfied as (2500, C2), (2500, C3) ! E .

Remarks

**(i) A function f may be thought of as a machine which yields a unique output y for every input value of x .
**

x=3 input x

f (x) = x2

y=9 output f (x)

(ii) In defining a function we need a domain, co-domain and a rule that assigns each element of the domain to a unique element in the co-domain. Example 1.14 Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 , 11, 12} . Let R = {(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 10), (4, 9)} 3 A # B be a relation. Show that R is a function and find its domain, co-domain and the range of R . Solution The domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4}= A . Also, for each x ! A there is only one y ! B such that y = R (x) . So, given R is a function. The co-domain is obviously B. Since R (1) = 3, R (2) = 6, R (3) = 10 and R (4) = 9 , the range of R is given by {3, 6, 10, 9} . Example 1.15 Does each of the following arrow diagrams represent a function? Explain. (i)

A a b c d

Fig. 1.18

B x y z

(ii)

C 2 4 3

Fig. 1.19

D 20 30 40

Solution In arrow diagram (i), every element in A has a unique image. Hence it is a function. In arrow diagram (ii), the element 2 in C has two images namely 20 and 40. Hence, it is not a function. Example 1.16 Let X = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }. Examine whether each of the relations given below is a function from X to X or not. Explain. (i) f = { (2, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 4) } (ii) g = { (3, 1), (4, 2), (2, 1) } (iii) h = { (2, 1), (3, 4), (1, 4), (4, 3) }

Sets and Functions 21

Solution (i) Now, f = { (2, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 4) } f is not a function because 2 is associated with two different elements 3 and 1. (ii) (iii) The relation g = { (3, 1), (4, 2), (2, 1)} is not a function because the element 1 does not have a image. That is, domain of g = {2, 3, 4} ! X . Next, we consider h = { (2, 1), (3, 4), (1, 4), (4, 3) }. Each element in X is associated with a unique element in X. Thus, h is a function. Example 1.17 Which of the following relations are functions from A = { 1, 4, 9, 16 } to B = { –1, 2, –3, –4, 5, 6 }? In case of a function, write down its range. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) f1 = { (1, –1), (4, 2), (9, –3), (16, –4) } f2 = { (1, –4), (1, –1), (9, –3), (16, 2) } f3 = { (4, 2), (1, 2), (9, 2), (16, 2) } f4 = { (1, 2), (4, 5), (9, –4), (16, 5) }

Solution (i) We have f1 = { (1, –1), (4, 2), (9, – 3), (16,– 4) }. Each element in A is associated with a unique element in B. Thus, f1 is a function. Range of f1 is {- 1, 2, - 3, - 4} . (ii) Here, we have f2 = { (1, – 4), (1, –1), (9, – 3), (16, 2) }. f2 is not a function because 1 is associated with two different image elements - 4 and - 1 . Also, note that f2 is not a function since 4 has no image. (iii) Consider f3 = { (4, 2), (1, 2), (9, 2), (16, 2) }. Each element in A is associated with a unique element in B. Thus, f3 is a function. Range of f3 = { 2 }. (iv) We have f4 = { (1, 2), (4, 5), (9, – 4), (16, 5) }. Each element in A is associated with a unique element in B. Hence, f4 is a function. Range of f4 = { 2, 5, – 4}.

22 10th Std. Mathematics

Example 1.18 Let x = ' x if x $ 0 , where x d R. Does the relation - x if x 1 0 { ( x, y ) | y = | x |, x ! R } define a function? Find its range. Solution For every value of x, there exists a unique value y = | x|. Therefore, the given relation defines a function. The domain of the function is the set R of all real numbers. Since | x | is always either zero or positive for every real number x, and every positive real number can be obtained as an image under this function, the range will be the set of non-negative real numbers (either positive or zero).

Remarks

y

y =|x| xl

O

x

yl

Fig. 1.20

The function y = x = ' x if x $ 0 , where x d R , is known as - x if x 1 0 modulus or absolute value function. Thus, for example, - 8 =-^- 8h = 8 and also 8 = 8.

1.8.1 Representation of functions

A function may be represented by (i) a set of ordered pairs, (ii) a table, (iii) an arrow diagram, (iv) a graph Let f : A " B be a function. The set f = "(x , y) : y = f (x), x d A , of all ordered pairs represents the function. (i) (ii) The values of x and the values of their respective images under f can be given in the form of a table. (iii) An arrow diagram indicates the elements of the domain of f and their respective images by means of arrows. (iv) The ordered pairs in the collection f = "(x , y) : y = f (x), x d A , are plotted as points in the x-y plane. The graph of f is the totality of all such points. Let us illustrate the representation of functions in different forms through some examples. For many functions we can obtain its graph. But not every graph will represent a function. Following test helps us in determining if the given graph is a function or not.

**1.8.2 Vertical line test
**

A graph represents a function only if every vertical line intersects the graph in at most one point.

Note

It is possible that some vertical lines may not intersect the graph, which is alright. If there is even one vertical line that meets the graph in more than one point, then that graph cannot represent a function, because in this case, we shall have at least two y-values for the same x -value. For example, the graph of y2 = x is not a function.

Sets and Functions 23

Example 1. Mathematics . 9 } be two sets. B = { 1. Represent this function as (i) a set of ordered pairs (ii) a table (iii) an arrow diagram and (iv) a graph. 1. f (1) = 2(1)+1 = 3 . 3. 7. 9 }.Example 1.19 Use the vertical line test to determine which of the following graphs represent a function.21 Fig. 1. 1. The given graph represents a function as any vertical line will intersect the graph at most one point P. Let f : A " B be a function given by f (x) = 2x + 1 . The given graph does not represent a function as a vertical line cuts the graph at two points A and B . 5. f (x) = 2x + 1 f (0) = 2(0) + 1 = 1. 1.23 Fig. 3 }. 3. f (3) = 2(3) + 1 = 7 24 10th Std.24 Solution (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The given graph does not represent a function as a vertical line cuts the graph at two points P and Q . 5. Solution A = { 0. 7. (i) y 3 2 1 (ii) P x y xl -2 -1 0 xl P 0 1 2 3 4 5 x Q yl yl Fig. f (2) = 2(2) + 1 = 5.22 (iii) y 3 2 1 A (iv) y 3 2 A 1 0 -2 -1 -1 -2 1 2 3 x xl -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 B 3 4 5 x xl yl yl Fig. 2. 3 } and B = { 1. The given graph represents a function as the graph satisfies the vertical line test. 2. 1.20 Let A = { 0. 1.

f B 7 9 10 8 4 A one-one function is also called an injective function. the points (0. 7) are plotted on the plane as shown below. we divide functions into certain types. A 0 1 2 3 f : A®B B 1 3 5 7 9 Fig. Then each element of A and its unique image element in B are related with an arrow. x f (x) 0 1 1 3 2 5 3 7 (iii) Set of ordered pairs The given function f can be represented as a set of ordered pairs as f = { (0. 3). (2. 5). The function f is called an one-one function if it takes different elements of A into different elements of B. (3.3 Types of functions Based on some properties of a function. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (3. That is. Sets and Functions 25 . (2. 3). f (x)h . (2. 5) and (3. 3) (0. 1. In other words f is one-one if no element in B is associated with more than one element in A .25 (ii) Table form Let us represent f using a table as shown below. 5) (1. (1. 7) (2.(i) Arrow Diagram Let us represent f by an arrow diagram. 1). 1.1). = {(0. 1) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x Fig. 5). 7) } y (iv) Graph We are given that f = "^ x. 7)} .27 Let f : A " B be a function. (1. we say f is one-one if u ! v in A always imply f (u) ! f (v) . (i) One-One function A 5 6 7 8 Fig.8. Now. 1. x ! A . 1).26 1. The totality of all points represent the graph of the function. (1. The above figure represents a one-one function. 3). (3. We draw two closed curves to represent the sets A and B.

1 }. u. (iv) Constant function A function f : A " B is said to be a constant function if every element of A has the same image in B. Range of a constant function is a singleton set. A function f : A " A is called an identity function of A if y f (a) = a for all a ! A . That is. (iv) If f : A " B is a bijective function. Mathematics O x Fig.30 defined by f (x) = 5 for every x ! A . 1.1. B = { 3. 5. let A = R . In Fig. (iii) One-One and onto function f B x y z Fig. 1. 10. (iii) If f : A " B is a bijective function and if A and B are finite sets. This is same as saying that B is the range of f . y. 15} f : A " B is Fig. f is an onto function.1. 1. A x y u v 1 B 3 5 7 8 10 15 f Let A = { x. an identity function maps each element of A into itself. (ii) f : A " B is one-one and onto. the function f is one . In the above figure. there is atleast one element a ! A . Fig.31 represents the graph of the identity function on R . The function f : R $ R be defined by f (x) = x for all x ! R is the identity function on R . (v) Identity function y= Let A be a non-empty set. such that f^ah = b . 8. a function f is onto if for each b ! B . 10th Std. then the cardinalities of A and B are same.(ii) Onto function A a b c d A function f : A " B is said to be an onto function if every element in B has a pre-image in A . The given figure represents constant function. 1. An onto function is also called a surjective function.29 B 15 25 35 45 Note (i) A function f : A " B is onto if and only if B = range of f . 7.29. Thus f : A " B is one-one and onto if f maps distinct elements of A into distinct images in B and every element in B is an image of some element in A.one and onto. then A and B are equivalent sets (v) A one-one and onto function is also called a one-one correspondence.31 26 . if and only if f^a1h = f^a2h implies a1 = a2 in A and every element in B has exactly one pre-image in A . v.28 A function f : A " B is called a one-one and onto or a bijective function if f is both a one-one and an onto function. A 10 20 30 40 Fig. x For example. That is.

1 is in the interval 1 # x 1 2 Thus. 4. 2. Now. 9. 4. f (2) = 4 .10 .1) = g (v) . Since 5 lies between 4 and 6. f (3) = 2 (3) . the function is not onto. Solution Now. f (4) = 16 .Example 1. 2. [1 . Thus. Example 1. 5 }. just formula alone does not make a function one-one or onto. B = N and f : A " B be defined by f (x) = x . its domain and co-domain in deciding one-to-one and onto. 4. 3. we have to use f (x) = 3x . we have to use f (x) = 1 + x to obtain f (1) = 1 + 1 = 2. Range of f = { 1. 2. B = { 1.10 = 65. note that 3 lies between 2 and 4.f^4h Solution (i) (ii) Let us find f (5) .3 f^1 h 2 2 (iii) f^1 h (iv) f^2h . Thus . g } Given f : A " B and f (x) = x 2 2 ` f (1) = 12 = 1 .1 3x2 . To find f (3) . So. So. f (5) = 3 (5 ) .1 to calculate f (3) . since 3 ! B but there is no x ! A such that 2 f (x) = x = 3. 16. 4. 3. 2 (iii) Let us find f (1) . 5 }. 3. if u = 1 and v =. 25} Since distinct elements are mapped into distinct images. 6) $ R is defined as follows 1+x f^ xh = *2x .22 A function f : [1. we use f (x) = 2x .21 Let A = { 1. Identify the type of function. f (3) = 9 . We need to consider the rule. Sets and Functions 27 . Remarks However.10 Find the value of 1#x12 2#x14 4#x16 (i) f (5) ( Here. a function g : R $ R defined by g (x) = x is not one-one because.1 then u ! v but g (u) = g (1) = 1 = g (. A = { 1. 6) = { x eR : 1# x 1 6} ) (ii) f^3 h (v) 2 f^5h . f (5) = 25. Find the range of f . it is a one-one function.1 = 5. However.

we use f (x) = 2x .1 = 47 . 2). Thus.1)} represents the identity function. 0).(iv) f (2) . 4 is in the interval 4 # x 1 6 . (13. 7). (11. For the given function F = { (1.3 f^1 h = 2 (65) . 3). (1. 5).3 f^1 h . (. (2. 3). 5). 2 2 Also. (5. find the values of a. (5.f (4) Now. (12. Let A = { 10.2). 1) } f3 = { (10. 7.3. 5. 5) } (iii) R3 = { (1. 5). we shall make use of the values that we have already calculated in (i) and (iii). (5. Hence f(2) – f(4) = 3 – 47 = – 44. 3). we use f (x) = 3x . Y = { 1. .1 = 3 (16) . 5 }. 1). (13. (2. . x ! X .3 (2) = 130 . c). (13. 5 } and fi : A " B .1 = 3 . 9 } determine which of the following relations from A to B are functions? Give reason for your answer. (8. 2 f^5h . Therefore. (v) To calculate 2 f^5h . i = 1. 3). (12. Mathematics 28 . 1).6 = 124. 3) } f2 = { (10. 1). 1). 12. 2. c and d . 1). state its type. (i) R1 = { ^ x. If X = { 1. (11. 7) } (iv) R4 = { (1.4 1. y ! Y } (ii) R2 = { (1. Justify your answer. (11. (3. (3. 2). If it is a function. 5). 13. (5. (14. Thus. State the type of function for the following (give reason): f1 = { (10. (i) P a b c d f Q x y z (ii) L –3 –2 –1 m 1 f M 1 2 3 2. (3. 4. 7). B = { 0. 1. (12. (4. (4.5. (d. 1) } 5. 7). (14. 1). If R = {(a.10 . b). (4. 2 is in the interval 2 # x 1 4 and so. 1) }. (3. f (4) = 3 (4 ) . Thus. 3. 3. 3). yh | y = x + 2 . b. write the domain and range. 14 }. 2. (3. (2.1 . f (2) = 2 (2) . 10th Std. 3). 3. (14. 3). 1). 5) } 4. 3. Exercise 1. 11.1 = 48 . 1). 9). State whether each of the following arrow diagrams define a function or not. 9).2. 1).

9. Write down the range of f . 3). (0. 3. x ! A . 6. –9. 0. (–1. 1. 8. 7 } to B = { 2. 6. y ! B } (i) Write down the elements of f . 8 }.1 . (14. 9 }. 10 } to B = { 19. . (15. 7. (iii) What is the range ? 11. Is f a x function from A to A ? Let f = { (2. 3) } be a function from A = { –1. 7. –1. 2. 7. 15. 6). 17) }. 1 j : x ! A . (i) y (ii) y (iii) y O x O x O x (iv) y (v) y O x O x Sets and Functions 29 . (ii) What is the co-domain? (iv) Identify the type of function. 4. 4. 2 } and f = $` x. State whether the following graphs represent a function. For what values of a and b it represents a one-one function ? x f(x) 5 a 6 11 8 b 10 19 10. 2).2x .6. 9. 11 } where f^ xh = 2x .–13 } and f = {( x. y) : y = 3 . 9). (7. 7). B = { –11. Give reason for your answer. 2). The following table represents a function from A= { 5. Write the pre-images of 2 and 3 in the function f = { (12. (13. 7. A = { –2. 3).–7. (5. –10. 5. (3. 2). (17. Let A = { 5. 6. Is this (i) an one-one function (ii) an onto function (iii) both one-one and onto function? 8. 4). 3.

Represent the function f = { (–1. 1). Mathematics . 6). 9. 15. 6. 15.1.5 f (x) = * x + 5 . 30 10th Std. (–5. (D) " x : x b P and x ! Q . 2 1 x16 . Find (i) 2 f (. 2x .3.1. 6h ( R is defined as follows x2 + 2x + 1. 7 }.2.3h f (3) + f (. 21 }.6) . 4. 8.f (. .3 .3 f (1) Choose the correct answer 1.7 # x 1 .4) + 3 f (2) (ii) f (. 2). 6 } and f : A " B be defined by f^ xh = x .3) Exercise 1. 5.12.1) . 4. 2.3 # x 1 2 f^ xh = *3x . (C) " x : x ! P and x ! Q . 13. 6.3. A function f : 6. 41x#6 Find (i) (iii) f^5h + f^6h f^. then A + B is (A) B (B) A\B (C) A (D) B\A 3. 2 # x # 4. A . B = A (A) B 3 A 2. B = { 1. -5 # x # 2 x . 2f (6) . Let A = {4.f^4h (ii) (iv) f^1 h .2h . For any two sets P and Q . 16. (– 4. A function f : 6. If f : A " B is defined by f^ xh = 1 x + 1 2 then represent f by (i) an arrow diagram (ii) a set of ordered pairs and (iii) a table. 10 } and B = { 3. 3) } as (i) a table (ii) an arrow diagram Let A = { 6. . 7h ( R is defined as follows 4x2 . 5. 18. For two sets A and B .f^.f (1) 14. P + Q is (A) " x : x ! P or x ! Q .7. Represent f by 3 (i) an arrow diagram (ii) a set of ordered pairs (iii) a table (iv) a graph . (B) A 3 B if and only if (C) A ! B (D) A + B = z If A 1 B . f (. (– 3.7) .3) + 2 f (4) . (B) " x : x ! P and x b Q .5 (iii) 4 f (.

For any two sets A and B . {(A \ B) . Let A = { 1. 11 }. Bh + ^ B . B = {–1. If n(A) = 20 . (11. B and C. then n (A + B) is equal to (A) 50 (B) 10 (C) 40 (D) 70. (5. (5. Then the range of f is (A) { 1} (A) 5 and –1 (B) N (B) 6 and 8 (C) { 1. 9). s }. Bh . C h is (A) ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h (C) ^ B \ Ah + ^ A \ C h (B) ^ B \ Ah + ^ B \ C h (D) ^ A \ Bh + ^ B \ C h 10. If { ( x . s. B) + Bl (B) A \ B = A + B (D) A \ B = (A . 5). 2). 4) 12. q. 9) }. s } (D) {p. If f = { (6. –1). 1). 4. C h is (A) ^ A . B) \ B 9. 11. A + ^ B . 2. B = { r. If { (7.4. then (x. (B + C) (B) ^ A + Bh . q } (B) { t. 7. 3). 11). Which one of the following is not true ? (A) A \ B = A + Bl (C) A \ B = (A . 7. 14. (8. If A = { p. 5. Given f (x) = ^. r. B \ ^ A . 9 } and f : A " B be given by f = { (1. (B \ A)} + (A + B) is (A) z (B) A . t. y) is (A) (2. 3). (C) 4 (D) 5 6. u } (C) { r. then n^ Ah is (A) 6 (B) 8 5. ^ B + C h (C) A . then A\B is (A) { p. 2). 6) }. then the pre-images of 3 are 15. n(B) = 30 and n (A . For any three sets A. then the value of ‘a ’ is (A) 7 (B) 11 (C) 5 (D) 9 13. q. u }. s } If n 6 p (A) @ = 64. – 1 } (C) 8 and –1 (D) Z (D) 6 and 5. 2) (D) (4. 3. B (C) A + B (D) Al + Bl 8. (–1. (4. 1. B) = 40. r. y) } represents an identity function. (4. a ) } represents a constant function. C h 7.1hx is a function from N to Z . ^ A + C h (D) ^ A . (3. Then f is (A) one-one (B) onto (C) bijective (D) not a function Sets and Functions 31 . (7. B and C . 4) (B) (4. 2) (C) (2. For any three sets A.

Set union is commutative and associative. then n(B) is equal to (A) 10 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 25 18. 5 } (B) { 1. ^ A\C h De Morgan’s Laws for complementation. 6. ^ A + C h q q De Morgan’s Laws for set difference A\ ^ B . 2. 4. 2. 20. ^ B + C h = ^ A . C 2 4 5 f D 4 2 16 25 The given diagram represents (B) a constant function (D) not a function (A) an onto function (C) an one-one function 17. ^ A . 5 }and f : A " B is defined by f (x) = x . q q 32 10th Std. 4 } (C) 20 (D) { 3. 19. 7 }. intersection is commutative and associative. Set difference is associative only when the sets are mutually disjoint. 4. C h = ^ A + Bh . then it is (A) a constant function (B) an identity function (C) a bijective function (D) an one-one function If f : A " B is a bijective function and if n(A) = 5 .4) = (A) 26 If the range of a function is a singleton set.n^ A + C h + n^ A + B + C h . SETS q A set is a collection of well defined objects. 3.n (A + B) n^ A . 4.16. C h = n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^C h . 5 } (D) –20 If f (x) = x2 + 5 . C h = ^ A\B h + ^ A\C h A\ ^ B + C h = ^ A\B h . B . C h A + ^ B .n^ B + C h . 3. Mathematics . B) = n (A) + n (B) . then the range of f is (A) { 1. B' Formulae for the cardinality of union of sets n (A . B h ' = A ' + B' ^ A + Bh ' = A' . 5 } (B) 21 (C) { 2. Bh + ^ A .n^ A + Bh . 4. Set difference is not commutative. Set Distributive Laws A . then f (. 3. If A = { 5. B = { 1.2 .

000 being awarded by the institute. A function can be described by a set of ordered pairs an arrow diagram a table and a graph. If every vertical line intersects a graph in at most one point. That is. R 3 A # B . the converse is not true in general. then the graph represents a function. q Every function can be represented by a graph. he declined the Millinnium Prize award. A correct solution to any of the problems results in a US $1000.x if x 1 0 Some types of functions: One-One function (injective function) Onto function (surjective function) Bijective function Constant function Identity function ( distinct elements have distinct images) (the range and the co-domain are equal ) (both one-one and onto) (range is a singleton set) (which leaves each input as it is) Do you Know? The Millennium Prize problems are seven problems in Mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in USA in 2000. the word conjecture means a mathematical problem is to be proved or disproved) Sets and Functions 33 . However. a ! A and b ! B . q q q q The modulus or absolute value function y = | x | is defined by x = ' x if x $ 0 . bh . (Here. q q A relation R from A to B is a non-empty subset of A # B . However. six of the problems remain unsolved. . A function f : X " Y is defined if the following condition hold: Every x ! X is associated with only one y ! Y . As of August 2010.FUNCTIONS q The cartesian product of A with B is defined as A # B = "^a. Only Poincare conjecture has been solved by a Russian Mathematician Girigori Perelman in 2010.

Sequences are fundamental mathematical objects with a long history in mathematics. (v) sequence named after him. g . 8. (iii) A curious 9th standard student is interested in finding out all the digits that appear in the decimal part of the irrational number down as 2. Let us consider the following real-life situations.C. 47. 58. 95.. 7. 5 = 2. 6.P. 35. (i) A team of ISRO scientists observes and records the height of a satellite from the sea level at regular intervals over a period of time. known which he did not discover but used as an example. Let us recall that the letters N and R denote the set of all positive integers and real numbers respectively. 10th Std. 6. They are tools for the development of other concepts as well as tools for mathematization of real life situations.236067978g and writes Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci) (1170-1250) Italy Fibonacci mathematics. Mathematics 34 .P. 3. His played name an is important role in reviving ancient known to modern mathematicians mainly because of as the ‘Fibonacci a number numbers’. (ii) The Railway Ministry wants to find out the number of people using Central railway station in Chennai on a daily basis and so it records the number of people entering the Central Railway station daily for 180 days. 9.F. 0. and arithmetic is the Queen of Mathematics . we shall learn about sequences and series of real numbers. 85. 100. 1 .Gauss Introduction Sequences Arithmetic Progression (A. 1 . 1 . 89.2 SEQUENCES AND SERIES OF REAL NUMBERS Mathematics is the Queen of Sciences. (iv) A student interested in finding all positive fractions with numerator 1.1 Introduction In this chapter. writes 1.) Geometric Progression (G. 7. g .) Series 2. 60. 1 . 67. 2 3 4 5 A mathematics teacher writes down the marks of her class according to alphabetical order of the students’ names as 75.

3333. 13. We have already seen some examples of sequences. (ii). (finite number of terms) (terms just keep oscillating between 1 and . g . some sets of real numbers have been listed in a specific Note that in (iii) and (iv) the arrangements have infinite number of terms. Let us consider some more examples below. 7. a2. g. a1 denotes the first term and a7 denotes the seventh term in the sequence. 6.. then it is called an infinite sequence. g or S = {a j} j = 1 where ak denotes the kth term of the sequence.33. g . Note that in the above examples. (i) and (iii) are finite sequences and the other sequences are infinite sequences. (iii) r. 75.e. we mean that the sequence has an identified first member. but in (v) and (vi) the same set of numbers are written in different order. r. second member. then it is called a finite sequence. 3. g . r. 19. (list of all prime numbers) (v) 0. 1. 89. 1.(vi) order. (i) If a sequence has only finite number of terms.1. 100. . 1. 11.3. 2010. In (i).1.333. 47.. (terms are same. We denote a finite sequence as S : a1. 4.1. 2. when we say that a collection of numbers is listed in a sequence. 0. For example.1) 1. g . 67. an or S = {a j} j = 1 and an infinite sequence 3 n as S : a1.33333. such sequences are constant sequences) (iv) 2. whereas (iii) and (iv) are infinite sequences Observe that. 3 (vi) S = " an .2 Sequences Definition A sequence of real numbers is an arrangement or a list of real numbers in a specific order. One can easily see that some of them. (ii) If a sequence has infinitely many terms. (ii). (v) and (vi) are finite sequences. a2. 17. 8. 95. . . third member and so on. (i) to (v) have a definite pattern or rule in the listing and hence we can find out any term in a particular position in Sequences and series of real numbers 35 . 85. 0. a3. 58. i. From the above examples. r. In each of the above examples. an. 5. (i). 23. g . (v) and (vi) there are only finite number of terms. 0. r. The same teacher writes down the same data in an ascending order as 35. a3. 60. 0. (i) (ii) 2.1 where an = 1 or 0 according to the outcome head or tail in the nth toss of a coin.

Also. n} " R defined by f^ k h = ak. we cannot predict what a particular term is. In the following example. c2 = 6 6 3^3 + 1h^7h ^3 h^4h^7h Finally n = 3. 2. k = 1. Example 2. 3. Thus. }of natural numbers. 6 k ! N . For example. 4. In general.1 + Fn . 6 x ! R is not a sequence since the required listing is not possible. . 3. g. sequences can be viewed as functions. n. g. we have used the word ‘‘pattern’’ to mean that the nth term of a sequence is found based on the knowledge of its preceding elements in the sequence. 6n!N 6 n^n + 1h^2n + 1h Solution Here. 2. we shall see another way of generating a sequence. = = 14. 3. Mathematics . 5.1 .1 is given. a2. we were given a formula for the general term and were able to find any particular term directly. n = 1. c1 = 6 2^2 + 1h^4 + 1h 2^3 h^5h For = = 5.2 Write the first five terms of each of the following sequences. n = 3. 2. a3. g. 2. an. c3 = 6 6 Hence. 36 10th Std.1 Write the first three terms in a sequence whose cn = th term is given by n^n + 1h^2n + 1h . 4. an = n . we know it must be either 1 or 0. n } of N .1. g. In the above example. g. g or S = {a j} j = 1 can be viewed as a 3 n function g : N " R defined by g^ k h = ak. 6n!N cn = 6 1^1 + 1h^2^1 h + 1h For = 1. Remarks A function is not necessarily a sequence. a2.1 Sequences viewed as functions A finite real sequence a1. 2.2. If the general term ak of a sequence " ak . n 2 1 and 6 n ! N n+2 (ii) F1 = F2 = 1 and Fn = Fn . the function f : R $ R given by f (x) = 2x + 1 .the sequence. note that the domain of f is not N or a subset { 1.2. Example 2. g . however. and 14. g . the first three terms of the sequence are 1. or some subset of the natural numbers and whose range is a subset of real numbers. But in (vi). a sequence is a function whose domain is the set{ 1. 3 The symbol 6 means “for all”. a (i) a1 =. an or S = {a j} j = 1 can be viewed as a function f : {1. we can construct the whole sequence. a3. n = 2. An infinite real sequence a1. Here.

34. F1 = 1 . Write the first three terms of the following sequences whose nth terms are given by (i) an = 2.1 .1. Exercise 2.1 3+2 5 20 .1 1.2 . The number of spirals in the opposite directions of the seeds in a sunflower are consecutive numbers of the Fibonacci sequence.1 .3n + 1. 840 4 20 120 an = (ii) Given that F1 = F2 = 1 and Fn = Fn . like the arrangement of seeds in a sunflower. 5. .1 + Fn . The Fibonacci sequence occurs in nature.1hn 3 n+2 (iii) zn = ^. 1. n = 3. a5 . 4.1hn 2 n n+3 ^n + 1h . 3. F2 = 1 F3 = F2 + F1 = 1 + 1 = 2 F4 = F3 + F2 = 2 + 1 = 3 F5 = F4 + F3 = 3 + 2 = 5 ` The first five terms of the sequence are 1.1 and an . 21. n21 n+2 a1 =-1 a2 = 4 2+2 -1 a2 a3 = = 4 =.1 a5 = = 5+2 7 840 ` The required terms of the sequence are . g .1) (1 . 5. g is called the Fibonacci sequence.2h 3 (ii) cn = ^. a7 .1 and . g .1 4+2 6 120 1 a4 120 =. 13. for n = 3.2. a8 2 (iv) an = (. a5 . (i) (ii) an = ^. 8. Remarks The sequence given by F1 = F2 = 1 and Fn = Fn . 1. a8 Sequences and series of real numbers 37 .n + n ). .1 . 2.Solution (i) Given a1 =.1 a3 a4 = = 20 =. Its terms are listed as 1. a5 . 3. . a7. Now. 2.1 .1hn n^n + 2h 4 Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences whose nth terms are given by an = n + 2 . n^ n . a9 2n + 3 2 (iii) an = 2n .1 + Fn . 5. 4.

0. Then. n ! N where d is a constant.5.1) d a3 = a2 + d = (a + d) + d = a + 2d = a + (3 .5.0. a2 = a1 + d = a + d = a + (2 . a2 = 3 + a1 and an = 2an .P. 8. 11. g is an A.1. because a1 = 2 and d = .) In this section we shall see some special types of sequences. a3.4 and d = 0.4. if n ! N and n is even n (n + 2).5.1. a2.1) d a4 = a3 + d = (a + 2d) + d = a + 3d = a + (4 .3 Arithmetic sequence or Arithmetic Progression (A. 14.4.1 + 5 for n 2 2 .P. g. Find the 18th and 25th terms of the sequence defined by n (n + 3). An arithmetic sequence is also called an Arithmetic Progression (A. Mathematics . . (ii) . (iii) 2. . an . Suppose that a is the first term and d 3 is the common difference of an arithmetic sequence {ak} k = 1 . 2. 6. 38 10th Std. 0.1) d Following the pattern. 0. For n = 1.2 for n 2 3 .4. because a1 = 2 and the common difference d = 3. Definition A sequence a1. n +1 Find the 13th and 16th terms of the sequence defined by bn = ) n. we have a1 = a and an + 1 = an + d .1 + d = [a + (n .5. 5. because a1 = . .3.P. Examples (i) 2.1) d. The general form of an A. if n ! N and n is odd.P. Find the first five terms of the sequence given by a1 = 2.). . we see that the nth term an as an = an .P. 6 n ! N . Find the first six terms of the sequence given by a1 = a2 = a3 = 1 and an = an . g is called an arithmetic sequence if an + 1 = an + d .4. 2. 5. Let us understand the general form of an A.5.0.2) d] + d = a + (n . 1. 2 4.1 + an .P. . g is an A. g is an A. 3 we get. Here a1 is called the first term and the constant d is called the common difference. if n ! N and n is even an = * 22n . if n ! N and n is odd. . 1.P.

has only n terms. n d N be the nth term of the given sequence.P.1. may be taken as m . g . g . 6 .P.1) d for every n ! N .P.2 = 12 . m .P. if each of its terms is added or subtracted by a same constant. This helps us to find the d number of terms when the first. (ii) 3m .2 t3 .t1 = 5 3 15 15 t3 .1h d (ii) l = a + ^n .t2 . we have an = a + (n .t1 = t3 . if an A.1) d for every n ! N .3.d.P.10 = 2 So t2 .P. So.5. t1 = 3m . a typical arithmetic sequence or A.P. g . t2 = 4 . the given sequence is not an A. with first term 3m–1 and the common difference –2. a + d. may be taken as m . (v) An A. t2 = 3m .1h d can also be rewritten as n = ` l .3. t3 = 3m . a + 2d. remains an A. a + (n . if each of its terms is multiplied or divided by a non-zero constant. Sequences and series of real numbers 39 . g . Y Given 3m .t2 = (3m .5.3) =. a + nd.P. the formula for the general term of an Arithmetic sequence is of the form tn = a + (n .P.(3m . (iii) Three consecutive terms of an A. m. g .t2 = 6 .2 Hence. Note (i) Remember a sequence may also be a finite sequence.1) =. 3m .3) . g Also.1. looks like a. (vi) An A.t1 = (3m .d.5) . 3m . the last term and the common difference are given.4 = 30 .(3m . t3 = 6 3 5 7 4 . m + 3d with common difference 2d. 3 5 7 Solution Let tn .1. 3m .a j + 1 .28 = 2 7 5 35 35 Since (ii) t2 .Thus .P.P. (i) ` t1 = 2 . 4 . 3m .5.? (i) 2 . then the last term l is given by l = a + ^n . So. t2 .3. remains an A. Example 2. the given sequence is an A.3d.1) d.3 Which of the following sequences are in an A. Here ` Also. a + 3d. m + d. m + d (iv) Four consecutive terms of an A.

3 3 3 2 + 1 . the 28th term. .? 4 2 Solution Here we have a = 20. .3 j 1 0 for smallest n ! N . 3 . g. 2. d = 19 1 . 4 4 We want to find the first positive integer n such that tn 1 0 . n 2 27 2 = 27. a = 1 and the common difference d = 5 .66 This implies n 2 26 3 3 Thus. 19. This is same as solving a + (n .4 Find the first term and common difference of the A. g . g. Mathematics .1h`. Hence. 40 10th Std. Thus. g .1 =. 21.2 for k = 2. there are 23 rose plants in the first row.P.3 .P. 21.20 4 3 2 20 ( The inequality is reversed on multiplying both sides by .1 ) ( (n . 2nd. 5 . That is solving 20 + ^n . 19.5 = . Now. 7 . 3rd .1) # 4 ` n . g . the sequence 23.3 j 1 . n. t28 is the first negative term of the A.P. The number of rose plants in the 1st.Example 2. Example 2. g is negative.20 = . and the common difference d = 2 .6 In a flower garden. (i) Solution (i) (ii) First term a = 5. 19 in the third row and so on. tk . 5 is in an A. 6 2 6 3 2 5.1) d 1 0 for smallest n ! N . (ii) 1 . g .1 = 5 .4. ^n .5 Find the smallest positive integer n such that tn of the arithmetic sequence 20.18 1 . How many rows are there in the flower garden? Solution Let n be the number of rows in the flower garden .1.1h`. 21 in the second row. There are 5 rose plants in the last row.tk .1 2 20 # 4 = 80 = 26 2 . 4 Now. 17 2 6 6 2 6 Example 2. n th rows are 23.3 = 1 . 5 respectively. That is. the smallest positive integer n ! N satisfying the inequality is n = 28.3 .19 1 .

1) ] will be `30.7 If a person joins his work in 2010 with an annual salary of `30. 70.7) ( 3x . 7x are in A. 2012. 120. Thus.2.8 Three numbers are in the ratio 2 : 5 : 7.We have a = 23.2 1. in which year.a + 1 = 5 . Example 2.000 and receives an annual increment of `600 every year. 110. and l = 5 .7h . Solution Let the numbers be 2x.P. To find the required number of terms. ` ^5x . Find the common difference and 15th term of the A. ` 31. Here a = 300. 312.000.P. So. d -2 So. 5x . Annual salary of the person in 2010.000 in the year 2025. g . l = 390. we have that 2x.200.7 = 2x + 7 and so x = 14.( x ! 0 ) By the given information.7. ` n = l . 98.P. the resulting numbers form an arithmetic sequence. ` 30. there are 10 rows in the flower garden. 5x and 7x for some unknown x. First note that the sequence of salaries form an A. g .P.23 + 1 = 10. 125. the required numbers are 28. will his annual salary be `39. we get the new sequence 300. 22 1 . 23 1 . 2. n= l-a +1 d = 390 .600. d =. Determine the numbers. 21 3 .(5x . `39000 respectively. g . Which term of the arithmetic sequence 24. 390.000? Solution Suppose that the person’s annual salary reaches `39.000 in the nth year. 115. 306. is 6 and the common difference is 5. Find the A. 3.2x = 7x . is 3? 4 2 4 Sequences and series of real numbers 41 . Example 2. 2011. Now. [2010 +(n . If 7 is subtracted from the second. let us divide each term of the sequence by a fixed constant 100. The first term of an A.P. and its general term. 16 annual salary of the person will be `39. g . g .300 + 1 = 90 + 1 = 16 6 6 th Thus.000. ` His annual salary will reach `39. d = 6. Exercise 2.

b+c c+a a+b x y z 2 If a = b = c . c are in A.P. Do these amounts (principal + interest) form an A. then prove that (a . 15.P. 20.P. g . 10. 9. . 1 are also in A. b. b. 6 3 3 If 9th term of an A. P. 11. 1 .P.1. How many terms are there in the following Arithmetic Progressions? (ii) 7.5 . 14.P. 14. x ! 0. If a. 90. 9. Find the three consecutive terms in an A. If he continues his savings in this sequence. 19. 1 . 17. 3 2. 4. then show that the (m+n)th term of the A.g and 100. 7. is equal to n times its nth term. what will be his savings in the 25th month? The sum of three consecutive terms in an A.P. find the number of TVs produced in the first year and in the 15th year.c) = 4 (b . 205. 13. 1 . 19. . c are in A. is 6 and their product is –120.? If so. 1. Find n so that the nth terms of the following two A. g . Find the 17th term of the A. Assuming that the production increases uniformly by a fixed number every year. determine the amount of investment after 20 years. prove that its 29th term is double (twice) the 19th term. then show that 2 2 2 2 2 12. Mathematics . y ! 0. then prove that 1 . 8.P.000 in an investment which yields 14% simple interest annually. 1 are in A.P. whose sum is 18 and the sum of their squares is 140. 1 .P.P. 5 2. then show that 1 . g. Find the 27th term. `720 in the second month and `800 in the third month.P. bc ca ab If a . 95. is zero. Find the 12th term of the A.ac) . c are in A.P. Find the three numbers. (i) .4.P. 6. 19. is zero. 13. If a. x y z 42 10th Std. 7. g . 2. 13.P. A man has saved `640 during the first month. 10 . How many two digit numbers are divisible by 13? A TV manufacturer has produced 1000 TVs in the seventh year and 1450 TVs in the tenth year.P. 5.’s are the same. A person has deposited `25. g .2 . b . 1 are also in A. are 41 and 73 respectively. 18. If m times the mth term of an A. 16. z ! 0 and b = ac . The 10th and 18th terms of an A.

an 6 = 12 = 24 = 2 ! 0 .P. 2. 9 27 81 243 1 1 .P. Sequences and series of real numbers 43 . 3 6 12 1 . an Thus. for every n ! N . Here.1 . ar . 3. g . g. 2-1 a2 = a1 r = ar = ar a3 = a2 r = (ar) r = ar = ar 2 3 2 3-1 4-1 a4 = a3 r = (ar ) r = ar = ar Following the pattern. n ! N . the formula for the general term of a geometric sequence is n-1 tn = ar . an. where r is a non-zero constant.P. Then. 24.1 27 = 81 = 243 = . Definition Let us consider some examples of geometric sequences. Now. ar. 12. a2.g . So the given sequence is a geometric sequence. ar .2. we have a a1 = a and n + 1 = r for n ! N . 6. looks like a.P.P. gives nth term of the G. . 3 we get. g . a typical geometric sequence or G.4 Geometric Sequence or Geometric Progression (G. Let us derive the general form of a G. g is called a geometric sequence if an + 1 = an r . a1 is the first term and the constant r is called the common ratio. Here.1 ! 0 . (i) 3. ar 3 .P.) A sequence a1. the given sequence is a geometric sequence. we have 1 1 1 3 9 27 81 Thus. 1 . For n = 1. n-1 n So.). Thus . n ! N . Suppose that a is the first term and r is the 3 common ratio of a geometric sequence {ak} k = 1 . we have an = an . a3. . (ii) The general form of a G.1 r = (ar Thus. g . A geometric sequence is also called a Geometric Progression (G. n = 1. an + 1 = r an for n ! N . g. a A sequence " an . 2.1 . an = ar 2 n-1 n-2 ) r = ar n-1 . ar .13 is a geometric sequence if n + 1 = r ! 0 .

ar with common ratio r. 2 5 5 10th Std. 15.02. g . the common ratio is r not r as above) Example 2. t1 t2 6 Thus.1 is in G. we see that 10 = 15 . Now. how can we determine if the given sequence is a geometric sequence or not? t 3 If n + 1 = r.15. 20.P may be taken as a . (i) 2 . 0. (ii) We see that 0.P. (iii) Three consecutive terms in a G. 10. 10 21 = 3 7 = 3 21 = g = 3 . tn Note (i) If the ratio of any term other than the first term to its preceding term of a sequence is a non-zero constant.0015 = g = 1 . g .0018. 21 . (iii) Example 2. r a . there is no common ratio. 0. g . Mathematics (ii) 0.0015. the given sequence is a geometric sequence. g . 5 25 125 Solution (i) Given sequence is a geometric sequence. 3 7 . ar3 .10 Find the common ratio and the general term of the following geometric sequences. Solution (i) Considering the ratios of the consecutive terms. (ii) 0.015 = 0.where r is a non-zero constant. 0. Thus. (iv) Four consecutive terms in a G.P may be taken as 3 r r 2 (here. the given sequence is a geometric sequence.9 Which of the following sequences are geometric sequences (i) 5. g .006. t t The common ratio is given by r = 2 = 3 = g . ar.15 0. (iii) 7 . 44 . Suppose we are given the first few terms of a sequence. the common ratio is 7 21 3 7 Therefore. Hence it is not a geometric sequence. 0. Y 5 10 Thus. 0. then it is a geometric sequence. a. then " tn . a . 3 21 . 18 .015 10 Since the common ratio is 1 . 6 . r = 25 = 3 . 6 n ! N . (ii) A geometric sequence remains a geometric sequence if each term is multiplied or divided by a non zero constant. 3.015.

3 = 3 . If there were 30 bacteria present in the culture initially.006 = 0. g . 0. By dividing t7 by t4 we obtain. 16 6 t7 ar = 81 = 8 . for the general term we have. 3.12 2 3 n-1 . 3 81 n-1 Using the formula tn = ar . ( ` a = 9. 3 81 Note that in order to find the geometric sequence. n = 1. The first term of the sequence is 2 . 3. n = 1.11 The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 2 and the seventh term is 16 . 3 3 8 ) = 2.02 10 The first term of the geometric sequence is 0. Solution Given that t4 = 2 and t7 = 16 . the general term of the sequence is 5 tn = ar ( n-1 . 3 6 t4 = ar = 2 and t7 = ar = 16 . 3. g . we need to find a and r . 9 2 2. That is. 9 2 . g. ar. 2. t4 = 2 ( ar = ` 2 j . 27 3 3 3 Now. 3 81 Find the geometric sequence. a( 3 4 27 Hence. So. ar . ar . g . ar 9 . n = 1. 4 4`3j 4`3j Example 2. g Example 2. the required geometric sequence is a. g n The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. 3. 2. Sequences and series of real numbers 45 .02 So. 5 5 (ii) The common ratio of the given geometric sequence is r = 0. 2. how many bacteria will be present at the end of 14th hour? Solution Note that the number of bacteria present in the culture doubles at the end of successive hours.02) ` 3 j . g n-1 tn = 2 ` 3 j . ar . = 3 t4 2 27 ar 3 3 3 Thus. 2. r = 8 = ` 2 j which implies r = 2 . 10 n = 1. the sequence can be represented by n-1 tn = (0.

we see that the number of bacteria present at the end of every hour forms a G. 100 Thus.P. Hence. the principal for the 2nd year = Principal for 1st year + Interest = 500 + 500` 10 j = 500`1 + 10 j 100 100 Now. if tn denotes the number of bacteria after n hours. 10th Std.13 An amount `500 is deposited in a bank which pays annual interest at the rate of 10% compounded annually. P is the principal. 14 n Example 2. Mathematics 46 . with the common ratio r = 2. 100 100 the principal for the third year = 500`1 + 10 j + 500`1 + 10 j 10 100 100 100 2 = 500`1 + 10 j 100 Continuing in this way we see that n-1 3 the principal for the nth year = 500`1 + 10 j . one can derive a formula for finding the total amount for compound interest problems. the interest for the second year = `500`1 + 10 jj` 10 j . 100 10 By using the above method. i = r . 100 So. So.P. Derive the formula: A = P (1 + i) n where A is the amount. r is the annual interest rate and 100 n is the number of years. the amount in the account at the end of 10th year Remarks 10 10 = ` 500`1 + 10 j = ` 500` 11 j . Thus. What will be the value of this deposit at the end of 10th year? Solution The principal is `500. the interest for this principal for one year is 500` 10 j = 50 . the number of bacteria at the end of 14th hour is given by t14 = 30 (2 ) . The amount at the end of (n–1)th year = Principal for the nth year.Number of bacteria present initially in the culture = 30 Number of bacteria present at the end of first hour = 2 (30) Number of bacteria present at the end of second hour = 2 (2 (30)) = 30 (22) Continuing in this way. Thus. tn = 30 (2 ) is the general term of the G.

ch2 + ^c .ar h = (a .1 @ 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 2 6 4 2 = a 6 r . 12 Find the common ratio and the terms.2r + r @ 2 3 3 2 = ^ar .d h2 Solution Given a.3 and a = – 1. Thus. ^b . d are in a geometric sequence. b.1hc r + r + 1 m = 13 2 ( r 12 12r + 12r + 12 = . 4 . r = .ah2 + ^d .d) Sequences and series of real numbers 47 .2r + r + r . the first term is a.ar h 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 = a 6^r . b.13r 2 2 12r + 25r + 12 = 0 ^3r + 4h^4r + 3h = 0 Thus. a ` r j^ah^ar h = . d = ar 2 2 3 Now. 3 .1 a = -1 Substituting a =. d are in geometric sequence. Solution We may take the first three terms of the geometric sequence as a .ah + ^ar . r 12 2 (1) a` 1 + 1 + r j = 13 ( a c r + r + 1 m = 13 12 12 r r Also. 3 4 3 When r = .bh2 2 2 3 = ^ar . Here.ah2 + ^d .ch2 + ^c .4 or . c. a.15 If a.14 The sum of first three terms of a geometric sequence is 13 and their product is .4 and a = – 1. –1.Example 2. r a + a + ar = 13 Then.3 3 4 When r = . then prove that ^b . we get 4 . Let r be the common ratio of the given sequence.ah = ^a . c.1 3 ( ` a =. b = ar. –1.1h + ^r .r h + ^r .1 in (1) we obtain.1.2r + 1 + r . ar .bh2 = ^a . ^.ar h + ^ar . which is in the reverse order.2r + 1 @ = a 6 r . c = ar . 4 3 4 Example 2.r h @ 2 6 3 2 3 = a 6 r . the terms are 3 .

4. g . 1 . and 2 . 8 . is 13 and sum of their squares is 91. 0. 12. (iv) 12. 0.b + ch^b + c + d h = ab + bc + cd. b. 3. (v) 2 . . 14.P. b + c. (iii) 1 .1.1 . 3 729 Which term of the geometric sequence. 1. 8. g . find the value of n.P. For those geometric sequences. is 128 ? 15625 5 25 6.1. 10. then show that ^a .12. 0. find the G.P.2.P. d are in a G. g . 54. 2. is 1024 ? 2. b. 5. 4 2 (i) 0.000. The sum of three terms of a geometric sequence is 39 and their product is 1. (ii) 1. 9. 10th Std. 4 . 0. 13. 11. 1. 4 . If the 4th and 7th terms of a G. 2 .P.004. Find out which of the following sequences are geometric sequences. In a geometric sequence. 15. . 18.Exercise 2.P. If the first term is 3. is 1875. 7. g. are 54 and 1458 respectively. 8. It is estimated that the copier depreciates in its value at a rate of 45% per year. 1 . 2. find the maturity amount at the end of 12 years .g . Mathematics . g . 48 If a. the first term is 1 and the sixth term is 1 . find the common ratio. find them. (ii) 0. Find the first three consecutive terms in G. The fifth term of a G. c + d. 4. (vi) 4. Determine the G.P. whose sum is 7 and the sum of their reciprocals is 7 4 The sum of the first three terms of a G. If the product of three consecutive terms in G. .24. g . (i) 5.3 1. .g. g . .P. c. 1 . What will be the value of the copier after 15 years? If a. Find the 10 common ratio and the terms. is 216 and sum of their products in pairs is 156. find the common ratio. then prove that a + b. 2 .P.P. 12 2 2 2 2 Find the 10th term and common ratio of the geometric sequence 1 . g . g have their nth term 81 27 9 equal. d are in a geometric sequence. c. If the geometric sequences 162. 2 .48.02. 2 3 9 27 1 . A company purchases an office copier machine for `50. find the G.1 .. If `1000 is deposited in a bank which pays annual interest at the rate of 5% compounded annually.2. are also in G.

. 25500. If a series consists only a finite number of terms.2.5. 2.3= 1 . To answer the above question. it is called a finite series. 26500. n = 1. Then {Sn} n = 1 is the sequence of partial sums of the given sequence " an . 3. Sum of first n terms of an arithmetic sequence Consider an arithmetic sequence with first term a and common difference d given by a. we need to add all of his twenty years salary. (25000 + 19 (500)) .. we shall study Arithmetic series and Geometric series. a + ^n . n The ordered pair ^" an . g . Let Sn be the sum of first n terms of the arithmetic sequence. What is the total salary he has received upto January 1. It is impossible to add all the terms of an infinite sequence by the ordinary addition. .1h d. or simply an where n=1 the symbol / stands for summation and is pronounced as sigma. g + an. g. For each n ! N we define the n 3 partial sums by Sn = a1 + a2 + . 1990 at an annual salary of `25. The infinite series is denoted by a1 + a2 + a3 + g . a + d. 2010? First of all note that his annual salary forms an arithmetic sequence 25000. we can easily understand finite series (adding finite number of terms). / Well. since one could never complete the task..3= 1 of real numbers. Definition An expression of addition of terms of a sequence is called a series.1 Arithmetic series An arithmetic series is a series whose terms form an arithmetic sequence. If a series consists of infinite number of terms of a sequence. For now we shall focus mostly on finite series. In this section . That is. 25000 + 25500 + 26000 + 26500 + g + (25000 + 19 (500)) . a + 2d. we need to develop an idea of summing terms of a sequence. " Sn .5 Series Let us consider the following problem: A person joined a job on January 1. 26000.1 . g .3= 1 . Consider a sequence S = " an . Sequences and series of real numbers 49 . So.3= 1h is called an infinite series of terms of the n n 3 3 sequence " an . How can we understand (or assign a meaning to) adding infinitely many terms of a sequence? We will learn about this in higher classes in mathematics. it is called an infinite series. 2.000 and received an annual increment of `500 each year.

Sn = a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + g (a + (n . 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 2 2 This is a useful formula in finding the sums. 2Sn = (n + 1) + (n + 1) + g + (n + 1) + (n + 1) .1) + n . (1) (2) We shall use a small trick to find the above sum.1) d) ( Sn = na + ( d + 2d + 3d + g + (n . 2. we can simplify this formula if we can find the sum 1 + 2 + g + (n .1) + (n . Therefore.1) ) So. Mathematics (5) . to find the sum of positive integers upto 100. (n . Note that we can write Sn also as Sn = n + (n . 3. how many (n + 1) are there on the right hand side of (3)? There are n terms in each of (1) and (2). Adding (1) and (2) we obtain. g. . So.1) .1) d ) = na + d (1 + 2 + 3 + g + (n .1) d] = na + d [1 + 2 + 3 + g + (n .2) + (n . (3) simplifies to 2Sn = n (n + 1) . Carl Fredrick Gauss (1777 – 1855) Now. (3) Now. We have already seen that Sn = na + [d + 2d + 3d + g + (n . Now. let us find the sum of the first n positive integers. Hence. you will learn other methods to arrive at the above formula. When you go to higher studies in mathematics. the sum of the first n positive integers is given by n (n + 1) n (n + 1) .1) below. Sn = Remarks (4) The above method was first used by the famous German mathematician Carl Fredrick Gauss. there must be exactly n such (n + 1) ’s. Thus.1)] n (n .2) + g + 3 + 2 + 1 .1) . Thus. This problem was given to him by his school teacher when he was just five years old. known as Prince of Mathematics. let us go back to summing first n terms of a general arithmetic sequence.1) using (4) = na + d 2 = n [2a + (n . Let Sn = 1 + 2 + 3 + g + (n .1) d] 2 50 10th Std. So. We merely added corresponding terms from (1) and (2). This is nothing but the sum of the arithmetic sequence 1. first we find the sum 1 + 2 + g + (n .

(after grouping) .3 + ^.4h + ^9 . d = 11 .1) d] if the common difference d is given.4 + g to 2n terms = 1 .3h + ^n ..4 + .36h + g to n terms. with first term a =.7h + ^. Solution Given that the series 5 + 11 + 17 + g + 95 is an arithmetic series. . n = l-a +1 d = 95 .2 + 3 . 6 6 Hence.6 .16 Find the sum of the arithmetic series 5 + 11 + 17 + g + 95 .5 = 6 . 2 The sum Sn of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence with first term a is given by (i) Sn = n [2a + (n . if the last term l is given. 1 . the above series is in an A.11h + g n terms Now. 2 (ii) Sn = n (a + l) . Solution We want to find 1 . 2 Example 2.1) d)] = n (first term + last term) 2 2 = n (a + l) . the sum Sn = n 6l + a @ 2 S16 = 16 695 + 5 @ = 8 (100) = 800.17 Find the sum of the first 2n terms of the following series. we have Sn = n [a + (a + (n .1h d @ 2 = n 62^.4 Therefore.Hence.16h + ^25 .P.4n + 4 @ = n 6.16 + 25 .5 + 1 = 90 + 1 = 16.3 and common difference d =.4n . 2 Example 2.4h@ 2 = n 6.2 @ 2 2 = . Now. = .4 + 9 . l = 95. the required sum = n 62a + ^n .g to 2n terms = ^1 ..1h^.n^2n + 1h . 2 Sequences and series of real numbers 51 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Note that a = 5.2n ^2n + 1h = .2 + 3 .

Mathematics . S14 = .3 .351 .31 # 2 a + 12d = .3h@ = .351 2 That is.203 2 7 62a + 13d @ = .203 .702 ( Now. Let us find n such that Sn = – 351 5 + 2 .775 .17n . Sn = n 62a + ^n . Solution In the given arithmetic series.203 2a + 13d = . Now. Solution Given that ( ( ( 14 62a + 13d @ = .3h + ^5 + 2^. That is. 26 terms are needed to get the sum .351 ( 2 n^51 . a = 5 and d =. the required arithmetic series is 5 + ^5 .7 . Thus.g.3nh = .1h^.3 . the sum of the next 11 terms = .1h d @ = .203 and the sum of the next 11 terms is –572.3hh + g .Example 2.351 2 n 648 . cannot be negative.775 2 2a + 24d = .572 . (2) Solving (1) and (2) we get. d =.26h^n + 9h = 0 2 n = 26 or n =.234 = 0 ^n . be taken continuously so that their sum is – 351. That is.203 (1) Also. n 62^24h + ^n .31 S25 = .3n + 3 @ = .9 Here n. ( ( ( S25 = S14 + (.572) 25 62a + 24d @ = .19 How many terms of the arithmetic series 24 + 21 + 18 + 15 + g . ( ` n . being the number of terms needed.1 . a = 24. the series is Example 2. Thus.29 .18 In an arithmetic series. the sum of first 14 terms is . 52 10th Std.4 .572 = . Find the arithmetic series.

Find the sum of the first 30 terms of an A. Let the sum of the interior angles of the polygon be Sn = a + ^a + d h + ^a + 2d h + g + l .P.P. 8 n 6 a + l @ = 112 6104 + 992 @ = 56 (1096) = 61376 . The least measurement in the sequence is 85c. 4 2 Sequences and series of real numbers 53 Sn = ^n . the sequence 104. which are divisible by 8. Now. g . which are divisible by 8 is equal to 61376. (1) We have. 120. Here.4 1. 112.104 + 1 d 8 = 888 + 1 = 112. 120. Thus. That is. .Example 2.2h # 180 ( 2 150n = 180^n . 112. From (1).20 Find the sum of all 3 digit natural numbers. 992 forms an A. the number of sides of the polygon is 12. the sum of all three digit numbers. g + 992 .a + 1 = 992 . 2. the measures of interior angles form an arithmetic sequence..2h # 180 n = 12. a = 104. Example 2. Thus.2h ( Hence. n 6l + a @ = ^n . where a = 85 and l = 215. whose nth term is 3 + 2n . ` n = l . Now.2h # 180 2 n 6215 + 85 @ = ^n . Find the sum of each arithmetic series (ii) 6 + 5 1 + 4 1 + g 25 terms. Find the number of sides in the given polygon. Find the sum of the first (i) 75 positive integers (ii) 125 natural numbers. Let Sn denote their sum. Solution The three digit natural numbers divisible by 8 are 104. (i) 38 + 35 + 32 + g + 2 . we have Exercise 2. Solution Let n denote the number of sides of the polygon. g . Sn = n 6l + a @ 2 0 We know that the sum of the interior angles of a polygon is (n . The greatest measurement is 215c. S112 = 2 2 Hence. d = 8 and l = 992.21 The measures of the interior angles taken in order of a polygon form an arithmetic sequence. 3. Sn = 104 + 112 + 120 + 128 + . 992.2 ) # 180 .

then prove that the ratio of the sum of odd terms to the sum of even terms is ^n + 1h : n . Find the sum of all natural numbers between 300 and 500 which are divisible by 11. Find the maximum number of days by which the completion of work can be delayed 8. Calculate the interest at the end of each year. how many times will it strike in a day? Show that the sum of an arithmetic series whose first term is a .2 + 3 .2n. The sum of first n terms of a certain series is given as 3n . the sum of first 11 terms is 44 and that of the next 11 terms is 55. 14. second term b and the ^a + ch^b + c .ah If there are ^2n + 1h terms in an arithmetic series.1h 10th Std. 48. how many terms are needed so that their sum is 368? Find the sum of all 3 digit natural numbers.000 towards penalty. 12. 9. Based on its budget. Find the sum of all numbers between 100 and 200 which are not divisible by 5. 16.4. starting from the first term. Find the sum of first 20 terms of the arithmetic series in which 3rd term is 7 and 7th term is 2 more than three times its 3rd term. 11. Solve: 1 + 6 + 11 + 16 + g + x = 148 . 2^ b . n = 30. which are divisible by 9. Mathematics 2 2 2 15. (i) a = 5. 2 2 d =.2ah last term is c is equal to .1h : ^2n . 17. In an arithmetic series. 2 n = 25.4 + g . Show that the series is an arithmetic series. 7. 13.? If so. twice at 2 o’clock and so on. The penalty will be `4000 for the first day and will increase by `1000 for each following day. The ratio of the sums of first m and first n terms of an arithmetic series is m : n show that the ratio of the mth and nth terms is ^2m . 10. If a clock strikes once at 1 o’clock. 56. 19.g . In the arithmetic sequence 60. 52.4 2 5. the company can afford to pay a maximum of `1. 18. Find the Sn for the following arithmetic series described. A sum of `1000 is deposited every year at 8% simple interest.P. Find the arithmetic series. find the total interest at the end of 30 years. A construction company will be penalised each day for delay in construction of a bridge. l = 121 (ii) a = 50. Do these interest amounts form an A. Find the sum of the first 40 terms of the series 1 . 54 . 6.65.

48 + 144 .^. then from (1) it follows that Sn = na . where a is the first term and r is the common ratio.22 Find the sum of the first 25 terms of the geometric series 16 .1) a (1 . ar . using (1) we have rSn = r (a + ar + ar + g + ar ) = ar + ar + ar + g + ar .(ar + ar + g + ar ) 2 n ( The sum of the first n terms of a geometric series is given by n n a (r .3h Sequences and series of real numbers 55 . (2) Now subtracting (2) from (1).r . Let Sn = a + ar + ar + g + ar If 2 n-1 2 n-1 n (1) r = 1 . r = . We want to find the sum of the first n terms of this sequence. n ^ h Solution Here a = 16. 4 1 . Now. ar .20. Sn = a 1 . Remarks Actually. ar. 2 n-1 2 3 n For r ! 1 . we get Sn . The longer side of trapezoid needs to start with a row of 97 bricks.r h n ^ h Hence. since r ! 1 .r h = a^1 . g.3h25h 16^1 + 325h 25 = = 4^1 + 3 h .2 Geometric series A series is a geometric series if the terms of the series form a geometric sequence. we have Sn = a 1 .432 + g .rSn = (a + ar + ar + g + ar n Sn ^1 .48 = . How many bricks does he need to buy? 2.r .r ) . Let a.1 1-r na if r = 1.3 ! 1. ar . g be a geometric sequence where r = 0 is the common Y ratio. 1-r Note that the sum of infinite number of positive numbers may give a finite value. Each row must be decreased by 2 bricks on each end and the construction should stop at 25th row.5.^. A gardener plans to construct a trapezoidal shaped structure in his garden. then the following formula holds: 2 n a + ar + ar + g + ar + g = a . r ! 1 . Example 2. if r ! 1 = Sn = * r . 1-r 2 n-1 ) . if . 16 1-r So. we have S25 = 16^1 .1 1 r 1 1 .

let us consider Sn = = a6 r . n = 6 Solution (i) Here a = 2. Thus.23 Find Sn for each of the geometric series described below: (i) a = 2.3. To find n. .1 @ = ^. 2 .3h5 .25 The first term of a geometric series is 375 and the fourth term is 192.24 In the geometric series 2 + 4 + 8 + g . n = 9.1 E = 2^2 . Find the common ratio and the sum of the first 14 terms. Mathematics . r =. 2-1 n n But Sn = 1022 and hence 2^2 . Let n be the number of terms required to get the sum. 4 Example 2. Here a = 2.3h .= 3-1 Sn S6 Here a = 2400. starting from the first term how many consecutive terms are needed to yield the sum 1022? Solution Given the geometric series is 2 + 4 + 8 + g . Example 2. S5 = = r-1 24006^. n = 5 5 a^r . 5 5 (ii) a = 2400. Thus. (ii) r = = = 243 ` r = 3.Example 2. t6 = 486. 56 10th Std. r = – 3.1 5 Hence. n a^r . n = 5 n=6 Now t6 = 2 (r) = 486 ( Now. Sn = 1022 .1h if r ! 1 r-1 6 2^3 .1 @ if r Y 1 = r-1 n n ^2h.1h = 1022 ( ( 2 -1 n 2 n = = 511 9 512 = 2 .1h if r Y 1 Thus.1h = 36 1 728 . S5 = 2400 ^1 + 3 h = 600^1 + 243h = 146400. r = 2. t6 = 486.1h .

1 E if r = 1 Y r-1 14 375 8` 4 j .Solution Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the given G. one can use Sn = a .1h + ^1000 . . 1 . Thus. tn = ar 3 3 ( 375 r = 192 ` t4 = 375 r 3 3 r = 192 ( r = 64 375 125 3 3 r = `4j ( r = 4 .1 B 14 5 S14 = = (.26 A geometric series consists of four terms and has a positive common ratio. Given that a = 375.1 E if r = 1 .n] 3 n 10 (10 . 5 5 n Sn = a . ar + ar = r (a + ar) = 72 2 ( r (8) = 72 ` r = ! 3 Since r > 0. the geometric series is 2 + 6 + 18 + 54 .r E if r = 1 instead of Sn = a . We need to find Sn = 6 + 66 + 666 + g to n terms Sn = 6 (1 + 11 + 111 + g to n terms ) = 6 ^9 + 99 + 999 + g to n termsh (Multiply and divide by 9) 9 = 2 6^10 . Example 2. . 2 3 Solution Let the sum of the four terms of the geometric series be a + ar + ar + ar and r 2 0 2 3 Given that a + ar = 8 and ar + ar = 72 2 3 2 Now.27 Find the sum to n terms of the series 6 + 66 + 666 +g Solution Note that the given series is not a geometric series. r . Find the series. Note In the above example.1h + ^100 .1) Sn = 2 . The sum of the first two terms is 8 and the sum of the last two terms is 72.1h + g to n terms @ 3 2 3 = 2 [(10 + 10 + 10 + g n terms) . Y Y 1-r r-1 Example 2. which is the required common ratio.1) # 5 # 375 8` 4 j .P. a + ar = 8 ( a = 2 Thus.1 B 4 -1 5 5 14 14 = ^375h^5h81 . t4 = 192 .` 4 j B . Now. n-1 Now. we have r = 3.` 4 j B = 1875 81 . 5 5 n n Now.n E. 3 9 Sequences and series of real numbers 57 Thus. r .

how many people will be affected by the epidemic? 10th Std. 7. n = 25 n Sn = a . n = 12 . a = 1.1 + 0. 9. 2 6 18 Find the sum of the first 27 terms of the geometric series 1 + 1 + 1 + g . two for the second. the number of saplings to be needed is 2 . Find the sum of first n terms of the series (i) 7 + 77 + 777 + g .P. Exercise 2. Find the sum of the following finite series (i) 1 + 0. 3.1 . 4. How many consecutive terms starting from the first term of the series (i) 3 + 9 + 27 + g would sum to 1092 ? 6. Here. eight for the fourth street and so on.001 + g + ^0.01 + 0.94 + 0.994 + g . 2. Find the sum 5 of first 23 consecutive terms in the given geometric series. Then. t8 = 384. A geometric series consists of four terms and has a positive common ratio. r .5 1. Find the series. (ii) 2 + 6 + 18 + g would sum to 728 ? The second term of a geometric series is 3 and the common ratio is 4 . Find the sum of the first 20 terms of the geometric series 5 + 5 + 5 + g . (ii) a = 5.4 + 0.1 2-1 25 = 2 -1 Thus. Sn = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + g to 25 terms. 8. r = 2. How many saplings are needed to complete the work? Solution The number of saplings to be planted for each of the 25 streets in the town forms a G. Suppose that five people are ill during the first week of an epidemic. By the end of 15th week. (ii) 0. Let Sn be the total number of saplings needed. The sum of the first two terms is 9 and sum of the last two terms is 36. and each sick person spreads the contagious disease to four other people by the end of the second week.1 E r-1 @ 6 25 S64 = (1) 2 . (i) a = 3.Example 2. four for the third. n = 8 .1h9 (ii) 1 + 11 + 111 + g to 20 terms. 9 27 81 Find Sn for each of the geometric series described below. Mathematics 25 58 .28 An organisation plans to plant saplings in 25 streets in a town in such a way that one sapling for the first street. r = 3 . 5.

He gave the boy two choices. n 2 n-1 is given by 1 + x + x + g + x = x . 2 on the second day. 5. 2. Find the common ratio. n Notation Expansion 1+2+3+g+n 1+2+3+4+5 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 2 2 3 2 1. 12.1) d=0 / (d + 5) k=1 / k2 k=1 n 1 +2 +3 +g+n 10 k=1 / 10 3=3 /1 3 61 + 1 + g 10 terms @ = 30. This formula will be useful in finding the sum of some series. d = 1 and l = n as Sn = n (a + l) = n (1 + n) . Y x-1 Note that the left hand side of the above equation is a special polynomial in x of degree n .1 .1 . 3. If S1. This can also be obtained 2 using A. with a =1 .S2h = ^ S2 . No. A gardener wanted to reward a boy for his good deeds by giving some mangoes. S2 and S3 are the sum of first n. 4.P. then prove that S1 ^ S3 .5.10.3 Special series k=1 / k. x = 1. The sum of all terms is 3 times the sum of odd terms.S1h2 . Which option should the boy choose to get the maximum number of mangoes? A geometric series consists of even number of terms. 2. 11. 2n and 3n terms of a geometric series respectively. k=1 /k 6 n=2 5 or /j j=1 n / (n . 8 mangoes on the fourth day and so on for ten days. Sl. n^ n + 1h . Remarks The sum of the first n terms of a geometric series with a = 1 and common ratio x ! 1. Let us list out some examples of finite series represented by sigma notation. 4 on the third day. / k2 and / k3 k=1 k=1 n n n We have already used the symbol R for summation. 2 2 We have derived that 1+2+3+g+n = Sequences and series of real numbers 59 . He could either have 1000 mangoes at once or he could get 1 mango on the first day.

1h2 ( take a = k and b = k – 1) k .3^2h + 1 3 .1h.1) = n 2 k=1 /^2k . 3 2 2 2 n = 3 61 + 2 + g + n @ . 6 (2) . When k = 3.n = -n = n .0 = 3^1 h2 . we have n .1 = 2 c k m . consisting of n terms with a = 1. g.1h .3^nh + 1 .1h + ^k . From (1). 2 k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1 / / / / 2 2. Mathematics k=1 n / k2 E = n3 + 3n^n2+ 1h . (iii) n /^2k . The formula (1) can also be obtained by the following method n n n n 2 2 (n) (n + 1) (2k . 60 10th Std.^k . 3 k .1h = n2 n 1.3^3 h + 1 .1h3 = 3k .3k + 1 1 . n /^2k . 3 61 + 2 + g + n @ = n + 3 61 + 2 + g + n @ . ` Thus. l = ^2n .1h. n column-wise.361 + 2 + g + n @ + n 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 (1) Adding the above equations corresponding to k = 1.bh^a + ab + b h .2 = 3^3 h2 .P. Continuing this.^n .1 = 3^2h2 .^k .n 3.3^1 h + 1 2 . When k = 2.Hence. since l = 2n – 1 ( n = l + 1 . Hence. 2.1h3 = 3^nh2 . n n (ii) k=1 / k2 n and k=1 / k3 . Remarks 2 Sn = n (1 + 2n . 1 + 3 + 5 + g + l = ` l + 1 j . (ii) We know that ` ( When k = 1. when k = n.1) = 2k . we obtain 2 2 2 3 Thus.1h3 = k + k^k .n n k=1 / k2 = n^n + 1h^2n + 1h .1h = 1 + 3 + 5 + g + ^2n . (Sn = n (a + l) ) 2 (1) This is an A. 2 2 3 3 2 2 a .b = ^a . d = 2. using sigma notation we write it as Let us derive the formulae for (i) Proof: (i) Let us find k=1 k=1 k=1 + / k = n (n2 1) .

k=1 n 2 (ii) The sum of the first n odd natural numbers. Extending this pattern to n terms. n n^ n + 1h 2 3 k =. = ^1 h2 = ^1 + 2h2 1 + 2 + 3 = 36 = ^1 + 2 + 3h2 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 100 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + 4h2 . we get 3 3 3 3 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 61 + 2 + 3 + g + n @2 =.(iii) k=1 / k3 = 13 + 23 + gn3 1 = 1 1 +2 = 9 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 n Let us observe the following pattern. n^ n + 1h 2 E 2 n n 2 n^ n + 1h 2 3 k = c km = . E . (iii) The sum of first n odd natural numbers (when the last term l is given) is 1 + 3 + 5 + g + l = `l + 1j .29 Find the sum of the following series (i) 26 + 27 + 28 + g + 60 (ii) 1 + 3 + 5 + g to 25 terms Solution (i) We have 26 + 27 + 28 + g + 60 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 60h . /^2k . Sequences and series of real numbers 61 . Thus.325 = 1505. 2 k=1 k=1 / / (3) + / k = n (n2 1) . k = 6 k=1 (v) The sum of cubes of the first n natural numbers.(25 # 13) = 1830 . E . 2 k=1 2 k=1 n / / Example 2. /n .^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25h = = (ii) 31 + 33 + g + 53. 2 (iv) The sum of squares of first n natural numbers. (i) The sum of the first n natural numbers.1h = n . n n^n + 1h^2n + 1h 2 ./n 1 1 60 25 60^60 + 1h 25^25 + 1h 2 2 = (30 # 61) .

Mathematics .(ii) Here n = 25 ` 1 + 3 + 5 + g to 25 terms = 25 2 ( k=1 / (2k . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( k=1 / k2 = n n^n + 1h^2n + 1h ) 6 Now. ( 1 + 3 + 5 + g + l = `l + 1j ) 2 2 Example 2. 12 + 13 + 14 + g + 35 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 35 h -^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 11 h = = = / n2 ./ n2 1 1 35 11 35^35 + 1h^70 + 1h 11^12h^23h 6 6 ^35h^36h^71h 6 6 = 14910 . 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25 = = 2 2 2 2 / n2 1 25 25^25 + 1h^50 + 1h 6 ^25h^26h^51h = 6 ` (ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25 = 5525. 1 + 3 + 5 + g + 51 2 2 2 2 - ^11h^12h^23h 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 51 h . (iii) 31 + 33 + g + 53 = ^1 + 3 + 5 + g + 53h -^1 + 3 + 5 + g + 29h 2 2 = ` 53 + 1 j .22 612 + 22 + 32 + g + 252 @ 51 1 10th Std. Solution (i) Now.15 = 504.1) = n2 n ) = 625.30 Find the sum of the following series (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) 12 + 13 + 14 + g + 35 2 2 2 2 (iii) 1 + 3 + 5 + g + 51 .506 = 14404 . (iii) Now.` 29 + 1 j 2 2 2 2 = 27 .^2 + 4 + 6 + g50 h = 62 / n2 .

if 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 4356 Solution Note that k is a positive integer.= = / n2 . E 2 2 2 2 = 406 .32 Find the value of k.4 # 6 6 ^51h^52h^103h 25^26h^51h = -4 # 6 6 = 45526 . (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 20 Solution (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g20 = 3 3 3 3 20 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 (ii) 11 + 12 + 13 + g + 28 / n3 k=1 =c 20^20 + 1h 2 using m 2 2 = ` 20 # 21 j = ^210h2 = 44100.11h = 0 Thus.55 = (406 + 55) (406 .132 = 0 ( ^k + 12h^k . k ^ k + 1h 2 m = 4356 =6 # 6 # 11 # 11 2 k ^ k + 1h = 66 Taking square root. n ^ n2 1 h E . Example 2./ n3 1 1 28 10 28^28 + 1h 2 10^10 + 1h 2 E -.55) = (461)(351) = 161811. Sequences and series of real numbers 63 .4/ n2 1 1 51 25 51^51 + 1h^102 + 1h 25^25 + 1h^50 + 1h .31 Find the sum of the series.^1 + 2 + g + 10 h = / n3 . 2 3 3 + / k 3 = . k = 11 . Example 2.22100 = 23426. n 2 (ii) Next we consider 11 + 12 + g + 28 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 28 h . since k is positive. Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 4356 ( c 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 =. we get 2 2 ( k + k .

34 Find the total area of 14 squares whose sides are 11 cm.33 (i) (ii) Solution (i) Given 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 120 ` (ii) 3 If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 120 . find 1 + 2 + 3 + g n . Find the sum of the following series. ( c Example 2.e. n^ n + 1h = 120 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 i. g . 1 +2 +g+n = c 3 3 3 3 3 3 n^ n + 1h 2 2 m = 120 = 14400 2 Given 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 36100 n^ n + 1h 2 m = 36100 =19 # 19 # 10 # 10 2 n^ n + 1h = 190 ( 2 Thus. Exercise 2.Example 2. Solution The areas of the squares form the series 11 + 12 + g + 24 Total area of 14 squares = 11 + 12 + 13 + g + 24 24 1 10 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 = ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 24 h -^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 10 h = = = / n2 .385 = 4515 sq. then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n. (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 45 (ii) 16 + 17 + 18 + g + 25 2 2 2 2 (iii) 2 + 4 + 6 + g + 100 (v) 64 (iv) 7 + 14 +21 g + 490 2 5 + 7 + 9 + g + 39 2 2 2 (vi) 16 + 17 + g + 35 3 3 3 10th Std. 24 cm.6 1. 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 190. 12 cm. Mathematics . If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 36100./ n2 24^24 + 1h^48 + 1h 10^10 + 1h^20 + 1h 6 6 ^24h^25h^49h ^10h^11h^21h 6 - 6 = 4900 . cm. respectively.

P. nor G.P. c are in A. 1. then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p . 18 cm. 5. then the value of a . (B) 24 (C) 23 (D) 21 The next term of 1 in the sequence 1 .2. 3.P.4b + 6c . c. (B) a G. 3c+7.P. l. 3l+7. 1 .P. then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k . is a7 2 3 (A) (B) 0 (C) 12a1 (D) 14a1 2 If the sequence a1. (C) neither A. 3b+7. 13cm. then a . then 3a+7. 23cm.b is equal to b-c a b (A) (B) (C) a (D) 1 b c c If the nth term of a sequence is 100 n +10. a If a1. (B) an A. g. respectively.4l + m is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0 If a. . Find the total area of 12 squares whose sides are 12cm. .P. 3m+7. 2. 9. 2. 6. 8. b. m. (C) a constant sequence (D) neither A. (B) an A.P. then the sequence a5. Find the total volume of 15 cubes whose edges are 16 cm. 7. 6. 3n+7 form (A) a G. 4k–6.P. 1. 4.P Sequences and series of real numbers 65 4. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 8281 .P. a2. then the value of k is (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 If a. such that 4 = 3 . then the 13th term of the A. a2. b. (D) a constant sequence If k+2. (D) A sequence may have a finite number of terms. a10. g is (A) 25 3. a3. 3k–2 are the three consecutive terms of an A. 3.P. The 8th term of the sequence 1. g is 20 2 6 12 20 1 1 (A) (B) (C) 1 (D) 1 24 22 30 18 If a.P. b. 10.P. 5. a3.P. 1 . then the sequence is (C) a constant sequence (D) neither A. m are in A. g is (A) a G.P. g are in A. 5. 1 . (C) A sequence may have infinitely many terms. a15.P nor G. (B) Every function represents a sequence. (A) an A. g . Which one of the following is not true? (A) A sequence is a real valued function defined on N .P. c. 17 cm. Exercise 2. g is in A. n are in A.P.. Find the value of k if (i) 3 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 6084 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 (ii) 3 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 2025 3 3 3 3 3 3 If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p = 171 .7 Choose the correct answer. nor G. 8.P. 30 cm respectively. l.

If the product of the first four consecutive terms of a G. If the n term of an A. + n = k then 1 + 2 + g + n is equal to (A) k 2 3 (B) k 3 (C) k ^ k + 1h 2 (D) ^k + 1h3 66 10th Std.a .5nh m-n th (C) n ^1 + 5nh 2 . g are in G. .P. The common ratio of the G. c are in G.P. If the third term of a G. g form (A) an A. nor G. then 5x.5n @ 2 (B) n^1 .P is 256 and if the common ratio is 4 and the first term is positive. 2x + 2 .P.P.P is 2. 3x + 3. (B) a G.P. b.P (D) both A.P. If x. The sequence –3.sec x) (sec x + sec x + sec x) (D) 3 5 2 3 4 2 4 (1 + sec x) (1 + sec x + sec x) 3 4 18. In a G. 14.P. and G. then a . is tn = 3 . then its 3rd term is (A) 8 (B) 1 16 (C) 1 32 (D) 16 16. a (A) a m is (D) a -n (B) a -m (C) a 3 3 n 20.P. If a.P.b is equal to b-c (A) a (B) b (C) b b a c (D) c b 13.a m m+n (D) n ^1 + nh 2 19. 15. . Then the common ratio is 5 5 (A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 1 5 3 2 3 4 5 (D) 5 17. If 1 + 2 + 3 +. 10x + 10 . If x ! 0 . t2 = 3 and t3 = 1 .11. (C) a constant sequence (D) neither A. Mathematics .P.g is (A) an A. 15x + 15.P. nor a G.P. then the sum of the first n terms is (A) n 61 .P.5n . –3. then 1 + sec x + sec x + sec x + sec x + sec x is equal to (A) (1 + sec x) (sec x + sec x + sec x) (B) (1 + sec x) (1 + sec x + sec x) (C) (1 . only (B) a G.P. –3. then the product of first 5 terms is (A) 5 2 (B) 2 5 (C) 10 (D) 15 12. only (C) neither A.

an. n n (n + 1) q The sum of the first n natural numbers. then it is called an infinite series. Sequences and series of real numbers 67 . 4. an . 5.1) d 6 n ! N. n = 3. n ! N where r is a constant. a2.1 is prime. n 2 Do you know? A Mersenne number. where r ! 0. If M is a prime.1 is a Mersenne prime.P. g. Here a1 is called the first term and the constant d is called the common difference. 1.1 + Fn . n = 1. k=1 /^2k .Interestingly. If the sum consists only finite number of terms. The formula for the general term of an A. is tn = a + (n . Here. then p is prime. 34. 2 2 q The sum of the first n terms of a geometric series is given by n n a (r .1) a (1 . k = 6 k=1 / q The sum of cubes of the first n natural numbers. 8. q An expression of addition of terms of a sequence is called a series. a3. named after Marin Mersenne. k=1 + / k 3 = .P. where l is the last term. g . g.112. 2.1) d] = n (a + l) . . g is called a geometric sequence if an + 1 = an r. 3.609 . The sum Sn of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence with first term a and common difference d is given by Sn = n [2a + (n . a3. g is called the Fibonacci sequence which is nothing but 1. If the sum consists of infinite number of terms of a sequence.r ) Sn = * r . g A sequence a1. if r ! 1 na if r = 1.The largest known prime number 243.1 = 1 . The sequence given by F1 = F2 = 1 and Fn = Fn . 2 n n^n + 1h^2n + 1h 2 q The sum of squares of first n natural numbers. q q A sequence a1.r . 3.2. then it is called a Mersenne prime. a2. is a positive integer of the form M =2 p . k= 2 k=1 q / n q q The sum of the first n odd natural numbers. where p is a positive integer. The formula for the general term of a G. a1 is the first term and the constant r is called the common ratio. 21.1h = n2 The sum of first n odd natural numbers ( when the last term l is given) is 2 1 + 3 + 5 + g + l = `l + 1j .Points to Remember q q A sequence of real numbers is an arrangement or a list of real numbers in a specific order. where a is the first term and r is the common ratio. 13. g is called an arithmetic sequence if an + 1 = an + d . n ^ n2 1 h E . then it is called a finite series. if 2 p . . 2. n ! N where d is a constant. is tn = ar n-1 .1 .

There he used the word aljabra .Author unknown Introduction Polynomials Synthetic Division GCD and LCM Rational Expressions Square root Quadratic Equations Algebra is an important and a very old branch of mathematics which deals with solving algebraic equations. Leonardo Fibonacci’s books on algebra was important and influential. we shall focus on learning techniques of solving linear system of equations and quadratic equations. Mathematics . The next major development in algebra took place in ninth century by Arab mathematicians. DeMorgan (Britain. In particular. Other highly influential works on algebra were those of the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli (1445-1517). Peacock (Britain. In this chapter.1 Introduction The human mind has never invented a labour-saving machine equal to algebra . Al-Khwarizmi’s book entitled “Compendium on calculation by completion and balancing” was an important milestone. In later centuries Algebra blossomed into more abstract and in 19th century British mathematicians took the lead in this effort. to the Western world. In the sixth and seventh centuries. 1806-1871) extended Peacock’s work to consider operations defined on abstract symbols. For this reason he is sometimes called the “Euclid of Algebra”.which was latinized into algebra . 68 10th Std. He presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. In the 13th century. Indian mathematicians like Aryabhatta and Brahmagupta have worked on linear equations and quadratic equations and developed general methods of solving them. Al-Khwarizmi (780-850) Arab Al-Khwarizmi’s contribution to Mathematics and Geography established the basis for innovation in Algebra and Trigonometry.translates as competition or restoration. the Greek mathematician Diophantus wrote a book “Arithmetic” which contained a large number of practical problems.3 ALGEBRA 3. and of the English mathematician Robert Recorde (1510-1558). 1791-1858) was the founder of axiomatic thinking in arithmetic and algebra. He is considered the founder of algebra. His work on arithmetic was responsible for introducing the Arabic numerals based on the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed in Indian Mathematics. In third century.

3. Remarks (i) An equation of the form ax + by = c is called linear because the variables are only to the first power. every solution ( x. Definition An ordered pair (x0. (ii) It is also possible to consider linear systems in more than two variables. b1. where at least one of a and b is non-zero. A set of finite number of linear equations in two unknowns x and y that are to be treated together. a2 and b2 can be zero with the exception that each equation must have at least one variable in it or simply. we have studied the linear equation ax + b = 0. Such a system of equations is also called simultaneous equations. is called a system of linear equations in x and y . we shall discuss only a pair of linear equations in two variables. Thus. and there are no products of variables in the equation. So each point ( x. a2 + b2 ! 0. Let us consider a linear system a1 x + b1 y = c1 a2 x + b2 y = c2 (1) (2) in two variables x and y . In this section. y) of the equation is a point on this straight line. y) on this line corresponds to a solution of the equation ax + by = c . Let us consider a linear equation ax + by = c . Geometrically. 2 2 2 2 a1 + b1 ! 0 . Algebra 69 . in one unknown x. An ordered pair (x0. y = y0 satisfy the equation. where any of the constants a1. Geometrically the following situations occur. The two straight lines represented by (1) and (2) (i) may intersect at exactly one point (ii) may not intersect at any point (iii) may coincide. in two unknowns x and y. A system of linear equations a1 x + b1 y = c1 a2 x + b2 y = c2 in two variables is said to be (i) consistent if at least one pair of values of x and y satisfies both equations and (ii) inconsistent if there are no values of x and y that satisfy both equations. You will learn this in higher classes. the equation ax + by = c has infinitely many solutions. y0) is called a solution to the linear equation if the values x = x0. y0) is called a solution to a linear system in two variables if the values x = x0.2 System of linear equations in two unknowns In class IX. a ! 0 . the graph of the linear equation ax + by = c is a straight line in a plane. Conversely. y = y0 satisfy all the equations in the system.

The elimination of one unknown can be achieved in the following ways.1 Solve 3x .If (i) happens. Adding (1) and (2). Then.2. we substitute x = 3 in (1) or (2) to solve for y. 2x + 5y = 31 Solution The given equations are 3x . x = 3. Mathematics 70 . So this method of solving a system by eliminating one of the variables first. 3. 3(3) –5y = –16 ( y = 5.5y = –16 2x + 5y = 31 Note that the coefficients of y in both equations are numerically equal. (i) (ii) Multiply or divide the members of the equations by such numbers as to make the coefficients of the unknown to be eliminated numerically equal. Now. 10th Std. Now. then the system does not have a solution. So. (3) (1) (2) Note Obtaining equation (3) in only one variable is an important step in finding the solution. then the intersecting point gives the unique solution of the system. is called “method of elimination”. Substituting x = 3 in (1) we obtain. If (iii) happens. eliminate by addition if the resulting coefficients have unlike signs and by subtraction if they have like signs. 3(3) – 5(5) = –16 and 2(3) +5(5) = 31. we may combine equations of a system in such a manner as to get rid of one of the unknowns.5y = –16 . Thus. we can eliminate y easily. (3. we will solve a system of linear equations in two unknowns using the following algebraic methods (i) the method of elimination (ii) the method of cross multiplication. Now. we obtain an equation 5x = 15 That is. Example 3. then every point on the line corresponds to a solution to the system. We obtained equation (3) in one variable x by eliminating the variable y.1 Elimination method In this method. If (ii) happens. the system will have infinitely many solutions in this case. 5) a is solution to the given system because (1) and (2) are true when x = 3 and y = 5 as from (1) and (2) we get.

2x .1. 11 (4) + 3y = 50 i. the solution is ( –3. We get.2 The cost of 11 pencils and 3 erasers is ` 50 and the cost of 8 pencils and 3 erasers is ` 38.3y = 6 (1) # 2 ( (2) # –3 ( 6x + 8y = –50 .Example 3. Remarks In Example 3. Thus.6x + 9y = –18 (1) (2) (3) (4) To eliminate the variable x. 17y = – 68 which gives y = – 4 Next. Then we do the elimination. (1) (2) Note It is always better to check that the obtained values satisfy the both equations. adding (3) and (4) we get. –4 ).3 Solve by elimination method 3x + 4y = –25. Now substitute x= 4 in (1) to find the value of y .e. x =–3 Hence. the cost of a pencil is ` 4 and that of an eraser is ` 2. substitute y = – 4 in (1) to obtain 3x + 4 (. Therefore. Algebra 71 .. x = 4 and y = 2 is the solution of the given pair of equations. y = 2 . 3x = 12 which gives x = 4 . it is not possible to eliminate one of the variables by simply adding or subtracting the given equations as we did in Example 3.3. Then according to the given information we have 11x + 3y = 50 8x + 3y = 38 Subtracting (2) from (1) we get.4) = – 25 That is. Example 3. Thus.3y = 6 Solution The given system is 3x + 4y = –25 2x . Solution Let x denote the cost of a pencil in rupees and y denote the cost of an eraser in rupees. let us multiply (1) by 2 and (2) by –3 to obtain Now. first we shall do some manipulations so that coefficients of either x or y are equal except for sign. Find the cost of each pencil and each eraser.

3 + 6 = 7 y x x y 9 + 3 = 11 x y (3) (4) Let a = 1 and b = 1 .5 Solve 3^2x + yh = 7xy . Thus. of course we could multiply equations by appropriate numbers to eliminate one of the variables.2y = –2 which is same as (4) x .4 Using elimination method. Dividing by 200 we get. In such a case. (0. (3) Thus. x y Equations (3) and (4) become 3a + 6b = 7 9a + 3b = 11 which is a linear system in a and b. (5) (6) 72 10th Std. 3^ x + 3yh = 11xy using elimination method Solution The given system of equations is 3^2x + yh = 7xy 3^ x + 3yh = 11xy (1) (2) Observe that the given system is not linear because of the occurrence of xy term. Subtracting (2) from (1). However. we get and 6 + 3 = 7. Example 3. we consider the case where x ! 0 . 99x + 101y = 501 Solution The given system of equations is (1) 101x + 99y = 499 (2) 99x + 101y = 501 Here. Also.y = –1 x = 2. Mathematics . note that if x = 0. the required solution is ( 2. 3 ). 0) is a solution for the system and any other solution would have both x ! 0 and y ! 0 . Dividing both sides of each equation by xy. Adding (1) and (2). So. i. then y = 0 and vice versa. we get 200x + 200y = 1000. we get Solving (3) and (4).. we add and subtract the two equations to get a new system of very simple equations having the same solution.e. we get x+y = 5 2x .Example 3. solve 101x + 99y = 499. y ! 0 . y = 3. note that the coefficient of x in one equation is equal to the coefficient of y in the other equation.

x ! 0. x + = 4 . Thus. 1 + 1 = 36 . 3x + y = 8 . y = 3 .1 Solve each of the following system of equations by elimination method. That is. 0 ). 2 Exercise 3. (2) × 2 – (1) ( ( 3^2x + yh = 7xy 3^ x + 3yh = 11xy 15y = 15xy 15y(1–x) = 0. 2 + 5 = 15 .33y = 97 . Now. 2 + 2 = 1 . a2 + b2 ! 0. y ! 0 5 x y x y 2. y 3 3 2 Thus. x .7y = xy . Thus. When a = 1. 15 + 2 = 17 . Thus. x ! 0. 11x + 13y = 74 9. we have x When b = 2 . 11x . we have 1 = 2 . x + 2y = 7 .4y = 6xy 6.65y = 1 10. Algebra 73 . 33x . 3 ) and ( 0.To eliminate b. 0 ). the two solutions are ( 1.2y = 1 y 3.2xy 8. 5x + y = 10 4. we have x = 0 2 Hence. x = 1 and y = 0 (1) (2) (7) When x = 1. 13x + 11y = 70 . Now. 6x . x = 1 . Thus. y ! 0 x y xy x y xy 7. 8x . 3 + 5 = 20 . a = 1 and b = 2 . 65x . 3 3 1 = 1.3y = 5xy . the system has two solutions ( 1. .15a = –15. 3 ) and ( 0. 3 + 2 = 0. Substituting a = 1 in (5) we get.5y =. a = 1. 9x . x ! 0. b = 2 . we have y = 3 and when y = 0. y ! 0 x 3y 6 x y Cardinality of the set of solutions of the system of linear equations Let us consider the system of two equations a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 2 2 2 (1) (2) 2 where the coefficients are real numbers such that a1 + b1 ! 0 . 1. we have (6) # 2 ( 18a + 6b = 22 Subtracting (7) from (5) we get. 2 Aliter The given system of equations can also be solved in the following way. x + 2y = 5 2 3 5.

If c1 ! mc2 .a2 b1 provided a1 b2 . b2 a1 x + b2 b1 y + b2 c1 = 0 b1 a2 x + b1 b2 y + b1 c2 = 0 Subtracting equation (4) from (3). then the pair of linear equations given by (1) and (2) a2 b2 c2 has no solution. b1 = mb2 In this case. then there are infinitely many solutions to the pair of a2 b2 c2 linear equations given by (1) and (2). we have to consider two cases. That is.a2 b1 (5) Thus.a2 b1 1 2 Here.a2 b1 ! 0 .b2 c1 ( x = (3) (4) b1 c2 . if a1 b c = 1 = 1 = m . the pair of linear equations has a unique solution. a1 b ! 1.a2 b1 ! 0 Substituting the value of x in either (1) or (2) and solving for y. multiply equation (1) by b2 and equation (2) by b1 .Let us apply the elimination method for equating the coefficients of y. a2 b2 Now. a2 b2 a1 b = 1 a2 b2 In this case. a b . a1 b2 . substituting the values of a1 and b1 in equation (1) we get.b2 c1 c a . then any solution of equation (1) will not satisfy equation (2) and vice versa.a2 b1 = 0 .b2 c1 a1 b2 .a2 b1 a1 b2 .c2 a1 x= 1 2 and y = 1 2 . Hence. we have b c . m^a2 x + b2 yh + c1 = 0 (6) It is easily observed that both the equations (6) and (2) can be satisfied only if c c1 = mc2 ( 1 = m c2 If c1 = mc2 . Then a1 = ma2 . Mathematics .a2 b1 ! 0 . we get ^b2 a1 .c2 a1 . Case (ii) a1 b2 . if 74 10th Std. That is. So. any solution of equation (2) will also satisfy the equation (1) and vice versa. a1 b2 . Now. let a1 = b1 = m . we get y= c1 a2 . Case (i) a1 b2 . if a2 ! 0 and b2 ! 0 . a1 b c = 1 ! 1 .a2 b1 ! 0 . provided a1 b2 .b1 a2h x = b1 c2 . we get.

a2 b2 a1 b1 c1 (ii) If . we can write x 1 = .a2 b1 Thus. we summarise the above discussion. where a1 + b1 ! 0 . let us describe this method and see how it works.a2 b1 c1 a2 .b2 c1 a1 b2 . then the system of equations has no solution. There is another method called the cross multiplication method.c2 a1 (1) (2) Let us write the above in the following form y x 1 = = .a2 b1 a1 b2 . the second product (upward arrow) is to be subtracted from the first product (downward arrow). which simplifies the procedure.a2 b1 c1 a2 .Note Now.2 Cross multiplication method While solving a pair of linear equations in two unknowns x and y using elimination method. a2 + b2 ! 0. = = a2 b2 c2 (iii) If a1 b c = 1 ! 1 . 1 x y c1 b1 a1 b1 b2 c2 a2 b2 The arrows between the two numbers indicate that they are multiplied. b1 c2 . b1 c2 . a b (i) If a1 b2 . Algebra 75 . we utilised the coefficients effectively to get the solution.b1 a2 ! 0 We have already established that the system has the solution b c .a2 b1 y 1 = a1 b2 .c2 a1 x= 1 2 . then the system of equations has a unique solution. Now.b1 a2 ! 0 or 1 ! 1 . Let us consider the system a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 with a1 b2 . For the system of equations a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 2 2 2 2 a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 .c2 a1 The following arrow diagram may be very useful in remembering the above relation. then the system of equations has infinitely many solutions.b2 c1 a1 b2 . a2 b2 c2 3. y= 1 2 a1 b2 .2.b2 c1 c a .

a2 b1 ! 0 . the solution is ` 117 . we write the coefficients as 1 x y 7 –5 2 7 8 11 –3 8 y x 1 = = . 37 37 Example 3. That is. then x = 0 if c1 a2 .(8) (.7 j . Mathematics .5) (.6 Solve 2x + 7y – 5 = 0 –3x + 8y = –11 Solution The given system of equations is 2x + 7y – 5 = 0 –3x + 8y +11 = 0 For the cross multiplication method. Hence. x = 117 . .(2)(11) (2)(8) .c2 a1 may be equal to 0 but a1 b2 .c2 a1 b1 c2 .(. we get Solution The given system of equations is 3x + 5y –25 = 0 7x + 6y–30 = 0 Now. y x 1 Note that in the representation = = . we shall mostly restrict ourselves to the system of linear equations having unique solution and find the solution by the method of cross multiplication. y =..a2 b1 ! 0 . 117 37 37 37 -7 Hence. b1 c2 . solve 3x + 5y = 25 7x + 6y = 30 Hence. then y = 0 Hereafter.c2 a1 = 0 and a1 b2 .a2 b1 c1 a2 .7 .5) (. (7) (11) . writing the coefficients for cross multiplication.b2 c1 a1 b2 . we get 1 x y 5 –25 3 5 6 –30 7 6 76 10th Std.Method of solving a linear system of equations by the above form is called the cross multiplication method. Example 3.e.3) . i.a2 b1 ! 0 .3)(7) x = y = 1 . for the system of equations a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 (i) (ii) if b1 c2 .b2 c1 = 0 and a1 b2 .7 Using cross multiplication method.b2 c1 or c1 a2 .

y = 5. Thus. we get x = 3. . the digit in the unit place is twice of the digit in the tenth place. x = = 1 .. but if the numerator is increased by 8 and the denominator is 11 2 . Solution Let x denote the digit in the tenth place and y denote the digit in unit place. we get 18 .9 A fraction is such that if the numerator is multiplied by 3 and the denominator is reduced by 3. The changed number. the number may be written as 10x + y in the expanded form. by second condition.9x + 9y = 27 ( -x + y = 3 (2) (1) Adding equations (1) and (2). 5).1 is to mean x = 0 = 0..17 Thus. Thus x is only a notation and it is 0 0 17 . Find the fraction. x = . in the expanded form is 10y + x. Example 3. Find the number. we have y x+8 = 2 3x = 18 and 2y y .e. we get y = 6.35 . Example 3. the given number is (3 # 10) + 6 = 36. If the digits are reversed. doubled. we get 5 Solution Let the fraction be x . the new number is 27 more than the given number. the solution is (0. Substituting x = 3 in the equation (2).175 + 90 .17 not division by zero. we have x = 0. Note Here. i. Hence. 150 + 150 0 85 18 . (just like 35= 10(3) +5) When the digits are reversed.3 11 5 ( 11x = 6y .18 and 5x + 40 = 4y Algebra 77 .8 In a two digit number. According to the given conditions. So.y = 0 Also.(10x + y) = 27 That is. we have y = 2x which is written as 2x . we have (10y + x) . According to the first condition. x becomes the digit in unit place and y becomes the digit in the tenth place. It is always true that division by zero is not defined.( y y x 1 = = .

Then (1) and (2) give. Find the number of days taken by one man alone to complete the work and also one boy alone to complete the work. a1 b2 . we have x y 14 Let a = 1 and b = 1 . 10 (1) Thus. 14 6+8 = 1 (2) Thus. a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 . (1) (2) On comparing the coefficients of (1) and (2) with a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 .440 . we have 11x . c1 = 18 .4y + 40 = 0 a1 = 11.168 . writing the coefficients for the cross multiplication. Mathematics (3) (4) . we have 1 x y –6 18 11 –6 5 –4 y x 1 = = 90 . y = 350 = 25. x ! 0 and y ! 0. So. the fraction is 12 .4) .44 + 30 240 + 72 y x = = 1 .10 Eight men and twelve boys can finish a piece of work in 10 days while six men and eight boys can finish the same work in 14 days. we have 8 + 12 = 1 x y 10 The amount of work done by 6 men and 8 boys in one day is 1 .(5) (. Solution Let x denote the number of days needed for one man to finish the work and y denote the number of days needed for one boy to finish the work. we have Thus. x y 8a + 12b = 1 ( 4a + 6b .1 = 0.14 x = 168 = 12 .350 . 10 20 6a + 8b = 1 ( 3a + 4b . one man can complete 1 part of the work in one day and one boy can complete x 1 part of the work in one day. Example 3. b2 = –4. a2 = 5. Now.a2 b1 = (11) (. the system has a unique solution. c2 = 40. respectively. Hence.6y + 18 = 0 5x . 14 28 78 10th Std.6) = .So. b1 = – 6. Hence. Clearly. 14 14 25 –4 40 ( ( Thus.1 = 0. y The amount of work done by 8 men and 12 boys in one day is 1 .14 ! 0.

If the train were slower by 6 km/hr. we have . (iii) A two digit number is seven times the sum of its digits. a= 1 . (ii) 0.1 14 5 20 7 70 140 That is.8y = 0. (i) 3x + 4y = 24 . find their monthly income. i.3 +1 . 16 . If each of them manages to save ` 2000 per month..2. Exercise 3. Algebra 79 .4 =. we have Hence.5 (iv) 5 . Find the area of the rectangle.1 . x + = 13 2 3 3 2 6 2. If the length is reduced by 1 cm and the 2 breadth increased by 2 cm . The number formed by reversing the digits is 18 less than the given number.6y = 0. (iv) Three chairs and two tables cost ` 700 and five chairs and three tables cost ` 1100. 20x . b = 1 140 280 x = 1 = 140 . and hence find their solutions: (i) One number is greater than thrice the other number by 2. a b Thus.1 20 . If 4 times the smaller number exceeds the greater by 5. 2 + 3 = 13 x y x y Formulate the following problems as a pair of equations. Find the given number. (vi) A train travelled a certain distance at a uniform speed.5x + 0. Find the distance covered by the train. Solve the following systems of equations using cross multiplication method. then the area increases by 33 cm . we have a 6 4 Thus.2 1. one man can finish the work individually in 140 days and one boy can finish the work individually in 280 days. if the length is increased and the breadth is reduced each by 2 cm 2 then the area is reduced by 28 cm .8x + 0. then it would have taken 6 hours more than the scheduled time. = 1 .1 28 b 4 3 1 6 4 a b a = b 1 = = .3 +1 . What is the total cost of 2 chairs and 3 tables? (v) In a rectangle. If the train had been 6 km/hr faster. 0.11y = 47 5y y (iii) 3x =.e.2. y = 1 = 280.Writing the coefficients of (3) and (4) for the cross multiplication. find the numbers.18 -2 . (ii) The ratio of income of two persons is 9 : 7 and the ratio of their expenditure is 4 : 3. it would have taken 4 hours less than the scheduled time.44 .

ah^ x . x + x + 1 . there is no real k such that p^ k h = 0 . where k is a non zero constant.5x + 6 x 2 Fig. 3. 3.. 2 2 2 For example.a and x . 3x . That is. 3. 2 3 2 The value of a quadratic polynomial p (x) = ax + bx + c at x = k is obtained by replacing x by k in p (x) . 0) (3. a2.7 are quadratic polynomials. then k is called a zero of the polynomial p(x). the value of p (x) at x = k is p (k) = ak + bk + c . Remarks A polynomial may not have any zero in real numbers at all. = k 6 x . where a ! 0 .3 Quadratic polynomials A polynomial of degree n in the variable x is a0 x + a1 x n n-1 + a2 x n-2 + g + an .1 x + an where a0 ! 0 and a1. ax + bx + c = k^ x . A polynomial of degree two is called a quadratic polynomial and is normally written as p (x) = ax + bx + c . a3. 2 2 3.^a + b h x + ab @ 2 2 2 80 10th Std.3. . If k is a real number such that p(k) = 0. For example.1 Zeros of a polynomial Consider a polynomial p(x). 1) x (2. x .b are the factors of p(x).3 x + 2x . Geometrically a zero of any polynomial is nothing but the x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the graph of the polynomial and the x-axis if they intersect. Therefore.2 3. (see Fig. a ! 0 . 3.2) y y = x +1 y= (0.3. Mathematics .1 Fig..b h . 2 the zeros of the polynomial q(x) = x .3. Thus.. then by factor theorem we get.1 and Fig.2 Relationship between zeros and coefficients of a quadratic polynomial In general.5x + 6 are 2 and 3 because q(2) = 0 and q(3) = 0. . Real constants are polynomials of degree zero. 2 p (x) = x + 1 has no zeros in real numbers. if a and b are the zeros of the quadratic polynomial p (x) = ax + bx + c . For example.1 . an are real constants. b and c are real constants. 0) 2 y x .

a^ x . Note A quadratic polynomial p (x) = ax + bx + c may have atmost two zeros. Given that a + b = – 4 and ab = 3.4 or x =. 4×5=20 5 1 constant term coefficient of Thus. for any a ! 0 . a coefficient of x product of zeros : Example 3. the zeros of p (x) are –4 and –5 2 2 ab = c = constant term 2 . and verify the basic relationships between the zeros and the coefficients. Remarks Solution Let p (x) = x + 9x + 20 = ^ x + 4h^ x + 5h So.(.9 1 coefficient of x product of the zeros = constant term 2 = 20 = 20 1 coefficient of x Thus.coefficient of x2 = .12 Find a quadratic polynomial if the sum and product of zeros of it are –4 and 3 respectively.coefficient of x2 . p(–4) = (–4+4)(–4+5) = 0 and Hence. x2 ( x + 4 ) ( x + 5 ). we obtain a = k.(a + b) x + ab = x . we get the sum of the zeros = .4) x + 3 = x + 4x + 3 Algebra 81 2 2 .5 (1) (2) (3) 20 4 4 1 5 a 4+5=9. Example 3. Since we can choose any non zero a.k (a + b) and c = kab 2 2 The basic relationships between the zeros and the coefficients of p (x) = ax + bx + c are sum of zeros : a + b = . sum of zeros = –9 and the product of zeros = 20 From the basic relationships. the basic relationships are verified. 2 2 Now. there are infinitely many quadratic polynomials with zeros a and b .Comparing the coefficients of x . 2 One of the such polynomials is p (x) = x . a coefficient of x To factorize 2 x + 9x + 20 . x and the constant term on both sides.b = . b = .^a + b h x + ab h is a polynomial with zeros a and b . p^ xh = 0 ( ^ x + 4h^ x + 5h = 0 Thus. Solution Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial. one p(–5) = (–5+4)(–5+5) = 0 can proceed as follows ` x =.11 Find the zeros of the quadratic polynomial x + 9x + 20 .9 =.

ah^. Similarly one can divide a polynomial p (x) by another polynomial q (x) which results in getting the quotient and remainder such that That is. It is a polynomial with zeros zero real number. 82 10th Std. (i) x . 29 = 4(7) + 1. 2 = x .2 2 x + 1 2 2 (iv) 4x + 8x (viii) x + 2x .1h 4 4 4 4 Any other polynomial with the desired property 2 = x + 3 x.1 4 4 is obtained by multiplying p(x) by any non1 and –1.3 .4 Synthetic division We know that when 29 is divided by 7 we get.(a + b) x + ab = x2 + 3 x . Thus.1j x + ` 1 j^. 4 (iii) 0.143 2 2 (vi) 3x . Exercise 3. 4 (iv) 2.8 (ii) 4x .Example 3. then the remainder can be calculated by simply evaluating p (x) at x = –a. Hence. p (x) = s^ xh^ x + ah + r . 4 Solution Let a and b be the zeros of p(x) Aliter The required polynomial is obtained Using the relationship between zeros and directly as follows: coefficients.4x + 1 (v) x .a + ah + r ( r = p^. (i) 3. Thus. 4 Note 4x2 + 3x .. This is called the Division Algorithm.2x .1 1. if q^ xh = x + a . 2 3 2 3 3 3.` 1 .ah . we have p(x) = ` x .1 j^ x + 1h 4 2 p (x) = x . 1 (ii) 2. then deg r^ xh = 0. where r is a constant.1 is also a polynomial with zeros 1 and –1. p (x) = (quotient) q (x) + remainder p (x) = s^ xh q^ xh + r^ xh .7x (vii) 2x . 4 as the quotient and 1 as the remainder.1 (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) 3 .5x + 2 2 Find a quadratic polynomial each with the given numbers as the sum and product of its zeros respectively.13 Find a quadratic polynomial with zeros at x = 1 and x = –1. 1 5 1 .-4 1 .1 .3 Find the zeros of the following quadratic polynomials and verify the basic relationships between the zeros and the coefficients. 2 2 2 (iii) 6x . where deg r^ xh < degq^ xh . r^ xh is a constant. we have p^. 4 1. If q (x) = x + a .15 2. Mathematics . Now if we put x = –a in the above.ah = s^. Thus.

Insert 0 for missing terms. 1 2 –1 –4 Complete the entries of the 2nd row and 3rd row as shown below. (i) If q(x) is linear . Step 1 Arrange the dividend and the divisor according to the x + 2x .4 3 2 3 2 descending powers of x and then write the coefficients of dividend in the first row (see figure). we have the following results. Italy) Let us explain the method of synthetic division with an example. It facilitates the division of a polynomial by a linear polynomial with the help of the coefficients involved. by proceeding as follows. we say q(x) divides p(x) or equivalently q(x) is a factor of p(x).Division algorithm : If p (x) is the dividend and q^ xh is the divisor. (iv) If r = 0. then deg p (x) = 1 + deg s (x) (iii) If p (x) is divided by x + a .. His method is known as synthetic division. Now.x . Algebra 83 . Step 3 Put 0 for the first entry in the 2nd row.a) . then r^ xh = r is a constant. p (x) = s^ xh q^ xh + r^ xh . then by division algorithm we write. Let p (x) = x + 2x . We shall find the quotient s (x) and the remainder r. q(x) is linear). 2 Thus. (ii) If deg q (x) = 1 (i.x .4 be the dividend and q (x) = x + 2 be the divisor. Step 2 Find out the zero of the divisor. Paolo Ruffin (1765-1822. the quotient is x .e. All the entries except the last one in the third row constitute the coefficients of the quotient. –2 1 0 1+0 =1 1 # (–2) 2 –2 2+(–2) =0 0 # (–2) –1 0 –1+0 = –1 –1 # (–2) –4 2 –4+2 = –2 # remainder Step 4 Write down the quotient and the remainder accordingly. then the remainder is p (.1 and the remainder is –2. Remarks An elegant way of dividing a polynomial by a linear polynomial was introduced by Paolo Ruffin in 1809.

The zero of the divisor is ` 2 2 1 –14 –19 6 -1 2 0 –1 0 7 6 2 0 –14 –12 12 4 3 2 4 3 2 3 2 $ Remainder 4 3 2 3 So.5 ) ' ( 4x + 1 ) 2.6 . Write 2x + 1 = 0. Thus.14x . b = 7 and the remainder is 12.14x .3 . + 12 2 3 = ^2x + 1h 1 ^2x . the quotient is 2 But.15 If the quotient on dividing 2x + x .14x . Solution Let p (x) = 2x + x . 84 4 3 4 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 (vi) (2x . a = 0 and b = 7 . Mathematics 4 2 3 2 .19x + 6 = ` x + 1 j"2x . Given that the divisor is 2x + 1 . 10th Std.48 )' (2x . Thus.bx .14 Find the quotient and remainder when x + x .14x .13x + 63x .7x .1 ) 2 3 2 4 3 2 If the quotient on dividing x + 10x + 35x + 50x + 29 by x + 4 is x . Then x = . Find the quotient and remainder using synthetic division.12h + 12 2 1 ^2x3 .1 ) (iii) (3x + 4x . Solution Let p (x) = x + x . q and also the remainder. 2x + x . given quotient is x + ax . 2 3 2 3 2 When p (x) is divided by x .14x .4 1.bx . also the remainder. Comparing this with the quotient obtained we get.2x + 6x . 3 2 3 2 (ii) (3x .19x + 6 by 2x + 1 is x + ax .10x + 6 ) ' ( 3x . If the quotient on dividing.2x + 7x .1 2 1. 8x .7x .ax + bx + 6 .5 ) ' ( 3x + 1 ) (v) (8x .14x .6 . a = 0 .qx + 3 . then find p .6 and the remainder is 12.7x . 3.12h = x3 .12 . Example 3. The zero of the divisor is 3.7 by 2x + 1 is 4x + px .3 .19x + 6 .3 is divided by x .3 . Find the values of a and b. 3 1 0 1 ` 1 3 4 –7 12 5 –3 15 12 $ Remainder.5 ) ' ( x + 3 ) (i) ( x + x .3x + 5 ) ' ( x . So we consider. Exercise 3.2 ) (iv) (3x . then find a.Example 3.2x + 6x .4x . the quotient is x + 4x + 5 and the remainder is 12.7x . b and also the remainder.

1h3 .2 ) ( 2x . (x . 3 2 Solution Let p (x) = 2x .3.3x + 2 into linear factors. 4 We shall use synthetic division to find the other factors.3^.4.1h + 2 = 0. 2x .1 is a factor of p^ xh if and only if the sum of coefficients of p^ xh is 0. –4 –1 a –1 2 –3 –3 2 0 2 –2 –5 2 To factorize 2 2x .3x + 2 = (x + 1)(x .5x + 2 .3x .6x + 11x . Example 3. So.x + 2 = (x . one can proceed as follows –4+(–1)=–5.1) . Further if possible one can factorize the quadratic factor into two linear factors. (iv) x + 1 is a factor of p^ xh if and only if sum of the coefficients of even powers of x.3x .5x + 2) Now. x = a is zero if and only if p^ah = 0 .6x + 11x .1h2 .17 3 2 Factorize 2x .1 ) is not a factor of p (x) .1) . p^1 h =. (ii) x . x + 1 is a factor of p (x) . how to factorize the cubic polynomial using synthetic division. p(x) = (x + 1) (2x .1 is a factor of x .16 3 2 (i) Prove that x . (note that sum of the coefficients is 0) Thus.3x .1 Factorization using synthetic division We have already learnt in class IX. Solution (i) Let p (x) = x . ( Factor theorem ) (iii) x . Hence the method of synthetic division helps us to factorize a cubic polynomial into linear factors if it can be factorized. x + 1 is a factor of q (x) Remarks 3 2 3 2 (ii) Example 3. Algebra 85 .a is a factor for p^ xh if and only if p^ah = 0 . –4×(–1)=4 -1 2 constant term coefficient of 5 2 –2 0 2 2 -4 = -2 2 1 $ Remainder ( x .2)(2x . x2 Thus.1 ).3^. then using synthetic division we get the quadratic factor of p (x) . Note (i) For any polynomial p^ xh .2)(2x . p^1 h = 1 – 6 + 11 – 6 = 0.1h = –1 + 6 – 11 + 6 = 0. If we identify one linear factor of cubic polynomial p (x) . 3 2 (ii) Prove that x + 1 is a factor of x + 6x + 11x + 6 . how to factorize quadratic polynomials.6 .2 ! 0 (note that sum of the coefficients is not zero) ( x . Let q (x) = x + 6x + 11x + 6 .5x + 2 = 2x .6 .1) is a factor of p (x) . let us learn. Hence. q^. p^.1h = 2^. 3 2 Hence. ` However. In this section.3x + 2 Now.4x . 2x . including constant is equal to sum of the coefficients of odd powers of x.

1 Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) The Highest Common Factor (HCF) or Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) of two or more algebraic expressions is the expression of highest degree which divides each of them without remainder. find their greatest common divisor. x . Since p^1 h ! 0 and p^. and prefix it as a coefficient to the greatest common divisor of the algebraic expressions.10x + 24 Solution Let p (x) = x . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. p^2h = 0 .9x + 7x + 6 (x) 2x3 + 11x2 .a 4 3 5 6 2 3 (ii) a b .10x + 24 = ^ x . note that a. Thus. Therefore.2h^ x + 3h^ x . a is 3 4 3 5 6 the divisor with highest power.5 Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) and Least Common Multiple (LCM) 3. Out of them.10x + 24 . ab c .5x + 7x .12 . a .Example 3.7x + 3 (v) x . neither x + 1 nor x . In (ii).5 1.x + 10 (xii) x .7x .a .3x .x .1 is a factor of p (x) . one can easily see that ab is the GCD of a b . x . Let us consider a few more examples to understand the greatest common divisor.12 = x .1h ! 0 . ab c . The other factor is x . To find the other factors.2 is a factor of p (x) . Therefore a is the GCD of the expressions a . (i) x .5.6 (vii) 2x .23x + 142x . Mathematics 4 3 4 5 2 2 7 . a are the divisors of all these expressions. x .4x + 3x .3x .5x + 4 (xi) x + x + x . 86 10th Std.7x + 6 (viii) x .2x . a b c 3 3 4 5 2 2 7 In (i).3x . similarly. a . a b c . 2 2 2 3 2 –3 2 –1 –10 –2 –12 24 –24 0 $ Remainder.18 3 2 Factorize x .10x .x . When x = 2 . Consider the simple expressions (i) a .a . a .4)(x + 3) 3 2 Hence. Factorize each of the following polynomials. 2 1 0 1 ` Now. a .12 = (x .5x . we have to search for different values of x by trial and error method.6 3 2 3 2 3 2 (ii) 4x3 .5x + 6 (iv) 4x .4h Exercise 3.14 3 2 3 3 (iii) x . let us use the synthetic division.120 (vi) x + 13x + 32x + 20 (ix) x .2x + 24 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3.

2h . We want to find GCD of f(x) and g(x). Therefore. GCD of 6. 12x y z 4 3 5 2 7 2 Solution (i) Let us write the numbers 90.3x .3x . GCD = 3 # x # y # z = 3x y z (iii) Now.19 Find the GCD of the following : (i) 90. 2x . Let f^ xh and g^ xh be two non constant polynomials with deg( f^ xh) $ deg(g^ xh). 150 = 2 # 3 # 5 # 5 and 225 = 3 # 3 # 5 # 5 From the above 3 and 5 are common prime factors of all the given numbers.5. 8^4x + 4x + 1h . 12^2x + 7x + 3h 2 3 2 4 3 5 2 7 2 3. If the polynomials f^ xh and g^ xh are not easily factorable. Now let us take the given expressions 15x y z and 12x y z .3x . 150 and 225 in the product of their prime factors as 90 = 2 # 3 # 3 # 5 . then we can easily find the GCD by the method which we have learnt above. 150. Algebra 87 . Here the common divisors of the given expressions are 3. 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 Given expressions are 6^2x . then it will be a difficult problem. x .Examples 3. GCD = 2^2x + 1h . 8. 21 is the GCD of 924 and 105 (or) 105 8 924 840 84 84 1 105 21 84 21 4 84 84 0 Similar technique works with polynomials when they have GCD. 12 is 2 Next let us find the factors of quadratic expressions. Therefore. 84 = 4 × 21 + 0. 924 = 8 × 105 + 84 105 = 1 × 84 + 21. y and z . 225 2 2 2 (iii) 6^2x .2h . 12^2x + 7x + 3h (ii) 15x y z . 8^4x + 4x + 1h . If f^ xh and g^ xh can be factored into linear irreducible quadratic polynomials.2 = ^2x + 1h^ x .2h 4x + 4x + 1 = ^2x + 1h^2x + 1h 2x + 7x + 3 = ^2x + 1h^ x + 3h Common factor of the above quadratic expressions is ^2x + 1h . Hence the GCD = 3 # 5 = 15 (ii) We shall use similar technique to find the GCD of algebraic expressions.2 Greatest common divisor of polynomials using division algorithm First let us consider the simple case of finding GCD of 924 and 105.

GCD (252.x . Step 2 If the remainder r (x) is non-zero.105) = GCD (147.5x + 3 x + 3x + 0x .9 and took x2 + 2x .3 and g^ xh = x + x . the following method gives a systematic way of finding GCD. then g(x) is the GCD of f(x) and g(x).21 Find the GCD of the following polynomials 3x + 6x .3 as the new divisor.5x + 3 3 2 Here degree of f^ xh > degree of g^ xh .3 4 3 2 3 2 x + x .12x .5x + 3x x + 2x . 88 10th Std.3 2 . The remainder in the last but one step is the GCD of f^ xh and g^ xh . Step 3 If r1 (x) is non-zero.3 . g^ xh ) to denote the GCD of the polynomials f^ xh and g^ xh Remarks Euclid’s division algorithm is based on the principle that GCD of two numbers does not change if the small number is subtracted from the larger number. We write GCD( f^ xh .3 $ remainder (! 0) 2 Therefore. Example 3.10x + 6 2 2 .4 x .x . then continue the process until we get zero as remainder. GCD ( f^ xh .However. so deg(g^ xh ) > deg(r^ xh ) If the remainder r(x) is 0. Example 3. Solution Let f^ xh = x + 3x .5x + 3 .3 and x + x . Thus their GCD can have none. divide f^ xh by g^ xh to obtain f^ xh = g^ xh q^ xh + r^ xh where q^ xh is the quotient and r^ xh is remainder. g^ xh ) = x + 2x . Thus.105) = GCD(42.8x .2x + 3 3 2 2x + 2x .9 0 $ remainder ( x2 + 2x .x .105) = GCD(63.42) = 21. So deg r^ xh > deg r1 ^ xh . divide g^ xh by r^ xh to obtain g^ xh = r^ xh q^ xh + r1 ^ xh where r1 ^ xh is the remainder.3x 3 2 2 x + 5x .3 x + x . Hence.5x + 3 3 2 4 3 2 2 4 3 3 2 x–1 3 2 x + 2x .x . then r(x) is the required GCD. in the above example we removed the simple factor 3 from 2 3x + 6x . Mathematics 4 3 2 4 3 2 .20 4 3 3 2 Find the GCD of the polynomials x + 3x . Step 1 First. Remarks The two original expressions have no simple factors (constants).5x + 3 x+2 x + x .x . ` Divisor is x + x .2x + 3 3x + 6x .42) = GCD(21. If the remainder r1 (x) is 0 .24x and 4x + 14x + 8x .

3ah2 4 3 5 3 4 2 3 2 2 2.12x . For example. x y (iii) 25bc d . Algebra 89 .8 .4x . Exercise 3.16 3x + 12x + 12 (x2 + 4x + 4) remainder (! 0) 2 3 2 x–2 2 2 x 2 + 4x + 4 x + 2x .24x = 3x^ x + 2x . 3x + 13x + 10 (iii) 2x + 2x + 2x + 2 . 20^2x + 3x + x h (x) ^a . 6x + 12x + 6x + 12 (iv) x .1h3 ^a + 3h4 3. g^ xh ) = x^ x + 4x + 4h . x y .8 x + 4x + 4x . 14xy z (ii) x . 1.2x .2 . Find the GCD of the following 2 2 (i) c .18 . 49x yz .2x h .3 Least Common Multiple (LCM) The least common multiple of two or more algebraic expressions is the expression of lowest degree which is divisible by each of them without remainder.8x .3x + 4x . 35b c .4x .2h2 ^a .12 .4 2x + 4x . 21x y z (ii) x y .4h Let us find the GCD for the polynomials x + 2x .x + x . ^ x . x + x . 45c d 4 3 2 5 3 (iv) 35x y z .8x = 2x^2x + 7x + 4x .x . x + 2x .13x + 14 (viii) x . ^a .8 and 2x + 7x + 4x .4x .6 .d .4x . x + 5xy + 6y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (iv) x + 14x + 33 . 4x + 8x + 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 (vii) x . x + x + 4x + 4x 3 2 4 3 2 3.11x (vi) 2x . Find the GCD of the following pairs of polynomials using division algorithm.d h (iii) m .1 .27a x .1 4 3 2 6 5 4 (ix) 24^6x . m + 5m + 6 (v) x + 3xy + 2y .8h . consider the 4 3 6 simple expressions a . a .16x + 12 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 (ii) 3x + 18x + 33x + 18 .9x + 23x .15 .2x .4x .8x . Thus.3m .x .8 2 2 3 3 0 $ remainder Common factor of 3x and 2x is x. 3x . 2 GCD ( f^ xh . x . c^c .6 Find the greatest common divisor of 2 4 2 5 3 2 3 2 2 (i) 7x yz .x . Let g^ xh = 4x + 14x + 8x .1 .8x .5. a .4 3 2 We choose the divisor to be x + 2x . x + 10x . 4x .8 3 2 3 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2x + 7x + 4x . (i) x .8 .1h5 ^a + 3h2 .Solution Let f^ xh = 3x + 6x .

12^3x . 7. a b is the LCM of a b . a and a .x y = ^ x + xy + y h^ x . LCM of 35. Mathematics . Exercise 3. 6. LCM of ^a .1h3 ^a + 3h4 90 = 2 # 3 # 3 # 5 = 2 # 3 # 5 150 = 2 # 3 # 5 # 5 = 2 # 3 # 5 225 = 3 # 3 # 5 # 5 = 3 # 5 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 The product 2 # 3 # 5 = 450 is the required LCM.2h2 ^a .3h2 2 2 2 2 4 3 10^9x + 6xy + y h . 2^a . a m+3 2 3^a . ^a .yh^ x + xy + y h 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 x + x y + y = (x + y ) .3h3 . a . 90 x y . Example 3. a b . the required LCM = 210 # a # c # b = 210a c b . (iii) (iv) Now. 24a b c x y + xy .22 Find the LCM of the following.xy + y h ^ x . the least common multiple is a 4 3 6 6 3 7 3 4 5 2 7 Hence LCM of a .y . x . 30ac b 2 3 3 2 2 3 (iii) ^a . 44a b c .y h = x .1h2 .1h5 ^a + 3h2 . ab . 42a cb . 3. 3x yz . a is a . Let us first find the factors for each of the given expressions. ^a . 9. a .2h2 ^a . a .1h 2x .y . 3 3 2 2 x + y = ^ x + yh^ x . x + xy 2 2 2 . 8.7 Find the LCM of the following.1h3 ^a + 3h4 is ^a . x + x y + y Solution Now. ^a . 1.xy + y h 3 3 2 2 x . 225 (iv) x + y . 10th Std.1h^ x + 4h^ x . a m+2 .1h . 4x y 4 2 3 2 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 4 66a b c . x + 27y 2 2 2 2 3 3 ^ x + 4h2 ^ x . Similarly.1h5 ^a + 3h2 . 5x y + 15xy . 150. Of all the common multiples. (i) 1 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 4 6 6 7 8 3 4 6 (ii) 35a c b .1h5 ^a + 3h4 ^a .yh^ x + xy + y h 3 3 3 3 6 6 = ^ x + y h^ x . 2 2 2 2 LCM = ^ x + yh^ x . g are common multiples of a . (i) 90. a .Now. 4.2h2 . 42 and 30 is 5 # 7 # 6 = 210 Hence.5xy . b ca . ^ x .xy + y h 3 3 3 3 3 3 Thus. 10.2y h . 14^6x + 2x h . (ii) Now.y = ^ x . 5.18y . We shall consider some more examples of finding LCM. xyz a bc . c ab a m+1 2 2 2 3 2 2.

That is.23 4 3 2 4 3 2 2 The GCD of x + 3x + 5x + 26x + 56 and x + 2x . LCM # GCD = 24x ^ x . g(x)).2h = 96x ^ x .2h Also.3.x h and g^ xh = 8^ x . Further.1h^ x . then the other can be found without ambiguity because LCM and GCD are unique.1h2 ^ x .2h (2) From (1) and (2) we get. we have GCD # LCM = f^ xh # g^ xh . except for a factor of –1.1h = 96x ^ x . g(x)) # GCD (f(x) .35) =105 and GCD (21. Thus.5.2h GCD (f(x) .4 Relation between LCM and GCD We know that the product of two positive integers is equal to the product of their LCM and GCD. f^ xh = 12^ x .1h # ^ x . Also.x + 28 2 Given that GCD = x + 5x + 7 . In the same way.1h # ^ x .2h # 4x ^ x . 4 3 4 3 2 Let f^ xh = 12^ x . g^ xh = 8^ x .1h 3 2 Therefore. LCM # GCD = f^ xh # g^ xh .1h^ x .35) = 7. 4 3 2 3 Now. For example.3x + 2x h = 2 # x # ^ x .1h2 ^ x . 1 –2 8 1 5 7 1 3 5 26 56 1 5 7 26 -2 -2 .x h = 2 # 3 # x # ^ x . LCM = GCD Now. g(x)) = 2 # 3 # x # ^ x .1h^ x . Let us divide f^ xh by the GCD.2h = 24x ^ x . g(x)) = 4x ^ x . Let us justify this result with an example.x + 28 is x + 5x + 7 .2h 5 3 2 5 2 (3) (4) From (3) and (4) we obtain. if f^ xh . g^ xh and one of LCM and GCD are given.4x . Find their LCM. the product of LCM and GCD of two polynomials is equal to the product of the two polynomials. Example 3. f^ x h # g^ x h (1) Thus.1h # 8x ^ x .1h (1) 4 3 2 3 2 Also.4x . where LCM (21. f^ xh # g^ xh = 12x ^ x .3x + 2x h be two polynomials. f^ xh # g^ xh = LCM (f(x) . GCD divides both f^ xh and g^ xh . 21 # 35 = 105 # 7. 3 1 3 3 LCM (f(x) .14 8 40 56 8 40 56 0 Algebra 91 . we have the following result: The product of any two polynomials is equal to the product of their LCM and GCD. 4 3 2 4 3 2 Solution Let f^ xh = x + 3x + 5x + 26x + 56 and g^ xh = x + 2x .2 .10 .

2 (vi) 2^ x + 1h^ x . Now. (i) (ii) x . x .35 .1h .y . ^ x + 1h^ x .4x + 6x . 2 4 3 2 2 2 Note In the above problem. 2 3 2 (v) ^ x . ^ x + 1h^ x + 2h . we can also divide g^ xh by GCD and multiply the quotient by f^ xh to get the required LCM. find the other. ^4x + 5h3 ^3x .1h^ x + 1h. ^5x + xh . ^5x . g^ xh = ^ x .3h . x + 3x + 6x + 5x + 3 . LCM = ^ x .1 6 3 Let f^ xh = x + 1 .3x + 3h .5x + 6 .8 1. x + 8x + 4x . given that LCM and GCD and one polynomial p^ xh respectively. we get the quotient as x . ^ x .y h^ x + x y + y h .12 whose GCD is x .9x + 5 .21 whose GCD is x + 7 .y .7h2 . ^ x + 1h .1h^ x + 1h 3 Exercise 3.10x . 3 ^ x3 + 1h^ x3 . ^ x . x .2x + 8 .2h . 2x .2 .4xh^5x + 1h . Find the other polynomial q^ xh of each of the following.2x + 8h # g^ xh Thus.x + 28h .1 respectively.2h^ x . Find the LCM of each pair of the following polynomials.4h . x + 2x + x + 2 whose GCD is x + x + 1 . ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h . (iv) 2x . (1) ( LCM = ^ x . Solution 6 Given GCD = x + 1 and LCM = x .9x . If one of the 3 polynomials is x + 1 .1h^ x . ^4x + 5h^3x .1h^ x + 1h x +1 3 = ^ x . 92 10th Std. ^4x + 5h3 ^3x . Example 3.7h2 .When f^ xh is divided by GCD.2xh . 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 (iii) ^ x .24 The GCD and LCM of two polynomials are x + 1 and x . 2. (i) (ii) ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h2 .1 .4x .x . 3 3 2 3 2 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 2 2 2 2 (iii) 2x + 15x + 2x .11x + 8 whose GCD is 2x . We know that LCM # GCD = f^ xh # g^ xh ^ x6 . 3 2 3 2 (iv) ^ x . x + 4x . Mathematics .3x .2x + 8h^ x + 2x .1h^ x + 1h ( g^ xh = LCM # GCD = 3 f^ x h x +1 = Hence.7h3 .

p^ x h Every polynomial p^ xh is a rational expression.6 Rational expressions A rational number is defined as a quotient m .1h q^ x h 2 2 = 2x . of two integers m and n ! 0.5x + 4h 6x .3h = ^ x .5 ^ x . (iv) Let ^2x . 3 2 (ii) x 3. p^ xh and q^ xh is 1.5h = x .3h^ x .3h^ x .3h^ x + 1h Therefore.5 (ii) Now. a rational expression need not be a polynomial.4h and 2 g^ xh = ^ x . However.5x + 1 (iii) 2 (iv) 2 9x + 12x . Example 3.3. Some examples of rational expressions are 3 2x + 7 .1h Therefore. then it can be reduced to its lowest terms by dividing both numerator p^ xh and denominator q^ xh by the GCD of p^ xh and q^ xh .5x = x ^ x .25 Simplify the rational expressions into lowest forms.1h^ x .5x + 1 = ^2x .3h^ x . 23x + 2 .3h Solution 5x + 20 = 5^ x + 4h = 5 (i) Now.3h^ x .4 f^ x h = = ^ x .2x . ^ x .1 3x + 5 2 f^ xh = ^ x .6. Similarly n p^ x h a rational expression is a quotient of two polynomials p^ xh and q^ xh .1h^ x . x +x+1 x +x.5x + 4h = ^ x .2x . for example 2 x x +1 is a rational expression but not a polynomial.3 3.1h p^ x h = ^3x + 5h^3x . 3 4 3 x^2x + 3h 3x + 2x x ^2x + 3h (iii) Let p^ xh = 6x .3h^ x + 1h x + 1 g^ x h Algebra 93 . since p^ xh can be written as 1 where 1 is the constant polynomial.1h^3x .1 Rational expressions in lowest form If the two polynomials p^ xh and q^ xh have the integer coefficients such that GCD of p^ x h is a rational expression in its lowest terms. then we say that q^ x h If a rational expression is not in its lowest terms.4h x .1h and q^ xh = 9x + 12x .1h^ x . Let us consider some examples.1h^ x .5 = ^3x + 5h^3x .5x 4 (i) 5x + 20 7x + 28 3x + 2x 2 2 ^ x . 7x + 28 7^ x + 4h 7 2 3 2 x .1h^3x . where q^ xh is a q^ x h non zero polynomial.1h^ x . x 2+ 2 x + 5 .1h^ x .

then q^ x h h^ x h p^ x h g^ x h p^ x h # g^ x h (i) their product is defined as # q^ x h h^ x h q^ x h # h^ x h p^ x h g^ x h p^ x h h^ x h is defined as .6h x + 4x + 16 2x + 5x + 3 2 2 2 ^ x .2 Multiplication and division of rational expressions If p^ x h g^ x h .13x + 40h 2 ^ x .b = ^a + bh^a .3h ^ x + 10h^ x . # 27z2 = 4 4 4 4 2 x 9z x y (9z ) (x y ) 2 2 2 2 3 3 a .25 x + 4x . # 2 ^ x + 2h^ x .3h^ x . h^ xh ! 0 are two rational expressions.3 (viii) 2 2x .8h^ x + 5x .6. x2 .4 by x .2x .b) ^a + bh^a + bh a + 2ab + b (iii) ^ x + 4h^ x + 2h Now.2h^ x + 2x + 4h ^ x + 4h^ x + 2h = = x + 4.8 by x2 + 6x + 8 Multiply (i) 4 4 a-b 9z x y a + 2ab + b x -4 x + 2x + 4 Solution 3 2 3 2 5 5 x y (x y ) (27z ) = 3z .3x + 2h 3.8 # x2 + 6x + 8 = x2 .5 ^ x . (i) (iv) (vi) (ix) (xii) 6x + 9x 2 3x .1 by x2 . a +b (ii) 2 2 # a-b (a .9x + 14h 2 ^ x .4h^ x .26 p^ x h g^ x h p^ x h # h^ x h = ' q^ x h h^ x h q^ x h # g^ x h 3 2 5 2 2 3 3 3 2 x y by 27z2 (ii) 2 a + b 2 by a .27 Divide (i) 4x .bh = a2 .b (iii) x2 .4x .2h x + 2x + 4 3 2 3 2 3 3 Example 3.27 2 x -9 3 3 2 (ii) (v) x +1 4 x -1 4 2 2 (iii) x -1 2 x +x+1 3 x + x + 1 (Hint: x4 + x2 + 1 = ^ x2 + 1h2 . ' # q^ x h h^ x h q^ x h g^ x h (ii) their division Thus.1 by x + x + 1 2 x+3 3x + 9 x+1 x -1 94 10th Std.162 4 2 2 ^ x + 9h^2x .5 2 2 .x2 ) 2 x +x+1 2 4 x +8 (vii) 2x + x .50h (x) (xi) 4x2 + 9x + 5 2 2 8x + 6x .ab + b2 .ab + b h # ^a + bh^a .1 (ii) x . Example 3. (i) Now.5 2 x . Mathematics (iii) x .5x + 4h ^ x .Exercise 3.9 Simplify the following into their lowest forms.12x x .7h^ x . q^ xh ! 0 and .2h^ x .22 # 2 x -4 x + 2x + 4 x .2 x + 2x + 4 2 ^ x .1h^ x .

81 # x + 6x + 8 2 2 x -4 x . 3x + 2x .1 ' x + x + 1 = (x .3 ' 2x2 + x .2x + 1 .10 x .2 2 2 x -x-2 3x + 5x .5 = ^ x + 1h^ x .5h ^ x . (i) (ii) (iii) x .2x # 3x + 6 x+2 x-2 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) (iv) (vi) x .4x . (i) x .3x .4 ' 2 x .4x + 16 x2 . ^ x .3 3.15 4 (vi) 3x .36 ' x + 6 2 x .3x .1 2x + 9x + 9 2x + x .10 1.2x x .x .2x + 4 3 x . Multiply the following and write your answer in lowest terms.1 # 2x .4 2 9x .10 2 x .1h x = = 2 .4 ' x .2 x ' x x + 1 x2 .1) 4x .1 ' x .6 2 2 x + 3x .3x + 2 x3 + 64 x 2 .x .4 # x2 .1h^ x .1 # x .5h^ x + 1h x .3 x .12 Algebra 95 2 2 .77 x . # 2 x + 1 ^ x + 1h^ x .6 + x 2+ 2x .10x + 25 Exercise 3.5h x .1h (x .25 x + 7x + 10 (v) 2x + 13x + 15 ' 2x .20 x +8 (v) 2.49 x + 7 2 2 2 4 (iii) x 2.x .s^ xh ! q^ xh r^ xh = ! q^ x h s^ x h q^ xh . then q^ x h s^ x h we define the sum and the difference (subtraction) as If p^ x h r^ x h p^ xh .Solution (i) (ii) (iii) ^ x + 1h 4 (x .4x .1h # ^ x + 5h^ x .x .1 = = 4 .1 2 2 2 2 2 Divide the following and write your answer in lowest terms.3x .1h2 (iii) x .4x .6.3 Addition and subtraction of rational expressions p^ x h r^ x h and are any two rational expressions with q^ xh ! 0 and s^ xh ! 0 .2x .2x .16 3x .x . 2 x+3 x+3 3x + 9 x +x+1 2 2 x .5x .28 Simplify (i) x + 2 + x .16 # x2 .8 2x .4x + 4 2 2 2 2 (iv) x 2+ 11x + 28 ' x2 + 7x + 12 x .1 x+3 x-2 (ii) x+1 + 1 x+1 ^ x .1) x-1 x -1 2 3 2 x .1 2 2 (vii) 2x2 + 5x .36 x2 .5 2 ^ x .8x # x + 3 2 2 2 x + 2x + 4 2x + 5x .1h 2 2 ^ x + 5h^ x .5 ' x2 .2x .1)(x + x + 1) # 3 (x + 3) = 3(x–1).5h^ x .s^ xh Example 3.10 # x .25 x + 4x .24 2 x -9 x .

x + 3 .x2 .1h2 ^ x + 1h ^ x .12 = x + 2 + x + 6 = x + 2 + x + 6 = 2x + 8 x+3 x+3 x+3 x+3 Example 3.1h = 2x + 2 x+1 ^ x .3h ^ x + 3h^ x .1h^2x + 1h 2x + x .x + 3 .x + 3 2 x +2 x +2 p^ xh = 2x .3x .x .x + 1 m + x + 2 as a quotient of two polynomials in the simplest form.^ x + 1h^ x .x .1h^2x + 1h 5x3 + 6x2 .1h E+ x + 2 x+1 ^ x .1 2 x +2 x +2 = 2x .x .7x + 10 x .x + 1 = x .1h^2x + 1h 2 2 2 ^ h ^ h 3x = 4x .1h^2x + 1h = 3x ^ x + 1h + ^ x + 2h^ x .x .3h^ x + 2h + ^ x + 6h^ x .1 .1h2 ^ x + 1h ^ x .2x .1 .3 2 x-2 + 2 x+3 x . Simplify the following as a quotient of two polynomials in the simplest form.2h x +x-6 2 2 2 x + 1 + 1 = ^ x + 1h + ^ x .1h2 = (iii) 2x + 2 3 2 x -x -x+1 2 2 2 x .x + 1 m + x + 2 x-1 2x + 1 x+1 =.2 = 3 2 ^ x2 .2h + ^ x .2x . x-1 2x + 1 x+1 Solution Now.x + 3 ? 2 x +2 x +2 Solution Let p^ xh be the required rational expression. c 2x .1 .2x . (i) (iii) x + 8 x-2 2-x x .1 + x + 2 = + x+2 x+1 x+1 ^ x .24 2 2 x -9 x . Given that x2 .1h^2x + 1h . Mathematics .11 2 1.24 = ^ x .x .7 ^ x + 3h^ x . ^2x .1 to get 2x .4h x -9 x .1 + p^ xh = 2x .4h 2 2 ^ x + 3h^ x .x + 4 2 2 x +2 x +2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 Example 3.1h^ x + 3h = 2x 2 + 2x .15 2 96 10th Std.30 Simplify c 2x .29 3 3 2 What rational expression should be added to x2 .1h^2x + 1h ^ x .6 + x + 2x .12 2 2 3 (ii) (iv) x+2 + 2 x-3 x + 3x + 2 x .6 + x + 2x .Solution x+2 + x-1 (i) x+3 x-2 (ii) = 2 ^ x + 2h^ x .1 Exercise 3.

the radical sign root of the number under it. where p (x) = ) . In this section.bh2 = ^a . we take p (x) if p (x) $ 0 ^ p^ xhh2 = p^ xh .bh6 ^ x .2 2 x+1 x-1 x + 3x + 2 x + 5x + 6 x + 4x + 3 x -1 2. we have 121 = 11. 10000 = 100.20 2 2 2 (vii) = 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 G . A square root of a.ah2 = ^ x .4 . In the case of polynomials.1 to get 3x + 2x + 4 ? 2 x +2 x +2 Which rational expression should be subtracted from 3 2 4x .4 2 x .ch6 9x y z 6 7 8w s 2 3 4 ^2x + 3yh2 .2 j (viii) 2 1 .x .1 Square root by factorization method Example 3.(v) 2x .7 Square root Let a ! R be a non negative real number. In the same way. let us learn the factorization method through some examples for both the expressions and polynomials when they are factorable.24xy = 4x + 12xy + 9y . 3. the following two methods are very familiar to find the square root of a given polynomial (i) factorization method (ii) division method.3x . In general.x . .ah4 ^ x .ah4 ^ x .bh .3x + 2 2x .Q2 x+y x+y 3 3 2 4. + 2 1 . Which rational expression should be added to x2 . Q = .p (x) if p (x) 1 0 ^ x .bh3 ^ x .7x .7x + 5 to get 2x2 . 3. is a real number b such 2 that b = a .3yh2 Algebra 97 .7.3yh 2 2 ^2x .24xy = = ^2x .ch12 = 11 ^ x .bh6 ^ x .3) 2 = 9 and (+ 3) 2 = 9 are true. For example. 3.ah and ^a .24xy 2 121^ x .5x + 3 .11x + 30 2 x + 6x + 8 x . The positive square root of a is denoted by 2 a or a . Hence 9 = 3 . Similarly.ch12 Solution (i) (ii) (iii) 81x y z = 12 14 64w s 4 6 8 (ii) 81x y z 12 14 64w s 4 6 8 (iii) (2x + 3y) .2 . then find 1 .ah2 ^ x .Q P .2 2 2 2 (vi) x .5x + 1 ? 2x .1 y 2Q If P = x .` 3x . Even though both is used to indicate the positive square (.2x2 . P .31 Find the square root of (i) 121^ x . the square root of any expression or a polynomial is an expression whose square is equal to the given expression.

x .2h^3x .1h ^2x + 1h^3x .25h^ x2 + 8x + 15h^ x2 .x .yh2 + 4xy (v) 121x y ' 81x y 2.x .32 Find the square root of Solution (i) (ii) (iii) 4x + 20xy + 25y = 2 2 6 (ii) x + 16 . Mathematics .6h^6x .24x + 9 2 ^ x2 .1h^2x + 1h Now.2x .ch6 25^ x + yh4 ^a . Also division method is a convenient one when the polynomials are of higher degrees.5x + 2h^2x2 . let us factorize the polynomials 6x .5x + 2h^3x . One can find the square root of a polynomial the same way of finding the square root of a positive integer.5x + 2 = ^3x .2h2 ^ x .1h (i) 4x + 20xy + 25y 2 2 ^2x + 5yh2 = ^2x + 5yh 2 6 3 3 x + 16 . 98 10th Std.2 x 2 2 2 (iii) ^6x . Find the square root of the following: (i) (ii) 16x .1h and 2x .x .1h2 = ^2x + 1h^3x .13 m x x x First.2 = ^2x + 1h^3x .1h 2 2 2 Exercise 3. we find the square root of a polynomial which cannot easily be reduced into product of factors.bh4 ^b .2h^6x .20zx 4 (iv) x + 14 + 2 x 2 2 2 (v) ^6x + 5x .2h^3x2 .1h^2x + 1h ^2x + 1h2 ^3x . Let us explain this method with the following examples.7.1 = ^ x .x .5x + 2h^2x .2h .2h^ x .13 m = c x .12xy + 30yz .bh6 ^b + ch10 (iv) ^ x .x .yh8 ^b .44x (vi) 64^a + bh4 ^ x .2h # ^3x .5x . = = ^6x2 .1h 3.1h # ^ x .Example 3.2 = c x .x .2h^ x .12 1.2h^4x + 8x + 3h 2 2 2 (vi) ^2x .2 Finding the square root of a polynomial by division method In this method.ch6 8 6 4 8 (iii) ^ x + 11h2 .15h 2 2 2 (iii) 4x + 9y + 25z . 3x .2h^ x . Find the square root of the following (i) 196a b c 6 8 10 (ii) 289^a .x .

b) + c + 2a (.12x + 4 = 5x . 2 2 2 2 Now.3x) @ (. where a = 3x . b = 2x and c = 1 4 3 2 Aliter : To find the square root. l.30x + 9x + 20x .30x + 29x .To find (i) 2 45 508 66564 2 5 8 6 65 64 4 2 65 2 25 40 64 40 64 0 (ii) 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 4 3 2 4 3 2 Let p (x) = 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 2 3x + 2x + 1 3x 2 2 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 9x 4 4 3 2 6x + 2x 2 12x + 10x 12x + 4x 3 2 2 3 2 6x + 4x + 1 6x + 4x + 1 2 6x + 4x + 1 0 2 2 Therefore. b and c. (a + b + c) = a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca 2 2 2 = a + b + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc + c 2 = a + ^2a + bh b + ^2a + 2b + ch c 2 2 2 2 = ^3x h + ^6x + 2xh^2xh + ^6x + 4x + 1h^1 h 4 3 2 2 2 Thus.b) + 2 (.b) + 62a + 2 (.3x) + ^10x . it is a matter of finding the suitable a.b) c + 2ac 2 2 = (a . first write 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 2 = (mx + nx + l) = m x + 2mnx + (n + 2lm) x + 2nlx + l Compare the coefficients and then find the suitable constants m.12x + 4 2 2 2 2 = ^5x h + 610x + (.b + c) .b) + c @ c 2 2 2 2 = a + (.3x) + 62 (5x ) + 2 (. 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 = 3x + 2x + 1 . b = 3x.b) @ (. Algebra 99 4 3 2 2 .3x) + 2 @ 2 = a + 62a + (.12x + 4 = 25x . c = 2 ` 25x .3x) @ (. 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 = 4 3 2 ^a + b + ch2 Therefore. Remarks 66564 = 258 and 9x + 12x + 10x + 4x + 1 = 3x + 2x + 1 4 3 (i) While writing the polynomial in ascending or descending powers of x. n.30x + 29x . (ii) The above method can be compared with the following procedure. where a = 5x .6x + 2h 2 2 2 2 2 = ^5x h + 62 (5x ) + (. (iii) It is also quite interesting to note the following : 4 3 2 4 3 2 2 25x . insert zeros for missing terms.3x + 2 .

9x + 12x + 28x .10x + 37x .3x + x 2 3 4 5 25 . Mathematics 4 3 2 2 3 4 2 .35 If m .30x + 19x .10x + 37x 3 . 2 5 . Solution Arrange the polynomial in descending power of x.10x + 6 12x .30x + 25 Solution Let us write the polynomial in ascending powers of x and find the square root. Example 3. then find the values of m and n.60x + 36 = ^ x .6x + x 25 10–3x 2 2 4 3 2 . x .3x + 5 Example 3.60x + 36 x 4 3 2 2 2 2x .6x + x 10x . 100 10th Std.6x + x 10x .33 Find the square root of x .30x + 9x 2 10 . Solution Given polynomial is already in descending powers of x. the square root of the given polynomial is x .nx + m .10x + 25x 2x .60x + 36 0 Thus.nx + 28x + 12x + 9x is a perfect square.6x + x 0 2 3 2 3 4 4 Hence.Example 3.5x 2 .6x + 19x .30x + 19x .5x + 6h Find the square root of x .10x + 37x .60x + 36 .60x + 36 2 12x .10x + 37x .34 4 3 2 2 x .5x + 6 x 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 x .

(iii) ax + bx + 109x .8 Quadratic equations Greek mathematician Euclid developed a geometrical approach for finding out lengths which in our present day terminology. In this section.nx + m 24x + 16x + 16 0 2 2 Since the given polynomial is a perfect square. Exercise 3.60x + 36 3. 2x . now known as the quadratic formula.Now. Solving quadratic equations in general form is often credited to ancient Indian Mathematicians. Definition A quadratic equation in the variable x is an equation of the form ax + bx + c = 0 . 1 .4x + 10x . we will learn solving quadratic equations.D 598 . any equation of the form p^ xh = 0 . where a . Later Sridhar Acharya (1025 A.D) derived a formula.bx + 40x + 24x + 36 4 3 2 4 3 2 2 3 4 Find the values of a and b if the following polynomials are perfect squares. a ! 0 . Algebra 101 2 2 2 .nx + m 9x 4 3 2 4 3 2 2 6x + 2x 2 12x + 28x 12x + 4x 3 2 6x + 4x + 4 24x .12x .12x + 37x + ax + b 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 (iv) (ii) (iv) 4 + 25x . (as quoted by Bhaskara II) for solving a quadratic equation by the method of completing the square. 3x 2 2 3x + 2x + 4 9x + 12x + 28x . 4 3 2 4 3 2 (i) x .6x + 7x . where p^ xh is a polynomial of degree 2.3x + 4 = 0 .13 1.2x + 1 2. Find the square root of the following polynomials by division method. Brahma Gupta (A. We shall also see some applications of quadratic equations. In fact.12x + 9 (ii) 4x + 8x + 8x + 4x + 1 (iii) 9x . whose standard form is ax + bx + c = 0 .x + x = 0 are some quadratic equations. by various methods. (i) 4x .665) gave an explicit formula to solve a quadratic equation of the 2 form ax + bx = c .4x + 10x .ax + b ax . b . we must have n = –16 and m = 16. are solutions of quadratic equations.24x + 16x x . For example. c are real numbers and a ! 0 . 2 is a quadratic equation. In fact.

Given a product. then the whole product is zero.4. we may equate each factor to zero and solve for the unknown.5x . solution set is $.5 .5x .38 Squaring on both sides. ` Solve Solution Given Solution set is ".16 = 0 ( 2 The equation x = 16 is quadratic and hence we have two values x = 4 and x= –4. 24 . and any factor which contains an unknown may be equal to zero.3h ^ x . then some factor of that product must be zero. it will reduce to a quadratic equation.36 2 Solve 6x .25 = 0 Solution Given 6x .24x + 10x . x = . 4 .21 x . Example 3. in solving a quadratic equation.5x .25 = 6x . if any factor is zero. 3 2 Example 3.7 ^ x + 3h + 7 ^ x .15 = 0 2 . 24 .37 6 =0 Solve .4xh2 ( 16x .9h .4x ( 16x .54 . 6x .3h2 ^ x + 3h^ x . Thus. 3 .3h2 ^ x + 3h 2 2 2 6x . That is.4x .10x = 3 . 2 3 Hence. 5 . if a product is equal to zero. Mathematics 2 Example 3.5h^3x + 5h .6x + 9 x -9 Solution Given equation appears to be a non-quadratic equation. x = 5 .5h = ^2x .1 Solution of a quadratic equation by factorization method Factorization method can be used when the quadratic equation can be factorized into linear factors.42 = 0 ( x . Conversely.3. the solution set is obtained from 2x .3h = 0 7^ x .5h + 5^2x .5 = 0 and 3x + 5 = 0 Thus.3h ( 6 ^ x . + 7^ x . 2 2 Next.25 = 3x^2x . we find the values of x which make each of the factors zero.15x + 10x . let us find a and b such that a + b = –5 and ab = 6 ×(–25) = –150.15 = 0 102 10th Std.2 1 + 21 7x . 2 First. Therefore.10x = ^3 .4x > 0 24 .10x = 3 . where –5 is the coefficient of x.8. 6 1 1 = 0 Now. we get a = –15 and b = 10. Thus.25 = 0.14x . But when we simplify the equation. .5 . we get.

x = 3 is not a solution of the equation. divide both sides of the equation by the coefficient of x2 .4x = 3 . go to step 2. on squaring the equation x = 5 we get x2 = 25 .5 2 8 When x = 3 . if the square of half the coefficient of x be added to an expression of the form of x + 2 x2 + bx . To solve the equation.3 x + x + 1 = 34 x+1 x 15 2 (ix) 2^ x + 1h . the x + bx lacks only the term ` b j of being the square 2 b . Such an addition is usually known as completing the square. Algebra 103 . Such a solution is called an extraneous solution.4h2 . Add this number to both sides of the equation. 3 .6h = x^ x + 7h . In this section. Exercise 3. which in turn gives x = 5 and x = –5.12 = 0 (v) 3x .(8x + 5) (2x . the solution set is .^a + b h x + 1 = 0 (x) 3^ x . This is necessary because no solution of the original equation will be lost by squaring but certain values may be introduced which are roots of the new equation but not of the original equation. we shall find the solution of a quadratic equation by the method of completing the square through the following steps. Find half the coefficient of x and square it.5x .81 = 0 2 (iv) 3^ x . this squaring property does not guarantee that all solutions of the new equation are solutions of the original equation.4h = 12 2 2 3. (i) ^2x + 3h2 . If not. we rely on the squaring property : a = b ( a2 = b2 .3) = 0 which gives x = 3 or . For example. 2 2 2 5 .8 = 2 (vi) x + 1 = 26 5 x x 2 2 2 2 2 (viii) a b x . Hence. use the square root property: x2 = t ( x = t or x =. 8 ( Remarks To solve radical equation like the above. Unfortunately. Get all the terms with variable on one side of equation.4` 3 j 1 0 and hence. the result is the square of a binomial.5^ x + 1h = 12 (vii) (iii) 5 x + 2x .t where t is non-negative.5 .3 5 = 0 (ii) 3x .Thus.8. the above example shows that when squaring on both sides of a radical equation. Step 1 Step 2 If the coefficient of x2 is 1. But x = –5 is not a solution of the original equation. When x =$ 8.5^ x .14 Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization method.2 Solution of a quadratic equation by completing square 2 2 2 From ` x + b j = x2 + bx + ` b j . the solution of the final equation must be checked to determine whether they are solutions of the original equation or not.4x 2 0 and hence. Thus. 3 . note that the last term ` b j is the square of half 2 2 2 2 2 the coefficient of x.

2b .2` 3b j x = . which is useful for finding 2 the roots of a quadratic equation.3b j = 2a ( b 2 4a x = 3b ! b 2a 2 3.3abx + 2b = 0 by completing the square Solution There is nothing to prove if a = 0. we have a x .2 = 0 2 (Divide on both sides by 5) ( x .8. we have x = 3 ! 19 = 3 ! 19 .6x .5 j = 25 (take square root on both sides) ( x . For a ! 0 .19 1 .3b x + 2b = 0 2 a a 2 2 x . .39 Solve the quadratic equation 5x .2 = 0 5 5 2 ( 3 is the half of the coefficient of x ) ( x .2` 3 j x = 2 5 5 5 2 2 ( add ` 3 j = 9 on both sides ) ( x .3b = ! b ( 2a 2a Therefore.22 2a a 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3b 2 9b .2` 3b j x + 9b2 = 9b2 . 5 5 Example 3.2a j = 2 4a x . Mathematics .6x. 5 5 5 Hence. a ! 0 . We rewrite the given equation as 2 x + bx+ c = 0 a a 2 2 b x+ c = 0 x + 2` j ( ( x + 2` b j x = .c a 2a a 2a 2 2 2 Adding ` b j = b 2 both sides we get.3 = ! 19 25 5 Thus. x + 2` b j x + ` b j = b 2 .2` 3 j x + 9 = 9 + 2 25 5 5 25 5 25 2 19 3 ( ` x . 3 .3abx + 2b = 0 ( ( ( x . the solution set is ' 3 + 19 . a a 2 ( ` x .40 Solve the equation a x . the solution set is $ b .Example 3.2 = 0 by completing the square.3 Solution of quadratic equation by formula method In this section. we shall derive the quadratic formula.6x .8b ` x .c 2a a 2a 2a 4a 4a 2 2 104 10th Std. Consider a quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 . Solution Given quadratic equation is 5x .2b 2 2a 4a 4a a 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 b ( x .

7 = 0 2 2 (ii) x + 3x + 1 = 0 2 2 2 (iv) 4x + 4bx .b h = 0 2 (iii) 2x + 5x . Consider 1 + 2 = 4 x+1 x+2 x+4 1 = 2 2 .4ac 2 2a 4a (1) 2 So.4ac ` x + 2a j = 2 4a x+ b = ! 2a b .8 = 0. = 2 .2 3 .x . 2a 2a The formula given in equation (1) is known as quadratic formula.b . (i) x + 6x . where x + 1 ! 0 .b ! b .That is.15 1 Solve the following quadratic equations by completing the square . The solution set is ' .3 = 0 (v) x .b + Solution Note that the given equation is not in the standard form of a quadratic equation. Now. .4ac = ! b2 .4x . which is a quadratic equation. the solution set is "2 .^a . Exercise 3. (The above equation can also be obtained by taking LCM ) Using the quadratic formula we get. x + 2 ! 0 and x+1 x+2 x+4 x + 4 ! 0 using quadratic formula. we have x = . Example 3.4^1 h^.4ac .4 E . 2x + 4 . 4 ! 16 .4ac 2a 2 2 2 2 b . ( b 2 b .b .1 That is.41 Solve the equation 1 + 2 = 4 . let us solve some quadratic equations using quadratic formula.x 4 x+1 x+2E ^ x + 4h^ x + 2h + x 1 = 2 8 ^ x + 2h^ x + 4h B x+1 x + 6x + 8 = 2x + 2x Thus. x = Thus.2 3 2 2 2 Hence.^ 3 + 1h x + 3 = 0 2 (vi) 5x + 7 = 3x + 2 x-1 Algebra 105 . 2 + 2 3 . we have x .8h = 4 ! 48 2 2^1 h x = 2 + 2 3 or 2 .4ac 1 .

12ax + ^a .x + 5 = 0 ^5x . Thus.b h = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (viii) a x + ^a . Mathematics .4 Solution of problems involving quadratic equations In this section.3 = 10 x+1 x-4 3 (i) 2 (ii) (iv) (vi) 15x .2.42 The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 5 1 .8. we will solve some simple problems expressed in words and some problems describing day-to-day life situations involving quadratic equation. cm.5h = 0 2 ( Thus.1 + x .2b = 0 2 2 2 36x . the altitude of the triangle is 8 cm and the base of the triangle is 12 cm.12 or 8 But x = .43 x = 5 or 1 5 The base of a triangle is 4 cm longer than its altitude. Finally.abx . the required numbers are 5. 5 Example 3. Find the number. 1 . the base of the triangle is ( x + 4 ) cm. x + 4 = 12. Then its reciprocal is 1 x 2 1 = 5 1 ( x + 1 = 26 By the given condition. 5 Solution Let x denote the required number. By the given condition. then find its base and altitude.1h^ x .b h x . x + x 5 x 5 2 So.26x + 5 = 0 ( That is. x = 8 and hence. Solution Let the altitude of the triangle be x cm. we choose the solution that is relevant to the given problem. 5x . Solve the following quadratic equations using quadratic formula.11x + 2 = 0 3a x . If the area of the triangle is 48 sq.12 is not possible (since the length should be positive) Therefore. Example 3.b = 0 3.8h = 0 ( x = . 5x .96 = 0 ( ( ^ x + 12h^ x . x .25x .7x + 12 = 0 (iii) x + 1 = 2 1 x 2 2 2 (v) a^ x + 1h = x^a + 1h (vii) x . First we shall form an equation translating the given statement and then solve it. 106 10th Std. the area of the triangle = 1 ^ baseh # height 2 1 ^ x + 4h^ xh = 48 By the given condition 2 2 x + 4x . Now.

T2 = 1 ( 30 minutes = 1 hr) 2 2 150 . Find the width of the path on the outside. x^ x 25h E 2 x x + 25 2 + Total distance = 150 km.16 1. ( x2 + 25x . a man was 8 times as old as his son. Speed Let T1 and T2 be the time taken in hours by the car to cover the given distance in scheduled time and decreased time (as the speed is increased) respectively. Find the original speed of the train. Since he has only 30 m barbed wire. 5. A chess board contains 64 equal squares and the area of each square is 6. he fences the sides of the rectangular garden letting his house compound wall act as the fourth side fence.m rectangular vegetable garden.100 is not an admissible value.Example 3. 2. In order to reach its destination 150 km away in time. but x = . 8. Find the numbers. x = 75 or . Find their present ages. Now his age is equal to the square of his son’s age. Solution Let the usual speed of the car be x km/hr.44 A car left 30 minutes later than the scheduled time.75h = 0 Thus. it has to increase its speed by 25 km/hr from its usual speed. 3. The speed of a boat in still water is 15 km/hr. 7. One year ago. Find the length of the side of the chess board. the increased speed of the car is ^ x + 25h km/hr Time taken = Distance .150 = 1 ( 150 x + 25 . Therefore. Find the speed of the stream. Find the dimension of the garden. 8 The difference of the squares of two positive numbers is 45. The square of the smaller number is four times the larger number. A train covers a distance of 90 km at a uniform speed.x = 1 ( . Had the speed been 15 km/hr more. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 65 . . it would have taken 30 minutes less for the journey. metres. 6.25 cm . A rectangular field is 20 m long and 14 m wide. Exercise 3. Algebra 107 2 4. Find the number. There is a path of equal width all around it having an area of 111 sq. Find its usual speed. A farmer wishes to start a 100 sq. A border around the board is 2 cm wide. It goes 30 km upstream and return downstream to the original point in 4 hrs 30 minutes. the usual speed of the car is 75 km/hr.7500 = 0 ( ^ x + 100h^ x . Thus. By the given information T1 .100 .

The first train travels due west and the second train due north. If after two hours. 2 Nature of roots Discriminant 3= b .11x . Mathematics 2 2 2 2 . the discriminant.4ac = ^. the discriminant is 3 = b .9.b ! 10.5 Nature of roots of a quadratic equation If b . A takes 6 days less than the time taken by B to finish a piece of work.4ac .4ac = ^.Therefore.4ac > 0 . Therefore there is no real root for the given quadratic equation.28x + 49 = 0 (iii) 2x + 5x + 5 = 0 Solution For ax + bx + c = 0 .b . 2 The roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 are given by x = . (It has imaginary roots) Determine the nature of roots of the following quadratic equations 2 2 2 (i) x . 2a 2a 2 If b .4^1 h^. the roots are real and unequal.4ac and x = .11h2 .10 = 0 (ii) 4x . (ii) Here.8. 108 10th Std. then the equation has two equal roots x = . then b .b . The first train travels 5 km/hr faster than the second train.28h2 . they are 50 km apart. Now.4ac discriminates the nature of the roots of ax + bx + c = 0 and so it is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation and denoted by the symbol 3 . 3. 3 > 0 .4ac Real and unequal 3 >0 Real and equal. 3 =0 2 3 <0 Example 3.4ac .b . The value of the 2 2 expression b .4ac .4^4h^49h = 0 Since 3 = 0 . we get two distinct real roots x = -b + 2 2 2 b .4ac < 0 . 2a 2 b .4ac = 0 . find the time that B would take to finish this work by himself. a = 4. 2a 2 2 If b .45 No real roots. the discriminant is 3 = b . b = –28 and c = 49. Now. Two trains leave a railway station at the same time. b = –11 and c = –10. find the average speed of each train. 3 = b .4ac .10h = 121 + 40 = 161 Thus.4ac is not a real number. If both A and B together can finish it in 4 days. So. (i) Here. a = 1. evidently the nature of roots depends on the values of b . the roots of the given equation are real and equal.

the discriminant 3 = b . b =.8k . Thus.bh2 .b + ch^a .bh2 .46 Prove that the roots of the equation ^a . Solution Now.47 Find the values of k so that the equation x . Solution The given equation is x . the equation has no real roots.bh and C = a .ch 2 = 4^a . 3 > 0 and it is a perfect square.2x^1 + 3kh + 7^3 + 2kh = 0 .2^3k + 1h .2h^9k + 10h = 0 Algebra 109 .b . k = 2.bh x + ^a .8k . c = 7^3 + 2kh . .c .4AC = 62^a .2x^1 + 3kh + 7^3 + 2kh = 0 has real and equal roots.4^1 h^7h^3 + 2kh = 4^9k + 6k + 1h .bh .4 6^a . a = 2.28^3 + 2kh = 4^9k . a = 1 . Example 3.b + c .10 . the discriminant is 3 = b .ch = 0 are rational numbers for all real numbers a and b and for all rational c. 9 ( ^k .b . B .bh@2 .bh + c @6^a .(iii) Here. 2 2 2 3 =0 ( 9k . Therefore. Hence. 2 2 Let the given equation be of the form Ax + Bx + C = 0 . the roots of the given equation are rational numbers.4ac = ^. a perfect square. 2 Example 3.20h Given that the equation has equal roots. 2 2 2 2 (1) Now.c @ 2 = 4^a .b . B = 2^a .bh2 + 4c = 4c . the discriminant of Ax + Bx + c = 0 is 2 2 A = a . Now.4 6^a .4^2h^5h = 25 – 40 = –15 Since 3 < 0 .bh2 .20 = 0 Thus. b = 5 and c = 5.2^3k + 1hh2 .4^a .bh2 . Then.c @ 2 3 = 4^a . Let the equation (1) be in the form ax + bx + c = 0 Here.b + ch x + 2^a .4^a .4ac = ^5h2 .

bh^ x . then prove that 2 2 2 c = a ^1 + m h . Mathematics .b . 6. prove that a = c .coefficient of x2 a coefficient of x b . where ad .4ac 2a 2a = .2ah^ x . the sum of the roots.8x + 12 = 0 2 2 (ii) 2x .10x + k = 0 2 2 (ii) 12x + 4kx + 3 = 0 (iv) ^k + 1h x .2 6 x + 2 = 0 (iii) 9x + 12x + 4 = 0 2 (vi) ^ x .17 1.2h + 5 = 0 3.4ac + . c are real numbers and a ! 0 . 5. 3.b .bh + ^ x . 4.b .2pqx + q = 0 are not real.b .ch^ x . 2 2 2 Show that the roots of the equation x + 2^a + bh x + 2^a + b h = 0 are unreal. (iv) 3x .ah^ x .ah = 0 are always real and they cannot be equal unless a = b = c . 7.b = . 2 2 2 2 If the equation ^1 + m h x + 2mcx + c .6 Relations between roots and coefficients of a quadratic equation Consider a quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 .b .2^ac + bd h x + c + d = 0 . are equal. The roots of the given equation are a and b . where a = -b + b .bc ! 0 .3x + 4 = 0 2 2 2.2bh = 4ab (v) 3 x . (i) x .1h x + 1 = 0 2 2 2 2 2 (iii) x + 2k^ x . where a .4ac 2a 2 2 and b = .8. ab = .4ac # .2 x + 1 = 0 5 3 Find the values of k for which the roots are real and equal in each of the following equations. (i) 2x . b . 2 2 2 2 2 If the roots of the equation ^a + b h x . 2a 2 2 2 Then. Determine the nature of the roots of the equation.b a + b = -b + b .b + 2 ^ h = b .4ac 2a 2a 2 2 2 and the product of roots.a = 0 has equal roots. b .ch + ^ x .Exercise 3.4ac . Show that the roots of the equation 3p x . b d Show that the roots of the equation ^ x .4ac = 4ac 2 2 4a 4a = c = constant term 2 a coefficient of x 110 10th Std.2^k .

b are the roots of ax + bx + c = 0 .10x + k = 0 is 1 . then (i) the sum of the roots. x . Let the two roots be a and b . then find the values of a and c.b ) = 0 x2 . ab = c a 2 Formation of quadratic equation when roots are given Let a and b be the roots of a quadratic equation. ( a = 1 Sum of the roots. Solution The given equation is 3x . a 2 c = 10 Product of the roots. ( k=3 ab = k .10h 10 = ` a+b = 3 3 Substituting a = 1 in (1) we get b = 3 3 Also.b ) are factors. a c = 10a = 10 # 1 = 5 ( 2 1 and c = 5 Hence. a = 2 Algebra 111 2 2 2 (1) .49 If the sum and product of the roots of the quadratic equation ax .48 2 If one of the roots of the equation 3x . the other root b = 3 and the value of k = 3. Example 3.Therefore.5x + c = 0 are both equal to 10. Then ^ x . ` ( 2 ^ x . 3 Thus. 5 = 10. then find the other root 3 and also the value of k.b a (ii) the product of roots.^a + b h x + ab = 0 That is. -^. a + b = .ah ( x .ah and ( x .10x + k = 0 . if a. Solution The given equation is ax . Example 3.5x + c = 0 .^sum of rootsh x + product of roots = 0 Note There are infinitely many quadratic equations with the same roots.

1 ` a + b = -b = a 2 2 2 (i) 2 2 2 a + b = ^a + b h2 .. -^.3x .Note If a and b are the roots of ax + bx + c = 0 .4 # `.b = ^a .50 If a and b are the roots of the equation 2x .b = ^a + b h^a .` 3 j .13 1 4 2 2 1 2 = . c =.2`.2ab @ 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 a-b = (a + b) .3 .2ab = ` 3 j .1 .4ab 1 3 2 1 ` 2 j .2h = . Let us write some results involving a and b . a .b etc. then many expressions in a and b like 2 2 2 2 2 2 a + b .2a b = 6^a + b h2 .2^ab h2 a .b if a > b (v) 1 1 ca + m` + b j b a (iv) (vi) 2 ea + b o a b 2 2 a +b 4 4 (vii) 3 a +b a b 3 Solution Given equation is 2x2 . Mathematics . can be evaluated using the values of a + b and ab . b =.2ab @ .3x .b h = ^a + b h6 ^a + b h2 . find the values of 2 2 a+b (ii) (i) a + b a b (iii) a .4ab @ only if a $ b 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 a + b = ^a + b h .b h 2 4 4 a .2`.1 = 0 .2 j 13 = = # ^. a = 2 .2ab ab ^a + b h2 . a b .1 jE 2 = ` 9 + 2j2 = 4 2 2 17 2 112 10th Std.1 j = 9 + 1 = 13 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) (iii) a + b = a +b = a b ab a-b = ^a + b h2 . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) a + b = 6^a + b h2 . Given a and b are the roots of the equation.b h^a2 + b 2h Example 3.3ab^a + b h a .4ab 2 a + b = ^a + b h3 .1 = 0 Let the given equation be written as ax + bx + c = 0 Then.b h3 + 3ab^a .b = ^a + b h^a .3h 3 = and ab =.

Solution Given roots are 7 + 3 and 7 .2 j ^1 + ab h2 = = = -1 1 2 ab 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 a + b = ^ a + b h . the sum of the roots = e a + o = a b ab 2 2 2 2 = ^a + b h3 .3 # 3 # 3 = = 28 1 9 3 Algebra 113 .1 j = ` 169 .3 .28 x + 1 = 0 or 9x . ` Sum of the roots = 7 + 3 + 7 .3 h = ^7h2 .2`.2a b 2 2 = ` 13 j .51 Form the quadratic equation whose roots are 7 + 3 and 7 .52 If a and b are the roots of the equation 2 2 b .3 = 14. b are the roots of the equation 3x . we have a+b = 4. ab = 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 b a +b Now.161 .4x + 1 = 0. Product of roots = ^7 + 3 h^7 . form a quadratic equation whose roots are a and a b 2 Solution Since a. 3x .^ 3 h = 49 –3 = 46. 16 2 16 4 2 2 (vi) (vii) 3 a + b = a + b = 161 .3 .3ab^a + b h ab 2 2 ` b Also.28x + 3 = 0 9 3 4 3 1 4 `3j .1 j = 161 . The required equation is x . the required equation is x .3ab^a + b h = 8 4 = . product of the roots = c a mc m = ab = 1 a 3 b 2 2 The required equation is x . for the required equation.4x + 1 = 0.(iv) (v) 27 + 9 3 3 2 3 2 a + b = a + b = ^a + b h .2 = .14x + 46 = 0 Example 3.45 a 4 ab b ab -1 2 ^ab + 1h^1 + ab h 1 1 ca + m` + b j = b a ab 1 2 `1 . ` 16 j` 1 j a 8 b ab 3 4 4 Example 3.^sum of the rootsh x + ^ product of the rootsh = 0 Thus.

6x + 4 = 0.a and .Exercise 3.4. a b 2 If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x .b = 1. If one root of the equation 2x . If a and b are the roots of x . If the system 6x – 2y = 3.81 = 0 is the square of the other. 2b + a (ii) a b. 10. (i) 2. Exercise 3. If a . if their graphs (B) intersect only at a point (D) cut the x-axis (B) has no solution (D) may or may not have a solution The system of equations x –4y = 8 . 11. then form a quadratic equation whose roots are 12 and 12 . 12. 2. 8.ax + 64 = 0 is twice the other. then find the values of 2 2 b a+b (iii) a + (ii) a . x .1 = 0. find k. 4. 6. then find the value of a If a and b are the roots of 5x .19 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Choose the correct answer.6x + 1 = 0.3x . If a .5 = 0. (A) has infinitely many solutions (C) has a unique solution 114 10th Std. b a a b Find a quadratic equation whose roots are the reciprocal of the roots of the equation 2 4x .18 1.5x = 0 Form a quadratic equation whose roots are (i) 3.3x . find the value of a + b .px + 1 = 0 and a .25 = 0 (iii) 4+ 7.4 (ii) 3 + 7 .b . 3. form a equation whose roots are a and b . form a quadratic equation whose roots are . 3x –12y =24 .b (i) a a b b 2 2 2 If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x . b are the roots of 2x . 3 . 9. then (A) k = 3 (A) coincide (C) do not intersect at any point 3. If one root of the equation 3x + kx . 5.7 (iv) 8x . form an equation whose 2 2 roots are (i) 1 . Mathematics (B) k ! 3 (C) k = 4 (D) k ! 4 A system of two linear equations in two variables is inconsistent.1 = 0. 7.5x + 2 = 0 . Find the sum and the product of the roots of the following equations.3x . b are the roots of x . kx – y = 2 has a unique solution. then find p.3x + 2 = 0.6x + 5 = 0 2 2 (ii) kx + rx + pk = 0 2 2 (iii) 3x . 1 (iii) 2a + b. 1.7 2 2 2 If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x .

1 is 3 3 (A) x . 14.b2 (D) a2 + ab + b2 a .yh 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 15.y + z (C) x + y + z (A) x + y .ab .4. The lowest form of the rational expression x 2+ 5x + 6 is x -x-6 (A) x . 16.ab + b2 (C) a2 . 9.a ) ^ x + ah 2 2 (C) ^ x . 17.y (B) 7^ x + yh^ x .2zx (B) x .y is 2 2 (A) 1 (B) x+y (C) x–y (D) x .b are the two rational expressions. then the value of p is (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) –3 (D) –4 2 The remainder when x .25 by x2+ 5 is equal to x+3 x -9 (A) (x –5)(x–3) (B) (x –5)(x+3) (C) (x +5)(x–3) (D) (x +5)(x+3) If a is added with b . 5.ab .2x + 7 is divided by x+4 is (A) 28 (B) 29 (C) 30 (D) 31 3 2 The quotient when x .a k+5 k where keN is (C) a 2 k+6 (B) a (D) a k+5 12. 6. 8. then their product is If 3 3 a-b a +b 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A) a2 + ab + b2 (B) a2 . 13.4 is divided by x–1 is 2 2 2 2 (A) x + 4x + 3 (B) x .ah2 2 2 (D) ^ x + ah2 ^ x + ax + a h 3 3 11.3 3 4 The GCD of ^ x + 1h and x .ab + b (C) a + b (A) a + ab + b The square root of 49 (x .3 (D) x + 4x .2xy + 2yz .a ) ^ x .5x + 7x . a (A) a k+9 k k+3 . then the new expression is b-a a-b 2 2 2 2 3 3 (B) a .1 (B) x + 1 (C) x +1 (D) x . The LCM of a .a and (x – a) 2 is 3 3 (A) (x .ah2 ^ x + ax + a h 3 3 2 (B) (x .3 x+3 x-3 x-3 x+2 3 3 a + b and a .2xy + y ) is (A) 7 x .ab + b a + ab + b a + ab + b a .z Algebra 115 .3 (B) x + 3 (C) x + 2 (D) x .z (D) x . If one zero of the polynomial p^ xh = (k +4) x +13x+3k is reciprocal of the other. then k is equal to (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 2 The sum of two zeros of the polynomial f^ xh = 2x + (p + 3) x + 5 is zero.4x + 3 (C) x .y) 2 The square root of x + y + z . 10.2xy + y and x .4x .y The LCM of x .y .b 2 3 3 (C) 7 (x + y) (D) 7 (x . (D) a .1 4 4 2 2 The GCD of x . 7.b 2 On dividing x .

m 2 4 6 2 4 4 4 8 6 2 (B) 11x y z (l . If b = a + c .m) is (A) 11x y z l . a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0. 21.b (D) .6 = 0 (D) x . Mathematics . 23.a (C) c + b (D) a + b (A) c + a 2b 2b 2a 2c 2 If a. q q q 116 10th Std. If ax + bx + c = 0 has equal roots. The square root of 121 x y z (l .a = 0 is (B) c .b (A) b 2a 4a 2a 4a 2 If x + 5kx + 16 = 0 has no real roots.8 (C) . 20. then one of the quadratic equations whose roots are 1 and 1 .6x .bx + c = 0 and x + bx .8 1 k 1 8 (D) 0 1 k 1 8 (A) k 2 8 5 5 5 5 5 A quadratic equation whose one root is 3 is (B) x + 6x . then (B) k 2 . then c is equal 2 2 2 2 (B) b (C) .18. then the equation ax + bx + c = 0 has (A) real roots (B) no roots (C) equal roots (D) no real roots Points to Remember q A set of finite number of linear equations in two variables x and y is called a system of linear equations in x and y . b are the roots of ax + bx + c = 0 a = 0. is a b (B) bx2 + ax + c = 0 (A) ax2 + bx + c = 0 (C) cx2 + bx + a = 0 (D) cx2 + ax + b = 0 2 2 2 2 22. 1 x y c1 b1 a1 b1 b2 c2 a2 b2 A real number k is said to be a zero of a polynomial p(x). The following arrow diagram helps us very much to apply the method of cross multiplication in solving a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 .5 = 0 (A) x .m) 3 2 4 19. Eliminating one of the variables first and then solving a system is called method of elimination.5 = 0 2 2 (C) x . 25.5x + 6 = 0 2 2 The common root of the equations x . then the wrong statement is Y 2 2 2 (B) ab = c (A) a + b = b -22ac a a 2 (D) a .5x . 24. Such a system is also called simultaneous equations.b = b .m) 3 4 4 (D) 11x y z (l .m (C) 11x y z l .4ac (C) a + b = b a a 2 If a and b are the roots of ax + bx + c = 0 . if p(k) = 0.

q GCD of two or more algebraic expressions is the expression of highest degree which divides each of them without remainder.b.4ac 2 0 two equal roots if b . x = a is zero if and only if p^ah = 0 .a is a factor for p^ xh if and only if p^ah = 0 .c are real numbers and a ! 0 . 2a 2 provided b .q The basic relationship between zeros and coefficients of a quadratic polynomial ax2 + bx + c = 0 are.b ! b . Fermat wrote. A quadratic equation can be solved by (i) the method of factorization (ii) the method of completing square (iii) using a quadratic formula. Sum of zeros = .` Algebra 117 . No one was able to solve this for over 300 years until British mathematician Andrew Wiles solved it in 1994.coefficient of x2 a coefficient of x Product of zeros = c = constant term 2 a coefficient of x q (i) (ii) For any polynomial p^ xh . Interestingly he came to know about this problem in his city library when he was a high school student.4ac $ 0 .4ac . Let a ! R be a non negative real number. The product of LCM and GCD of any two polynomials is equal to the product of the two polynomials. where a. “ I have discovered a truely remarkable proof which this margin is too small to contain ”. x .4ac 1 0 Do you know? Fermat’s last theorem: The equation x n + y n = z n has no integer solution when n > 2.4ac = 0 . is a real number b such 2 that b = a . A quadratic equation in the variable x is of the form ax + bx + c = 0 . A quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 has (i) (ii) two distinct real roots if b . A square root of a. The square root of a is denoted by 2 a or a . LCM of two or more algebraic expressions is the expression of lowest degree which is divisible by each of them without remainder. 2 2 The roots of a quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 are given by .b = . and 2 2 2 2 2 q q q q q q q (iii) no real roots if b .

Royal Society of London instituted the Sylvester medal in his memory. He determined all matrices that commute with a given matrix. their development was due to transformation of geometric objects and solution of linear equations. “Matrix” is the Latin word for womb. and it retains that sense in English.4 MATRICES 4. a highest award for scientific achievement. number theory and combinatorics. It can also mean more generally any place in which something is formed or produced. 118 10th Std. we shall introduce matrices and study the basics of matrix algebra. In the beginning. The same method can easily be executed and the solution can thus be obtained using matrix algebra. place. The term “Matrix” for arrangement of numbers. Matrices were formulated and developed as a concept during 18th and 19th centuries. In 1880.the three intersecting but distinct spheres of thought to which all mathematical ideas admit of being referred . The “ mathematical shorthand” thus obtained is very elegant and powerful and is suitable for various practical problems. and combination . . Matrices are useful because they enable us to consider an array of many numbers as a single object and perform calculations with these symbols in a very compact form. invariant theory. the Royal Society of London awarded Sylvester the Copley Medal.2y = 4 2x + 5y = 9 (1) (2) James Joseph Sylvester (1814-1897) England He made fundamental contributions to matrix theory.Sylvester Introduction Formation of Matrices Types of Matrices Addition. was introduced in 1850 by James Joseph Sylvester. He introduced many mathematical terms including “discriminant”. Mathematics We already know how to get the solution (2. However matrices are now one of the most powerful tools in mathematics. 1) of this system by the method of elimination (also known as Gaussian Elimination method). Now let us consider the following system of linear equations in x and y : 3x .1 Introduction Number. where only the coefficients are used and not the variables. Subtraction and Multiplication of matrices Matrix equations In this chapter we are going to discuss an important mathematical object called “MATRIX”. to encourage mathematical research. In 1901. Here.

10 7 ! first row (i) 4 p ! second row f 8 6 5 ! third row first second column column The same information can also be arranged in tabular form as : Pens Pencils Kumar 10 7 Raju 8 4 Gopu 6 5 This can be expressed in a rectangular array. Now. Look at the following information : Pens and Pencils owned by Kumar and his friends Raju and Gopu are as given below. Kumar has Raju has Gopu has 10 pens and 7 pencils 8 pens and 4 pencils 6 pens and 5 pencils This can be arranged in tabular form as follows: Pens Kumar Raju Gopu 10 8 6 Pencils 7 4 5 This can be expressed in a rectangular array where the entries denote the number of respective items. 10 8 6 ! first row (ii) c m 7 4 5 ! second row first second third column column column Matrices 119 .2 Formation of matrices Let us consider some examples of the ways that matrices can arise. if Kumar has 10 pens and 7 pencils. with the understanding that the number inside ( ) is the number of pens that Kumar has. we may express it as (10 7) with the understanding that the first number inside ( ) is the number of pens while the other one is the number of pencils. Kumar has 10 pens. We may express it as (10).4.

a12 = 5 . Similarly.. The above matrix can also be written as A = 6 aij @ or A = ^aijh . is of the form J a a . m... An arrangement or display of numbers of the above kind is called a MATRIX... a O mj mn P L m1 m2 where a11. 4. m#n m#n Here. 2. Mathematics . Y..g . 3..In arrangement (i)... a31 = 7 .2.. The numbers that make up a matrix are called entries or elements of the matrix. the entries in the first row represent the number of pens of Kumar. a11 = 4 . X. if A = f6 2 1 p. n. a21 = 6 . Raju and Gopu respectively and the second column represents the number of pencils owned by Kumar. the entries in the first column represent the number of pens of Kumar. Raju and Gopu respectively. a N 1j 1n O K 11 12 a21 a22 . .1 General form of a matrix A matrix A with m rows and n columns... a2j .2 Order or dimension of a matrix If a matrix A has m rows and n columns. B = >3 . a . 3. Similarly.. a13. 2.8 4 5 6 1 1 5 -1 p 4.2.. a13 = 3 . a2n O K A=K h h h h . . . a32 = 8 and a33 = 9 . . aij is the element of the matrix lying on the intersection of the i row and j column of A. . Some examples of matrices are 2 1 0 -1 1 2 3 A=c 9 H and C = f 0 m . the element which occurs in the 7 8 9 th th second row and third column. Each vertical arrangement in a matrix is called a column of that matrix. Definition A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers in rows and columns enclosed within square brackets or parenthesis. h O K O K a a . are the elements of the matrix. 4 5 3 For example. then we say that the order of A is m # n (Read as m by n). in arrangement (ii). and j = 1. a12.. Raju and Gopu respectively. a .. where i = 1. Each horizontal arrangement in a matrix is called a row of that matrix. . A matrix is usually denoted by a single capital letter like A. a22 = 2 ... then a23 = 1. Raju and Gopu respectively.. B. The entries in the second row represent the number of pencils owned by Kumar. 120 10th Std..

For example. 3 4 7 6 1 is a square matrix of order m. 4 5 6 Note In a m # n matrix.7 p are square matrices of orders 2 and 3 respectively.3 (i) Types of matrices Let us learn certain types of matrices. For example. 3 0 2 1 2 A=c m and B = f 1 5 . For example. 1#n (ii) Column matrix A matrix is said to be a column matrix if it has only one column. a33. A = ^aijh is a row matrix of order 1 # n . the first letter m always denotes the number of rows and the second letter n always denotes the number of columns. A = 6 aij @ Square matrix m#1 is a column matrix of order m # 1 . m#m (iv) Matrices 121 . In general. A = 6 aij @ is said to be a diagonal matrix if aij = 0 for all i ! j . is called a diagonal matrix. g. It is also called as a column vector. In general. 1 0 For example. a22 . Diagonal matrix A square matrix in which all the elements above and below the leading diagonal are equal to zero. the order of A is 2 # 3 . In general. In general. A = c m and B = f 2 p are column matrices of orders 2 # 1 and 3 # 1 2 5 respectively. A = ^5 3 4 1h and B = ( –3 0 5 ) are row matrices of orders 1 # 4 and 1 # 3 respectively. 4. (iii) A matrix in which the number of rows and the number of columns are equal is said to be a square matrix. A = 6 aij @ m#m The elements a11. 3 0 0 5 0 A=c m and B = f 0 0 0 p are diagonal matrices of orders 2 and 3 0 2 0 0 1 respectively.The matrix 1 2 3 A=c m has 2 rows and 3 columns. Row matrix A matrix is said to be a row matrix if it has only one row. amm are called principal or leading diagonal elements of the square matrix A. A row matrix is also called as a row vector. So.

(vii) Null matrix or Zero-matrix A matrix is said to be a null matrix or zero-matrix if each of its elements is zero. 0 1 0 0 1 1 if i = j is a unit matrix if aij = ) In general. ij n # m T 122 10th Std. 2. Unit matrix A diagonal matrix in which all the leading diagonal entries are 1 is called a unit matrix. 0 0 0 0 0 Note (i) A zero-matrix need not be a square matrix. m . For example. It is denoted by O. (ii) Zero-matrix plays the role of the number zero in numbers. For example. Every unit matrix is clearly a scalar matrix. However a scalar matrix need not be a unit matrix. (v) Scalar matrix A diagonal matrix in which all the elements along the leading diagonal are equal to a non-zero constant is called a scalar matrix. g.Note Some of the leading diagonal elements of a diagonal matrix may be zero. A unit matrix of order n is denoted by In. when i ! j In general. if A = 6 aij @ then m#n A = 8 b B . 0 5 0 0 7 0. 1 0 0 1 0 I2 = c m and I3 = f 0 1 0 p are unit matrices of orders 2 and 3 respectively. g. then A = f 2 4 p 3 4 6 5 6 In general. A unit matrix plays the role of the number 1 in numbers. 7 0 0 5 0 A=c m and B = f 0 7 0 p are scalar matrices of orders 2 and 3 respectively. Mathematics . For example. (iii) A matrix does not change if the zero-matrix of same order is added to it or subtracted from it. A = 6 aij @ is said to be a scalar matrix if aij = ) m#m k. n and j = 1. 2. For example. 1 3 1 2 5 T if A = c m . (viii) Transpose of a matrix Definition The transpose of a matrix A is obtained by interchanging rows and columns T of the matrix A and it is denoted by A (read as A transpose). 0 0 0 0 0 O=c m and O = c m are null matrices of order 2 # 3 and 2 # 2 . when i = j where k is a scalar. for i = 1. where bij = a ji. a square matrix A = ^aijh n#n 0 if i ! j (vi) Note A unit matrix is also called an identity matrix with respect to multiplication.

Solution (i) Since the matrix A has 4 rows and 3 columns. the warmest day is Tuesday. the element in 4th row and 2nd column. We write J 5 0 7N K O K 0 15 1 O where the rows correspond to food items. That is . Similarly. Find Let A = 6 aij @ = K 3 7 0O K O 9 .1 The table shows a five-day forecast indicating high (H) and low (L) temperatures in Fahrenheit.2 . a42 =.Example 4. Organise the temperatures in a matrix where the first and second rows represent the High and Low temperatures respectively and identify which day will be the warmest? Solution The above information can be represented in matrix form as Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 88 90 86 84 85 H 88 90 86 84 85 . a 4 # 3 matrix as B = K 1 6 2O K O L10 9 8 P Example 4.3 J1 4 8 N K O K 6 2 5 O.2 The amount of fat. Matrices 123 . ` a13 = 8.1P L (i) the order of the matrix (ii) the elements a13 and a42 (iii) the position of the element 2.2 . (ii) The element a13 is in the first row and third column. Solution The above information can be represented in the form of 3 # 4 matrix as 5 0 1 10 A = f 0 15 6 9 7 1 2 8 p where the columns correspond to food items. A is of order 4 # 3 . (iii) The element 2 occurs in 2nd row and 2nd column ` a22 = 2. Example 4. A = e o A= c m 54 56 53 52 52 L 54 56 53 52 52 By reading through the first row (High). carbohydrate and protein in grams present in each food item respectively are as follows: Item 1 Fat Carbohydrate Protein 5 0 7 Item 2 0 15 1 Item 3 1 6 2 Item 4 10 9 8 Use the information to write 3 # 4 and 4 # 3 matrices.

3 (2) = 2 . a11 = 2 (1) .4 Solution In general a 2 # 3 matrix is given by a a a A = e a11 a12 a13 o 21 22 23 Construct a 2 # 3 matrix A = 6 aij @ whose elements are given by aij = 2i . Also find the dimensions of the matrices. Exercise 4. a12 = 2 (1) . 3 a22 = 2 (2) . In fact. 124 10th Std.3 (1) = . then find A and (A ) 4 8 5 1 -3 2 o 4 T T T T Note From the above example.9 = 5 1 4 7 Hence the required matrix A = c m 1 2 5 Example 4. The rates for the entrance tickets at a water theme park are listed below: Week Days rates(`) 400 200 300 Week End rates(`) 500 250 400 T T Adult Children Senior Citizen Write down the matrices for the rates of entrance tickets for adults. a23 = 2 (2) . children and senior citizens.3j Now aij = 2i . Mathematics . 2 and j = 1. a13 = 2 (1) . Hence (A ) = e T T T T T a21 = 62 (2) . 8 1 T Thus.Example 4.3j where i = 1.3 (2) = 4 . it is true that (B ) = B for any matrix B.5 If A = e Solution 8 5 2 o 1 -3 4 T The transpose A of a matrix A. we see that (A ) = A .3 @ = 1 .1 1.1 = 1 .3 p 2 4 A=e Similarly (A ) is obtained by interchanging rows and columns of the matrix A .3 (3) = 7 8 5 1 -3 2 T T T o . Also. is obtained by interchanging rows and columns of the matrix A. A = f 5 . (kA) = kA for any scalar k. 2.

that is aij = bij for all i and j. then find the transpose of A.3j (i . What are the possible orders it can have?. Represent these data in the form of 3 # 1 and 1 # 3 matrices. 1 2 1 8 Also c m!c m . then verify that (A ) = A . since some of the corresponding elements are not equal.2. 8. 6. 8 5 2 5 Matrices 125 .5 p. 10. There are 6 Higher Secondary Schools. 7 3 1 -1 5 (i) e (ii) f 8 p (iii) f 6 o 3 4 -2 9 2 J 1 K -2 p (iv) ^3 4 5h (v) K 9 K K L 6 A matrix has 8 elements. the matrices f 0 9 p and c m are not equal as the orders of the 3 9 5 1 5 matrices are different. Find the order of the following matrices. 0 2 3 T T 4 . 5. 2 If A = f 4 5 1 If A = f 2 3 4. 6 3 6 0 1 For example. (i) find the order of the matrix (ii) write down the elements 6 0 9 8 a24 and a32 (iii) in which row and column does the element 7 occur? 3 1 p. we shall discuss the equality of matrices. 8 High Schools and 13 Primary Schools in a town. 2i .4 7 4 p. -5 6 9. Construct a 2 # 2 matrix A = 6 aij @ whose elements are given by i-j (ii) aij = 2i .j (iii) aij = (i) aij = ij i+j Construct a 3 # 2 matrix A = 6 aij @ whose elements are given by 2 2 3 7 4 4. subtraction and multiplication of matrices. 3. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. Equality of matrices Two matrices A = 6 aij @ (i) (ii) m#n and B = 6 bij @ m#n are said to be equal if they are of the same order and each element of A is equal to the corresponding element of B.4 Operation on matrices In this section. What are the possible orders it can have? -2 -1 4 6 1 5 A matrix consists of 30 elements.2j) (ii) aij = (iii) aij = (i) aij = i 2 j 2 1 -1 3 2 If A = f 5 . addition. N O O O O P 7.

7 6 . if A = c m then kA = k c m=c m d e f d e f kd ke kf Example 4. we get 3x = 31 + 4 (6 .Example 4. x = 5 and y =.4 . the corresponding elements are equal. we get x = 3.4 . Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar Definition For a given matrix A = 6 aij @ B = 6 bij @ m#n where bij = kaij for all i and j m#n and a scalar (real number) k.2x y Solve : c m = e o 31 + 4y 3x Solution Since the matrices are equal. Mathematics 45 72 81 Boys A=c m 30 90 65 Girls 126 10th Std.6 3 5 z x 5 4 m=c m 5 y 1 5 9 1 Solution As the given matrices are equal.1) =e 3 (3) 3 (2) 3 (6) 3 (4) -3 o=e 3 (.2x) 3x = 31 + 24 . we define a new matrix Thus. their corresponding elements must be equal. Comparing the corresponding elements. Thus.8x ` x = 5 and hence y = 6 . This multiplication is called scalar multiplication. Find the values of x.15 Science 51 80 90 Boys B =c m 42 85 70 Girls . a b c a b c ka kb kc For example.5) 9 6 12 o 18 .8 4 -1 2 If A = e o then find 3A 3 6 -5 Solution The matrix 3A is obtained by multiplying every element of A by 3.2x and 3x = 31 + 4y .2 (5) = . y = 9 and z = 4 . -1 3A = 3 e 3 Addition of matrices Matrices A and B given below show the marks obtained by 3 boys and 3 girls in the subjects Mathematics and Science respectively. Using y = 6 –2x in the other equation. Mathematics 2 4 o 6 -5 3 (. we get y = 6 . Comparing the corresponding elements. the matrix B is obtained by multiplying each entry of A by the scalar k and written as B = kA. y and z if c Example 4.

A .B = 6 cij @ where cij = aij .A = 6 bij @ where bij =. The addition of two matrices A and B is denoted by A+B. A + B = c m 3 8 6 5 Negative of a matrix The negative of a matrix A = 6 aij @ is denoted by . mxn 45 + 51 30 + 42 72 + 80 90 + 85 Note that the operation of addition on matrices is defined as for numbers.1) B.A = (. . Addition is not defined for matrices of different orders.1) A . then the addition m#n m#n of A and B is a matrix C = 6 cij @ where cij = aij + bij for all i and j. we observe that the sum of two matrices of same order is a matrix obtained by adding the corresponding entries of the given matrices. the last girl scores a total of 135 marks in Mathematics and Science. A+B =c =e 5 6 -2 3 3 -1 4 7 m+c m 1 0 4 2 2 8 2 3 5+3 6-1 -2+4 3+7 o 1+2 0+8 4+2 2+3 8 5 2 10 Thus.aij for all i and j. mxn That is. Example 4.To find the total marks obtained by each student.bij Matrices 127 Subtraction of matrices If A = 6 aij @ and B = 6 bij @ m#n m#n are two matrices of the same order. addition of A and B is defined. then find A + B 1 0 4 2 2 8 2 3 Solution Since A and B are of the same order 2 # 4 . Let A = c So. =e Hence.B is defined as A . mxn for all i and j. Definition If A = 6 aij @ and B = 6 bij @ are two matrices of the same order. then the . addition of matrices A and B is not possible.10 5 6 -2 3 3 -1 4 7 If A = c m and B = c m .9 8 3 2 1 -1 m and B = c m . Example 4. Find A+B if it exists. 5 9 1 3 0 Solution Since A is order of 2 # 3 and B is of order 2 # 2 . We write 45 72 81 51 80 90 A+B =c m+c m 30 90 65 42 85 70 81 + 90 96 152 171 m o =c 65 + 70 72 175 135 The final matrix shows that the first boy scores a total of 96 marks in Mathematics and Science.B = A + (. subtraction A . we shall add the corresponding entries of A and B. Similarly.A and is defined as . That is.

then A+B = B+A Matrix addition is associative If A. 3 4.A) = (.5 (i) (ii) (iii) Properties of matrix addition Matrix addition is commutative If A and B are any two matrices of same order. 7 -1 -9 5 Let A = c 3 2 8 -1 m and B = c m . Mathematics . B=c m m Girls 42 38 41 30 40 30 34 27 Girls Find the weight loss of the Boys and Girls. Exercise 4. then A + O = O + A = A. Find the matrix C if C = 2A + B . Existence of additive inverse For a matrix A. Since A + (.A) + A = O.8 m e o=c 0 4z + 6 0 2 Solve for x and y if e 2x + y 5 m o=c x . 5 1 4 3 128 10th Std. Find the values of x.11 Matrix A shows the weight of four boys and four girls in kg at the beginning of a diet programme to lose weight. . 3.A is the additive inverse of A. then find the additive inverse of A. 4. Matrix B shows the corresponding weights after the diet programme.3y 13 2. If A is a matrix of order m # n. B is called the additive inverse of A if B + A = A + B = O . 2 3 1 5 If A = e o-e o .Example 4. then A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C Existence of additive identity Null or zero matrix is the additive identity for matrix addition. B and C are any three matrices of same order.2 1. y and z from the matrix equation 5x + 2 y-4 12 . where O is the null matrix of order m # n. (iv) Note The additive inverse of a matrix is its negative matrix and it is unique (only one).B = c 35 40 42 38 3 5 1 =c 2 8 7 28 45 32 35 27 41 m-c m 41 30 40 30 34 27 4 m. 35 40 28 45 Boys 32 35 27 41 Boys A=c . Solution Weight loss matrix A .

o=c y 4 y 3 2 1 -2 0 0 If A = c m.A) = O = (. B = c m and O = c m then 5 1 2 3 0 0 (ii) A + (. 3 1 5 2 -2 2 3 Find X and Y if 2X + 3Y = c m and 3X + 2Y = e o.5. 8. An electronic company records each type of entertainment device sold at three of their branch stores so that they can monitor their purchases of supplies.00 p. After 2. After 2. B = f 6 2 8 0 3 2 2 4 6 p 1 2 -3 and C = f 5 0 2 p. 7. The fees structure for one-day admission to a swimming pool is as follows: Daily Admission Fees in ` Membership Before 2.m. The sales in two weeks are shown in the following spreadsheets. 5 -9 -1 -3 Find a and b if a c 2 10 -1 m+ b c m=c m. 6. 30 40 25 25 32 22 DVD 15 20 18 12 10 15 Videogames 12 15 10 8 10 8 CD Players 10 15 12 6 12 10 Week I Week II Find the sum of the items sold out in two weeks using matrix addition. If A = e 4 -2 8 2 o and B = e o find 6A .00 p.2 3 p.V.m. Matrices 129 .00 p. Store I Store II Store III Store I Store II Store III T. 25 40 35 50 Children 20 30 Adult 30 40 Write the matrix that represents the additional cost for non-membership.A) + A . 9. 11. Non-Membership Before 2. 12. then 1 -1 1 verify that A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C .m.3B . 5 4 0 -1 2 2x -9 Solve for x and y if e x2 o + 3 e m. verify (i) A + B = B + A 10. 4 1 2 2 0 4 If A = f 1 .m.00 p.

The money required by Selvi and Meena will be 3 # 8 + 2 # 4 = `32 and 4 # 8 + 5 # 4 = ` 52 . Requirements Price (in `) Money needed (in `) Selvi 3 2 c m Meena 4 5 c 10 8 m 5 4 e 3 # 10 + 2 # 5 4 # 10 + 5 # 5 3#8+2#4 40 32 m o=c 4#8+5#4 65 52 From the above example. add the products. We can also do this using matrix multiplication.1) 5 -1 3 -9 m c m=e 4 5 7 o 130 10th Std. Selvi needs ` 40. The above information can be represented as Requirements Price (in `) Money Needed (in `) 3#8+2#4 Selvi 3 2 8 32 c m m c m e o=c 4#8+5#4 Meena 4 5 4 52 Now. and put the result in the first row and first column of AB. Mathematics . we take rows of the first matrix and columns of the second matrix. we observe that multiplication of two matrices is possible if the number of columns in the first matrix is equal to the number of rows in the second matrix. while Meena needs 4 pens and 5 pencils.4. for getting the elements of the product matrix. the above information in both the cases can be combined in matrix form as shown below. Since 3 # 10 + 2 # 5 = 40 . multiply them element-wise and sum it.6 Multiplication of matrices Suppose that Selvi wants to buy 3 pens and 2 pencils. 2 -1 3 -9 Let A = c m and B = c m . Since 4 # 10 + 5 # 5 = 65 . Then the product of AB is defined and is 3 4 5 7 given by 2 -1 3 -9 AB = c mc m 3 4 5 7 Step 1 : Multiply the numbers in the first row of A by the numbers in the first column of B. Further. How much money does each need to spend? Clearly. Let us write the above information as follows: Requirements Price (in `) Money Needed (in `) Selvi 3 2 c m Meena 4 5 10 c m 5 e 3 # 10 + 2 # 5 40 m o=c 4 # 10 + 5 # 5 65 Suppose the cost of each pen and pencil in another shop are `8 and `4 respectively. Meena needs ` 65. Each pen and pencil cost `10 and `5 respectively. The following simple example illustrates how to get the elements of the product matrix when the product is defined. 2 c 3 2 (3) + (.

Also.9) + (.1) 7 2 -1 3 .This fact is explained in the following diagram. the product matrix AB is of order 2 # 4 . (i) A2 # 5 and B5 # 4 (ii) A1 # 3 and B4 # 3 Solution (i) Now.9 c m c m=e o 3 (.9) + (. the matrix product AB is not defined.Step 2: Follow the same procedure as in step 1. 2 (3) + (. (ii) Given that A is of order 1 # 3 and B is of order 4 # 3 Now. Write the result in the first row and second column of AB. state the dimension of the product matrix.1) 5 2 (. So.25 m 1 Step 5: Definition If A = 6 aij @ m#n and B = 6 bij @ n#p then the product matrix AB is defined and is of order m # p .1) 5 2 (.9) + (.9) + 4 (7) 29 . using the first row of A and second column of B.9) + 4 (7) 3 (3) + 4 (5) 3 4 5 7 Simplify to get the product matrix AB 2 (3) + (. So.1) 7 1 o=c 3 (. 2 (3) + (. the number of columns in A and the number of rows in B are not equal.1) 7 2 -1 3 -9 c m c m=e o 3 4 5 7 Follow the same procedure with the second row of A and first column of B.1) 5 e 3 (3) + 4 (5) 2 (. Am # n B same n# p product matrix AB is of order m # p Example 4. the product AB is defined.1) 5 -9 m=e 3 (3) + 4 (5) 7 2 (. Matrices 131 . 2 c 3 -1 3 m c 4 5 2 (3) + (. Write the result in the second row and first column of AB. the number of columns in A and the number of rows in B are equal.9) + (.1) 7 Step 3: o Step 4: The procedure is the same for the numbers in the second row of A and second column of B.12 Determine whether each matrix product is defined or not. If the product is defined.

then show that A . 132 10th Std.ad) I2 4. Some of such properties are (i) AB ! BA (in general) (ii) AB = 0 does not imply that either A or B is a zero-matrix and (iii) AB = AC.14 If A = c a b 1 0 2 m and I2 = c m .Example 4. (a + d) A = (a + d) c c 2 a + ad =e ac + cd From (1) and (2) we get. Mathematics .13 x 3 2 8 m c m=c m y 4 5 13 x 3 2 8 Solution Given that c m c m=c m y 4 5 13 3x + 2y 8 ( m e o=c 4x + 5y 13 Equating the corresponding elements.7 Properties of matrix multiplication The matrix multiplication does not retain some important properties enjoyed by multiplication of numbers.(a + d) A = (bc .(a + d) A = (bc .ad) I2 c d 0 1 2 2 b a + bc m=e d ac + cd x = 2. Example 4.8 7 . Solve c Solving the equations by the method of cross multiplication.32 + 39 . we get 3x + 2y = 8 and 4x + 5y = 13 ( 3x + 2y . A .13 = 0. A is a non-zero matrix. A . we get x y 1 2 –8 3 2 5 –13 4 5 y x x = y = 1 1 = = ( ( 7 14 15 . does not imply always that B = C.(a + d) A = e =e 2 2 ab + bd 2o bc + d (1) b m d ab + bd 2 o ad + d ab + bd a + ad ab + bd 2 o-e 2 o bc + d ac + cd ad + d 0 1 0 m o = (bc . y = 1 Solution Consider A = A#A a b a mc =c c d c a Now.ad 0 1 2 (2) a + bc ac + cd bc .ad 0 2 Thus.26 + 40 Thus.8 = 0 and 4x + 5y .ad) c bc .

24 + 7 30 16 + 35 6-4 = f .17 51 2 .3 . Thus. let A = c (i) Matrix multiplication is not commutative in general If A and B are two matrices and if AB and BA both are defined. 0 1 3 4 3 4 0 0 (i) AB ! BA (ii) AD = O. (iii) Matrix multiplication is distributive over addition For any three matrices A. B = c m. Then. but B ! C. Also. 8 -7 9 -3 2 78 .16 (1) Matrices 133 . A and D are not zero-matrices and (iii) AB = AC.2 4 p and B = e o . Let us see some properties of matrix multiplication through examples. both the products .0 0 1 2 5 6 1 0 m. 6 -1 -5 50 . whenever both sides of the equality are defined. Example 4. under matrix multiplication unit matrix commutes with any square matrix of same order. AB and BA are defined.42 .C = c m and D = c m . whenever both sides of equality are defined. we have (AB)C = A(BC). AB = f . we have (i) A (B + C) = AB + AC (ii) (A + B) C = AC + BC .2 4 pe o 6 -1 -5 0 3 72 .15 p (Note that AB ! BA ) Multiplication of two diagonal matrices of same order is commutative. B and C.4 . 1 1 5 -1 6 m+e m o =c 7 1 10 -5 3 2 -1 6 .15 8 -7 9 -3 2 If A = f .69 BA = e o f -2 4 p = e o.20 p = f 6 0 + 18 18 0-3 0 . it is not necessary that AB = BA. 3 2 1 1 -2 5 If A = e m and C = e o. B and C.61 0 3 Remarks and BA if they exist. then find AB 6 -1 -5 0 3 Solution The matrix A is of order 3 # 2 and B is of order 2 # 3 . A (B + C) = e -1 Now.1 38 m =c m oc 4 1 10 5 34 Example 4. however.24 .18 + 24 . B = c o verify that A (B + C) = AB + AC 6 7 -1 4 -5 3 Solution -2 B+C =c 6 3 Thus. For example. (ii) Matrix multiplication is always associative For any three matrices A.15 Similarly. 8 -7 9 -3 2 Now.

I is known as the identity matrix under multiplication. Mathematics .17 If A = e Solution Now. then is the multiplicative inverse of B. then it is unique. we have A (B + C) = AB + AC (iv) Existence of multiplicative identity In ordinary algebra we have the number 1.1 . (i) Some of the square matrices like c Example 4. where I is the unit matrix of order n.21 11 (2) .3 2 -2 5 3 2 1 1 Now. For any square matrix A of order n.6 + 12 2 + 24 15 + 14 3 . 3 1 2 -1 134 10th Std. AI = e 1 3 o .1 + 12 6 29 -7 9 m+e o 26 23 . then B is called the -1 multiplicative inverse matrix of A and it is denoted by A Note 2 3 m do not have multiplicative inverses. we have AI = IA = A . 9 -6 1+0 1 3 1 0 m=e oc 9+0 9 -6 0 1 0+3 1 3 o= e o=A 0-6 9 -6 3+0 1 3 o= e o=A 0-6 9 -6 1+0 1 3 1 0 me o=e 0+9 9 -6 0 1 Hence AI = IA = A . Also. IA = c (v) Existence of multiplicative inverse If A is a square matrix of order n.10 o+e . such that AB = BA = I. (iii) If multiplicative inverse of a square matrix exists. where I is the unit matrix of order n. 4 6 (ii) If B is the multiplicative inverse of A.20 3+6 o . and if there exists a square matrix B of the same order n.1 38 m =c 5 34 From (1) and (2). We now introduce an analogous concept in matrix algebra. Hence.18 Prove that c 2 -5 3 5 m and e o are multiplicative inverses to each other.5 + 28 . Example 4. then verify AI = IA = A . which has the property that its product with any number is the number itself. where I is the unit matrix of order 2. AB + AC = e m+e oc oe o 6 7 -1 4 -1 4 -5 3 =e =c .

6 12 15 12 .6 AB = f 4 p ^1 3 . where P = 6 pij @ (iv) RS. If so.24 .30 1 B A = f 3 p ^. where M = 6 mij @ 2. B = 6 bij @ 3x 2 1 x5 3x 1 . Determine whether the product of the matrices is defined in each case.15 + 15 m=I o=c 0 1 -5 + 6 6-5 10 . then (AB) = B A Example 4.6 h .6 7 4 -1 0 -2 1 p 6 (iv) e o^ 2 . T T T p and B = ^ 1 3 . S = 6 sij @ .2 4 5 h -6 T T p (1) Now. where R = 6 rij @ 4x 3 2x2 .7 h -3 Matrices 135 . e m=e m=I oc o=c 3 1 2 0 1 -3 + 3 -5 + 6 -1 ` The given matrices are inverses to each other under matrix multiplication.24 5 5 15 . if exists.6h = f 4 12 .Solution Now.6 12 . (i) ^ 2 .30 T p T T (2) From (1) and (2). we get (AB) = B A . 5 m 4 (i) AB. c 6-5 2 -5 3 5 me o=e 2-2 3 1 2 -1 1 0 . then verify that (AB) = B A T T T 12 -2 -2 .3 1. 4 5 -2 ^ ABh = f.30 T p Thus. 4 5 -2 12 15 = f. (iii) MN.19 -2 If A = f 4 5 Solution Now. N = 6 nij @ (ii) PQ.1h c (ii) c 3 -2 4 1 m c m 5 1 2 7 4 2 2 9 -3 (iii) e o f.10 2 -5 3 5 1 0 Also.24 . state the order of the product. where A = 6 aij @ 4x 3 . Exercise 4. (vi) Reversal law for transpose of matrices If A and B are two matrices and if AB is defined . Q = 6 qij @ 4x 3 2x2 Find the product of the matrices.

3 -2 -2 3 3 3 8 7 2 -3 m. 5. 4. 1 2 3 2 If A = c 2 -1 5 2 T T T m and B = e o verify that (AB) = B A . 7. 5 -2 -3 11. 8. ` 10 and ` 5 each respectively. A fruit vendor sells fruits from his shop. If A = c If A = c 1 -1 2 m then show that A . 7 6 0 9 4 6 13. find (A + B) C and AC + BC . If A = c Is (A + B) C = AC + BC ? 136 10th Std. 2 3 3 2 3 0 m and B = c m then find AB and BA.11 of x and y. 10. B = f 1 p and C = ^2 1h verify (AB) C = A (BC) . B = c m and C = c m .3. 12. 1 1 7 3 - 9. Are they equal? 4 0 3 2 6. 3 -2 5 2 Prove that A = c m and B = e o are inverses to each other under matrix 7 5 7 3 multiplication. Solve ^ x 1 0 x 1h e o c m = ^ 0 h. 0 y 9 0 3 3 x 5 3 -5 m . X = c m and C = e o and if AX = C . Mathematics . Selling prices of Apple.4A + 5I2 = O . The sales in three days are given below Day 1 2 3 Apples 50 40 60 Mangoes 60 70 40 Oranges 30 20 10 Write the matrix indicating the total amount collected on each day and hence find the total amount collected from selling of all three fruits combined. Find the values of x and y if c If A = c x 0 1 2 x 0 mc m=c m. then find the values y 7 5 . If A = e 1 -4 -1 6 2 2 2 o and B = e o . Mango and Orange are ` 20. then prove that (A + B) ! A + 2AB + B . 0 -1 2 1 If A = c m.

0 . 7 4. then the order of BA is (B) 4 # 4 (C) 4 # 3 (D) not defined 2 h then the order of A is (B) 2 # 2 (C) 1 # 2 (B) Null matrix (D) . (D) 4 7. . Matrix A = 6 aij @ 3x + 7 y+1 m#n is a square matrix if (B) m 2 n (C) m = 1 (D) m = n (A) m 1 n 3. –7 (A) –2 . (B) . 2 (C) 0 .4 Choose the correct answer. 8. If A and B are square matrices such that AB = I and BA = I .A (D) 3 # 2 9.3x 8 y-2 o then the values of x and y respectively are 8 (C) .2 (D) 1 .2 3 3 (D) 2 . then the number of elements in the matrix is (A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 2 8 4 2 1 If c m = 4c m then the value of x is x 8 1 2 (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 1 4 If A is of order 3 # 4 (A) 3 # 3 1 1 If A # c m=^1 0 2 (A) 2 # 1 (A) Unit matrix (C) Multiplicative inverse matrix of A 6. then B is 10. 1 Matrices 137 (A) 2 . and B is of order 4 # 3 .2 3 h and B = f 2 -3 (A) ^0 0 0h (C) ^ .14 h p then A + B 0 (B) f 0 p 0 (D) not defined (D) 3 5. If a matrix is of order 2 # 3.Exercise 4. . Which one of the following statements is not true? (A) A scalar matrix is a square matrix (B) A diagonal matrix is a square matrix (C) A scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix (D) A diagonal matrix is a scalar matrix. If c x 1 2 2 m c m = c m .1 . then the values of x and y respectively. 2. are y 2 1 4 (B) 0 . 1. If e 5 1 o=e 2 .1 . 7 3 -1 If A = ^ 1 .

c and d respectively are 0 -1 c d 0 1 (B) 1. then c -a 2 14. 0. . If A = 6 aij @ (A) c 17. If A = e (A) c 4 -2 o . (C) 1 (D) 0 7 Which one of the following is true for any two square matrices A and B of same order?. c 2#2 2 (B) 1 . If A = e (A) e 1 -2 o and A + B = O . (A) 1 + a + bc = 0 (C) 1 . then B is -3 4 (B) e -1 2 o 3 -4 (C) e -1 -2 o -3 -4 (D) c 1 0 m 0 1 1 -2 o -3 4 12. 1 (C) . then the value of x is (B) .1. 1. then the values of a.bc = 0 2 2 and aij = i + j. 0. 0 (D) 1. (A) (AB) = A B T T T (B) (A B) = A B T T T T (C) (AB) T = BA (D) (AB) = B A T T T 138 10th Std.7 20.11.1 18. addition of A and B is possible only if (A) m = p (B) n = q (C) n = p (D) m = p. 0. 0 (A) . Mathematics . A is of order m # n and B is of order p # q . If A = c (A) c 19. 0.bc = 0 16. n = q 2 a 3 5 m e o = c m. 0.a + bc = 0 (D) 1 + a . then A = (B) c 2 3 m 3 4 (C) c 2 3 m 4 5 (D) c 4 5 m 6 7 1 2 m 3 4 1 0 a b -1 0 mc m=e o .2 o 1 -7 (D) e 8 2 o -1 7 1 0 m 0 1 If ^ 5 x 1 h f . (D) 11 15. 0.1.a . then A2 is 6 -3 (B) e 8 -4 o 12 .6 (C) e -4 2 o -6 3 (D) e 4 -2 o 6 -3 16 4 m 36 9 13. 7 2 -1 0 m and A + B = e o then the matrix B = 2 -4 1 3 (B) e 2 6 2 o 3 -1 (C) e -8 . then the value of a is 1 2 -1 0 (A) 8 (B) 4 (C) 2 If c If A = e a b o is such that A2 = I . b.1 (A) 7 3 p = ^ 20 h . 0.

(A + B) = A + B and (AB) = B A If AB = O. is a square matrix if m = n . A matrix is said to be a zero matrix if all its elements are zero. if A and B are matrices of same order. Matrices 139 .R. AB ! BA . was awarded the Abel Prize in 2007 for his fundamental contributions to Probability Theory and in particular for creating a unified theory of large deviations. B and C are matrices of same order. Addition or subtraction of two matrices are possible only when they are of same order. i. Matrix multiplication is associative. Matrix addition is Associative That is. Two matrices A and B are equal if A and B are of same order and their corresponding entries are equal. when i ! j . (A + B) + C = A + (B + C). q q q q q q q q q Matrices A and B are multiplicative inverses to each other if AB = BA = I. (AB)C = A(BC).. is a column matrix if n = 1. If A is a matrix of order m # n and B is a matrix of order n # p. if both sides are defined. it is not necessary that A = O or B = O. A + B = B + A . Matrix addition is commutative That is. A matrix having m rows and n columns. Do you know? The Abel Prize .e. which was awarded for the first time in 2003. amounts to One Million US dollar. S. is diagonal matrix if aij = 0 when i ! j . Srinivasa Varadhan. A = 6 aij @ A = 6 aij @ A = 6 aij @ A = 6 aij @ m#n m#n m#n is a row matrix if m = 1. That is. product of two non-zero matrices may be a zero matrix. T T T T T T T T n#n q q q A = 6 aij @ is unit matrix if aij = 1. is a scalar matrix if aij = 0 when i ! j and aij = k. when i = j and aij = 0. if A. A = 6 aij @ n#n (k is a non-zero constant ). Matrix multiplication is not commutative in general. It is an International Prize awarded by Norwegian Academy of Science and presented annually by the King of Norway to one or more outstanding Mathematicians. (A ) = A. an Indian-American Mathematician born in Chennai.Points to Remember q q q q q q q A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers.e. i. when i = j . is of the order m # n . then the product matrix AB is defined and is of order m # p..

5 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 5. we have studied the basic concepts of the coordinate geometry namely. also known as analytical geometry is the study of geometry using a coordinate system and the principles of algebra and analysis. Assume that one can reach town B from A by moving 60 km towards east and then 30 km towards north . slope and equation of a straight line. Let A and B be two towns. A systematic study of geometry using algebra was carried out by a French philosopher and a mathematician Rene Descartes. French mathematician Pierre De Fermat also formulated the coordinate geometry at the same period and made great contribution to this field. He made notable contributions to coordinate geometry. “The analytical geometry of Descartes and the calculus of Newton and Leibntiz have expanded into the marvelous mathematical method”. plane. In this chapter. we shall study about section formula. In 1692.2 Section formula Let us look at the following problem. It helps us to interpret algebraic results geometrically and serves as a bridge between algebra and geometry. He discovered an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines. Fermat’s pioneering work in analytic geometry was circulated in manuscript form in 1636.1 Introduction No human investigation can be called real science if it cannot be demonstrated mathematically . predating the publication of Descarte’s famous “La geometrie”. He discovered the fundamental principles of analytical geometry. simplified and then solved the equation geometrically. a German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnitz introduced the modern terms like abscissa and ordinate in coordinate geometry . area of a triangle. According to Nicholas Murray Butler. The use of coordinates was Descartes’s great contribution to mathematics. plotting of points in a plane and the distance between two points. 140 10th Std. 5. which revolutionized the study of geometry. A telephone company wants to raise a relay tower at . He published his book “La Geometry” in 1637. Mathematics Coordinate geometry. he converted a geometric problem into an algebraic equation. In class IX. In this book. the coordinate axes.Leonardo de Vinci Introduction Section Formula Area of Triangle and Quadrilateral Straight Lines Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) France Together with Rene Descartes. Fermat was one of the two leading mathematicians of the first half of the 17th century.

y1) and B^ x2.mx1 = lx2 .P which divides the line joining A and B in the ratio 1 : 2 internally.y1 ( = l y2 .x 2 2x = 60 . x y B(60 .lx lx + mx = lx2 + mx1 ( x = lx2 + mx1 l+m PF = l BG m y .my1 = ly2 . it wants to find the position of P where the relay tower is to be set up.y y1 ) F D Fig. intersecting at E.x1 ( = l x2 .x A( x1 . Let P^ x.x Thus. x P( . Now. Also draw a perpendicular from P to BD. Taking the above problem as a model.3) AF = PF = AP = l PG BG PB m and O C E x AF = l PG m x . ` The position of the relay tower is at P^20. we get AF = CD = OD . 5. 10h . PC = 1 BE 2 y = 1 ( 30 .y ( y = 10.GE = y2 . we shall derive the general section formula.2 T AFP and TPGB are similar. ` PF = PD .FD = y . section 6. 2y = 30 . x = 20. (Refer chapter 6.OC = x . Since T PAC and TBPE are similar. 5.y1 BG = BE .y ) G Also.OD = x2 . meeting it in C and D respectively. 5.ly ly + my = ly2 + my1 ( y = ly2 + my1 l+m Coordinate Geometry 141 .y m ( my .y 2 Thus.x m ( mx . Let A (x1.y2) y From the Fig. Draw the perpendiculars from P and B to the x-axis. y2h be two distinct points such that a point P^ x.x1 PG = DE = OE .1 Also. That is. yh divides AB internally in the ratio l : m . Choose the point A as the origin. yh be the point.30) P(x y .y) 60–x 60–x E y 30 km x A C D 60 km Fig.2. we have AC = PC = AP = 1 PE BE PB 2 AC = 1 Now PE 2 x = 1 ( 60 . AP = l PB m B(x2. Thus. Now.

then M divides the line segment AB internally in the ratio 1:1. y2 h is c 1 . BE and CF be the medians of the TABC . In this case l is negative. y3h . Mathematics x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 m . the centroid G divides the median AD internally in the ratio 2 : 1 C ` By section formula. ly2 . 5. y1h . Let AD. y) = G . B^ x2.my1 m .3 (ii) A 2 E By the property of triangle. l+m l+m This formula is known as section formula. the midpoint of AB as M c 2 . A^ x1. the point P which divides the line segment joining the two points A^ x1 . 2 2 (iii) Centroid of a triangle Consider a TABC whose vertices are A^ x1.Thus. y2h externally in the ratio l : m . y2h internally in the ratio l : m is lx2 + mx1 ly2 + my1 m . then the point P is c lx2 . Results (i) If P divides a line segment AB joining the two points A^ x1 . 3 3 . we obtain x + x1 y2 + y1 m.mx1 . the centroid ^ x2 + x3h ^ y + y3h + 1^ y1h p + 1^ x1h 2 2 f2 2 2 G(x . y) be the centroid of TABC . y1h and B^ x2 . By substituting l = 1 and m = 1 in the section formula. Pc It is clear that the section formula can be used only when the related three points are collinear. We know that the medians of a triangle are concurrent and the point of concurrency is the centroid. Now the midpoint of BC is D c x2 + x3 y2 + y3 m . Let G(x . 2+1 2+1 = Gc 142 10th Std. 2 2 The midpoint of the line segment joining the points x + x2 y1 + y2 m. y1h and B^ x2 . y1h and B^ x2 . y2h and C^ x3. 2 2 B D F G 1 Fig. m l-m l-m Midpoint of AB If M is the midpoint of AB.

m = 3 ` Example 5. y2 = 10 and l = 2. y2h is x + x2 y1 + y2 m M(x . 10h be the given points. 5.2 . y1 = 5. y2h and ^ x3 . 7) 2+3 2+3 m B(4.2.1 Find the midpoint of the line segment joining the points ^3. y1 = 5. y ) = M` 3 .3. y2 =. 5) and B ( 4.4 A(3. Pc lx2 + mx1 ly2 + my1 m = P(.1 . .3 . y1h and ^ x2. 5h and B^4 . 5) and (8 . 5h and B^8 . 2h . 0) Midpoint of the line segment joining the ` points ^3.4) P (x. 4h is M(x . ^ x1 .-9) (1) Here x1 =. 2 2 M(x. y) Fig.3) Fig. 10) internally in the ratio 2 : 3. l+m l+m Here x1 = 3.1 . Solution Let A^3 . x2 = 4. y) = M c 1 . y) of the line segment joining the points ^ x1. l+m l+m A(-3.6 P(x . 3) divide AB internally in the ratio l : m By the section formula. 5. 0h and ^.5) l P (-2.9) internally? Solution Given points are A^. m = P(5 . Coordinate Geometry 143 . P(x .9 . 0h and ^.5 B(8.2 Find the point which divides the line segment joining the points (3 . y A(3. 4h .2 .y) divide the line AB internally in the ratio 2 :3. x2 = 8 . . ^ x2 . .The centroid of the triangle whose vertices are x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 m. y) = P c 2^8 h + 3^3 h 2^10h + 3^5h . Let P (. y) = P c 2 .3.10) lx + mx1 ly2 + my1 m By section formula.9h . 3) divide the line segment joining the points A(. y)) B(–1.1 . 3) . Let the point P(x. 5) P (x. 2l 3m Fig. y3h . 2 2 Example 5. 0 + 4 j = M^1. is c 3 3 Example 5. Solution Midpoint M(x .3 In what ratio does the point P(. y1h . 5.

the required points are 1^.8 B(-2.2. we get (1) ( c 4l . (ii) If a point divides the line segment internally in the ratio l : m.3m l+m 6l l m l:m = -2 =m = 1 6 =1:6 ( i.4 Find the points of trisection of the line segment joining ^4.7 Q 2 B(-2. 144 10th Std.2h + 2^4h 1^. then l is m negative. .3) be the given points. . 5.3 ..-3) By the section formula. Hence P divides AB internally in the ratio 1 : 6 Note (i) In the above example. m 2+1 2+1 A(4.1h .l^4h + m^.b) be the points of trisection of AB so that AP = PQ = QB Hence P divides AB internally in the ratio 1 : 2 and Q divides AB internally in the ratio 2 : 1 ` A(4.1h Pc . .2.2.9 1 Q B(-2.j 3 3 Note that Q is the midpoint of PB and P is the midpoint of AQ. .-1) P Fig. Solution Let A(4. Example 5. m and 1+2 1+2 Qc 2^.y) and Q(a.e. one may get the ratio by equating y-coordinates also.3h + 2^.4 + 4 . –1) A(4. 5.. .-3) ( P (x.1 j 3 3 3 3 5 7 . 5.3h .1h and ^. = P`2 .2h + 1^4h 2^.-3) 1 A(4. . m = (. b) = Q` .j = Q`0. –1) A(4.2 j and Q (a.1) and B(. –1) A P Fig. then l is positive.3h l^. (ii) The ratios obtained by equating x-coordinates and by equating y-coordinates are same only when the three points are collinear. 3) l+m l+m Equating the x-coordinates. Let P(x.-1) 2 Fig. y) = P` . Mathematics .2 + 8 .9h + m^5h .. m (iii) If a point divides the line segment externally in the ratio l : m.6 .3h + 1^.

y2h and ^ x3.x2) + (y1 . then show that C is equidistant from all the vertices of 3 OAB. Solution The centroid G(x . . B^6.0h2 + ^3 . then find the value of p. 6+p = 15 2 2 ` p =9 D(p. y3) = (5 . (x3. ^8.11 B(6. 3h is OC = ^2 . 6) and if O is the origin. . y1h . + j=c 2 .0h2 = 13 . Solution Let the vertices of the parallelogram be A^7. . Solution The midpoint of AB is C` 4 + 0 . 5. .6 .2) A(7. 3 3 We have (x1 . C^8. ` The midpoints of the diagonal AC and the diagonal BD coincide.2) If ^7. 3h. 0) and B(0 . 0h and C ^2. m = ` 15 .5 Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are A(4.2) and C(5. y1) = (4. We know that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. .2h and (5. 2). 2h and ^ p. B(3.-6) x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 m. Distance between O^0. Example 5.4) D(P.6) .3) Fig. 2) is F G E G(x . we get. y2) = (3. 4h . (x2 . ^ x2. 5. 2) G(x . Hence 6+p 1 4 7 8 3 2 ` + .Example 5.6)..10 C(5. 4h are the vertices of a parallelogram taken in order. y2) is (x1 . 0 + 6 j = C^2. + m 2 2 2 6+p 5 ( . 1h. 5 j c 2 2 2 2 Equating the x-coordinates.1) Example 5. . y1) and Q (x2. 3h .6h. 3h 2 2 2 2 We know that the distance between P (x1. y) of a triangle whose vertices are ^ x1.7 If C is the midpoint of the line segment joining A(4 . y3h is given by A(4.6 B(3. . .2). Coordinate Geometry 145 . 2h and D^ p.^6.2 + 2 j 3 3 = G^4. y) = G` 4 + 3 + 5 . ^3 .y2) .4) C(8.2h . 1h . y) = G c ` The centroid of the triangle whose vertices are ^4.-2) D Fig.

. 4). 5) then find the third vertex of the triangle . . Exercise 5. 3h .7) and D(. 4) are the vertices of a parallelogram taken in order. Find the point P. 3).1h and ^.2) and B(. 6h and C^2. . 4) and (1. show that the points A(1.3).5.16h (ii) ^3. AC = ^2 . 12. If one end of a diameter of the circle is at the origin.1) . Find the ratio in which the x-axis divides the line segment joining the points (6. 10. Find the length of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are (1. 3h . C(2. 4h (i) ^1.Distance between A^4. find the point of intersection .6. 4h and ^10. (0. .9) in the ratio 1 : 6 internally.6h2 = 4 + 9 = 13 OC = AC = BC ` ` The point C is equidistant from all the vertices of the 3O A B .0) x Fig. 13. 3. Find the points which divide the line segment joining A(. 6. 146 10th Std. 3h Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are (i) ^1. Let A (. . Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining (3. 5) and (4.6.5.. 11. In what ratio is the line joining the points (. 3h. 3) divided by the y-axis? Also. 1. 9 Find the points of trisection of the line segment joining the points A(2. 2.4h2 + ^3 . is the circumcentre of the right angled 3OAB.7. 4) and (.6.3. 7h and ^12 . If the centroid of a triangle is at (1.. .12 Note The midpoint C of the hypotenuse. 4.^. 2) in the ratio 3 : 2 externally. 6) and (8.5. then find the other end. 9.^2.2h The centre of a circle is at (. .0) and B (0. 5. B(5. 7.7). 5. 4). BC = ^2 .0h2 + ^3 .5) and B (.7.5h. O A(4. 1) and (2 .0h2 = y B (0.7. Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining (. 8. 4) be two points such that a point P on the line AB satisfies AP = 2 AB.2. 0h and C^2. 4) and (–6. 0h and ^0.1 Find the midpoint of the line segment joining the points (ii) ^0. Using the section formula.0).6) into four equal parts.6) 4 + 9 = 13 C Distance between B ^0. Mathematics . 3) and two of its vertices are (.4 .

x2 . y2 h and C^ x3.units ^ 2 1 2 3 3 1 3 2 1 3h. Now.x y + x y .y2h.units. DF = x3 .x1 y1 + x3 y3 .sq. Area of the triangle ABC = Area of the trapezium ABED + Area of the trapezium ADFC x2 O E x1 D F y2 y1 y3 x y A(x1. y3h . 5.5. y2h. B^ x2.units. y1h . can we find its area ? Let ABC be a triangle whose vertices are A^ x1. 2 If A^ x1.3 Area of a triangle We have already learnt how to calculate the area of a triangle.x3 y3 + x2 y3} 2 Area of the TABC is 1 " x1 ^ y2 .y3h + x2 ^ y3 .x y sq. From the figure.sq. BE and CF perpendicular to x-axis.x1 and EF = x3 . .1 ^ BE + CF h EF 2 2 2 = 1 ^ y2 + y1h^ x1 . when some measurements of the triangle are given. B^ x2. if the coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are given.1 ^ y2 + y3h^ x3 .x1 y3 . Draw the lines AD. y1h .x2h + 1 ^ y1 + y3h^ x3 . y3h of TABC in counter clockwise direction and write them column-wise as shown below. Coordinate Geometry 147 .y1h + x3 ^ y1 . . 2" 1 2 1 (x y + x y + x y ) .y3h + x2 ^ y3 . y3h are the vertices of a TABC . x2 x3 x1 1 ) x1 y2 y3 y1 3 2 y1 Add the diagonal products x1 y2. x2 y3 and x3 y1 as shown in the dark arrows.y1h + x3 ^ y1 .y3) x .y2h.x y + x y + x y sq.y1) C(x3. and C^ x3.x2 y2 + x1y1 .x y + x y .x2 y1 + x3 y1 . 2$ 1 2 (or) The following pictorial representation helps us to write the above formula very easily. y2h.Area of the trapezium BEFC Fig.x1h .x2h 2 2 2 3 ` = 1 " x1 y2 . and C^ x3.13 = 1 ^ BE + ADh ED + 1 ^ AD + CF h DF . 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 1 3 2. ED = x1 . 2 Note The area of the triangle can also be written as 1 x y .units. B^ x2. then the area of the TABC is 1 " x1 ^ y2 .x2 .x3 y2 + x2 y2 . y1h. Take the vertices A^ x1 .

y3h are collinear if any one of these points lies on the straight line joining the other two points.^ x3 y2 + x4 y3 + x2 y4h. 2 Note To find the area of a triangle.x y . Suppose that the three points A^ x1.^ x2 y1 + x4 y2 + x1 y4h.5 Area of the Quadrilateral Let A^ x1.e.y sq. Now the area of the quadrilateral ABCD = area of the TABD +area of the TBCD = 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y4 + x4 y1h . (i) Plot the points in a rough diagram. y2h and C^ x3. 2 + 1 "(x2 y3 + x3 y4 + x4 y2) . C^ x3.units ^ 2 3h^ 2 4h 4h^ 1 3h. y2h.y1) = 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y4 + x4 y1h . area of the TABC = 1 $(x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1) . (iii) Use the formula. 2 or 1 x . y1h .Also add the products x2 y1. y3h and D^ x4 .^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x4 y3 + x1 y4h. Then they cannot form a triangle. = 0 2 ( x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 = x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3 One can prove that the converse is also true.^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h. Hence the area of the 3ABC is zero. Hence the area of 3 ABC is zero if and only if the points A. Mathematics O L M N C(x3. y2h and C^ x3 . y3h are collinear. the following steps may be useful. 2 "^ 1 The following pictorial representation helps us to write the above formula very easily. y1h.14 . B and C are collinear. i.4 Collinearity of three points Three or more points in a plane are said to be collinear. B^ x2 .y3) x P Fig. B^ x2.^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h. 2 5. B^ x2. In other words. (ii) Take the vertices in counter clock-wise direction. 2 ` Area of the quadrilateral ABCD y A(x1.y . Otherwise the formula gives a negative value. 148 10th Std. 5.x . y4h be the vertices of a quadrilateral ABCD. x3 y2 and x1 y3 as shown in the dotted arrows and then subtract the latter from the former to get the expression 1 $(x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1) . 5. if they lie on the same straight line.. y1h.x y . three points A^ x1.^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h. 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1h .

Take the vertices A^ x1 , y1h , B^ x2, y2 h, C^ x3, y3h and D^ x4 , y4h in counter clockwise direction and write them column-wise as shown below. Follow the same technique as we did in the case of finding the area of a triangle. x2 x3 x4 x1 1 ) x1 . y2 y3 y4 y1 3 2 y1 This helps us to get the required expression 1 x y +x y +x y +x y - x y +x y +x y +x y . ^ 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 1h 3 2 4 3 1 4h, 2 "^ 1 2 Example 5.8 Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (1, 2), (- 3 , 4), and (- 5 ,- 6). Solution Plot the points in a rough diagram and take them in order. Let the vertices be A(1 , 2), B(- 3 , 4) and C (–5, –6). Now the area of 3 ABC is = 1 $(x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1) - ^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h. 2 1 = 1 "^4 + 18 - 10h - ^- 6 - 20 - 6h, use : 1 ) 2 2 2 1 "12 + 32 , = 22. sq. units = 2 Example 5.9 If the area of the TABC is 68 sq.units and the vertices are A(6 ,7), B(- 4 , 1) and C(a , –9) taken in order, then find the value of a. Solution Area of 3 ABC is 1 "^6 + 36 + 7ah - ^- 28 + a - 54h, = 68 2 ( ^42 + 7ah - ^a - 82h = 136 ( 6a = 12 Example 5.10 Show that the points A(2 , 3), B(4 , 0) and C(6, - 3) are collinear. Solution Area of the DABC is = 1 "^0 - 12 + 18h - ^12 + 0 - 6h, 2 1 "6 - 6 , = 0. = 2 ` The given points are collinear. 2 use : 1 ) 2 3 4 0 6 -3 2 3 3 ` a=2 6 use : 1 ) 2 7 -4 1 a -9 6 3 7

B(–3, 4) A(1, 2) O x y

C(–5, –6)

Fig. 5.15

-3 4

-5 -6

1 3 2

Coordinate Geometry 149

Example 5.11 If P^ x , yh is any point on the line segment joining the points ^a , 0h and ^0, bh , then , y prove that x + = 1 , where a, b ! 0 . a b Solution Now the points ^ x , yh , ^a , 0h and ^0, bh are collinear. ` The area of the triangle formed by them is zero. ( ` ab – bx – ay = 0 bx + ay = ab a use: 1 ' 2 0 0 b x y a 1 0

Dividing by ab on both sides, we get, x + y = 1, where a b Example 5.12

a, b ! 0

Find the area of the quadrilateral formed by the points (- 4, - 2), (- 3, - 5), (3, - 2) y and (2 , 3). D(2, 3) Solution Let us plot the points roughly and take the vertices in counter clock-wise direction. Let the vertices be A(- 4, - 2), B(- 3, - 5), C(3, - 2) and D(2, 3). Area of the quadrilateral ABCD = 1 "^20 + 6 + 9 - 4h - ^6 - 15 - 4 - 12h, 2 1 )- 4 2 -2 = 1 "31 + 25 , = 28 sq.units. 2 Exercise 5.2 1. Find the area of the triangle formed by the points (i) (0, 0), (3, 0) and (0, 2) (iii) (-4, -5), (4, 5) and (-1, -6) 2. Vertices of the triangles taken in order and their areas are given below. In each of the following find the value of a. Vertices (i) (0 , 0) , (4, a), (6, 4) (ii) (a, a), (4, 5), (6,-1) (iii) (a, -3), (3, a), (-1,5)

150 10th Std. Mathematics

B(–3, –5)

A( –4 , ) –2

O C(3, –2)

Fig. 5.16

x

-3 -5

3 2 -

2 3

-4 3 -2

(ii) (5, 2), (3, -5) and (-5, -1)

Area (in sq. units) 17 9 12

3.

Determine if the following set of points are collinear or not. (i) (4, 3), (1, 2) and (-2, 1) (ii) (-2, -2), (-6, -2) and (-2, 2) 3 , 3 ,(6, -2) and (-3, 4) (iii) `2 j In each of the following, find the value of k for which the given points are collinear. (i) (k, -1), (2, 1) and (4, 5) (iii) ^k, kh, ^2, 3h and ^4, - 1h (ii) ^2, - 5h, ^3, - 4 h and ^9, kh

4.

5.

Find the area of the quadrilateral whose vertices are (i) ^6, 9h, ^7, 4h, ^4, 2h and ^3, 7h (ii) ^- 3, 4h, ^- 5, - 6h, ^4, - 1h and ^1, 2h (iii) ^- 4, 5h, ^0, 7h, ^5, - 5h and ^- 4, - 2h If the three points ^h, 0h, (a, b) and ^0, kh lie on a straight line, then using the area of the triangle formula, show that a + b = 1, where h , k ! 0 . h k Find the area of the triangle formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of a triangle whose vertices are ^0, - 1h, ^2, 1h and ^0, 3h . Find the ratio of this area to the area of the given triangle.

y l

6. 7.

5.6 Straight Lines

5.6.1 Angle of Inclination

Let a straight line l intersect the x-axis at A. The angle between the positive x-axis and the line l, measured in counter clockwise direction is called the angle of inclination of the straight line l . O

Remarks

A

i

Fig. 5.17

x

If i is the angle of inclination of a straight line l , then (i) 0c # i # 180c (ii) For horizontal lines, i = 0c or 180c and for vertical lines, i = 90% (iii) If a straight line initially lies along the x-axis and starts rotating about a fixed point A on the x-axis in the counter clockwise direction and finally coincides with the x-axis, then the angle of inclination of the straight line in the initial position is 0c and that of the line in the final position is 180c.

**5.6.2 Slope of a straight line
**

Definition If i is the angle of inclination of a non-vertical straight line l, then tani is called the Slope or Gradient of the line and is denoted by m. ` The slope of the straight line, m = tani for 0 # i # 180 , i ! 90c

Coordinate Geometry 151

% %

Remarks

(i) Thus, the slope of x-axis or straight lines parallel to x-axis is zero. (ii) The slope of y-axis or a straight line parallel to y-axis is not defined because tan 900 is not defined. Therefore, whenever we talk about the slope of a straight line, we mean that of a non-vertical straight line. (iii) If i is acute, then the slope is positive, whereas if i is obtuse then the slope is negative.

**5.6.3 Slope of a straight line when any two points on the line are given
**

Let A^ x1, y1 h and B^ x2, y2h be any two points on the straight line l whose angle of inclination is i . Here, 0 # i # 180 , i ! 90c Let the straight line AB intersect the x-axis at C. Now, the slope of the line l is m = tan i A to BE. From the figure, we have AF = DE = OE - OD = x2 - x1 and BF = BE - EF = BE - AD = y2 - y1 DCA = FAB = i

O C x1 x2

i

%

%

(1)

Y l

Draw AD and BE perpendicular to x-axis and draw the perpendicular AF line from

Also, we observe that

) ,y 1 (x 1 i y A 2 F y

1

) ,y 2 (x 2 B

In the right angled TABF , we have y - y1 tan i = BF = 2 AF x2 - x1 if x1 ! x2 y2 - y1 x2 - x1

D

E

Fig. 5.18

X

(2)

From (1) and (2), we get the slope, m =

The slope of the straight line joining the points ^ x1, y1h and ^ x2, y2h is y - y1 y - y2 m= 2 where x1 ! x2 as i ! 90c. = 1 x2 - x1 x1 - x2

Note

The slope of the straight line joining the points ^ x1, y1 h and ^ x2, y2h is also interpreted as y - y1 change in y coordinates . m= 2 = change in x coordinates x2 - x1

152 10th Std. Mathematics

**5.6.4 Condition for parallel lines in terms of their slopes
**

Consider parallel lines l1 and l2 whose angles of inclination are i1 and i2 and slopes are m1 and m2 respectively. Since l1 and l2 are parallel, the angles of inclinations i1 and i2 are equal. ` tan i1 = tan i2 ( m1 = m2 If two non-vertical straight lines are parallel, then ` their slopes are equal. The converse is also true. i.e., if the slopes of two lines are equal, then the straight lines are parallel.

i1

y

l1

l2

i2

O

x

Fig. 5.19

**5.6.5 Condition for perpendicular lines in terms of their slopes
**

Let l1 and l2 be two perpendicular straight lines passing through the points A^ x1, y1h and B^ x2, y2h respectively. Let m1 and m2 be their slopes. Let C^ x3, y3h be their point of intersection. y - y1 The slope of the straight line l1 is m1 = 3 x3 - x1 The slope of the straight line l2 is m2 = In the right angled 3 ABC, we have

2 2 2

Y Y

l2 B(x2, y2)

l1 A(x1, y1) C(x3, y3)

y3 - y2 x3 - x2

O O

X X

Fig. 5.20

AB = AC + BC ( ^ x2 - x1h2 + ^ y2 - y1h2 = ^ x3 - x1h2 + ^ y3 - y1h2 + ^ x3 - x2h2 + ^ y3 - y2h2 ( ^ x2 - x3 + x3 - x1h2 + ^ y2 - y3 + y3 - y1h2 = ^ x3 - x1h2 + ^ y3 - y1h2 + ^ x3 - x2h2 + ^ y3 - y2h2 ( ` x2 - x3) + (x3 - x1j + 2^ x2 - x3) (x3 - x1h + (y2 - y3) + (y3 - y1) + 2 (y2 - y3) (y3 - y1) = ^ x3 - x1h2 + ^ y3 - y1h2 + ^ x3 - x2h2 + ^ y3 - y2h2 ( 2^ x2 - x3) (x3 - x1h + 2 (y2 - y3) (y3 - y1) = 0 ( ^ y2 - y3h^ y3 - y1h = - ^ x2 - x3h^ x3 - x1h y - y1 y3 - y2 e 3 oe o =- 1 . x3 - x1 x3 - x2 ( m1 m2 =- 1 or m1 =- 1 m2

2 2 2 2

If two non-vertical straight lines with slopes m1 and m2 , are perpendicular, then m1m2 = –1. On the other hand, if m1m2 = –1, then the two straight lines are perpendicular.

Coordinate Geometry 153

Note

The straight lines x-axis and y-axis are perpendicular to each other. But, the condition m1 m2 =- 1 is not true because the slope of the x-axis is zero and the slope of the y-axis is not defined. Example 5.13 Find the angle of inclination of the straight line whose slope is 1 . 3 Solution If i is the angle of inclination of the line, then the slope of the line is m = tan i where 0c # i # 180c , i ! 90c. ` tan i = 1 ( i = 30c 3 Example 5.14 Find the slope of the straight line whose angle of inclination is 45c. Solution If i is the angle of inclination of the line, then the slope of the line is m = tan i Given that m = tan 45c Example 5.15 Find the slope of the straight line passing through the points ^3, - 2h and ^- 1, 4h . Solution Slope of the straight line passing through the points ^ x1 , y1h and ^ x2 , y2h is given by y - y1 m= 2 x2 - x1 Slope of the straight line passing through the points (3 , -2) and (-1 , 4) is m= Example 5.16 Using the concept of slope, show that the points A(5, - 2), B(4, - 1) and C(1, 2) are collinear. y - y1 Solution Slope of the line joining the points ^ x1, y1h and ^ x2, y2h is given by m = 2 x2 - x1 Slope of the line AB joining the points A^5, - 2h and B^4 - 1h is m1 = - 1 + 2 = – 1 4-5 Slope of the line BC joining the points B(4,–1) and C(1, 2) is m2 = 2 + 1 = – 1 1-4 Thus, slope of AB = slope of BC. Also, B is the common point. Hence, the points A , B and C are collinear.

154 10th Std. Mathematics

(

m = 1.

4+2 = -3 . 2 -1 - 3

2) taken in order form a parallelogram. 5.1 slope of AB = 5 . 5. B(4 . Find the slopes of the altitudes of the triangle.2 = 1 Thus. 2).17 Using the concept of slope.3 . (3 . AB is parallel to CD.1). 1) slope of AC = 1 .3 5 -4 . .1). 3) 4+2 6 Slope of CD = 2 . 3) and (. BE and CF be the altitudes of a 3 ABC. A(1. (4 .2 . Solution Let A(.2 =. Solution Let AD.21 D(–3. 2) E slope of BC = 1 . 2 ) Now the slope of BC = 3 .18 The vertices of a 3 ABC are A(1 .5 = .3 -3 + 2 Slope of BC = slope of AD (2) BC is parallel to AD. 1).2 . B(-4 .Example 5. –1) X B(4. we see that opposite sides of quadrilateral ABCD are parallel ` ABCD is a parallelogram. show that the points (. 5) and C(0 .22 C(0.1 Fig.1 a BE = AC slope of CF = 5 3 a CF = AB Coordinate Geometry 155 . Y 0+1 = 1 Now the slope of AB = C(3. Also.0 = . 0). ` slope of BE = . 5) D slope of AD = 1 0-1 a m1 m2 = . 0) Fig. From (1) and (2).3 .1 0+4 F Since the altitude AD is perpendicular to BC. 2 + 1 =. 3) and D(. C(3 .3 = 1 6 -3 .3 3-4 Slope of AD = ` Hence. B(–4.3 ` Slope of AB = slope of CD Hence. . Example 5. (1) O A(–2. 0). 2) be the given points taken in order.

a b 9. Find the slopes of the altitudes of the triangle.5 .5 .1) and (4 . 8).9) and (.2 . . If M and N are the midpoints of AB and AC respectively. B(. 7).2) and D(5. find the slope of MN and hence verify that MN is parallel to BC. 3 h and ^0 . 5). 2) (iii) ^1 + 3 . 4h (ii) (2 . 8.5) (iii) (4 . 10. 11. The side AB of a square ABCD is parallel to x-axis .5) and C(4 . 6) and (1 . 1).2 . .5). . Find the slope of AB and the slope of BC. 5) and D(. . 1). 3). Find the value of a. 5) If the points (a.2 .b) (ii) ^3 . 14. b+1) are collinear. 2h and ^3 + 3 . .2. (i) (2 . Find the value of b. (1. 5) and B(4. 1). Find the slopes of its medians. 3. The line joining the points A(0. . 4). The vertices of 3 ABC are A(1.a . 5) is parallel to the line joining the points C(0 . 2h and ^2 . 3) and B(a .4 . (3 . 156 10th Std. B(. A triangle has vertices at (6 . Find the angle of inclination of the straight line whose slope is (i) 1 (ii) 3 (iii) 0 Find the slope of the straight line whose angle of inclination is (i) 30c (ii) 60c (iii) 90c Find the slope of the straight line passing through the points (i) (3 .4 . 2) is perpendicular to the line joining the points C(. 1). (. b) and (.2) and (7 .4h and (8 . then show that 1 + 1 = 1. The line joining the points A(. 13. . C(8. Using the concept of slope. (2 .4) and origin 4.3) and (. 3h (iii) (a . 7. 7). show that each of the following set of points are collinear. Find the angle of inclination of the line passing through the points (i) ^1 . Find the slope of the line which passes through the origin and the midpoint of the line segment joining the points ^0 . . 12. b). The vertices of a 3 ABC are A(. Mathematics . 6. . (.2 .5) (ii) (4 . Find the (i) slope of AB (ii) slope of BC (iii) slope of the diagonal AC The side BC of an equilateral 3 ABC is parallel to x-axis. 2) and (0.1.Exercise 5. 0). 4). . .3 1. . 2. 0h 5.

Now. Case (a) If L is x – axis. y = 0 describes x – axis.2 . we want to describe L by an algebraic equation. ` Fig. then L lies above x-axis and if k < 0. Hence this equation is called the equation of the straight line L. (ii) Vertical line: Let L be a vertical line. 1) taken in order are parallel. If k = 0.axis. . y) lies on L if and only if y = 0 and x can be any real number.2 . 5. B(5 . (. Now L is in any one of the following forms: (i) horizontal line (ii) vertical line (iii) neither vertical nor horizontal (i) Horizontal line: Let L be a horizontal line. ` The equation of x-axis is y = 0 y Case (b) L is a horizontal line other than x-axis.1. O k y=k L l y=0 x k y = –k Ll The equation of a straight line parallel to x-axis is y = k. (. then L is nothing but the x-axis. show that the vertices (1 .4).3) taken in order form a parallelogram. .23 Note that if k > 0. 5. C(6 . 2). a point (x. 16. then L lies below x.1). We want to describe this line L algebraically. y) lies on L if and only if the y-coordinate must remain a constant and x can be any real number. That is. Then either L is y-axis or L is a vertical line other than y-axis. Thus.6. Show that the opposite sides of a quadrilateral with vertices A(. Then either L is x-axis or L is a horizontal line other than x-axis. L is parallel to x-axis. That is.1. where k is a constant. Coordinate Geometry 157 . Using the concept of slope. 2). . A first degree equation px + qy + r = 0 in the variables x and y is satisfied by the x-coordinate and y-coordinate of any point on the line L and any values of x and y that satisfy this equation will be the coordinates of a point on the line L. 4) and D(.4 .15.3) and (. then a point (x..6 Equation of a straight line Let L be a straight line in the plane.

then L is nothing but the y-axis. y) in the plane lies on L if and only if x = 0 and y can be any real number. 5. then we can easily describe L.x1h for all points ^ x .24 ` The equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis is x = c. ` The equation of y-axis is x = 0 Ll x = –c y c c O L l Now a point (x. Observe that if we know this i and a point on L. Slope m of a non-vertical line L can be calculated using (i) m = tan i if we know the angle of inclination i . y1h is y .y1 + m^ x . x Fig. then L lies to the left of y-axis. x=c x=0 Case (b) If L is a vertical line other than y-axis. y) Q(x1. y2h on L. then it is parallel to y-axis.y1 if we know two distinct points ^ x1 . then L lies to the right y-axis and if c < 0.Case (a) If L is y-axis. yh 158 10th Std.y1 = m^ x . 5. Note that if c > 0. yh be an arbitrary point on L other than Q. y) lies on L if and only if x-coordinate must remain constant and y can be any real number. (iii) Neither vertical nor horizontal: Let L be neither vertical nor horizontal. the equation of a straight line with slope m and passing through ^ x1 .25 x Thus. Mathematics on L. Then. If c = 0. then a point (x.x1h = y . we have m= y .x1 (iii) m = 0 if and only if L is horizontal. (1) . In this case how do we describe L by an equation? Let i denote the angle of inclination. y1h be a point on L. Thus x = 0 describes y – axis. y1h . where c is a constant.y1 x . y . (ii) m = 2 x2 . ^ x2 . Let P^ x .x1 O Fig. Now consider the case where L is not a vertical line and derive the equation of a straight line in the following forms: (a) Slope-Point form (b) Two-Points form y (c) Slope-Intercept form (d) Intercepts form l L (a) Slope-Point form P(x. y1) Let m be the slope of L and Q^ x1 .

x1 = y2 . y2h are given on a P(x.c) c O Fig. the formula (1) gives y . y1) To find the equation of L.26 for all points ^ x .Remarks (i) Now the first degree equation (1) in the variables x and y is satisfied by the x-coordinate and y-coordinate of any point on the line L. ch we obtain.x1 y . yh on L (2) Note To get the equation of L.y1 = x2 . where x2 ! x1 as L is non-vertical. 5.27 ^ x1 .x1 y2 . we can also use the point ^ x2 . y1h . (b) Two-Points form Suppose that two distinct points non-vertical line L. (3) Thus.y1 y .y1 . (ii) The equation (1) says that the change in y-coordinates of the points on L is directly proportional to the change in x-coordinates. The slope of L is y . y (c) Slope-Intercept form Suppose that m is the slope of L and c is the y-intercept of L. m = 2 x2 . Now using (1) with L (o. y2h instead of ^ x1 . Hence the equation (1) is called the equation of the straight line L. ^ x2 . y = mx + c is the equation of straight line in the Slope-Intercept form. ^ x1 .y1 = e 2 o x .y1 B(x2.c = m^ x .y1 x2 . y .x1 Now. yh on L. ch lies on L.y1 x . y2) O x Fig. we find the slope of L first and then use (1) . 5. Any value of x and y that satisfies this equation will be the coordinates of a point on the line L. Since c is the y-intercept.x1h x2 . y1h = ^0 . The proportionality constant m is the slope. the point ^0 .y) y L A(x1. Coordinate Geometry 159 .0h x ( y = mx + c for all points ^ x .x1 ^ ( y .x1 ( x . y1h .

bx + ab b y B(0.4h . (2). 160 10th Std. y – 0 = .29 L . the equation of the line Ll is x = 3 . yh on L a b (4) Note (i) If the line L with slope m . makes x-intercept d . . 5. Example 5. (ii) The straight line y = mx passes through the origin. .28 x bx + ay = ab y Divide by ab to get x + =1 a b Equation of a straight line having x-intercept a and y-intercept b is ` x + y = 1 for all points ^ x . b) The slope of AB is m =.b . (2) and (4) can be simplified to slope-intercept form given by (3). (3) and (4) can be rewritten in the form px + qy + r = 0 for all points ^ x . which is called the general form of equation of a straight line. (iv) Each equation in (1).4 Similarly. -4) Fig. the x-coordinate of every point on the straight line Ll is 3 Hence. yh on L. The y-coordinate of every point on the line L is – 4.( both x and y-intercepts are zero for m ! 0 ).b (x . Hence. 0) Fig. (iii) Equations (1). 0) and the y-axis at B(0. 5. the equation of the line L is y =. Mathematics y Ll O y = –4 x (3. ` The straight line cuts the x-axis at A(a.d h . a Now (1) gives.a) a ( ay = .4h and parallel to x-axis and y-axis respectively.19 Find the equations of the straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes and passing through the point ^3. then the equation of the line is y = m^ x . x=3 Solution Let L and Ll be the straight lines passing through the point ^3.(d) Intercepts form Suppose that the straight line L makes non-zero intercepts a and b on the x-axis and on the y-axis respectively. b) a O A(a.

y = ^. Here x1 =. 5x + 3y + 2 = 0 is the required equation of the straight line. .22 Find the equation of the straight line passing through the points ^.3 = . 5). the equation of the straight line is y . Coordinate Geometry 161 y .3 = 1 ^ x + 2h 3 x .x1 = y2 .21 Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point ^. 1).x1 y-1 = x+1 ( 2+1 -4 .x1h ( Thus. Example 5.Example 5. y1 = 1 and x2 = 2 .5x . 3 1 and a point x .1. 1h and ^2.5y + 2 = 0 Example 5. y2 =.1 ( 3y .y1 = m^ x .2.23 The vertices of a 3 ABC are A(2. 3h with slope 1 .4h .3y + 11 = 0 is the required equation. y2h be the given points.5 Hence.2. the equation of the straight line is y = mx + c ( y = 5x + 2 y = x+ 2 5 5 ` The equation of the straight line is 5x . the equation of the straight line is y . Using two-points formula. 3) and C(4. Solution Let A^ x1 .4 . m = tan i = tan 45c = 1 y-intercept is c = 2 5 By the slope-intercept form. Example 5.20 Find the equation of straight line whose angle of inclination is 45c and y-intercept is 2 . .y1 x .y1 x2 . B(-2.1 . 5 Solution Slope of the line. y1h and B^ x2 . Find the equation of the median through the vertex A. 3h Solution Given that the slope m = ^ 1 1h 3 By slope-point formula.

^5 . 4) 2 2 Now the equation of the median AD is y-1 = x-2 a (x1.5) Example 5.6 = 0 is the required equation.30 C(4. 162 10th Std.ah (1) Since the straight line given by (1) passes through (6.. 5. y2) = (1. ` Midpoint of BC is D` .ah Thus. 3 + 5 j = D(1.24 If the x-intercept and y-intercept of a straight line are 2 and 3 respectively.7 = 0 is the required equation. B (–2. Example 5.2) and whose sum of the intercepts is 5.25 Find the equations of the straight lines each passing through the point (6. a + b = 5 ( b = 5-a Now. 4) 4-1 1-2 y-1 = x-2 3 -1 ` 3x + y .ah x + ay = a^5 . . the equation of the straight line in the intercept form is x + y =1 ( x+ y =1 a b a 5-a ^5 . a = 2 3 3 and the y-intercept of the straight line. the equation of the straight line is x + y =1 ( x + y =1 2 3 a b 3 4 4y =1 ( 3x + 2 3 Hence. Solution Given that x-intercept of the straight line.2 + 4 . Given that sum of the intercepts. Solution Let a and b be the x-intercept and y-intercept of the required straight line respectively. 9x + 8y .1) D Fig.3) A (2. y1) = (2. then 3 4 find the equation of the straight line. Mathematics . we get. 1) and (x2.Solution Median is a straight line joining a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite side. b = 4 Using intercept form. Let D be the midpoint of BC.ah x + ay =1 ( a^5 .2).

10h x + 10y = 10^5 . 5) and R(-3. 2 Find the slope and y-intercept of the line whose equation is (i) y = x + 1 (ii) 5x = 3y (i) (iii) 4x . -6) and (-8. 4).-2).50 x .2y .axis which are at a distance of 5 units from the x-axis. ( a2 . -3). 2) (ii) slope is 2 and passing through (5. Find the equations of the straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes and passing through the point (-5.axis at a distance of 3 units above the origin and tan i = 1 .2y + 1 = 0 (iv) 10x + 15y + 6 = 0 Find the equation of the straight line whose slope is -4 and passing through (1.ah ( That is. 6) (ii) (0.5x + 10y = .3h 2x + 3y = 6 .2y . 2.10h ( That is. 1) whose angle of inclination is 300 . 2) and (3. 5. ^a . slope is -3 and y-intercept is 4. 8. 5) and (3. Q(-2. 9. (3) (2) When a = 10 . Find the equation of the line intersecting the y. 2) Find the equation of the median from the vertex R in a 3 PQR with vertices at P(1. Find the equation of a straight line whose (i) (ii) 4. (1) ( ^5 .^5 . 6. angle of inclination is 600 and y-intercept is 3. 3. Coordinate Geometry 163 7. Exercise 5. Hence.10 = 0. Write the equations of the straight lines parallel to x.3h^a .10h = 0 a = 3 or a = 10 (1) ( ^5 . -4) 3 Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the midpoint of the line segment joining (4. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the points (i) (-2.4 1. 2x + 3y = 6 and x .13a + 30 = 0.2) = a^5 .3h x + 3y = 3^5 . where i is the angle of inclination.10 = 0 are the equations of required straight lines.ah 6 + a (. ` When a = 3 . .

5) and (9. 5. 19. prove that the given three points are collinear. Now let us find out (i) (ii) the slope of ax + by + c = 0 the equation of a straight line parallel to ax + by + c = 0 (iii) the equation of a straight line perpendicular to ax + by + c = 0 and (iv) the point of intersection of two intersecting straight lines. (i) (4. (3. -2) and (-3. 6) and B (3.y + 16 = 0 (iii) 3x + 10y + 4 = 0 (i) 5x + 3y . 20. If the midpoint of AB is (3. A straight line cuts the coordinate axes at A and B. 6) and C(-1.15 = 0 Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point (3.10. 7) (ii) (1. where a . Mathematics . Find the equation of the line passing through the point (9. 2). (7. 13. 2) are two vertices of a rhombus ABCD. 11. 4). -6) and having intercept on x-axis exceeds the intercept on y-axis by 5. 15. 164 10th Std. -4) in the ratio 2 : 3 internally. Find the equation of the line whose gradient is 3 and which passes through P. 2) and the sum of the intercepts is 9. 18. b and c are real constants such that either a ! 0 or b ! 0 . 4) and has intercepts which are in the ratio 3 : 2. 16) Find the equation of the straight line whose x and y-intercepts on the axes are given by (i) 2 and 3 (ii) .3 3 2 5 4 Find the x and y intercepts of the straight line (ii) 2x . 14. Find the equation of the line passing through (22. Find the equation of the straight lines passing through the point (2.7 General Form of Equation of a straight line We have already pointed out that different forms of the equation of a straight line may be converted into the standard form ax + by + c = 0 . then find the equation of straight line that lies along the diagonal BD.1 and 3 (iii) 2 and . If A(3. then find the equation of AB. By using the concept of the equation of the straight line. -1) and having its x-intercept thrice as its y-intercept. where 2 P divides the line segment joining A(-2. -3) and whose intercepts on the axes are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point (5. 16. 12. 2). 17.

26 Show that the straight lines 3x + 2y . the slope of the line 6x + 4y + 8 = 0 is m2 = . slope.a x . for different values of k. Example 5. The above equation is rewritten as y = . then they will intersect at a point. Coordinate Geometry 165 . for different values of k. This point lies on both the straight lines.(i) The general form of the equation of a straight line is ax + by + c = 0 .6 = . we have slope m = . Hence. coefficient of y (1) ` (ii) Equation of a line parallel to the line ax + by + c = 0 . Hence the equations of all lines parallel to the line ax + by + c = 0 are of the form ax + by + k = 0 . Hence. we get. (iii) Equation of a line perpendicular to the line ax + by + c = 0 We know that two non-vertical lines are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is –1. the point of intersection is obtained by solving the given two equations.3 4 2 ` m1 = m2 . m = .coefficient of x coefficient of y and the y-intercept is constant term .12 = 0 and 6x + 4y + 8 = 0 are parallel. Hence the equations of all lines perpendicular to the line ax + by + c = 0 are bx .a and the y-intercept = . We know that two straight lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. Solution Slope of the straight line 3x + 2y .coefficient of x = .c b b For the equation ax + by + c = 0 . the two straight lines are parallel. (i) (ii) (iv) a1 = b1 a2 b2 are perpendicular if and only if a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 0 are parallel if and only if The point of intersection of two straight lines If two straight lines are not parallel.3 coefficient of y 2 Similarly. b ! 0 b b Comparing (1) with the slope-intercept form y = mx + k . Note Two straight lines a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 and a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 .c .ay + k = 0 .12 = 0 is m1 = . where the coefficients are non-zero.

31 (iii) 4x = 5y + 3 . 1). Mathematics .8 (5) + k = 0 ( k = 38 ` Equation of the required straight line is x . B(6. slope of AD = 1 6 Equation of AD is y .8y + k = 0 Example 5.1 coefficient of y 2 Slope of the straight line 2x .8y + 13 = 0 is x .11 = 0 are perpendicular to each other.5y + 7 = 0 and 15x + 9y + 4 = 0 are perpendicular. Example 5.1) Solution Slope of BC = 11 + 1 = – 6 4-6 Since the line AD is perpendicular to the line BC. A(2.2y .8y + 13 = 0 and passing through the point (2.9 = 0 and ay + 2x . 166 10th Std. then find a .coefficient of x = .6 = 0 (ii) y = 7x + 6 D C(4.8y + 38 = 0 x .29 The vertices of 3 ABC are A(2. Solution Slope of the straight line x + 2y + 1 = 0 is m1 = .11) Fig.2 B(6. 2.6 = x .Example 5. 5.-1) 6 Equation of the required straight line is x .coefficient of x = . Find the slope of the straight line (i) 3x + 4y .p and ax + 5 = 3y are parallel. 11). y If the straight lines = x .1 # 2 = – 1 2 ` The two straight lines are perpendicular. Show that the straight lines x + 2y + 1 = 0 and 3x + 6y + 2 = 0 are parallel. 3.y1 = m^ x .27 Prove that the straight lines x + 2y + 1 = 0 and 2x .y + 5 = 0 is m2 = . –1) and C(4. 4.y + 5 = 0 are perpendicular to each other.1 = 1 ^ x .x1h ` y . Solution Equation of the straight line parallel to Since it passes through the point (2. 2 Find the value of a if the straight lines 5x . Find the equation of the straight line along the altitude from the vertex A.28 Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the line x .2h ( 6y . Show that the straight lines 3x .5 1.2 = 2 coefficient of y -1 Product of the slopes m1 m2 = . 5) 2 . 5).6y + 4 = 0 ` Exercise 5. 5.

y + 7 = 0 and passing through the point (1. 1) intersects the line 7x . . Find the equation of the straight line segment whose end points are the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x . Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the line 3x .4. 19.3y + 4 = 0 . Find the equation of the straight line along the median from the vertex A. Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line x .axis and 2x . The base QR lies on the x-axis.3y + 9 = 0 is the equation of PQ. 18.6. Find the equation of the straight line along PR.2y + 3 = 0 .19 = 0 at right angle.3 = 0 and 5x + y . If x + 2y = 7 and 2x + y = 8 are the equations of the lines of two diameters of a circle. In an isosceles 3PQR. Find the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular from the origin on the straight line 3x + 2y = 13 . Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point of intersection of the straight lines 5x .10).9y . P lies on the y.2y + 3 = 0 and the midpoint of the line joining the points (3. B(3.y + 9 = 0 and x + 2y = 4 and the point of intersection of the lines 2x + y . . 16. If the vertices of a 3 ABC are A(2.6y = 1 and 3x + 2y + 5 = 0 and is perpendicular to the straight line 3x . 8). x . 9. 14.2y + 3 = 0 and passing through the point (1. Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the straight line segment joining the points (3.4) and C(8.4). 10. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point of intersection of the lines 2x + y .6 = 0 and parallel to the line joining the points (1. Find the equation of the straight line along the altitude from the vertex B. 5). 8. Find the values of p for which the straight lines 8px + ^2 .1. Find the equation of the straight line joining the point of intersection of the lines 3x . 4) and (. If the vertices of a 3 ABC are A(. B(8 . then find the value of h . 11. 15. 1).2). 3) and C(.7 = 0 are perpendicular to each other. find the radius of the circle if the point (0.3ph y + 1 = 0 and px + 8y . . .2).5y + 11 = 0 . 3h and (4.1. 2) and (2. .2) lies on the circle. 2). PQ = PR.2) and (.4 ).5. . 13.4 = 0 and x . If the straight line passing through the points ^h. 17. Coordinate Geometry 167 12. 7.

. ^0.3.axis at (A) ^3. 1h (B) ^0. 4h (C) ^3. 2. .7h The straight line 4x + 3y . Area of the triangle formed by the points (0. ^2. . 1h . (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 3 3.3h and B^. . 5. 4bh (C) ^2a.3bh The point P which divides the line segment joining the points A^1. 0h and ^1. 14. 9h internally in the ratio 1:3 is (A) ^2. . units The angle of inclination of a straight line parallel to x-axis is equal to (C) 45c (D) 90c (A) 0c (B) 60c 3 . 4h and B^14. then the value of x is (A) 6 6. . units Area of the quadrilateral formed by the points ^1.7 (B) 7 (C) 2 (D) .1.0). –7) and parallel to x-axis is (B) x =. 8. 6h (B) ^4.3 (D) .y . then the ratio in which P divides the segment AB is (A) 4 : 3 (b) 3 : 4 (c) 2 : 3 (d) 4 : 1 The centroid of the triangle with vertices at ^. .7 (D) y = 2 (A) x = 2 10. then the value of a Slope of the line joining the points ^3.1h is (A) ^6.2. ^. 2bh (D) ^.2 2 2 7 7 The equation of a straight line passing through the point (2 . 2h is (A) 1 sq. Mathematics . .2x = 11 is equal to (A) .a. units (d) 1 sq. 6h and ^3. 12. 1h . 168 10th Std. 12h and ^10.2. 4h (C) ^3.9 = 0 is (A) ^. 2j (D) ^1. ^4. 2h If ^1. ah is 2 is equal to (A) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 Slope of the straight line which is perpendicular to the straight line joining the points ^. 7h (B) ^7.1.6 Choose the correct answer 1.7 (C) y =. . 8h is equal to (A) 1 (B) 3 (C) . units (d) 8 sq.4h The slope of the straight line 7y . units (c) 4 sq.bh and ^3a. 0h is (A) 3 sq.1 3 3 The point of intersection of the straight lines 9x . ^ x. 4h (D) ^0.2 = 0 and 2x + y .2h and ^. 2bh (B) ^2a.1. The midpoint of the line joining ^a. . 0h (C) ` 5 .Exercise 5. 9. 5bh is (A) ^. ^0. 7h (D) ^. units (b) 2 sq. 0h (B) ^0.5h .3h meets the x-axis at P. 2h are the vertices of a parallelogram taken in order.a. 6h .12 = 0 intersects the y. units (b) 2 sq. 7.2h 3 If the line segment joining the points A^3. 13. 0h and ^0. 11. units (c) 4 sq. 2h .2. 3h (D) ^2. 4. 1h (C) ^1. 6h and ^4.

0) 17.y1h2 The point P which divides the line segment joining the points A^ x1. 19. y2h lx . (4. 6) (c) (.4 is (A) 3x .y + 4 = 0 (B) 3x + y . 4).4 (D) 8 (A) . 5h is (B) x + 2 = 0 (C) y + 5 = 0 (D) y . 3 (b) 3. l+m l+m The point Q which divides the line segment joining the points A^ x1. 1 1 2 2 2 2 q Coordinate Geometry 169 . 23.7 = 0 is (A) 2x + 3y = 0 (B) 3x . 2).x1h2 + ^ y2 . 4h (D) ^4. .3y + 6 = 0 . The point of intersection of the straight lines y = 0 and x =.2. 5).5 = 0 The equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis and passing through the point ^. If one end of the diameter of the circle is at (.2 The centre of a circle is (. y1h and B^ x2.4 is (A) ^0. 0h The value of k if the straight lines 3x + 6y + 7 = 0 and 2x + ky = 5 are perpendicular is (A) 1 (b) –1 (c) 2 (d) 1 2 Points to Remember q q The distance between P (x1.6. then the value of k is equal to (A) 0 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) .5 = 0 (A) x . 0h (C) ^0.y .4 = 0 (C) 3x .4h (B) ^. y1) and Q^ x2. 2) (d) (0. then the value of a is equal to (B) 4 (C) .3.8 If a straight line y = 2x + k passes through the point (1. 2 (d) 3.3. 6) and ^a.4 = 0 (D) 3x + y + 4 = 0 18. extrenally in the ratio l : m is c 2 . 16.3 The equation of a straight line having slope 3 and y-intercept . respectively are (A) 2. 21. y h is c 1 . l-m l-m x + x2 y1 + y2 m q Midpoint of the line segment joining the points ^ x .15. then the other end is at (A) (. 22. y h and ^ x .9. 20.mx1 ly2 .my1 m. 2 (c) . ah are collinear.12. . 8). internally in the ratio l : m is c 2 .2y = 0 (C) y + 5 = 0 (D) y .18. y1h and B^ x2.2 = 0 If the points (2. The x and y-intercepts of the line 2x . The equation of the straight line passing through the origin and perpendicular to the straight line 2x + 3y . y2h is ^ x2 . y2h lx + mx1 ly2 + my1 m. 12) (b) (.4.

2. y-intercept b Equation y=0 x=0 y=k x=k ax+by+k = 0 bx–ay+k = 0 Equation y = mx y = mx + c y – y1 = m(x–x1) y .coefficient of x = .x2 q Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0 is m = . Slope of the non-vertical line passing through the points ^ x1.y1 x2 .1.The area of the triangle formed by the points ^ x1.2 x2 .a . then the slope m = tan i . . That is.y + x y . 2 2 " 1^ 2 = 1 "^ x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1h . y h are collinear if and only if 1 1 2 2 3 3 q (i) (ii) q q x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 = x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3 Slope of AB = Slope of BC or slope of AC. y2h is y . 6. (x2 . Straight line x-axis y-axis Parallel to x-axis Parallel to y-axis Parallel to ax+by+c =0 Perpendicular to ax+by+c =0 Given Passing through the origin Slope m. y2) x-intercept a . 4. y1).y + x y .y1 x . y h . 5.y3) = 1 x y . ^ x2. y-intercept c Slope m.No 1. y1h .x1 x1 . 3. y2h and ^ x3. q q Two lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. Equation of straight lines Sl. b ! 0 coefficient of y b q Slope of the horizontal line is 0 and slope of the vertical line is undefined. 2. 4.x1 x+ y =1 a b 170 10th Std.1. m1 m2 = . Two non-vertical lines are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is . y1) Passing through two points (x1 .x1 = y2 .y 3h 2^ 3 1h 3^ 1 2h. 3. y1h and ^ x2. 5. (or) If a line makes an angle i with the positive direction of x.axis. 1. y3h is 1 / x1 (y2 . B^ x . 2 q Three points A^ x . a point (x1 .y1 y y m= 2 = 1. Mathematics .^ x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3h. y h and C^ x .

Geometry 171 Euclid (300 BC) Greece Euclid’s ‘Elements’ is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics.6 GEOMETRY There is geometry in the humming of the strings. serving as the main text book for teaching mathematics especially geometry. there is music in the spacing of spheres . Euclid initiated a new way of thinking in the study of geometrical results by deductive reasoning based on previously proved results and some self evident specific assumptions called axioms or postulates. many bridges that play an important role in our lives make use of congruent and similar triangles. These triangles help to construct the bridge more stable and enables the bridge to withstand great amounts of stress and strain. The basic proportionality theorem is attributed to the famous Greek mathematician Thales. Geometry holds a great deal of importance in fields such as engineering and architecture. one in making the structure more stable and the other in enhancing the beauty. In the construction of buildings. who lived around 300 BC is considered to be the father of geometry. For example. Elegant use of geometric shapes can turn buildings and other structures such as the Taj Mahal into great landmarks admired by all. Euclid. without the help of accurate measurements is known as theoretical geometry. The geometry which treats the properties and characteristics of various geometrical shapes with axioms or theorems. Euclid’s algorithm is an efficient method for computing the greatest common divisor. Geometric proofs play a vital role in the expansion and understanding of many branches of mathematics.1 Introduction Geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the properties of various geometrical figures. geometry can play two roles.Pythagoras Introduction Basic Proportionality Theorem Angle Bisector Theorem Similar Triangles Tangent chord theorem Pythagoras theorem 6. The study of geometry improves one’s power to think logically. This theorem is also called Thales theorem. .

Now and ` AD = AP1 + P1 P2 + P2 D = 3 units DB = DP3 + P3 B = 2 units E C AD = 3 DB 2 Measure AE and EC.To understand the basic proportionality theorem.2 C Proof Since.1 A G E l If a straight line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle intersecting the other two sides. then AD = AE DB EC P2 D P3 B X Fig. Activity Draw any angle XAY and mark points (say five points) P1. Given: In a triangle ABC. We observe that AE = 3 EC 2 A P1 Thus. D. EF is the height of triangles ADE and DBE. P2. 6. CD. intersects AB at D and AC at E. EF = AB . Mathematics . in DABC if DE < BC .2 Basic proportionality and Angle Bisector theorems Basic Proportionality theorem or Thales Theorem F D Theorem 6. draw EF = AB and DG = CA To prove: B Fig. Area ( DADE ) = 1 # base # height = 1 AD # EF and 2 2 Area ( DDBE ) = 1 # base # height = 1 DB # EF 2 2 172 10th Std. let us perform the following activity. 6. Through B draw any line intersecting arm AY at C. Again through D draw a line Y parallel to BC to intersect AC at E. AD = AE DB EC Construction: Join BE.1 We prove this result as a theorem known as Basic Proportionality Theorem or Thales Theorem as follows: 6. then it divides the two sides in the same ratio. a straight line l parallel to BC. P3 and B on arm AX such that AP1 = P1 P2 = P2 D = DP3 = P3 B = 1 unit (say).

Q4 and C such that AQ1 = Q1 Q2 = Q2 Q3 = Q3 Q4 = Q4 C = 2 units (say). mark points P1. Activity Draw any angle + XAY and on the ray AX. DDBE and DDCE are on the same base DE and between the same parallel straight lines BC and DE. then (i) AB = AC AD AE (ii) AB = AC DB EC u kno w? AD = AE . on ray AY. Similarly. P4 and B such that AP1 = P1 P2 = P2 P3 = P3 P4 = P4 B = 1 unit (say). Q3. P2. DB = EC AD AE & AD + DB = AE + EC AD AE by componendo Similarly. we can prove AB = AC DB EC Is the converse of this theorem also true? To examine this let us perform the following activity. area (DDBE) = area (DDCE) (3) ` Form (1). a straight line DE parallel to BC. P3. we have AD DB DB ( AD ( 1 + DB AD ( AD + DB AD AB Thus. b d b d This is called componendo. Here. AD (ii) = AE EC = EC AE = 1 + EC AE = AE + EC AE = AC AE Do yo If a = c then a + b = c + d . intersects AB at D and AC at E. Hence the theorem. DB EC Proof (i) From Thales theorem. we get 1 # AE # DG area (DADE) = 2 (2) = AE 1 # EC # DG EC area (DDCE) 2 But. mark points Q1. (2) and (3). we obtain Corollary If in a DABC . Q2. Geometry 173 .1 AD # EF area (DADE) = 2 (1) ` = AD 1 DB # EF DB area (DDBE) 2 Similarly.

then the line is parallel to the third side. P3 Q3 and P4 Q4 we see that AP2 = AQ2 = 2 and P Q < BC 2 2 P2 B Q2 C 3 AP3 = AQ3 = 3 and P Q < BC 3 3 P3 B Q3 C 2 AP4 = AQ4 = 4 and P Q < BC 4 4 P4 B Q4 C 1 P3 P4 B X Fig. Theorem 6.4 C To prove : Construction : If DE is not parallel to BC. (2). then draw a line DF < BC . P1 Q1 < BC Similarly. i. let us state and prove a theorem which is the converse of Thales theorem. Given: A line l intersects the sides AB and AC of T ABC respectively at D and E AD = AE such that DB EC DE < BC A F D E l (1) B Fig. 6. then the line must be parallel to the third side. we get FC EC FC EC AC = AC FC EC 174 10th Std.2 Converse of Basic Proportionality Theorem ( Converse of Thales Theorem) If a straight line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio. In this direction.3 (1) (2) (3) (4) From (1).Now join P1 Q1 and BC. AD = AF (2) DB FC AF = AE ( AF + FC = AE + EC From (1) and (2). AP1 = AQ1 P1 B Q1 C A Q2 Q1 P1 P2 Y C Q4 Q3 We observe that the lines P1 Q1 and BC are parallel to each other.e. AP1 = 1 and AQ1 = 2 = 1 Then P1 B Q1 C 4 8 4 Thus.. Proof Since DF < BC . by joining P2 Q2. Mathematics ` FC = EC This is possible only when F and E coincide. by Thales theorem we get. ` DE < BC . 6. (3) and (4) we observe that if a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio.

5 C +DAC = +ACE (alternate angles) and +BAD = +AEC (corresponding angles) Since AD is the angle bisector of +A . +ECA = +CAD (alternate angles) (1) Geometry 175 > D A . AD is the internal bisector of E +BAC which meets BC at D . 6. Case (i) (Internally) Given : In 3 ABC .Theorem 6. we have D Fig. > BD = AB DC AC B Proof Since CE < DA and AC is the transversal. 6.6 Proof CE < DA and AC is a transversal. AD is the external bisector of +BAC and intersects BC produced at D. C Fig. To prove : Construction : Draw CE < DA to meet BA produced at E. CE < DA ( BD = BA DC AE BD = AB DC AC (Thales theorem) ( AE = AC ) P A E B Hence the theorem. Case (ii) Externally Given: In 3 ABC . (2) and (3). we have +ACE = +AEC Thus in 3 ACE .3 Angle Bisector Theorem The internal (external) bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally (externally) in the ratio of the corresponding sides containing the angle. To prove: BD = AB DC AC Construction: Draw CE < DA meeting AB at E. +BAD = +DAC From (1). we have AE = AC (1) (2) (3) (sides opposite to equal angles are equal) Now in 3 BCE we have.

we have EC < AD BD = BA DC AE ` ( (Thales theorem) ( AE = AC ) BD = BA DC AC Hence the theorem. Case (i ) : (Internally) Given : In 3 ABC . 6. Theorem 6.7 (1) AD is the internal bisector of +BAC . we have 176 10th Std. from (1) and (2) we have.e. to prove +BAD = +DAC . in 3 ECA . we have +CEA = +ECA Thus. Proof Since CE < AD . (2) and (3). then the line E bisects the angle internally (externally) at the vertex.. the line AD divides the opposite side A BC internally such that BD = AB DC AC To prove : B D C Fig. we have BD = BA Thus. by Thales theorem. in 3 ACE . we have AC = AE (sides opposite to equal angles are equal) In 3 BDA . i.4 If a straight line through one vertex of a triangle divides the opposite side internally (externally) in the ratio of the other two sides.Also CE < DA and BP is a transversal +CEA = +DAP But AD is the bisector of +CAP ( corresponding angles) (2) (3) +CAD = +DAP From (1). Mathematics DC AE (2) AE AC AE = AC ( AE = AC ) (3) +ACE = +AEC . AB = AB ` Now. Construction : Through C draw CE < AD meeting BA produced at E.

Hence the theorem. we have AB = AB AE AC In 3 ACE . Geometry 177 (4) (5) ` . such that BD = AB B Fig. +PAD = +AEC (corresponding angles ) From (3) . +DAC = +ACE +BAD = +AEC +BAD = +DAC (alternate interior angles are equal) (4) Also BE is a transversal of the parallel lines AD and CE.. we get ` AD is the angle bisector of +BAC . the line AD divides externally the opposite side BC produced at D. by Thales theorem BD = BA DC (1) Proof DC EA (2) From (1) and (2). 6.e. i. we get. to prove +PAD = +DAC Construction : Through C draw CE < DA meeting BA at E. we have +ACE = +DAC (alternate interior angles) Also BA is a transversal of the parallel lines AD and CE. we get +PAD = +DAC AD is the bisector of +PAC . ` AE = AC ( AE = AC ) (3) we have +ACE = +AEC Since AC is a transversal of the parallel lines AD and CE.Since AC is a transversal of the parallel lines AD and CE. Thus AD is the external bisector of +BAC Hence the theorem. Since CE < DA . A E P Case (ii) Externally Given : In 3 ABC . (4) and (5). we get ( corresponding angles are equal) (5) From (3).8 C D AC To prove : AD is the bisector of +PAC . (4) and (5).

SQ 5 Solution In 3 PQR .8 . Mathematics . Example 6.7 cm. EC = 3.3x x = 16. then find PT.8 = 2. we get +ABC = +BCA ` AC = AB (If opposite angles are equal.6 .6 cm.2 P ST < QR and PS = 3 . Thus. we have ST < QR and by Thales theorem. 6. D and E are points on AB and AC respectively such that AD = AE and +ADE = +DEA .6 cm T R SQ Thus.6 – x From (1).Example 6. TR = PR – PT = 5. 178 10th Std. DE < BC and AD = 2 .3 x = (5. 6.x)` 3 j 5 5x = 16. DE < BC AD = AE (Thales theorem) ` DB EC ( EC = AE # DB AD Thus. PS = PT SQ TR Let PT = x. Thus. then opposite sides are equal). PT = 2. by converse of Thales theorem. If PR = 5.7cm D E 3 B Fig.9 C Example 6. Prove that 3 ABC is isosceles.7 # 3 = 5.55 cm 2 In 3 PQR . (2) and (3).1cm 8 A In a 3 ABC . Solution In 3 ABC . If AE = 3.1 That is. DE < BC DB EC ` and +ADE = +ABC +DEA = +BCA D E B Fig.11 C (1) (2) (3) But given that +ADE = +DEA From (1). 6. given that S is a point on PQ such that DB A 3. find EC. 3 ABC is isosceles. DB EC Solution Since AD = AE .10 5.1 In 3 ABC . we get PT = TR c PS m (1) Q S Fig.

we have BE = AB AC CE Hence.5 cm. we get ` BD = AF AD FC ( Thus. E and F are taken on the sides AB. 10 cm A 6 cm C Fig. AB = 5 cm and AC = 4. 6. Now.5 (Thales theorem) (2) BD + AD = AF + FC AD FC AB = AC .13 In 3 ABC . then find CE. AD FC (componendo rule) In 3 ABC .12 (1) BE = AF EC FC From (1) and (2). 6. AC = 6 cm and BC = 12 cm. BC and CA respectively such that DE < AC and FE < AB .5 # 4. Prove that Solution AB = AC AD FC B D A F Given that in 3 ABC . ` C E Fig.14 x E 12 cm Geometry 179 . AD is the internal bisector of +A . Thus. by the angle bisector theorem.Example 6. BD = AB DC AC (angle bisector theorem) B A 5cm 4. Example 6.5cm D C DC = BD # AC AB DC = 2. ( 12 + x = 10 6 x x = 18. B D 3^12 + xh = 5x.6 In 3 ABC . points D. If AB = 10 cm. Solution ` ( Thus.2 cm. 5 Fig. AE is the external bisector of +A . Example 6.2 = 2. DE < AC BD = BE (Thales theorem) DA EC Also given that FE < AB . the internal bisector AD of +A meets the side BC at D. then find DC. Let CE = x cm.2cm 2. Solution In 3 ABC . AE is the external bisector of +A meeting BC produced at E. If BD = 2.1cm. CE = 18 cm.4 In a 3 ABC . meeting BC produced at E. 6.

2. If AD = 8 cm. AR = 4. O E F C D 4. Find the length of AD. QE = 4. AC < BD and CE < DF . DQ is the bisector of +ADC AQ = AD (angle bisector theorem) ` QC DC But. DB = 9 cm and AE = 8 cm. PF = 8 cm and RF = 9 cm. AP = AQ PB QC Thus. verify EF < QR . (i) (ii) PE = 3. AB = 12 cm and AE = 12 cm. PE = 4 cm.15 C (3) PQ < BC . AB = 5 cm.1 1. of a 3 PQR . (converse of Thales theorem) Exercise 6.5 cm . 6. If P and Q are points on AB and on AC such that DP bisects +BDA and DQ bisects +ADC .9 cm. In the figure. D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively such that DE < BC . then find the value of x.Example 6. B A 180 10th Std. then find FO. In the figure. AQ = 6cm.7 D is the midpoint of the side BC of 3 ABC .5 cm.4 cm. DP is the angle bisector of +BDA . PF = 3. (i) (ii) If AD = 6 cm. AB = 9 cm. Solution ` In 3 ABD . A (iii) If AD = 4x–3. OC = 8 cm and EF = 4. then find AC. If OA =12cm. Mathematics . For each of the following cases. In a DABC . AE = 8x–7 and EC = 5x–3.6 cm and FR = 2. EQ = 3 cm. then find CE. BD = 3x–1 . BD = DC (D is the midpoint of BC) AQ AD = Now (2) ( QC BD From (1) and (3) we get. E and F are points on the sides PQ and PR respectively. and AC = 10 cm.5cm. AP = AD PB BD (angle bisector theorem) (1) P Q A In 3 ADC . then prove that PQ < BC . AP = 3 cm. B P R Q D C 3. (2) B D Fig.

A line drawn parallel to AB meets AD BQ at P and BC at Q. N Q 6cm 12cm O P 12. AC = 6 cm and DC = 3 cm find BC. M 10 cm 11. 10. AC = 8 cm. then find OP. AC = x–2.5 cm and CD = 3 cm. KC = 18cm. In a quadrilateral ABCD. Check whether AD is the bisector of +A of 3 ABC in each of the following. Prove BC DC meets BC produced at E. DC = 3 cm find AC. If MN = 10 cm. Prove that AP = . Prove that EF < BC .6 cm. MO = 6 cm.4 cm. 13. QH = 4 cm. PD QC A Q H P B F D Q R 6. In the figure. In a 3 MNO . AB = 6 cm. In a 3 ABC . If AB = x.6 cm. In the figure. PC < QK and BC < HK . the bisectors of +B and +D intersect on AC at E. meeting BC at D. In the figure DE < AB and DF < AC . AD is the internal bisector of +A . then prove that EF < BD . BD = x+2 and DC = x–1 find the value of x. then find AK and PB.5. The internal bisector of +A of TABC meets BC at D and the external bisector of +A BE CE ABCD is a quadrilateral with AB =AD. and CD = 2. NO = 12 cm. Geometry 181 . B D P E F C 9. AB = 5 cm. AC = 6 cm. DE < AQ and DF < AR Prove that EF < QR . (i) (ii) AB = 4 cm. BD = 1. BD = 1. HP = 5 cm. 14. If AB = 5. (i) (ii) (iii) If BD = 2 cm. If AQ = 6 cm. MP is the external bisector of +M meeting NO produced at P. A E A 8. Prove that BD = CD . If AE and AF are internal bisectors of +BAC and +DAC respectively. that AB = AD . P K C 7. ABCD is a quadrilateral with AB parallel to CD.

Similarly photographs of different sizes developed from the same negative are of same shape but different sizes. He discovered many prepositions in geometry. It is clear that triangles the congruent figures are are similar similar but the converse need not be true. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry. In this section. His method of attacking problems invited the attention of many mathematicians.6. the size of the angles forming the three vertices of the triangle would always be the same. we shall discuss only the similarity of triangles and apply this knowledge in solving problems. Moving away from the ground. We have learnt that two geometrical figures are congruent if they have the same size and shape. � Expose this cardboard to Sunlight at about one metre above the ground . we have studied congruence of triangles in detail. using shadows and the principle of similar triangles. Thales said to have introduced Geometry in Greece. � Moving close to the ground.3 Similar triangles In class VIII. we shall study about those geometrical figures which have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. leaves of a tree have almost the same shapes but same or different sizes. � Move it towards the ground to see the formation of a sequence of triangular shapes on the ground. Thus the use of similar triangles has made possible the measurements of heights and distances. Mathematics . scientist and mathematician. the image becomes smaller and smaller. is believed to have found the heights of the Pyramids in Egypt. In this section. The following simple activity helps us to visualize similar triangles. � You see that. Such geometrical figures are called similar. All Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC) Greece Thales was the first known philosopher. Activity � Take a cardboard and make a triangular hole in it. He observed that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal. All those objects which have the same shape but different sizes are called similar objects. we see many objects which are of the same shape but of same or different sizes. the image becomes larger and larger. He also predicted an eclipse of the Sun in 585 BC. even though their sizes are different 182 10th Std. For example. He used the idea of similar triangles and right triangles in practical geometry. On looking around us.

6.Definition Two triangles are similar if (i) their corresponding angles are equal (or) (ii) their corresponding sides have lengths in the same ratio (or proportional). Geometry 183 . Symbolically. Remarks Similarity of 3 ABC and 3 DEF can also be expressed symbolically using correct correspondence of their vertices as 3 BCA + 3 EFD and TCAB + TFDE . (iii) SAS (Side-Angle-Side) similarity criterion for Two Triangles If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of the other triangle and if the corresponding sides including these angles are proportional.16 C E Fig. which is equivalent to saying that one triangle is an enlargement of other. we write the similarity of these two triangles as 3 ABC + 3 DEF and read it as 3 ABC is similar to 3 DEF. if the sides of one triangle are proportional (in the same ratio) to the sides of the other triangle. 6. Therefore AA similarity criterion is also referred to AAA criteria.1 Criteria for similarity of triangles The following three criteria are sufficient to prove that two triangles are similar. 6. B and C correspond to the vertices D. two triangles 3 ABC and 3 DEF are similar if A D (i) +A = +D . +B = +E .17 F Here.3. E and F respectively. then the two triangles are similar. +C = +F (or) (ii) AB = BC = CA . then their corresponding angles are equal and hence the two triangles are similar. DE EF FD B Fig. Thus. (ii) SSS (Side-Side-Side) similarity criterion for Two Triangles In two triangles. the vertices A. The symbol ‘ + ’ stands for ‘is similar to’. then the two triangles are similar. Remark If two angles of a triangle are respectively equal to two angles of another triangle then their third angles will also be equal. (i) AA( Angle-Angle ) similarity criterion If two angles of one triangle are respectively equal to two angles of another triangle.

` DPAB + DPQR AB = PB QR PR QR = AB # PR PB = 3#6 2 QR = 9 cm. A B D C Fig.19 C F H Fig. If. DE EF FD DE + EF + FD Example 6. then the ratio of the corresponding sides is equal to the ratio of the corresponding perimeters.8 In TPQR .20 G (iv) If two triangles are similar. if TABC + TEFG . 184 10th Std. then AB = BC = CA = AB + BC + CA . If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of a right angled triangle to its hypotenuse. QR. (i) (ii) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of their corresponding sides. then the ratio of the corresponding sides is equal to the ratio of their corresponding altitudes.. Here..21 Since corresponding sides are proportional. then AB = BC = CA = AD EF FG GE EH B D Fig. T ABC + T DEF . PB is 2 cm PR is 6 cm and AB .e. PB is 2cm and PR is 6 cm. Thus. (a) T DBA + T ABC (b) 3 DAC + 3 ABC (c) 3 DBA + 3 DAC (iii) If two triangles are similar. A then the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle.Let us list out a few results without proofs on similarity of triangles. P 2 3 A 6 B Solution Given AB is 3 cm. Mathematics .18 E i. AB . If AB is 3 cm. (AA criterion) (corresponding angles) Q R Fig. 6.. QR In DPAB and DPQR +PAB = +PQR and +P is common. 6. then find the length of QR. 6. 6.

Example 6.5 = 328.8 2.6m Fig. 6. ( 1. the height of the Pyramid is 140 m. the mirror and the foot of the tower lie along a straight line). 6. The man is 0. Example 6. we have +ABC = +DEF = 90 o B 210m Fig. The mirror is on the ground. ( AA criterion) AB = BC DE EF AB = 210 ( AB = 210 # 1.8 m is standing near a Pyramid.10 E F 2. How tall is the tower? (The foot of man.6 # 1. In DABC and DDEF.8 m C +BCA = +EFD (angular elevation is same at the same instant) ` DABC + DDEF Thus.7 m and the shadow of the Pyramid is 210 m long at that instant. 6. we have +ABC = +EDC = 90o A E +BCA = +DCE B (angular elevation is same at the same instant. Let AB and ED be the heights of the man and Solution the tower respectively.23 A man sees the top of a tower in a mirror which is at a distance of 87.5m C 87.5 m. A Solution Let AB and DE be the heights of the Pyramid and the man respectively.7 2.4 Thus. If the shadow of the man is of length 2.4 m away from the mirror.9 A man of height 1.5 m.24 D Geometry 185 .7 Thus. Let BC and EF be the lengths of the shadows of the Pyramid and the man respectively. find the height of the Pyramid. In DABC and DEDC. i.4m of incidence and the angle of reflection are same.22 D 1. Let C be the point of incidence of the tower in the mirror. facing upward. 1. the height of the tower is 328.. the angle 0.8 =140.5 BC 0. and the distance of his eye level from the ground is 1.7 m Fig.) ( AA criterion) ` DABC + DEDC ED = DC (corresponding sides are proportional) ` AB BC ED = DC # AB = 87.e.6 m from the tower.

Example 6.11 The image of a tree on the film of a camera is of length 35 mm, the distance from the lens to the film is 42 mm and the distance from the lens to the tree is 6 m. How tall is the portion of the tree being photographed? Solution Let AB and EF be the heights of the portion of the tree and its image on the film respectively. Let the point C denote the lens. Let CG and CH be altitudes of DACB and DFEC . Clearly AB || FE. In DACB and DFEC +BAC = +FEC +ECF = +ACB ( vertically opposite angles) ` DACB + DECF ( AA criterion) AB = CG Hence, EF CH CG # EF = 6 # 0.035 = 5 AB = ( CH 0.042 Thus, the height of the tree photographed is 5m . Exercise 6.2 1. Find the unknown values in each of the following figures. All lengths are given in centimetres. (All measures are not in scale) (i) (ii) (iii) A A

A B x 8 C 8 D 24 E B 6 y G F D 3 E 5 z F y 6 9 C 4 x H G B E G y 5 D 7 C F 6 x Fig. 6.25 A F H

35mm

C

6m

G

E

42mm

B

2. 3.

The image of a man of height 1.8 m, is of length 1.5 cm on the film of a camera. If the film is 3 cm from the lens of the camera, how far is the man from the camera? A girl of height 120 cm is walking away from the base of a lamp-post at a speed of 0.6 m/sec. If the lamp is 3.6 m above the ground level, then find the length of her shadow after 4 seconds.

186 10th Std. Mathematics

4.

A girl is in the beach with her father. She spots a swimmer drowning. She shouts to her father who is 50 m due west of her. Her father is 10 m nearer to a boat than the girl. If her father uses the boat to reach the swimmer, he has to travel a distance 126 m from that boat. At the same time, the girl spots a man riding a water craft who is 98 m away from the boat. The man on the water craft is due east of the swimmer. How far must the man travel to rescue the swimmer? (Hint : see figure). P and Q are points on sides AB and AC respectively, of DABC . If AP = 3 cm, PB = 6 cm, AQ = 5 cm and QC = 10 cm, show that BC = 3 PQ.

5.

6.

In DABC , AB = AC and BC = 6 cm. D is a point on the side AC such that AD = 5 cm and CD = 4 cm. Show that DBCD + DACB and hence find BD. In DABC , D and E are points on AB and AC respectively, such that DE || BC. If AB = 3 AD and the area of DABC is 72 cm2, then find the area of the quadrilateral DBCE.

7.

8.

The lengths of three sides of a triangle ABC are 6 cm, 4 cm and 9 cm. 3 PQR + 3 ABC . One of the lengths of sides of 3 PQR is 35cm. What is the greatest perimeter possible for 3 PQR? A In the figure, DE || BC and AD = 3 , calculate the value of BD 5 area of trapezium BCED (i) area of DADE , (ii) area of DABC area of DABC The government plans to develop a new industrial zone in an unused portion of land in a city. The shaded portion of the map shown on the right, indicates the area of the new industrial zone. Find the area of the new industrial zone.

D E

9.

B

C

10.

Kamb

Bharathi Street

New

an Str

eet

Ra

ilwa

y

11.

A boy is designing a diamond shaped kite, as shown in the figure where AE = 16 cm, EC = 81 cm. He wants to use a straight cross bar BD. How long should it be?

B

Thiruvalluvar Street

3.0 km

Industrial Zone

1.4 km 1.0 km

D A E C

Geometry 187

12.

A student wants to determine the height of a flagpole. He placed a small mirror on the ground so that he can see the reflection of the top of the flagpole. The distance of the mirror from him is 0.5 m and the distance of the flagpole from the mirror is 3 m. If his eyes are 1.5 m above the ground level, then find the height of the flagpole.(The foot of Y student, mirror and the foot of flagpole lie along a straight line). A roof has a cross section as shown in the diagram, (i) Identify the similar triangles (ii) Find the height h of the roof.

6m

13.

8m

Z 10 m

h W

X

Theorem 6.6

Pythagoras theorem (Bandhayan theorem)

In a right angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Given : To prove : In a right angled 3 ABC, +A = 90c. BC = AB + AC

2 2 2

A

Construction : Draw AD = BC

B

D Fig. 6.26

C

Proof

In triangles ABC and DBA , +B is the common angle. Also, we have +BAC = +ADB = 90c. (AA criterion) `3 ABC + 3 DBA Thus, their corresponding sides are proportional. Hence, ` AB = BC DB BA AB = DB # BC BC = AC AC DC AC = BC # DC

2 2 2

(1)

**Similarly, we have 3 ABC + 3 DAC . Thus, `
**

2

(2)

**Adding (1) and (2) we get AB + AC = BD # BC + BC # DC = BC^ BD + DC h = BC # BC = BC
**

2 2 2 2

**Thus, BC = AB + AC . Hence the Pythagoras theorem.
**

188 10th Std. Mathematics

Remarks

The Pythagoras theorem has two fundamental aspects; one is about areas and the other is about lengths. Hence this landmark thorem connects Geometry and Algebra.The converse of Pythagoras theorem is also true. It was first mentioned and proved by Euclid. The statement is given below. (Proof is left as exercise.) Theorem 6.7

Converse of Pythagorous theorem

In a triangle, if the square of one side is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, then the angle opposite to the first side is a right angle.

**6.4 Circles and Tangents
**

A straight line associated with circles is a tangent line which touches the circle at just one point. In geometry, tangent lines to circles play an important role in many geometrical constructions and proofs. . In this section, let us state some results based on circles and tangents and prove an important theorem known as Tangent-Chord thorem. If we consider a straight line and a circle in a plane, then there are three possibilities- they may not intersect at all, they may intersect at two points or they may touch each other at exactly one point. Now look at the following figures.

P P P

B

A

A

Q Q Q

Fig. 6.27

Fig. 6.28

Fig. 6.29

In Fig. 6.27, the circle and the straight line PQ have no common point. In Fig. 6.28, the straight line PQ cuts the circle at two distinct points A and B. In this case, PQ is called a secant to the circle. In Fig. 6.29, the straight line PQ and the circle have exactly one common point. Equivalently the straight line touches the circle at only one point. The straight line PQ is called the tangent to the circle at A. Definition A straight line which touches a circle at only one point is called a tangent to the circle and the point at which it touches the circle is called its point of contact.

Geometry 189

Theorems based on circles and tangents ( without proofs) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A tangent at any point on a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact . Only one tangent can be drawn at any point on a circle. However, from an exterior point of a circle two tangents can be drawn to the circle. The lengths of the two tangents drawn from an exterior point to a circle are equal. If two circles touch each other, then the point of contact of the circles lies on the line joining the centres. If two circles touch externally, the distance between their centres is equal to the sum of their radii. If two circles touch internally, the distance between their centres is equal to the difference of their radii.

Theorem 6.8

Tangent-Chord theorem

If from the point of contact of tangent (of a circle), a chord is drawn, then the angles which the chord makes with the tangent line are equal respectively to the angles formed by the chord in the corresponding alternate segments. Given : O is the centre of the circle. ST is the tangent at A, and AB is a chord. P and Q are any two points on the circle in the opposite sides of the chord AB. To prove : (i) +BAT = +BPA (ii) +BAS = +AQB .

S A P O Q C B

Construction: Draw the diameter AC of the circle. Join B and C.

T

Fig. 6.30

Proof

Statement +ABC = 90c +CAB + +BCA = 90c +CAT = 90c ( +CAB + +BAT = 90c +BCA = +BAT Reason angle in a semi-circle is 90c sum of two acute angles of a right 3 ABC. (1) diameter is = to the tangent at the point of contact. (2) from (1) and (2) (3)

+CAB + +BCA = +CAB + +BAT (

190 10th Std. Mathematics

+BCA = +BPA +BAT = +BPA . Hence (i). Now + BPA + +AQB = 180c ( Also +BAT + +AQB = 180c +BAT + +BAS = 180c + BAT + + AQB = + BAT + + BAS + BAS = + AQB. Hence (ii). Hence the theorem. Theorem 6.9 Theorem 6.9

angles in the same segment from (3) and (4)

(4) (5)

opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral from (5) linear pair from (6) and (7) (6) (7)

Converse of Theorem

If in a circle, through one end of a chord, a straight line is drawn making an angle equal to the angle in the alternate segment, then the straight line is a tangent to the circle. Definition A Let P be a point on a line segment AB. The product of PA # PB represents the area of the rectangle whose sides are PA and PB. P B

This product is called the area of the rectangle contained by the parts PA and PB of the line segment AB.

Theorem 6.10 If two chords of a circle intersect either inside or out side the circle, the area of the rectangle contained by the segments of the chord is equal to the area of the rectangle contained by the segments of the other In Fig.6.31. , two chords AB and CD intersect at P inside the circle with centre at O. Then PA # PB = PC# PD. In Fig. 6.32, the chords AB and CD intersect at P outside the circle with centre O. Then PA # PB = PC # PD. Example 6.12 Let PQ be a tangent to a circle at A and AB be a chord. Let C be a point on the circle such that +BAC = 54c and +BAQ = 62c then find +ABC

Geometry 191

A P O A C B C B P

D

O

D

Fig. 6.31

Fig. 6.32

we have (tangent-chord theorem) C 62c 54c P A Fig. find the perimeter of T PCD Solution are equal. 6. 4 Example 6. (i) A D 4 3 P 8 x C B C A 62c Q (ii) 5 B 4 D 2 P x Fig. Thus. PD = PA. +ABC = 180c .36 P ` CA = CE. PB = PC .14 (ii) We have PC . Mathematics . Example 6. +BAC + +ACB + +ABC = 180c. tangents PA and PB are drawn to a circle with centre O from an external point P. x = 16.Solution Since PQ is a tangent at A and AB is a chord. If CD is a tangent to the circle at E and AP = 15 cm. PD PB = PC. find the length of AD.34 Fig. BC = 6.33 B +BAQ = +ACB = 62c.PD PA x = 8 # 3 = 6. 6. In the figure. 6. We know that the lengths of the two tangents from an exterior point to a circle DB = DE and PA = PB. 6. ` perimeter of T PCD = PC + CD + DP = PC + CE + ED + DP = PC + CA + DB + DP = PA + PB = 2 PA = 2 # 15 = 30 cm.15 (PB = PA ) ABCD is a quadrilateral such that all of its sides touch a circle. 192 10th Std. O A C E D B Fig.5 cm and CD = 7 cm .13 Find the value of x in each of the following diagrams. PB (2+x) 2 = 9 # 4 x + 2 = 18 Thus. Also. (sum of all angles in a triangle is 180c) Thus.35 Solution (i) We have PA . Example 6.(+BAC + +ACB) = 180c – (54c+ 62c) = 64c. If AB = 6 cm.

CR = CQ (3). CP = 6 cm and CD = 2 cm. AD = 6.Solution Let P. 5. AB and AC produced at Q and R respectively. B. We know that the lengths of the two tangents drawn from an exterior point to a circle are equal. C Adding (1). A circle touches the side BC of T ABC at P. S P A Q 6 cm B Fig. D DR = DS 7 cm R (4).5 Thus. AB = 15 cm. How much of the stem was below the water surface originally? A point O in the interior of a rectangle ABCD is joined to each of the vertices A. (ii) If BP = 3 cm. prove that AQ = AR = 1 ( perimeter of T ABC) 2 If all sides of a parallelogram touch a circle. If + BTP = 72c and + ATB = 43c find + ABT.5 =6.3 1. the stem is pushed aside so that the lotus touched the water 40 cm away from the original position of the stem.4 7. Choose the correct answer 1. T 3. (3) and (4) we get. then find CD AB and CD are two chords of a circle which intersect each other externally at P (i) If AB = 4 cm BP = 5 cm and PD = 3 cm. BP = BQ (2). AB and CD are two chords of a circle which intersect each other internally at P. then find CD. 6. ` AP = AS (1). (ii) If AP = 12 cm. 6. (i) If CP = 4 cm. AP = 8 cm. 43c 72c 2. A lotus is 20 cm above the water surface in a pond and its stem is partly below the water surface. then find AB 4. PB = 2 cm. C 2 2 2 2 and D.37 A B In the figure TP is a tangent to a circle.5 cm P . (2). then find PD. then AE = AC AD (B) AD (C) DE (D) AD (A) DB AB BC EC Geometry 193 6. Exercise 6. AD = AB + CD – BC = 6 + 7 – 6. A and B are two points on the circle. As the wind blew. Prove that OA + OC = OB + OD Exercise 6. Q.5 cm. AP + BP + CR + DR = AS + BQ + CQ + DS AB + CD = AD + BC. CP = PD. R and S be the points where the circle touches the quadrilateral. show that the parallelogram is a rhombus. If a straight line intersects the sides AB and AC of a 9 ABC at D and E respectively and is parallel to BC.

then (A) AB = CA DE EF (B) BC = AB EF FD (C) AB = BC DE EF A (D) CA = AB FD EF 7.47 cm (D) 6.74 cm 11. If PQ = 6 cm. RS is the bisector of +R . then AC is equal to (A) 6. If a vertical stick 12 m long casts a shadow 8 m long on the ground and at the same time a tower casts a shadow 40 m long on the ground. QR = 8 cm. In 9 PQR. +C = +F . Triangles ABC and DEF are similar.5 cm (B) 4.5 cm (C) 3. If their areas are 100 cm2 and 49 cm2 respectively and BC is 8. the value x is equal to (A) 4 $ 2 (C) 0 $ 8 (B) 3 $ 2 (D) 0 $ 4 56c 6.5 cm (D) 5. 10. In 9ABC. identify the wrong statement. then the corresponding side of the other triangle is (A) 4 cm (B) 3 cm (C) 9 cm (D) 6 cm 194 10th Std. Mathematics .5 cm P 3.2.7 cm . +B = +E. meeting AB and AC at D and E. RP = 4 cm then PS is equal to (A) 2 cm (B) 4 cm (C) 3 cm (D) 6 cm Q 6cmS 8cm A 4cm R 4. In the figure. (A) TADB + TABC (C) TBDC + TABC (B) TABD + TABC (D) TADB + TBDC D B C 8. then +BAD = AC DC (A) 30c (B) 50c (C) 80c A x D 8 B 56c (D) 40c B 4 E 10 C 40c D 60c C 5. DE is < to BC.74 cm (C) 6. +B = 40c.2 cm then EF = (A) 5. and +C = 60c. if AB = BD . then their areas are in the ratio (A) 9:4 (B) 4:9 (C) 2:3 (D) 3:2 9. If one side of the first triangle is 8 cm. If AD = 3 cm. The perimeters of two similar triangles are 24 cm and 18 cm respectively.47 cm (B) 5. then the height of the tower is (A) 40 m (B) 50 m (C) 75 m (D) 60 m The sides of two similar triangles are in the ratio 2:3. From the given figure. In figure. DB = 2 cm and AE = 2. In triangles ABC and DEF.

The perimeter of two similar triangles DABC and DDEF are 36cm and 24 cm respectively. PD = 8 cm. If AB = 16 cm. then AP = (A) 8 cm (B) 4 cm (C) 12 cm (D) 6 cm 14. then +POA = (A) 70o (B) 80o (C) 50o (D) 60o A D Q C B P 17. AD = 4 cm. If BD = 8 cm. Also CD is a tangent to the circle at Q.5 cm (B) 6 cm (C) 4 cm (D) 4. PC = 6 and AP >PB. In the figure. DABC is a right angled triangle where +B = 90c and BD = AC . then CD is (A) 24 cm (B) 16 cm (C) 32 cm (D) 8 cm 19. If PA = 8 cm and CQ = 3 cm. then PC is equal to (A) 11 cm (B) 5 cm (C) 24 cm (D) 38 cm 18. and CD = 2 then PD = (A) 12 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 4 A P B C D 13. If the tangents PA and PB from an external point P to circle with centre O are inclined to each other at an angle of 40o. If DE = 10 cm. In the adjoining figure.12. In the figure. A point P is 26 cm away from the centre O of a circle and PT is the tangent drawn from P to the circle is 10 cm. then the corresponding altitude of the other triangle is (A) 6. PA and PB are tangents to the circle drawn from an external point P. AP = 8. then AB is (A) 12 cm (B) 20 cm (C) 15 cm (D) 18 cm Geometry 195 . if +PAB = 120c then +BPT = (A) 120 o A T (B) 30 o (C) 40 o (D) 60 P 16. The areas of two similar triangles are 16 cm2 and 36 cm2 respectively. chords AB and CD intersect at P. then OT is equal to (A) 36 cm (B) 20 cm (C) 18 cm (D) 24 cm C 120 c o B 15.5 cm 20. AB and CD are two chords of a circle which when produced to meet at a point P such that AB = 5. If the altitude of the first triangle is 3 cm.

the equation ^sin i + cos i h2 . is credited to Bartholomaus Pitiscus (1561-1613). he may have been the first to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses.cos i h2 = 4 sin i cos i is a trigonometric identity as it is true for all values of i . For example.. The word Trigonometry which means triangle measurement. buildings etc.) Greece He developed trigonometry.7 TrigonomeTry There is perhaps nothing which so occupies the middle position of mathematics as trigonometry – J. The creator of Trigonometry is said to have been the Greek Hipparchus of the second century B. without actually measuring them.120 B. an equation involving trigonometric ratios of an angle is called a trigonometric identity.F. relation between them and how to use trigonometric tables in solving problems. if it is true for all values of the angle(s) involved in the equation. In this chapter. After 15th century it was used to relate the measure of angles in a triangle to the lengths of the sides of the triangle.1 Introduction Trigonometry was developed to express relationship between the sizes of arcs in circles and the chords determining those arcs. Likewise.C. We have learnt in class IX about various trigonometric ratios. we shall learn about trigonometric identities. For example. the equation 2 2 ^a + bh2 = a + 2ab + b is an identity since it is true for all real values of a and b. Hipparchus is credited with the invention or improvement of several astronomical instruments.C. Herbart Introduction Identities Heights and Distances 7.^sin i . With his solar and lunar theories and his trigonometry. Mathematics 7. application of trigonometric ratios in finding heights and distances of hills. which were used for a long time for naked-eye observations. 196 10th Std. constructed trigonometric tables and solved several problems of spherical trigonometry. . Hipparchus (190 .2 Trigonometric identities We know that an equation is called an identity when it is true for all values of the variable(s) for which the equation is meaningful.

In the right-angled 3 ABC. we have AB + BC = AC 2 2 2 2 2 2 (1) C 2 Dividing each term of (1) by AC . Let us establish three useful identities called the Pythagorean identities and use them to obtain some other identities. 2 2 (3) Since tan i and sec i are not defined for i = 90c. Since cot i and cosec i are not defined for i = 0c.= 1 is not an identity because it is true 2 when i = 0c. Then for all 0c < i < 90c we have. cos2 0c + sin2 0c = 1 and cos2 90c + sin2 90c = 1 and so (2) is true for all i such that 0c # i # 90c Let us divide (1) by AB . cos A + sin A = 1 2 2 ( AC ! 0 ) i A Fig.1 B Let +A = i . we get 2 AB + BC = AC 2 ` AB j 2 2 AB AB AB 2 BC 2 AC 2 ` AB j + ` AB j = ` AB j 2 2 (a AB ! 0) ( 1 + tan i = sec i . the identity (3) is true for all i such that 0c # i < 90c Again dividing each term of (1) by BC . the equation (sin i + cos i) 2 In this chapter. 2 2 (2) Evidently. the identity (4) is true for all i such that 0c < i # 90c Trigonometry 197 . 7. we get AB + BC = AC 2 2 2 AC AC AC AB 2 BC 2 ` AC j + ` AC j = 1 Thus. cos i + sin i = 1. all the trigonometric identities and equations are assumed to be well defined for those values of the variables for which they are meaningful. but not true when i = 45c as ^sin 45c + cos 45ch2 = c 1 + 1 m = 2 ! 1 . 2 2 However. we get 2 AB + BC = AC 2 ` BC j 2 2 BC BC 2 2 (a BC ! 0) (4) 2 2 AB 2 BC 2 AC 2 ` BC j + ` BC j = ` BC j ( cot i + 1 = cosec i .

In this book we shall restrict ourselves to acute angles only. But these identities are true for any angle i for which the trigonometric functions are meaningful. the more complicated side of the identity may be taken first and simplified as it is easier to simplify than to expand or enlarge the simpler one. change each term into their sine and cosine equivalents and then try to simplify. (vi) If an identity contains terms involving tan i. Identity (i) sin2 i + cos2 i = 1 (ii) 1 + tan2 i = sec2 i (iii) 1 + cot2 i = cosec2 i Remarks Equal forms sin2 i = 1 .1 We have proved the above identities for an acute angle i .Some equal forms of identities from (1) to (4) are listed below.1 Prove the identity Solution Now. keeping in mind what is given and what you need to arrive.cot2 i = 1 (or) cot2 i = cosec2 i . However. some of the techniques listed below may be useful in proving trigonometric identities. (ii) Generally. each may be taken individually and simplified independently of each other to the same expression. (iii) If both sides of the identity are complicated.cos2 i (or) cos2 i = 1 .tan2 i = 1 (or) tan2 i = sec2 i . sin i + cos i = sin i + cos i 1 1 cosec i sec i ` sin i j ` cos i j = sin i + cos i = 1 . (v) If necessary.1 cosec2 i . Example 7. (i) Study the identity carefully. (iv) Combine fractions using algebraic techniques for adding expressions.sin2 i sec2 i . cot i. it may be more helpful to use the results sec i = 1 + tan i and cosec i = 1 + cot i. Mathematics 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 sin i + cos i = 1 cosec i sec i . 198 10th Std. sec i. there is no common method for proving trigonometric identities involving trigonometric functions. In general. cosec i.

sin ^90c .i h@ [cosec i .cos i h2 2 2 1 .cos i h2 2 ( 1 .cot i 1 + cos i 1 .sec i + 1 ^tan i + sec i h .cosih ^1 .tan i h 2 2 ^ sec2 i .sin ^90c .^sec i .Example 7.i h@ [cosec i .i) = cos i = ` 1 .sin i] [tan i + cot i] = 1 We consider tan i + sec i .cos i h # ^1 + cosih ^1 .i) = sec i = ^sec i .cos i h ^1 .cos i sin i = 1 .4 Prove that Solution tan i + sec i .tan2 i = 1h ^ a .sin i m` j cos i sin i sin i cos i 1 = c sin i mc cos i m` j =1 cos i sin i sin i cos i Example 7.sec i + 1 = = = = tan i + sec i . 6cosec ^90c .i h .i h .sec i + 1 cos i 2 2 2 2 2 2 Prove the identity 6cosec ^90c .^sec i + tan i h^sec i .sin i] [tan i + cot i] a cosec (90c .^sec i .2 Prove the identity Solution Consider 1 .sec i + 1h tan i .sec i + 1 ^tan i + sec i h^tan i .sin i jc sin i + cos i m cos i sin i sin i cos i 1 = c 1 .sin i h c sin i + cos i m cos i sin i a sin (90c .cot i .cos i mc 1 .cos i j` 1 .cos i sin i sin i sin i = cosec i .cos i = 1 + cos i = ^1 .1 = 1 + sin i tan i .tan i h@ tan i .tan i h tan i .cos i = 1 .cos i = cosec i . Example 7.cos i h^cosec i .sec i + 1 = tan i + sec i = sin i + 1 = 1 + sin i cos i cos i cos i Trigonometry 199 .cos i = sin i ) 2 2 Solution Now.bh ) 2 2 (tan i + sec i) 61 .3 = ^1 .sec i + 1 tan i .b = ^a + bh (a .1 tan i .

5 Prove the identity Solution Now.cot i 1 .tan i h tan i .1) tan i 2 ^a3 . Mathematics 2 2 .tan i h^tan i .1h^tan i + tan i + 1 h (tan i .6 Prove the identity 2 2 ^sin i + cosec i h2 + ^cos i + sec i h2 = 7 + tan i + cot i .tan i j 2 2 2 tan i + cot i = 1 + tan i + cot i .1 ^.1 tan i^1 . 200 10th Std.tan i 1 ^tan i .1h ^tan i .tan i tan i .b3 = ^a .1h 1 ^tan i . Solution Let us consider ^sin i + cosec i h2 + ^cos i + sec i h2 = sin i + cosec i + 2 sin i cosec i + cos i + sec i + 2 cos i sec i 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = sin i + cos i + cosec i + sec i + 2 sin i 1 + 2 cos i 1 sin i cos i 2 2 = 1 + ^1 + cot i h + ^1 + tan i h + 2 + 2 = 7 + tan i + cot i .1h 3 tan i 2 2 ^tan i .1 ^tan i h^tan i .tan i 1.bh^a2 + ab + b2hh = tan i + tan i + 1 tan i = tan i + tan i + 1 =tan i + 1 + cot i tan i tan i tan i = 1 + tan i + cot i .1 tan i tan i = = = = = tan i + 1 1 = tan i + tan i . tan i + cot i 1 .1h tan i 1 tan i .1h 2 1 `tan i .cot i 1 . 1 .Example 7. Example 7.tan i 1 1 tan i + tan i = tan i + tan i = 1 .1 1 .

tan i = 1 .tan i h2 = sec i + tan i . 2 cos i .Example 7.2 sec i tan i = ^1 + tan i h + tan i .tan i m # c sec i .3 sin i cos i.^sin2 i + cos i h = ( tan i ) e cos2 i . sec i + tan i Solution We consider sec i . Solution Now sin i + cos i = ^sin i h + ^cos i h 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 6 6 = ^sin i + cos i h .2 sin i = tan i.8 Prove the identity sin i 3.tan i m sec i + tan i sec i .tan i h2 2 2 sec i .2 sec i tan i = 1 . sin i 3.cos i Solution 2 3 ^ h Now.tan i h2 1 2 2 ^sec2 i .tan i = = ^sec i .3ab^a + bh ) = 1 .3 sin i cos i .22sin i 2 cos i .sin i Example 7.3 sin i cos i ^sin i + cos i h ( a + b = ^a + bh3 . cos i .tan i sec i + tan i 2 2 2 2 2 ^sin2 i + cos2 i = 1h = c sec i . Trigonometry 201 2 2 2 ^sec2 i = 1 + tan2 i h .cos i cos i^2 cos i . Example 7.9 2 Prove the identity sec i .sin2 i o = tan i .2 sec i tan i + 2 tan i.2 sin 2 i o cos i 2 cos i .tan2 i = 1h = ^sec i .7 6 6 2 2 Prove the identity ^sin i + cos i h = 1 .2 sec i tan i + 2 tan i.1h 3 2 2 3 3 ^ sin2 i + cos2 i = 1 h i = c sin i me sin 2 + cos i .2 sin i = sin i 1 .tan i ^sec i .

Mathematics .sin i j` 1 .cos i h = 1 tan i + cot i 202 10th Std.cos i h = ` 1 .Example 7.cos i h = Solution Now. consider 1 tan i + cot i 1 = sin i + cos i cos i sin i = 1 2 c sin i + cos i m sin i cos i 2 2 2 2 2 2 sin i . we consider 1 + sec i sec i 1+ 1 cos i = (cos i + 1) (cos i) = 1 cos i cos i = 1 + cos i (1 cos i) = (1 + cos i) # (1 .sin i)^sec i .cos i j sin i cos i = c 1 .10 Prove that 1 + sec i = sin i sec i 1 .cos i Solution First.cos i) 2 1 .cos i m sin i cos i = cos i sin i = sin i cos i sin i cos i Next.cos i = 1 .sin i h^sec i . 1 . we get (2) (cosec i .sin i h^sec i .cos i = Example 7.cos i 1 tan i + cot i 2 (1) = sin i cos i From (1) and (2). ^cosec i .11 Prove the identity ^cosec i .sin i mc 1 .

sin i. m .n = 4 mn .2 sin b sin2 b = sin2 a .cos2 a 2 cos b tan2 b = cos2 a .sin i = n and m ! n .^tan i + sin i . Solution Given that Now.1 = tan2 i) = 4 sin i tan i.n = 4 mn. we get m .n = ^tan i + sin i h2 .sin2 a.Example 7. tan i .cos2 a .sin i h = 4 tan i .cos a ( ( ( 2 cos2 b 1 = 2 2 sin a . Trigonometry 203 .sin i h2 = tan i + sin i + 2 sin i tan i .sin2 b) . then show that m . b d then a+b = c+d a-b c-d Applying componendo and dividendo rule. From (1) and (2). 4 mn = 4 ^tan i + sin i h^tan i .2 sin i tan i h = 4 sin i tan i (1) 2 2 2 2 2 2 Also.13 If tan2 a = cos2 b .1) = 4 sin i tan i (a sec2 i . which completes the proof.sin2 b = tan2 a 2 cos2 b .sin i = 4 =4 sin i c 2 2 2 2 e sin i . then prove that cos2 a .12 If tan i + sin i = m .(cos2 b + sin2 b) sin a . 2 2 2 m = tan i + sin i and n = tan i .sin2 b) + (cos2 b + sin2 b) = sin2 a + cos2 a (cos2 b .sin2 b = sin 2a cos2 b + sin2 b cos a If 2 2 (2) Componendo and dividendo rule a = c.sin2 b = sin 2a 1 cos a 2 cos2 b .sin2 b. we get 2 2 (cos2 b . Example 7.sin2 a = tan2 b Solution Given that cos2 b .sin2 i o 2 cos i 1 -1 m 2 cos i 2 2 2 = 4 sin i (sec i .^tan i .

5.tan i 0 0 sin ^90 . Mathematics .i h + = cos i + sin i 1 . . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) sin ^90c .cosec i h^1 + tan i + sec i h = 2 1 (vii) sin i . then prove that cot i .sin i h^sec i + tan i h = 1 3. 2. 2 2 tan i + cosec i 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 If x = a sec i + b tan i and y = a tan i + b sec i .1 = cosec i + cot i.b .sin i = cot i sin i ^1 + cos i h sin i = 1 .tan i 2 sin ^90 .i h tan i + cot i = 1 + sec i cosec i 1 . cos i and tan i are in G. (i) cos i + sec i = 2 +sin i Prove the following identities (i) sec i + cosec i = sec i cosec i (iii) (v) 1 . cosec i + 1 cot i 0 (v) cot i + cosec i .1 (ix) (x) 4.y = a .cos i cosec i + cot i 2 2 2 (ii) (iv) (vi) (viii) (vii) sec i ^1 .i h cos ^90 . 6.1 sec i .1 = 1 cosec i .cos ^90c .1 1.tan i 1 + sin i sec i + cosec i = tan i + cot i 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) cot i + cos i = sin i sin i = cosec i + cot i 1 .tan i 1 + cos i .P. Prove the following identities.tan i 0 tan i = sin i sin ^90 . n -1 If sin i.sin i = sec i .Exercise 7. 1 1 .cot i 1 . then prove that x .cot i tan ^90 .i h cos i = 2sec i + 1 + sin i 1 . 2 If tan i = n tan a and sin i = m sin a .1 .i h (viii) 2 2 0 1 . then prove that cos i = m2 .cot i = 1.tan i 1 . cot i .cos i + 1 = sin i + cos i . Determine whether each of the following is an identity or not.cos i cos i = 1 + sin i sec i . 6 2 204 10th Std.i h .i h cosec i + 1 + = 2 sec i.cot i sin i sin i cosec i + cot i cot i + sec i = (sin i cos i)^tan i + cot i h ..cosec i + 1 (vi) ^1 + cot i .

we are able to find the height of our school flag post without actually measuring it. A theodolite consists of two graduated wheels placed at right angles to each other and a telescope.3 . which is 10 m away from the foot B of the flag post.3) In right angled TDEC . The angle can be read on the telescopic scale.3 Heights and Distances One wonders.32 m Hence. The wheels are used for the measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. Assume that a student stands on the ground at point A.32 = 18. 7. These ratios are also used to construct maps. 7. are measured or calculated.732 = 17.7.2 m . +DEC = 60c.2 + 17. how the distance between planets. Quite interestingly such distances are calculated using the idea of trigonometric ratios. tan 60c = CD EC CD = EC tan 60c CD = 10 3 = 10 # 1. in a right triangle. if one side and one acute angle are known. distance between two objects which are far off like Earth and Sun f .2m 10m C B A 10m Fig. He observes the top of the flag post at an angle of 60c . BD = BC + CD = 1. 7. Trigonometry 205 D Fig.2) is an instrument which is used in measuring the angle between an object and the eye of the observer. Suppose that the height of his eye level E from the ground level is 1. height of Mount Everest. ( Thus. it is impossible to do so. the height of the flag post. (see fig no. the line of sight is a straight line from our eye to the object. we can find the other sides of the triangle using trigonometrical ratios. Here we treat the object as a point since distance involved is quite large. Suppose we wish to find the height of our school flag post without actually measuring it. Now. The angle to the desired point is measured by positioning the telescope towards that point. determine the position of an Island in relation to longitude and latitude. A theodolite (Fig.2 E 60 1. Line of sight If we are viewing an object. Let us define a few terms which we use very often in finding the heights and distances.7. So.52 m Thus. Can these be done with measuring tapes? Of course.

(iii) Denote the unknown dimension.4 If an object is above the horizontal line from our eyes we have to raise our head to view the object. This angle is called the angle of depression. (See Fig. the angle of depression of an object viewed is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal line.Angle of depression and angle of elevation If an object is below the horizontal line from the eye. The following activity may help us learn how to measure the height of an object which will be difficult to measure otherwise. (iv) Identify the trigonometrical ratio that will be useful for solving the problem. That is. we have to lower our head to view the object.4). Fig. 7. 7. (v) Substitute the given values and solve for unknown. In this process our eyes move through an angle formed by the line of sight and horizontal line which is called the angle of elevation. Mathematics . To solve problems involving heights and distances.5). when the object is below the horizontal line (See Fig. the following strategy may be useful (i) Read the statements of the question carefully and draw a rough diagram accordingly. say ‘ h’ when the height is to be calculated and ‘x’ when the distance is to be calculated. In this process our eyes moves through an angle. 206 10th Std. 7. Horizontal Line Angle of Depre ssion Line of si ght Fig. 7. Line of S ight Angle of E levation Horizontal Line Note (i) An observer is taken as a point if the height of the observer is not given.5 (ii) The angle of elevation of an object as seen by the observer is same as the angle of (ii) Label the diagram and mark the given values. depression of the observer as seen from the object.

7 A ladder leaning against a vertical wall.14 A kite is flying with a string of length 200 m.15 Fig. Let it be i . 7. Example 7.6 Look at the top of the object through the straw. Activity Straw String Paper Clip Fig. Glue this straw to the base of a protractor so that the middle of the straw aligns with the centre of the protractor. 7. Example 7. say y. the distance of the kite from the ground level is 100 m. The foot of the ladder is 3. Find an object outside that is too tall to measure directly. Make sure that the string hangs freely to create a vertical line or the plumb-line. or the school building.5 m away from the wall. Find the angle where the string and protractor intersect. Measure the distance from your eye level to the ground and from your foot to the base of the object that you are measuring. Tie one end of a string to the middle of a straw and the other end of the string to a paper clip. AC is the string Given that +CAB = 30c and AC = 200 m. In the right 3 CAB. To find the height (h) of the object. Make a sketch of your measurements. In the figure. such as a basket ball hoop. Determine the angle of elevation by subtracting this measurement from 90c. makes an angle of 60c with the ground. Trigonometry 207 . where x represents the distance from your eye level to the ground. Find the length of the ladder. assume that the string is along a straight line) Solution Let h denote the distance of the kite from the ground level. sin 30c = h 200 ( ` h = 200 sin 30c 30 A B C 200 m h h = 200 # 1 = 100 m 2 Hence. h = x + y tan i . If the thread makes an angle 30c with the ground. a flagpole. find the distance of the kite from the ground level. (Here. use the following equation.

Solution Let BD be the height of the tower and AE be the distance of the eye level of the observer from the ground level. Draw EC parallel to AB such that AB = EC.5m B Thus.5 m.8 Find the angular elevation (angle of elevation from the ground level) of the Sun when the length of the shadow of a 30 m long pole is 10 3 m.C Solution Let AC denote the ladder and B be the foot of the wall. Example 7. 7. 7.. the length of the ladder is 7 m. Let the length of the ladder AC be x metres.5 m 208 10th Std. then find the height of the tower. Let the angular elevation of the Sun be i .5 = 7 m x 60 A 3. Mathematics . ( ` cos 60c = AB AC AC = AB cos 60c x = 2 # 3. the angular elevation of the Sun from the ground level is 60c. C S Let AB denote the length of the shadow of the pole.5 m above the ground level. If the eye level of the observer is 1.9 Thus. Given AB = EC = 30 3 m and AE = BC = 1. The observer is at a distance of 30 3 m from the tower. Solution Let S be the position of the Sun and BC be the pole. ( ` tan i = BC = 30 = 3 AB 10 3 3 tan i = 3 i = 60c 30 m A 10 3 B Fig. Given that +CAB = 60c and AB = 3. In the right 3 CAB. Example 7.16 Fig. Given that AB = 10 3 m and BC = 30 m In the right 3 CAB.17 The angle of elevation of the top of a tower as seen by an observer is 30c.

Example 7. If the top of the tree touches the ground 30 m away from its foot. 7. 7.In right angled 3 DEC. Given AB = 30 m and +CAB = 30c.5 m.5 + 30 = 31. In right angled 3 CAB . passes directly over another jet fighter at an instance when their angles of elevation from the same observation point are 60c and 45c respectively. (use 3 = 1.18 D 30 1. tan 30c = CD EC CD = EC tan 30c = 30 3 ( 3 CD = 30 m ` E Thus. the height of the tree = BC + AC = 10 3 + 20 3 Now. The top of the tree touches the ground and makes an angle 30c with it. Solution Let C be the point at which the tree is broken and let the top of the tree touch the ground at A.10 A vertical tree is broken by the wind.19 A jet fighter at a height of 3000 m from the ground.5m 30 3 30 3 m B C m Fig.11 B (1) (2) . AC = 30 # 2 = 10 3 # 2 = 20 3 m . 3 Thus. BD = BC + CD A = 1. = 30 3 m . Trigonometry 209 A 30 30m Fig.732 ) Solution Let O be the point of observation. Example 7. tan 30c = BC AB BC = AB tan 30c ( ` BC = 30 3 = 10 3 m cos 30c = AB AC AB AC = ( cos 30c So. the height of the tower. Find the distance of the first jet fighter from the second jet at that instant. then find the actual height of the tree. C Let B denote the foot of the tree.

Let C be the point on the ground such that AC = 3000 m. then find the height of the hill. tan 60c = BC AB ( BC = AB tan 60c Thus. tan 45c = BC OC % (a tan 45 = 1) ( OC = BC Thus. tan 30c = AD AB ( ` AB = AD tan 30c 50m 60 A 30 B Fig.Let A and B be the positions of the two jet fighters at the given instant when one is directly above the other. Solution Let Let AD be the height of tower and BC be the height of the hill.20 The angle of elevation of the top of a hill from the foot of a tower is 60c and the angle of elevation of the top of the tower from the foot of the hill is 30c . the height of the hill is 150 m.13 AB = 50 3 m Also. +ABD = 30c and AD = 50 m. using (1) we get h = BC = (50 3 ) 3 = 150 m Hence. 7. h D C Given +CAB = 60c. If the tower is 50 m high. 7.h In the right angled 3 AOC . In the right angled 3 BOC.732 = 1268 m The distance of the first jet fighter from the second jet at that instant is 1268 m.12 C 3 = 1000 3 3 (2) = 1000 3 h = 3000 . we get 3000 – h ( (1) O A h B 3000 . Mathematics (1) . Example 7. OC = 3000 . BC = h metres. Given +AOC = 60c and +BOC = 45c Let h denote the distance between the jets at the instant. 210 10th Std.1000 # 1. in the right angled TDAB . Now. tan 60c = AC OC AC 3000 ( OC = tan 60% = 3 = 3000 # 3 From (1) and (2). in the right angled 3 CAB.h 45 60 Fig.

h .BC = 90 . CD = BD . (use 3 = 1. AE = BC = h metres E 45 C h 50 m Thus. h = 90 . Let AB = x metres. observes two boats due East of the lighthouse. . tan 60c = BD = 90 AB x ( x = 90 = 30 3 3 In the right angled 3 DEC. 7. (1) Fig.h EC x Thus. 90-h Draw EC parallel to AB such that AB=EC. Find the distance of the top of the lighthouse from the sea level. The distance between the boats is 300 m. Solution Let A and D denote the foot of the cliff and the top of the lighthouse respectively. Find the height of the wall if the height of the tower is 90 m. the height of the wall.h = 30 3 Thus.h From (1) and (2).Example 7. D 45 60 Given that BD = 90 m and +DAB = 60c. 60 Fig. +ACD = 30c In the right angled TABD .04 m. the angles of depression of the top and bottom of the wall are 45c and 60c respectively .30 3 = 38. 7. tan 45c = DC = 90 .15 Trigonometry 211 90 m Let AB = x metres and AE = h metres.732 ) Solution Let AE denote the wall and BD denote the tower.22 A girl standing on a lighthouse built on a cliff near the seashore. The angles of depression of the two boats are 30c and 60c.21 A vertical wall and a tower are on the ground. Let h metres be the distance of the top of the lighthouse from the sea level. Given that +ABD = 60c. Now.14 A x B (1) (2) Example 7. +DEC = 45c. AE = BC. Let B and C denote the two boats. Thus. x = 90 . In the right angled 3 DAB . tan 60c = AD AB AB = AD ( tan 60c x= h 3 h D 30 60 60 30 A x B 300m C Thus. we have 90 . As seen from the top of the tower .

Find the distance covered by the balloon during the interval. The angle of elevation of the balloon from his eyes at an instant is 60c. we get h + 300 = h 3 3 ( h 3 .AB = 87 3 . 7. the angle of elevation of the balloon reduces to 30c. Thus. Fig. tan 60c = BE AB AB = 87 = 87 = 29 3 tan 60c 3 A 1. After some time. h 1 c m 3 (2) Thus. Using (1) in (2). h = 150 3. Mathematics 87 m . Given that +EAB = 60c. Also.2m E D Now.2 m.2m C Cl Al Bl Thus. Example 7. Bl and C l be the points on the ground such that Al A = Bl B = C l C = 1. +DAC = 30c BBl = CC l = 1. we have tan 30c = AD AC AC = AD ( x + 300 = ( tan 30c x + 300 = h 3 . from the same point of observation.h = 300 3 ` 2h = 300 3 . AC = tan 30c Therefore. 212 10th Std. in the right angled 3 ACD . we have 60c 30c B 1.23 A boy spots a balloon moving with the wind in a horizontal line at a height of 88.2 m and C l D = 88. we have BE= CD = 87 m. Thus. Let E and D be the positions of the balloon when its angles of elevation are 60c and 30c respectively. the height of the lighthouse from the sea level is 150 3 m.16 Again in the right angled 3 DAC. Solution Let A be the point of observation. in the right angled 3 EAB. the distance covered by the balloon is ED = BC = AC .2 m . The distance of his eye level from the ground is 1.2 m from the ground level. Let B and C be the points on the horizontal line such that BE = CD. Hence. Let Al . we have tan 30c = DC AC 87 = 87 3 .2 m .Also.29 3 = 58 3 m.

14 m above the water level. we get h = h + 10 3 ( ( ( 3 h . find the height of the building.. +DAB = 60c and CD = 10 m Let BC = h metres and AB = x metres. Now. Given that +CAB = 45c . Example 7. observes that the angle of elevation of the top of a cliff is 60cand the angle of depression of the base of the D cliff is 30c.66 m .e.24 A flag post stands on the top of a building. Solution Let BD be the height of the cliff. AB = BC i. Draw EC parallel to AB such that AB = EC. (use 3 = 1.17 10 3 + 1 = 10^ 3 + 1h m mc 3-1 3 -1 3 +1 = 5^2.Example 7. tan30c = AE AB E 60 30 30 Fig. Find the height of the cliff.66 m Hence. From a point on the ground.25 A man on the deck of a ship. in the right angled 3 DAB . in the right angled 3 CAB. the height of the building is 13. x = h Also. tan 45c = BC .732 ) Solution Let A be the point of observation and B be the foot of the building. 7. +DEC = 60c In the right angled 3 ABE. Given that +ABE = 30c. Let BC denote the height of the building and CD denote height of the flag post. tan 60c = BD AB AB = h + 10 tan 60% D 10 m C (1) 60 45 h A x B ( x = h + 10 3 From (1) and (2). AB Thus.18 C 14m A Trigonometry 213 14m B .h = 10 h=c (2) Fig. 7. Let A be the position of ship and E be the point of observation so that AE = 14 m.732h = 13. the angles of elevation of the top and bottom of the flag post are 60c and 45c respectively. If the height of the flag post is 10 m .

214 10th Std. After a flight of 15 seconds horizontally. is 1500 3 m. tan 60c = BE AB BE = AB tan 60c ( h = 3 x ( From (1) and (2). A 30 60 E D h h x B Fig. BD = BC + CD = 14 + 42 = 56 m.` Thus. CD = AC tan 30c (1) h = (x + 3000) 1 . from (2) it follows that h = 1500 3 m. +EAB = 60c . Let AB = x metres. the height of the cliff. If the aeroplane is flying at a speed of 200 m/s. Let BE and CD denote the constant height at which the aeroplane is flying.19 C (distance travelled = speed # time) (2) Thus. The constant height at which the aeroplane is flying. ` CD = EC tan 60c ( CD = (14 3 ) 3 = 42 m Thus. Let E and D be positions of the aeroplane initially and after 15 seconds respectively. Mathematics . tan 30c = CD AC ( Thus..26 The angle of elevation of an aeroplane from a point A on the ground is 60c . Let BE = CD = h metres. In the right angled 3 DAC. The distance covered in 15 seconds. then find the constant height at which the aeroplane is flying. AB = AE tan 30c ( AB = 14 3 ( a AB = EC ) tan 60c = CD EC EC= 14 3 In the right angled 3 DEC. the angle of elevation changes to 30c . Given that +DAC = 30c . BC = 3000 m. Example 7. Solution Let A be the point of observation. ED = 200 # 15 = 3000 m Thus. 7. we have ( 3 x = 1 ^ x + 3000h 3 3x = x + 3000 ( x = 1500 m. 3 In the right angled 3 EAB .

5 m above the ground. How high was the cloud ceiling? (Hint : See figure) (Note: Cloud ceiling is the lowest altitude at which solid cloud is present. then find the distance of the bird from Y. Let P and Q be two points on the boundary such that PQ subtends an angle 90c at the foot of the lamp-post and the angle of elevation of the top of the lamp post from P is 30c.) 5. If A sounds a warning to B and if the angle of elevation of B from A is 30c.732 ) A person X standing on a horizontal plane. Using a theodolite placed 100 m from the spotlight and 1. (use 3 = 1. A ramp for unloading a moving truck. If PQ = 30 m. Another person Y standing on the roof of a 20 m high building. What will be the shortest distance between the initial position and the final position of the bob? Two crows A and B are sitting at a height of 15 m and 10 m in two different trees vertically opposite to each other . has an angle of elevation of 30c. Trigonometry 215 7. A person in an helicopter flying at a height of 700 m. Suppose two insects A and B can hear each other up to a range of 2 m.9 m above the ground level.Exercise 7. The angles of depression of the objects are 30c and 45c. about to be eaten by a spider.5 m A pendulum of length 40 cm subtends 60c at the vertex in one full oscillation. If X and Y are on the opposite sides of the bird.20 4. At night the cloud ceiling can be determined by illuminating the base of the clouds by a spotlight pointing vertically upward. 60 100 m Fig. A girl of height 150 cm stands in front of a lamp-post and casts a shadow of length 150 3 cm on the ground. They view a vadai(an eatable) on the ground at an angle of depression 45c and 60crespectively. he found the angle of elevation to be 60c. 8. observes a bird flying at a distance of 100 m from him at an angle of elevation of 30c. Find the angle of elevation of the top of the lamp-post . . The cloud ceiling at airports must be sufficiently high for safe takeoffs and landings. Find the width of the river. 7. They start at the same time and fly at the same speed along the shortest path to pick up the vadai. will the spider have a meal or not ? ( Assume that B escapes if she hears A calling ) To find the cloud ceiling. one night an observer directed a spotlight vertically at the clouds. then find the height of the lamp post. observes two objects lying opposite to each other on either bank of a river. 2. 9. 3. observes the bird at the same time at an angle of elevation of 45c..2 1. The insect A is on the ground 1m away from a wall and sees her friend B on the wall. 6. Which bird will succeed in it? A lamp-post stands at the centre of a circular park. 1. then find the length of the ramp. If the top of the ramp is 0.

as seen from the same point and at the same time. 13. A man standing on the top of the tower spots a van at an angle of depression of 30c. the keeper has to sound the alarm. 11. If they are less than 300 feet .the angle of elevation reduces to 30c. How many more minutes will it take for the van to reach the tower? The angles of elevation of an artificial earth satellite is measured from two earth stations. 15. 216 10th Std. the angles of elevation of the top of a lighthouse are found to be 30cand 60c respectively. the angle of depression of the van is found to be 60c. The van is approaching the tower with a uniform speed. (use 3 = 1. 17. 14.10.732 ) From the top of a 60 m tall tower. A straight highway leads to the foot of a tower . The angle of elevation of a hovering helicopter as seen from a point 45 m above a lake is 30c and the angle of depression of its reflection in the lake. is 60c.5 m. A student sitting in a classroom sees a picture on the black board at a height of 1. from the same point of observation. 18. are found to be 30cand 60c. The angle of elevation of the picture is 30c. Mathematics . Find the height of the building. the lighthouse keeper observes a Yacht and a Barge along the same line of sight . As the picture is not clear to him. find the distance between the satellite and earth. A boy is standing at some distance from a 30 m tall building and his eye level from the ground is 1. The two earth stations and the satellite are in the same vertical plane. the angles of depression of the top and the bottom of a building are observed to be 30c and 60crespectively. From the top of a lighthouse of height 200 feet. spots a balloon moving with the wind in a horizontal line at a constant height . 16. The angle of elevation from his eyes to the top of the building increases from 30c to 60cas he walks towards the building. Find the height of the lighthouse. For safety purposes the two sea vessels should be atleast 300 feet apart. he moves straight towards the black board and sees the picture at an angle of elevation of 45c. Find the distance of the helicopter from the surface of the lake. 12. The angle of elevation of the balloon from the boy at an instant is 60c. then find the height of the balloon from the ground level. situated on the same side of the satellite. The angles of depression for the Yacht and the Barge are 45c and 30c respectively. Find the distance moved by the student. If the speed of wind is 29 3 m/s. From the top and foot of a 40 m high tower. Find the distance he walked towards the building.5 m from the horizontal level of sight. If the distance between the earth stations is 4000 km. After 2 minutes. After 6 minutes. Also find the distance of the top of the lighthouse from the foot of the tower. Does the keeper have to sound the alarm ? A boy standing on the ground.

8.i h sin i = (B) tan i (B) 2 cos x .1 7.2 cos x.2 = a b (A) 1 (B) –1 (C) tan2 i sec i = cot i + tan i (A) cot i (B) tan i (C) sin i (D) sec i (D) cosec2 i 9. 2. (D) 25 2 m (C) 25 m 3 C In the adjoining figure +ABC = (A) 45c (C) 60c (B) 30c (D) 50c 100 3 m A 100 m B Trigonometry 217 .sin x = (A) 2 sin x . AC = (A) 25 m (B) 25 3 m 60c A 25 m B 12.cos2 i h^1 + cot2 i h = sin ^90c . 4. y = b tan i . then the value of x2 . 2 6. x If tan i = a . 2 4 4 2 2 (B) cos i (B) 0 (B) 0 (C) tan i (C) 1 (C) 2 2 ^1 . 3. ^1 .i h cos i = + tan i cot i (A) tan i (B) 1 (C) –1 C (D) sin i 11.Exercise 7.3 Choose the correct answer 1. (D) – cot i 10. 5.i h cos i + cos ^90c .sin2 i h sec2 i = (A) 0 ^1 + tan2 i h sin2 i = (B) 1 2 (C) tan i 2 2 (D) cos i (D) cot i (D) tan i (D) –1 2 2 2 (A) sin i (A) sin i (A) 1 1sin i = 1 + cos i (A) cos i cos x .i h sin i cos ^90c . In the adjoining figure. sin ^90c .1 2 (C) cot i (C) 1 + 2 sin x 2 (D) cosec i (D) 1 . then the value of = x a2 + x2 (B) sin i (C) cosec i (A) cos i 2 y2 If x = a sec i .

1h^cot2 i + 1h + 1 = (B) sin2 i .9 sec2 i = (A) 1 (B) 0 (B) cosec2 i . 1996) was a Hungarian Mathematician.475 mathematical articles in his life lifetime. ^1 + tan2 i h^1 .cos i h^1 + cos i h = (B) sin2 i . He strongly believed in and practised mathematics as a social activity. 1913 – 20 September. He wrote around 1.sec2 i (C) sec2 i . In the adjoining figure.cos2 i (D) cos2 i . comparable only with Leonhard Euler. Erdos was one of the most prolific publishers of research articles in mathematical history. 218 10th Std.tan2 i 17. A man is 28. The angle of elevation of the tower from his eyes is 45c.5 m away from a tower. ^cos2 i .cos2 i (C) 9 (D) –9 Do you know? Paul Erdos (26 March . while Euler credited with approximately 800 research articles. having 511 different collaborators in his lifetime. 1 + tan2 i = 1 + cot2 i (A) cos2 i 19.sin2 i (C) sin2 i + cos2 i 16. 9 tan2 i .5 m. Then BC = 17 (A) 85 m (B) 65 m (C) 95 m (D) 75 m A i B 15. Mathematics . sin2 i + 1 = 1 + tan2 i (B) –1 (C) 2 (D) 0 (B) tan2 i (C) sin2 i (D) cot2 i (A) cosec2 i + cot2 i (C) cot2 i .sin i h^1 + sin i h = (A) cos2 i . His eye level above the ground is 1.cos2 i (D) 0 (A) tan2 i .5 m (C) 28.cot2 i (D) sin2 i .5 m C 85 m (D) 27 m 14.sin2 i (A) 1 18.13. ^1 + cot2 i h^1 . Then the height of the tower is (A) 30 m (B) 27.cosec2 i 20. sin i = 15 .

1 Introduction Measure what is measurable. 8. Thus. He regarded this as his most vital achievement. 8. and make measurable what is not so -Galileo Galilei Introduction Surface area and volume v v v Cylinder Cone Sphere Combined figures and invariant volumes The part of geometry which deals with measurement of lengths of lines.2 Archimedes (287 BC . “Surface Area to Volume” ratio has been widely acknowledged as one of the big ideas of Nanoscience as it lays the foundation for understanding size dependent properties that characterise Nanoscience scale and technology.1 under the arc of a parabola. He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area Fig.212 BC) Greece Surface Area Archimedes is remembered as the greatest mathematician of the ancient era. Fig. we shall learn how to find surface areas and volumes of solid objects such as cylinder. cone. The adjoining figures illustrate surface areas of some solids.8 MENSURATION 8. Archimedes of Syracuse. In elementary geometry one considers plane. The study of measurement of objects is essential because of its uses in many aspects of every day life. He contributed significantly in geometry regarding the areas of plane figures and the areas as well as volumes of curved surfaces. Surface area is the measurement of exposed area of a solid object.2 Mensuration 219 . multifaced surfaces as well as certain curved surfaces of solids (for example spheres). perimeters and areas of plane figures and surface areas and volumes of solid objects is called “Mensuration”. Sicily was a Greek Mathematician who proved that of the volume of a sphere is equal to two-thirds the volume of a circumscribed cylinder. the surface area is the area of all outside surfaces of a 3-dimensional object. In this chapter. sphere and combined objects 8.

8. The length AB is the length or the height of the cylinder and AD or BC is called its radius. 8. C B B D A A A Fig.2. AB is called the axis of the cylinder. then by this process. Mathematics .6 Curved Surface Area of a cylinder. (ii) If the base is circular but not perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder.3 If a rectangle revolves about its one side and completes a full rotation. The vertical surface of the cylinder is curved and hence its area is called the curved surface or lateral surface area of the cylinder. 8. (iii) If the axis is perpendicular to the circular base. then the cylinder is called circular cylinder. Activity Let ABCD be a rectangle. (i) Curved Surface area of a solid right circular cylinder In the adjoining figure. the solid thus formed is called a right circular cylinder. the bottom and top face of the right circular cylinder are concurrent circular regions. Note that it has been kept at right angles to the base. ax is axi s Fig. CSA = Circumference of the base # Height = 2rr # h = 2rrh sq. 220 10th Std. (See Fig.3) Definition Fig. 8. then the cylinder is called right circular cylinder. and the base is circular.5 axis axis h 2rr Fig. we shall obtain a solid object known as a Right Circular Cylinder.8. Assume that it revolves about its side AB and completes a full rotation. This revolution generates a right circular cylinder as shown in the figures. parallel to each other. 8.1 Right Circular Cylinder If we take a number of circular sheets of paper or cardboard of the same shape and size and stack them up in a vertical pile. units.4 Note (i) If the base of a cylinder is not circular then it is called oblique cylinder.

rubber tube. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r and h be the radius and height of the solid right circular cylinder respectively. CSA Total surface area.8 Note In this chapter.cm. Find its (i) curved surface area and (ii) total surface area. 8.1 A solid right circular cylinder has radius 7cm and height 20 cm.r) ` Remark Thickness of the hollow cylinder. TSA = Area of the Curved Surface Area + 2 # Base Area = 2rrh + 2 # rr Thus. CSA = 2rrh = 2 # 22 # 7 # 20 7 Thus. rr 2 (iii) Right circular hollow cylinder hollow cylinder of height h with external and internal radii R and r respectively. 7 Example 8. 2 rr 2 2rrh TSA = 2rr (h + r) sq.r . the total surface area Mensuration 221 20 cm . the curved surface area = 880 sq. etc.r + h) sq. h h r Fig. are in the shape of hollow cylinders. we have. the total surface area = 2rr (h + r) = 2 # 22 # 7 # [20 + 7] = 44 # 27 7 = 1188 sq. for r we take an approximate value 22 whenever it is required.units.9 Thus.cm Now. curved surface area. CSA = External surface area + Internal surface area = 2rRh + 2rrh Thus.(ii) Total Surface Area of a solid right circular cylinder Total Surface Area. w = R .7 Solids like iron pipe.rr2] = 2rh (R + r) + 2r (R + r) (R . For a h R Fig. Given that r = 7cm and h = 20 cm Curved surface area. 8.units = CSA + 2 # Base area = 2rh (R + r) + 2 # [rR2 .units. TSA = 2rh (R + r) sq. TSA = 2r (R + r) (R .. 8. 7 cm Fig.

cm.4 The diameter of a road roller of length 120 cm is 84 cm. then find the cost of levelling it at the cost of 75 paise per square metre. CSA is 2rrh = 2 # 22 # 10 # 4 = 1760 7 7 Thus.3 The ratio between the base radius and the height of a solid right circular cylinder is 2 : 5. the curved surface area. CSA = 2rrh 2 # 22 # 2 # h # h = 3960 7 7 5 ( h2 = 3960 # 7 # 5 = 225 2 # 22 # 2 # 7 Thus. = 7 7 Now. find the height and radius. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r and h be the radius and height of the solid right circular cylinder respectively. 8.Example 8. r = 2 h h 5 5 Now. If it takes 500 complete revolutions to level a playground.cm. ( use r = 22 ) 7 7 Solution Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.2 If the total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder is 880 sq. Given that r =10 cm and S = 880 cm2 Now. If its curved surface area is 3960 sq. Mathematics . Fig. 7 Example 8. the curved surface area. S = 880 ( 2rr [h + r] = 880 2 # 22 # 10 [h + 10] = 880 ( 7 h + 10 = 880 # 7 ( 2 # 22 # 10 ( h + 10 = 14 h = 4 cm Thus.cm and its radius is 10 cm. 5 Hence.10 10 cm Aliter : CSA = TSA – 2× Area of the base = 880 – 2 × rr2 = 880 – 2 # 22 # 102 7 1760 = 251 3 sq. 880 cm2 Let S be the total surface area of the solid right circular cylinder.cm. Thus. find its curved surface area. the curved surface area of the cylinder = 251 3 sq. h = 15 ( r = 2 h = 6. the height of the cylinder. ( Example 8. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 222 10th Std. Given that r : h = 2 : 5 ( r = 2 . the height of the cylinder is 15 cm and the radius is 6 cm.

= 31680 # 500 = 15840000 cm2 = 15840000 = 1584 m2 10000 Cost of levelling per 1sq.r + h) = 2 # 22 # (18 + 12) (18 . 7 7 Thus. CSA = 2r h(R+r) Thus. the cap of a clown in a circus.12 12 cm 14 cm 18 cm 8. 8.m. 100 Example 8. Mostly the objects mentioned above are in the shape of a right circular cone. 8. R = 18 cm. = ` 75 100 (10.m) Thus. R and h be the internal and external radii and the height of a hollow cylinder respectively. = 2rrh 84 cm 120 cm Fig.12 + 14) 7 = 2 # 22 # 30 # 20 = 26400 . cost of levelling the play ground = 1584 # 75 = ` 1188. h = 14 cm Now. curved surface area. the total surface area = 3771 3 sq. 7 Fig.2 Right Circular Cone In our daily life we come across many solids or objects like ice cream container.Solution Given that r = 42 cm. (Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r. h = 120 cm Curved Surface Area Area covered by the roller 3 =) in one revolution of the road roller.2.cm. the mehandi container. CSA = 2 # 22 # 14 # ^18 + 12h 7 = 2640 sq.11 = 2 # 22 # 42 # 120 7 Area covered by the roller in 500 revolutions 3 = 31680 cm2.5 The internal and external radii of a hollow cylinder are 12 cm and 18 cm respectively. Mensuration 223 . Given that r = 12 cm. then find its curved surface area and total surface area. If its height is 14 cm. TSA = 2r (R + r) (R . the top of the temple car.000 cm2 = 1 sq.cm Total surface area.

right angled at B. the base may not be of circular shape. where right means that the axis that passes through the centre of the base is at right angles to its plane. Paste a long thick string along one of the perpendicular sides say AB of the triangle. the solid thus formed is called a right circular cone.14 l2 . Can you What happens? recognize the shape formed on the C rotation of the triangle around the string?. In general. cones are assumed to be right circular. The shape so formed is a right circular cone. then it is called oblique cone.15 A . If a right angled 3 ABC is revolved 360c about the side AB containing the right angle. 224 10th Std. Mathematics B O Fig. and circular means that the base is a circle. In the right angled 3 ABC We have.r2 l2 . (ii) If the base of a cone is circular then. l= h= r= h +r 2 2 l ( Pythagoras theorem) D h r B Fig. Here. (iii) If the vertex is directly above the centre of the circular base.13 A The length BC is called the radius of its base (BC = r). B D B C D B C A A A The length AB is called the height of the cone. One can visualise a cone through the following activity. 8. The length AC is called the slant height l of the cone (AC = AD = l). Fig. Hold the string with your hands on either side of the triangle and rotate the triangle about the string. it is called circular cone. let us define a right circular cone and find its surface area.A cone is a solid object that tapers smoothly from a flat base to a point called vertex. 8.h2 C Note (i) If the base of a cone is not circular. then it is a right circular cone. In this section. Activity Take a thick paper and cut a right angled 3 ABC. 8.

8.17 Example 8. Find the curved surface area and total surface area of the cone. 2rl = 360c L ic ( L = 2rl # ic 360c (1) l i l N Now. Thus. the curved surface area of the cone = rrl sq.16 r From (1) we obtain. Hence.units. (ii) Total surface area of the solid right circular cone Curved surface area of the cone ) + Area of the base r rl Total surface area of the solid cone = = rrl + rr2 Total surface area of the solid cone = rr^l + r h sq. the area of the curved A = rl 2 c i c m = rl 2 ` r j . L = 2rr l L h l M M Fig.units. surface of the cone l 360c Hence.6 Radius and slant height of a solid right circular cone are 35 cm and 37cm respectively.(i) Curved surface area of a hollow cone Let us consider a sector with radius l and central angle ic. Let r be the radius of the cone. 2rr = 2rl # ic 360c ( ( r = l c ic m 360c r = ic c m l 360c Remarks L When a sector of a circle is folded into a cone. Then rl2 = 360c A ic Then the curved surface area of the cone (2) " Slant height (l) " Curved Surface Area rrl Arc Length (L) " Perimeter of the base 2rr } = Area of the sector } Thus. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Mensuration 225 . the following conversions are taking place: Sector Radius (l) Area Cone Let A be the area of the sector. Let L denote the length of the arc. r r2 Fig. 8. join the radii of the sector to obtain a right circular cone.

OC = 6 3 cm Now.18 Let O and C be the centre of the base and the vertex of a right circular cone. 8. the slant height of the cone.cm Total surface area. 8. 35cm Fig. then find the height and curved surface area of the cone. If the radius of the cone is 6 cm and if +OBC = 60 o .cm. the curved surface area is rrl = r # 6 # 12 = 72r cm2 . Mathematics C 60c A O 6cm Fig.Solution Let r and l be the radius and the slant height of the solid right circular cone respectively. cos 60 o = OB BC ( BC = OB cos 60c ` BC = 6 = 12 cm (1 ) 2 Thus. Example 8. Let B be any point on the circumference of the base. R = 21 cm 226 10th Std. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r be the base radius of the cone. Find the curved surface area of the cone.8 A sector containing an angle of 120c is cut off from a circle of radius 21 cm and folded into a cone. l = 37 cm 37cm Curved surface area. Angle of the sector. CSA = rrl = r^35) (37h CSA = 4070 sq. Solution Given that radius OB = 6 cm and +OBC = 60 o . Example 8. we have tan60 o = OC OB ( OC = OB tan 60c = 6 3 Thus. In the right angled 3 OBC. the height of the cone. l = 12 cm In the right angled 3 OBC.7 TSA = rr [l + r] = 22 # 35 # 637 + 35 @ 7 TSA = 7920 sq. i = 120c Radius of the sector. r = 35 cm .19 B . Thus.

we have 21cm circumference of the base of the cone 120c 21cm = Length of the arc l h i # 2rR ( 2rr = 360c r r = i #R ( 360c 2rr 120c # 21 = 7 cm. the solid thus generated is called sphere. Thus. Now. Measure the radius of the sphere and the circles formed. The new solid is called sphere.3 Sphere If a circular disc is rotated about one of its diameter.2. Thus sphere is a 3. Aliter : l = Radius of the sector CSA of the cone = Area of the sector Thus. r r Fix a pin at the top of the ball. l = R ( l = 21 cm. the curved surface area of the cone is 462 sq. Cut the thread into four equal parts. CSA = 4 # Area of the circle = 2 The curved surface area of a sphere = 4rr sq. Thus.When the sector is folded into a right circular cone. the curved surface area of the cone.dimensional object which has surface area and volume. Thus. 360c CSA = rrl = 120 # 22 # 21 # 21 22 # 7 # 21 = 462. Place the strings as shown in the figures.21 4 # rr2 Mensuration 227 . Unwind the thread and measure the length of the thread used.20 360c Also. the slant height of the cone . 8. (i) Curved surface area of a solid sphere Take a circular disc.cm. 8. 8. the base radius of the cone. the radius of the sphere = radius of the four equal circles. Wind a uniform thread over the ball so as to cover the whole curved r surface area. r = Fig. = i c # r # R2 Now . ` Activity 360c. paste a string along a diameter of the disc and rotate it looks like a ball. units. 360 7 = 7 = 462 sq. The object so created rr 2 r r Fig.cm. Take a plastic ball. The following activity may help us to visualise the surface area of a sphere as four times the area of the circle with the same radius. curved surface area of the sphere.

m. rr 2 2 rr 2 Fig. The total surface area = ) Outer surface area + Inner surface area + Area at the base = 2 rR + 2 rr + r ^ R . 228 10th Std. (iii) Hollow hemisphere Let R and r be the outer and inner radii of the hollow hemisphere. 2 Example 8.units . 2 Total surface area of a hemisphere.10 Total surface area of a solid hemisphere is 675r sq. 8.r h sq. has an inner diameter of 7 m.units. Available area to the motorcyclist for riding = Inner surface area of the sphere = 4rr2 = r (2r) 2 = 22 # 7 7 Available area to the motorcyclist for riding = 154 sq. TSA = Curved Surface Area + Area of the base Circle = 2rr 2 + rr 2 = 3rr2 sq.22 2 = 4rr =2 rr2 sq. 8.units. Each part of the sphere is called a solid hemisphere.(ii) Solid hemisphere 2 rr 2 A plane passing through the centre of a solid sphere divides the sphere into two equal parts.23 r R Fig. Find the area available to the motorcyclist for riding. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Inner diameter of the hollow sphere.r h 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 2r^ R + r h + r^ R + r h^ R . Now.9 A hollow sphere in which a circus motorcyclist performs his stunts.cm. Mathematics .24 Example 8. 2r = 7 m. 8.units. Find the curved surface area of the solid hemisphere. its curved surface area = Outer surface area + Inner surface area = 2rR 2 + 2rr 2 = 2r^ R2 + r2h sq. Curved surface area of a hemisphere = CSA of the Sphere 2 2rr2 Fig.

The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder is 660 sq.11 Fig.25 7 Thus.cm and 110 cm respectively. w = 0. outer surface area of the bowl = 2rR2 = 2 # 22 # 5. cm ( r2 = 225 675 r cm2 r Now. A solid right circular cylinder has radius of 14 cm and height of 8 cm . 8.25cm 5cm R Now.1 1. 2.25 cm. Mensuration 229 Fig. Exercise 8. 4. 8. Find the cost to paint the lateral surface of the pillars at ` 20 per square metre.25 sq. 3rr2 = 675r sq.25 = 5. R and w be the inner and outer radii and thickness of the hemispherical bowl respectively. Curved surface area and circumference at the base of a solid right circular cylinder are 4400 sq. Its curved surface area is two thirds of the total surface area. Find the radius and height of the cylinder. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder is 231 cm2 . 6. 5.cm. then find the height of the cylinder. A mansion has 12 right cylindrical pillars each having radius 50 cm and height 3. The inner radius of the bowl is 5 cm. Example 8. the curved surface area of the solid hemisphere. Given that ` r = 5 cm. CSA = 2rr2 = 2r # 225 = 450r sq. Find the ratio of their curved surface areas. 7.25 # 5.25 The thickness of a hemispherical bowl is 0. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder is 1540 cm2.26 .Solution Given that the total surface area of the solid hemisphere.( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r. 3.` The radii of two right circular cylinders are in the ratio of 3 : 2 and their heights are in the ratio 5 : 3. If the height is four times the radius of the base. Find its curved surface area and total surface area. find the height and curved surface area of the cylinder.25 cm 0.cm. If its diameter of the base is 14 cm.cm. Find the outer curved surface area of the bowl.25 cm R = r + w = 5 + 0. Find its height and diameter.5 m. the outer surface area of the bowl = 173.

find the cost of painting it at the rate of `5 per sq.2 cm and 2. If the circumference of the base of a solid right circular cone is 236 cm and its slant height is 12 cm. 9.cm.6 m.3 Volume So far we have seen the problems related to the surface area of some solids. 11. then find its height and slant height. 18. 12.2 m and height is 2. then find the radius of the cone. Radius and slant height of a solid right circular cone are in the ratio 3 :5. 15.8. 20. Now we shall learn how to calculate volumes of some familiar solids. 10. Volume is literally the ‘amount of space filled’. then find the area of the canvas needed. If the edges of the sector are joined together to make a hollow cone. For example. then find its total surface area. Find the ratio of their curved surface areas and the ratio of their total surface areas. Find the curved surface area and total surface area of a hollow hemisphere whose outer and inner radii are 4. then find its total surface area.cm. The inner curved surface area of a hemispherical dome of a building needs to be painted. The central angle and radius of a sector of a circular disc are 180c and 21 cm respectively.cm. if a body can be decomposed into finite set of unit cubes (cubes of unit sides).8 m. Find the total surface area. If the curved surface area of a solid hemisphere is 2772 sq. If the thickness of the pipe is 1cm. find its curved surface area. If the curved surface area of solid a sphere is 98. If the vertical angle and the radius of a right circular cone are 60c and 15 cm respectively. The radius and height of a right circular solid cone are 7 cm and 24 cm respectively. then the volume is equal to the number of these cubes. If the curved surface area is 60r sq. m. 14.56 cm2. A heap of paddy is in the form of a cone whose diameter is 4. 230 10th Std. 13. Radii of two solid hemispheres are in the ratio 3 : 5. Its internal diameter is 16 cm and height is 15 cm. The external diameter of a cylindrical shaped iron pipe is 25 cm and its length is 20 cm.. Mathematics . If the heap is to be covered exactly by a canvas to protect it from rain. 19. Find its curved surface area and total surface area. If the circumference of the base is 17. The outer curved surface area of a hollow cylinder is 540r sq. then find the radius of the sphere. 17. find the total surface area of the pipe. 8. 16. The volume of a solid is a numerical characteristic of the solid.1 cm respectively.

Volumes of some solids are illustrated below. Let h be its height.1 Volume of a right circular cylinder (i) Volume of a solid right circular cylinder The volume of a solid right circular cylinder is the product of the base area and height. Then. 8. the volume of the cylinder.The cube in the figure. That is. units. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.30 Mensuration 231 .28 h V = rr2 h cu. V = rh (R . 2 2 V = rr 2 h rr 2 Fig. has a volume = length # width # height = 1 cm # 1 cm # 1 cm = 1 cm 3. (ii) Volume of a hollow cylinder Let R and r be the external and internal radii of a hollow right circular cylinder respectively. 1cm2 1cm Fig. V = Area of the base # height = rr 2 # h Thus.cm. find the volume of the cylinder in litres. the volume of a hollow cylinder. Given that h = 8 cm and CSA = 704 sq. the volume of a cylinder. 8.12 If the curved surface area of a right circular cylinder is 704 sq. 8. 8.cm. V = Volume of the Volume of the 3-) outer cylinder inner cylinder = rR 2 h .cm Now. volume is a positive quantity and is invariant with respect to displacement. CSA = 704 2 rrh = 704 ( 2 # 22 # r # 8 = 704 7 r = 704 # 7 = 14 cm ` 2 # 22 # 8 8cm 704cm2 r Fig.r ) cu. the volume. 8. then it implies that we need 100 cubes each of 1 cm3 volume to fill this object completely.3.27 1cm 1cm Just like surface area.rr 2 h Hence. r R Fig. If we say that the volume of an object is 100 cu. units.29 Example 8. and height is 8 cm.

86 sq. 13. cm of metal = 7 # 616 gm Example 8.r) 28cm 8cm Fig. Given that the base area.928 litres. and 69.14 Base area and volume of a solid right circular cylinder are 13. Weight of 1 cu.3 cu. Now.3 = 5 cm. V = rr h = 69.1 cm.3 cu.13 (1000 cu.cm.32 ` = 22 # 28 # (4 + 3) (4 . the volume of the cylinder = 4.86 # h = 69. Find the volume of the pipe and weight of the pipe if 1 cu. V = 616 cu.cm and 2 volume. A = rr = 13.( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let A and V be the base area and volume of the solid right circular cylinder respectively. cm = 7 gm = 4.Thus.3 h = 69.86 sq.cm.cm of iron weighs 7 gm. ( ` rr h = 69.3 2 13.cm respectively. 2 Thus. Find its height and curved surface area. 8.41 = 2.cm of the metal Thus.3 cm3 A =13.( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r. the volume of the cylinder. the base area = rr = 13.86 # 7 = 4. V = rr2 h = 22 # 14 # 14 # 8 7 = 4928 cu.41 22 232 10th Std. R and h be the inner.86 2 Now.3) 7 Volume. Mathematics ( r = 4. 2R = 8 cm .cm = l litre) A hollow cylindrical iron pipe is of length 28 cm.cm. the weight of the pipe Weight of the 616 cu. h = 28 cm V = r # h # (R + r) (R . 8.312 kg.31 V = 69. Example 8. Its outer and inner diameters are 8 cm and 6 cm respectively. . outer radii and height of the hollow cylindrical pipe respectively.86 7 2 r = 13.86 cm2 Fig. Hence.86 22 # r2 = 13. 6cm Given that 2r = 6 cm. the volume of the pipe.

Now. 2 The volume V of the cone is given by the formula: V = 1 # rr h cu. the base radius of the cone.33 From this simple activity. Continuing this experiment.2 Volume of a right circular cone Let r and h be the base radius and the height of a right circular cone respectively. If its height is 24 cm. units. Curved surface area. Activity Make a hollow cone and a hollow cylinder like in the figure given below with the same height and same radius. Given that Thus. height and volume of a solid cone respectively. we have ( V = 4928 cu. cm. ( 22 # 24 24cm r Fig. then find the radius of the cone. Mensuration 233 . the volume of the cone = 1 # rr h cu. Fill the cone with sand or liquid and then pour it into the cylinder. we see that the cylinder will be filled completely by sand / liquid at the third time.3.15 The volume of a solid right circular cone is 4928 cu. 3 To justify this formula. then we find that 3 # (Volume of the cone) = Volume of the cylinder = rr h 2 Thus.Now. units. practically we can find out the volume of the cone by doing the process given below. if r and h are the radius and height of the cylinder.cm. Fig. r = 196 = 14 cm. 8. CSA = 66 sq. CSA = 2rrh = 2 # 22 # 2.34 Thus. h and V be the radius.1 # 5 7 Thus. 3 2 Example 8. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r.cm and h = 24 cm 1 rr2 h = 4928 3 4928cm3 h l 1 # 22 # r2 # 24 = 4928 3 7 2 r = 4928 # 3 # 7 = 196. 8. let us perform the following activity. 8.

Volume of the Volume of the the volume of the 3-) 1. Let us find the volume of a frustum of a cone. The volume of a frustum of a cone is nothing but the difference between volumes of two right circular cones.3 Volume of a Frustum of a Cone Let us consider a right circular solid cone and cut it into two solids so as to obtain a smaller right circular cone. Let r and x be the radius and the height of the smaller cone obtained after removal of the frustum from the given cone. 3 (1) From the Fig.8. V = 1 r 6 x^ R . Remove the smaller cone. one at the bottom and the other at the top of it. Let R be the radius of the given cone. Mathematics . 8.36 we see that DBFE + DDGE ` BF = FE DG GE ( R = x+h r x 234 10th Std. What are you left with? The left out portion of the solid cone is called frustum of the cone. This is illustrated in the following activity. if a solid right circular cone is sliced with a plane parallel to its base . Let h be the height of the frustum. Now.1 # r # r # x 3 3 2 2 2 Thus. 8. Activity Take some clay and form a right circular cone. Thus a frustum has two circular discs. the part of the cone containing the base is called a frustum of the cone.35) Consider a frustum of a solid right circular cone. The other portion of the cone is called frustum of the cone.3. V = given cone smaller coney frustum of the cone 2 2 = 1 # r # R # (x + h) . 8. r h Fig. (See Fig. Cut it with a knife parallel to its base.r h + R h @ . The Latin word frustum means “piece cut off” and its plural is frusta.35 R Hence.

r ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 * Total surface area of a frustum of a the cone = rl (R + r) + rR + rr . units. 8.37 Thus.3.rx = rh x (R .36 Note * Curved surface area of a frustum of a cone = r (R + r) l where l = 2 2 h + (R . 3 Mensuration 235 . r = 8 cm and h = 63 cm. V = 1 rh (R2 + r2 + Rr) cu. 8. 3 E Fig. 15cm Given that R = 15 cm .units. The volume of the bucket (frustum) 2 2 = 1 rh (R + r + Rr) 3 2 2 = 1 # 22 # 63 # (15 + 8 + 15 # 8) 3 7 63cm = 26994 cu.( ( Rx . ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let R and r are the radii of the circular ends at the top and bottom and h be the depth of the bucket respectively.16 The radii of two circular ends of a frustum shaped bucket are 15 cm and 8 cm. 8.cm. we get 2 2 2 Now. l = * ( Not for the examination) Example 8.r ) h + (R .r) = rh x= rh R-r (2) R A F B Thus.994 litres.4 Volume of a sphere (i) Volume of a Solid Sphere The following simple experiment justifies the formula for volume of a sphere. 3 V = 4 rr cu. the volume of the frustum of the cone. If its depth is 63 cm. (1) ( V = 1 r 6 x^ R . = 26994 litres 1000 (1000 cu. the capacity of the bucket = 26. find the capacity of the bucket in litres.r h + R h @ 3 2 ( = 1 r 6 x^ R .r h^ R + r h + R h @ 3 2 ( = 1 r 6 rh^ R + r h + R h @ using (2) 3 h r h+x C D G x Hence.cm = 1 litre) 8cm Fig.

r ) cu. Immerse a solid sphere of radius r. Now.39 (iii) Volume of a solid hemisphere Volume of the solid hemisphere = 1 # volume of the sphere 2 3 = 1 # 4 rr 2 3 3 = 2 rr cu.Activity Take a cylindrical shaped container of radius R and height h.2 # r # r3 3 3 = 2 r^ R3 . ` 3 Fig. 3 h r r R Fig.41 236 10th Std. 8. then Volume of the Volume of the Volume of the 3= 3-) hollow sphere outer sphere inner sphere 4 rR 3 . 3 2 rr 3 3 Fig. 8. 8.40 (iv) Volume of a hollow hemisphere Volume of a hollow Volume of outer Volume of inner 3 = 3-) hemisphere hemisphere hemisphere = 2 # r # R3 . units.r3h cu.units. Thus.units . Mathematics . the volume of the sphere.4 rr 3 R = 3 3 r 3 3 Volume of hollow sphere = 4 r (R . the volume of the solid sphere is same as that of the displaced water.units. Fill the container with water. where R 2 r.38 R 4 rr 3 3 displaced water (ii) Volume of a hollow sphere If the inner and outer radius of a hollow sphere are r and R respectively. 3 V = 4 rr cu. 3 r R Fig. in the container and measure the quantity of the displaced water. 8.

cm 7 4 rr3 = 50688 ( 7 3 3 ( 4 # 22 # r = 50688 7 3 7 r 7241 1 7 cm3 Fig. a hemisphere and cylinder have equal bases.464 cu. hemisphere and cylinder respectively. If the heights of the cone and a cylinder are equal and are same as the common radius. 2 3 2 Now.2 cm 3 Volume of the shot-put. V1 : V2 : V3 = 1 rr h : 2 rr : rr h 3 3 3 3 3 = 1 rr : 2 rr : rr ( 3 3 1 : 2 :1 ( V1 : V2 : V3 = 3 3 Hence. 2r = 8. r = h ) Example 8. the required ratio is 1 : 2 : 3. Given that r = h Let V1. 8.42 Thus. Now. 8. the volume of the shot-put = 310. Solution Let r be the common radius of the cone. 8.43 r ( here.4 cm ( r = 4.cm.44 Mensuration 237 . then find the ratio of their respective volumes. then find its radius. r h h r Fig. V = 4 rr 3 = 4 # 22 # 42 # 42 # 42 3 7 10 10 10 8. Example 8.17 Find the volume of a sphere-shaped metallic shot-put having diameter of 8. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r be radius of the metallic shot-put.18 A cone.4cm Fig. 7 ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let r and V be the radius and volume of the solid sphere respectively. Let h be the common height of the cone and cylinder. Given that V = 7241 1 cu.Example 8.cm.4 cm.19 If the volume of a solid sphere is 7241 1 cu. hemisphere and cylinder. V2 and V3 be the volumes of the cone.

r3) = 11352 7 3 7 r R 8cm 512 . 8. given that ( ( 3 V = 11352 cm 7 4 r (R3 . 5. Example 8. Exercise 8. then find the quantity of soup to be prepared daily in the hospital to serve 250 patients? The sum of the base radius and the height of a solid right circular solid cylinder is 37 cm. 7.2 1. A rectangular sheet of metal foil with dimension 66 cm # 12 cm is rolled to form a cylinder of height 12 cm. find the radius of the cylinder.45 Hence.5 cm. then find the volume of the cylinder. Find the ratio of their volumes if their heights are in the ratio 5 : 3. If its volume is 4400 cu. Now.cm. 2.cm. The pencil is 28 cm long and its radius is 3 mm. 6. 3. Mathematics . the inner radius. If the bowl is filled with soup to a height of 4 cm. Volume of a solid cylinder is 62.r = 387 ( r = 125 = 5 3 3 3 Fig. 4. The radius and height of a cylinder are in the ratio 5 : 7. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let R and r be the outer and inner radii of the hollow sphere respectively.37 cu. 8. The radii of two right circular cylinders are in the ratio 2 : 3. the radius of the sphere.cm. Let V be the volume of the hollow sphere.r3) = 11352 7 3 4 # 22 (83 . Find the radius if its height is 4. r = 12 cm.3 r = 50688 # 3 # 7 7 4 # 22 = 1728 = 43 # 33 Thus. If the lead is of radius 1 mm. then find the volume of the wood used in the pencil.20 3 Volume of a hollow sphere is 11352 cm . find the inner 7 radius of the sphere. A patient in a hospital is given soup daily in a cylindrical bowl of diameter 7 cm. If the total surface area of the cylinder is 1628 sq. 238 10th Std. Find the volume of a solid cylinder whose radius is 14 cm and height 30 cm. r = 5 cm. If the outer radius is 8 cm. A lead pencil is in the shape of right circular cylinder. Find the volume of the cylinder.

11. then find the height of the cone. 19. then find the radius at the other end. If the depth is 14 cm.cm.4r cm. Find its volume. 16. The circumference of the base of a 12 m high wooden solid cone is 44 m.14) The volume of a cone with circular base is 216r cu. Find the volume. 15.46 Mensuration 239 . 17. 8. Find its volume. 3 given that the density of steel is 7. 14. 3 The perimeter of the ends of a frustum of a cone are 44 cm and 8. vehicles. 12.7 cm. tools. 12 cm and 13 cm is revolved about the fixed side of 12 cm. then find its volume. A right angled 3ABC with sides 5 cm.. If the base radius is 9 cm. ( Take r = 3. 10. Find its curved surface area.cm.95 g/cm .9. A vessel is in the form of a frustum of a cone. Find the slant height if its volume is 100. etc. 18. If its volume is 5676 cm . Find the volume of the solid generated.4 Combination of Solids In our daily life we observe many objects like toys.cm. Find the volume of the largest right circular cone that can be cut out of a cube whose edge is 14 cm. 13. which are combination of two or more solids. 8. vessels. Find the ratio of volumes of the balloon in the two cases. each of which has radius 0. Radius and slant height of a cone are 20 cm and 29 cm respectively. The volume of a solid hemisphere is 1152r cu. How can we find the surface areas and volumes of combination of solids? Fig. 20. The radius of a spherical balloon increases from 7 cm to 14 cm as air is being pumped into it. (Mass = Volume # Density) The outer and the inner radii of a hollow sphere are 12 cm and 10 cm.48 cu. Find the mass of 200 steel spherical ball bearings. The radius and height of a right circular cone are in the ratio 2 :3. Its radius at one end and the height are 8 cm 3 and 14 cm respectively.

5 cu.3. The total surface area of the solid = Curved surface area 3 + )Curved surface area of the hemisphere of the cone y The total volume of the solid = volume of the hemisphere + volume of the cone.8 = 3.5. h = 8 cm. 8.5 cm Total surface area of the cup = Thus.5cm 8cm Fig.5cm Fig. Example 8.47 Example 8. The height of the cylindrical portion is 8 cm and the total height of the cup is 11.5 cm. 3.cm. then find the volume of wood used in the toy. However.5 + 14h = 269. If the radii of the hemisphere and the base of the cone are 3.5 # 3.cm. h = 17. Thus. Mathematics . 8.5 cm 17.5 cm = 7 cm 2 11. in the above figure. r = 3.5cm Height. ) CSA of the hemispherical portion + CSA of the cylindrical portion 2 = 2rr + 2rrh = 2rr (r + h) = 2 # 22 # 7 ` 7 + 8j 7 2 2 ` Total surface area of the cup = 253 sq. the volume of the wood used in the toy = 269.5 cm each and the total height of the toy is 17. r = Total height – 8 Height.5 . 240 10th Std.21 A solid wooden toy is in the form of a cone surmounted on a hemisphere.5 # ^2 # 3.5 cm Radius. Find the total surface area of the cup.5 = 14 cm Volume of the wood = Volume of the hemisphere + Volume of the cone 3 2 = 2 rr + 1 rr h 3 3 2 = rr ^2r + hh 3 = 22 # 3. the total surface area of the combined solid is equal to the sum of the curved surface area of the hemisphere and curved surface area of the cone. But the volume of the combined solid is equal to the sum of the volumes of the solids which are combined together. from the figure we have. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Hemispherical portion Cylindrical portion ( r = 11.5 cm.48 Radius.22 A cup is in the form of a hemisphere surmounted by a cylinder.5 7 3 Hence.The total surface area of the combination of solids need not be the sum of the surface areas of the solids which are combined together.radius r =3. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Hemispherical portion : Conical portion : Radius. r = 3.

Example 8.23 A circus tent is to be erected in the form of a cone surmounted on a cylinder. The total height of the tent is 49 m. Diameter of the base is 42 m and height of the cylinder is 21 m. Find the cost of canvas needed to make the tent, if the cost of canvas 2 is `12.50/ m . ( Take r = 22 ) 7 l Solution h1 Cylindrical Part Conical Part r Diameter, 2r = 42 m Radius, r = 21 m

49m

Radius, Height,

r = 21 m h = 21 m

**Height, h1 = 49 - 21 = 28 m Slant height, l = = =7 h1 + r
**

2 2 2 2 2

28 + 21

2

42m

4 + 3 = 35 m

Fig. 8.49

Total area of the canvas needed = CSA of the cylindrical part + CSA of the conical part = 2rrh + rrl = rr (2h + l) = 22 # 21^2 # 21 + 35h = 5082 7 2 Area of the canvas = 5082 m ` Now, the cost of the canvas per sq.m = `12.50 Thus, the total cost of the canvas = 5082 # 12.5 = `63525 Example 8.24 A hollow sphere of external and internal diameters of 8 cm and 4 cm respectively is melted and made into another solid in the shape of a right circular cone of base diameter of 8 cm. Find the height of the cone . Solution Let R and r be the external and internal radii of the hollow sphere. Let h and r1 be the height and the radius of the cone to be made. Hollow Sphere External 2R = 8 cm ( R = 4 cm Internal 2r = 4 cm ( r = 2 cm Cone 2r1 = 8 ( r1 = 4

h 2cm 4cm

When the hollow sphere is melted and made into a solid cone, we have Volume of the cone = Volume of the hollow sphere ( 1 rr 2 h = 4 r 6 R 3 - r 3 @ 3 1 3

8cm Fig. 8.50

Mensuration 241

21m

1 # r # 42 # h = 4 # r # ^43 - 23h 3 3 64 - 8 = 14 h = ( 4 Hence, the height of the cone h = 14 cm. ( Example 8.25 Spherical shaped marbles of diameter 1.4 cm each, are dropped into a cylindrical beaker of diameter 7 cm containing some water. Find the number of marbles that should be dropped into the beaker so that the water level rises by 5.6 cm. Solution Let n be the number of marbles needed. Let r1 and r2 be the radii of the marbles and cylindrical beaker respectively. Marbles Diameter, 2r1 = 1.4 cm Radius r1 = 0.7 cm Cylindrical Beaker Diameter,2r2 = 7 cm Radius,

5.6cm 1.4cm Fig. 8.51

r2 = 7 cm 2 Let h be the height of the water level raised. Then, h = 5.6 cm

7cm After the marbles are dropped into the beaker, volume of water raised = Volume of n marbles 2 3 ( rr2 h = n # 4 rr1 3 2 3r2 h Thus, n= 3 4r1 3 # 7 # 7 # 5.6 2 2 n= = 150. 7 # 7 # 7 4# 10 10 10 ` The number of marbles needed is 150.

Example 8.26 Water is flowing at the rate of 15 km / hr through a cylindrical pipe of diameter 14 cm into a rectangular tank which is 50 m long and 44 m wide. In how many hours will the water level in the tank raise by 21 cm?. ( Take r = 22 ) Speed 15 km/hr 7 14 cm Solution Speed of water = 15 km / hr = 15000 m / hr Diameter of the pipe, 2r = 14 cm Thus, r = 7 m. 21cm 100 m 44 Let h be the water level to be raised. 50 m Fig. 8.52 Thus, h = 21 cm = 21 m 100

242 10th Std. Mathematics

Now, the volume of water discharged = Cross section area of the pipe # Time # Speed = rr2 # 1 # 15000 = 22 # 7 # 7 # 15000 cu.m 7 100 100 Volume of required quantity of water in the tank is, lbh = 50 # 44 # 21 100 Assume that T hours are needed to get the required quantity of water. ` Volume of water discharged = Required quantity of water in the tank 1 in T hours ( 22 # 7 2 # T # 15000 = 50 # 44 # 21 7 ` 100 j 100 Thus, T = 2 hours.

Hence, it will take 2 hours to raise the required water level.

Example 8.27 A cuboid shaped slab of iron whose dimensions are 55 cm # 40 cm # 15 cm is melted and recast into a pipe. The outer diameter and thickness of the pipe are 8 cm and 1 cm respectively. Find the length of the pipe. ( Take r = 22 ) 7 Solution Let h1 be the length of the pipe. Let R and r be the outer and inner radii of the pipe respectively. Iron slab: Let lbh = 55# 40# 15. Iron Pipe: Outer diameter, ` Outer radius, Thickness, ` Now,

1cm 8cm

2R = 8 cm R = 4 cm w = 1 cm

40cm

15cm 55cm Fig. 8.53

Inner radius, r = R - w = 4 - 1 = 3 cm the volume of the iron pipe = Volume of iron slab ( rh1 (R + r) (R - r) = lbh

That is,

22 # h (4 + 3)(4 - 3) = 55 # 40 # 15 1 7 h1 = 1500 cm = 15 m.

Mensuration 243

Thus, the length of the pipe,

Exercise 8.3 1. 2. 3. A play-top is in the form of a hemisphere surmounted on a cone. The diameter of the hemisphere is 3.6 cm. The total height of the play-top is 4.2 cm. Find its total surface area. A solid is in the shape of a cylinder surmounted on a hemisphere. If the diameter and the total height of the solid are 21 cm, 25.5 cm respectively, then find its volume. A capsule is in the shape of a cylinder with two hemispheres stuck to each of its ends. If the length of the entire capsule is 14 mm and the diameter of the capsule is 5 mm, find its surface area. A tent is in the shape of a right circular cylinder surmounted by a cone. The total height and the diameter of the base are 13.5 m and 28 m. If the height of the cylindrical portion is 3 m, find the total surface area of the tent. Using clay, a student made a right circular cone of height 48 cm and base radius 12 cm. Another student reshapes it in the form of a sphere. Find the radius of the sphere. The radius of a solid sphere is 24 cm. It is melted and drawn into a long wire of uniform cross section. Find the length of the wire if its radius is 1.2 mm. A right circular conical vessel whose internal radius is 5 cm and height is 24 cm is full of water. The water is emptied into an empty cylindrical vessel with internal radius 10 cm. Find the height of the water level in the cylindrical vessel. A solid sphere of diameter 6 cm is dropped into a right circular cylindrical vessel with diameter 12 cm, which is partly filled with water. If the sphere is completely submerged in water, how much does the water level in the cylindrical vessel increase?. Through a cylindrical pipe of internal radius 7 cm, water flows out at the rate of 5 cm/sec. Calculate the volume of water (in litres) discharged through the pipe in half an hour. Water in a cylindrical tank of diameter 4 m and height 10 m is released through a cylindrical pipe of diameter 10 cm at the rate of 2.5 Km/hr. How much time will it take to empty the half of the tank? Assume that the tank is full of water to begin with. A spherical solid material of radius 18 cm is melted and recast into three small solid spherical spheres of different sizes. If the radii of two spheres are 2cm and 12 cm, find the radius of the third sphere. A hollow cylindrical pipe is of length 40 cm. Its internal and external radii are 4 cm and 12 cm respectively. It is melted and cast into a solid cylinder of length 20 cm. Find the radius of the new solid. An iron right circular cone of diameter 8 cm and height 12 cm is melted and recast into spherical lead shots each of radius 4 mm. How many lead shots can be made?.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

9. 10.

11.

12.

13.

244 10th Std. Mathematics

14.

A right circular cylinder having diameter 12 cm and height 15 cm is full of ice cream. The ice cream is to be filled in cones of height 12 cm and diameter 6 cm, having a hemispherical shape on top. Find the number of such cones which can be filled with the ice cream available. A container with a rectangular base of length 4.4 m and breadth 2 m is used to collect rain water. The height of the water level in the container is 4 cm and the water is transferred into a cylindrical vessel with radius 40 cm. What will be the height of the water level in the cylinder? A cylindrical bucket of height 32 cm and radius 18 cm is filled with sand. The bucket is emptied on the ground and a conical heap of sand is formed. If the height of the conical heap is 24 cm, find the radius and slant height of the heap. A cylindrical shaped well of depth 20 m and diameter 14 m is dug. The dug out soil is evenly spread to form a cuboid-platform with base dimension 20 m # 14 m. Find the height of the platform. Exercise 8.4

15.

16.

17.

Choose the correct answer 1. The curved surface area of a right circular cylinder of radius 1 cm and height 1 cm is equal to (A) r cm2 (B) 2r cm2 (C) 3r cm3 (D) 2 cm2 2. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder whose radius is half of its height h is equal to 2 (A) 3 r h sq. units (B) 2 rh2 sq. units (C) 3 rh sq.units (D) 2 r h sq.units 2 3 3 2 Base area of a right circular cylinder is 80 cm2 . If its height is 5 cm, then the volume is equal to (A) 400 cm3 (B) 16 cm3 (C) 200 cm3 (D) 400 cm3 3 2 If the total surface area a solid right circular cylinder is 200 r cm and its radius is 5 cm, then the sum of its height and radius is (A) 20 cm 5. (B) 25 cm (C) 30 cm (D) 15 cm The curved surface area of a right circular cylinder whose radius is a units and height is b units, is equal to (A) ra2 b sq.cm (C) 2r sq.cm (D) 2 sq.cm (B)2r ab sq.cm Radius and height of a right circular cone and that of a right circular cylinder are respectively, equal. If the volume of the cylinder is 120 cm3, then the volume of the cone is equal to (A) 1200 cm3 B) 360 cm3 (C) 40 cm3 (D) 90 cm3

Mensuration 245

3.

4.

6.

7.

If the diameter and height of a right circular cone are 12 cm and 8 cm respectively, then the slant height is (A) 10 cm (B) 20 cm (C) 30 cm (D) 96 cm If the circumference at the base of a right circular cone and the slant height are 120r cm and 10 cm respectively, then the curved surface area of the cone is equal to (A) 1200r cm2 (B) 600r cm2 (C) 300r cm2 (D) 600 cm2

8.

9.

If the volume and the base area of a right circular cone are 48r cm3 and 12r cm2 respectively, then the height of the cone is equal to (A) 6 cm (B) 8 cm (C) 10 cm (D) 12 cm

10.

If the height and the base area of a right circular cone are 5 cm and 48 sq. cm respectively, then the volume of the cone is equal to (A) 240 cm3 (B) 120 cm3 (C) 80 cm3 (D) 480 cm3

11.

The ratios of the respective heights and the respective radii of two cylinders are 1:2 and 2:1 respectively. Then their respective volumes are in the ratio (A) 4 : 1 (B) 1 : 4 (C) 2 : 1 (D) 1 : 2

12.

If the radius of a sphere is 2 cm , then the curved surface area of the sphere is equal to (A) 8r cm2 (B) 16 cm2 (C) 12r cm2 (D) 16r cm2 .

13.

The total surface area of a solid hemisphere of diameter 2 cm is equal to (A) 12 cm2 (B) 12r cm2 (C) 4r cm2 (D) 3r cm2. If the volume of a sphere is 9 r cu.cm , then its radius is 16 4 cm 3 cm (B) (C) 3 cm (D) 2 cm. (A) 3 4 2 3 The surface areas of two spheres are in the ratio of 9 : 25. Then their volumes are in the ratio (A) 81 : 625 (B) 729 : 15625 (B) 3r a2 sq.units (B) 100 cm (B) 36r cm3 (C) 27 : 75 (C) 3r a sq.units (C) 5 cm (C) 72r cm3 (D) 27 : 125. (D) 3a2 sq.units. (D) 10 cm . (D) 108r cm3. The total surface area of a solid hemisphere whose radius is a units, is equal to (A) 2r a2 sq.units If the surface area of a sphere is 100r cm2, then its radius is equal to (A) 25 cm If the surface area of a sphere is 36r cm2, then the volume of the sphere is equal to (A) 12r cm3

14.

15.

16. 17. 18.

246 10th Std. Mathematics

then their respective volumes are in the ratio (A) 1 : 8 (B) 2: 1 (C) 1 : 2 (D) 8 : 1 Curved surface area of solid sphere is 24 cm2. and included two large islands which were connected to each other and the mainland by seven bridges. 21. If the total surface area of a solid hemisphere is 12r cm2 then its curved surface area is equal to (A) 6r cm2 (B) 24r cm2 (C) 36r cm2 (D) 8r cm2. The islands could not be reached by any route other than the bridges. The city of Königsberg in Prussia (now Kaliningrad. 22. Two right circular cones have equal radii. If the radius of a sphere is half of the radius of another sphere. If the sphere is divided into two hemispheres. then their respective curved surface areas are in the ratio (A) 16 : 9 (B) 8 : 6 (C) 4 : 3 (D) 3 : 4 Do you know? The Seven Bridges of Königsberg is a notable historical problem in mathematics.19. . and every bridge must have been crossed completely every time (one could not walk half way onto the bridge and then turn around and later cross the other half from the other side). Russia) was set on both sides of the Pregel River. Leonhard Euler in 1735 proved that the problem has no solution.(See Figure) The problem was to find a route through the city that would cross each bridge once and only once. then the total surface area of one of the hemispheres is (A) 12 cm2 (B) 8 cm2 (C) 16 cm2 (D) 18 cm2 20. If their slant heights are in the ratio 4 : 3. Its negative resolution by Euler laid the foundations of graph theory and presaged the idea of topology. Mensuration 247 .

Mathematics .r 3h 3 r 7 Solid Hemisphere 2 rr 2 3rr2 2 rr 3 3 r R 8 9 Hollow Hemisphere A sector of a circle converted into a Cone 2 2 2r ^ R + r h 2 2 2 2 2r ^ R + r h + r ^ R . Volume of water flows out through a pipe = {Cross section area # Speed # Time } 11. No Name Figure Lateral or Curved Surface Area (sq.r 2 h rh^ R + r h^ R .rr 2 h rh ^ R 2 .r3 h 3 l h r CSA of a cone = Area of the sector 2 rrl = i # rr 360 Length of the = Base circumference sector of the cone 12 Conversions l = h2 + r2 h = l2 . 248 10th Std. of new solids obtained by recasting r L = Volume of the solid which is melted volume of one solid which is made 1000 cm3 = 1 litre . No.r h 3 h r r l rrl rr^l + r h 1 rr 2 h 3 4 Frustum h ------- -------------- 1 rh^ R2 + r2 + Rr h 3 R 5 Sphere r 4rr2 --- 4 rr 3 3 6 Hollow sphere R r --- --- 4 r^ R 3 .r2 r = l2 .m3 = 1 litre .units) Total Surface Area (sq. 1000 litres = 1 kl 1 m3 = 1000 litres .h2 R l h 10.units) 1 Solid right circular cylinder Right circular hollow cylinder Solid right circular cone h r r h 2rrh 2rr^h + r h rr 2 h 2 2rh^ R + r h 2r^ R + r h^ R .units) Volume (cu.r h 2 r ^ R3 . 1 d.r + hh R rR 2 h .Points to Remember Sl.

p) (t .r) (t . etc. In this chapter. astronomy and various other crafts. His most famous result in geometry is a formula for cyclic quadrilateral : Given the lengths p. geometry helps in understanding many mathematical ideas in other parts of mathematics. construction. angles.s) where 2t = p+q+r+s . segment. In class IX. (t . sector. r and s of the sides of any cyclic quadrilateral. triangles and cyclic quadrilaterals with the help of given actual measurements. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths. Let us recall some of the terms like secant. Note that the points of contact of the secants are coming closer and closer on C Brahmagupta (598-668 AD) India (Great Scientist of Ancient India) Brahmagupta wrote the book “Brahmasphuta Siddhanta”.. we shall learn how to draw tangents to circles. Approximate area is c P A M L D B Q Exact area is p+r q+s mc m 2 2 . was used for the measurement of land. q.1 Introduction Geometry originated in Egypt as early as 3000 B. Practical Geometry 249 . In fact. we have studied about various terms related to circle such as chord. and volumes which were developed to meet some practical needs in surveying. Now draw as many secants as possible parallel to PQ on both sides of PQ. tangent to a circle through the following activities.9 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY Give me a place to stand. and I shall move the earth -Archimedes Introduction Tangents Triangles Cyclic Quadrilaterals 9. Draw a secant PQ to the circle. Activity Take a paper and draw a circle of any radius. Recently there have been several new efforts to reform curricula to make geometry less worthy than its counterparts such as algebra. analysis.q) (t . etc. areas. But many mathematicians strongly disagree with this reform.C. he gave an approximate and an exact formula for the area.

1 Draw a circle of radius 3. say at L and M respectively. Example 9. We observe that AB is parallel to CD. l3. just touch the circle exactly at one point on the circle.2 cm. The straight lines which are passing through P. Let AP be a tangent at A drawn from an external point P to a circle In a right angled DOPA . Activity Let us draw a circle and take a point P on the circle. We know that in a circle.2. l4 and l5 meet the circle at A. Mathematics . 9. You can also note that at one stage. Now the line l1 is called the tangent to the circle at P.2 Construction of tangents to a circle Now let us learn how to draw a tangent to a circle (i) using centre (ii) using tangent-chord theorem . the radius drawn at the point of contact is perpendicular to the tangent at that point. So these lines l2. Draw many lines through the point P as shown in the figure. C and D respectively. CD are called tangents to the circle at L. l4. l5 are the secants to the circle. B 9.1 Construction of a tangent to a circle (using the centre) Result In a circle. have two contact points on the circle. l3. M respectively.OA . the radius drawn at the point of contact is perpendicular to the tangent at that point. These lines AB. Take a point P on this circle and draw a tangent at P. (using the centre) 250 10th Std. Among the secants parallel to PQ. B. the two points will coincide on both sides. But the line l1 touches the circle exactly at one point P. OA = AP OP = OA + AP AP = 2 2 2 2 2 l3 l4 l5 B C A D P l2 l1 A [By Pythagoras theorem] O P OP .either side. The straight lines l2. the straight lines AB and CD.

PT is the tangent to the circle at the point P. Remarks One can draw the perpendicular line PT to the straight line OP through the point P on the circle. !! (vi) Produce TP to T l to get the required tangent T l PT. 9. Fair Diagram Rough Diagram T O 3.2cm P T Tl M N L O 3.2 Construction of a tangent to a circle using the tangent-chord theorem Result The tangent-chord theorem The angle between a chord of a circle and the tangent at one end of the chord is equal to the angle subtended by the chord on the alternate segment of the circle. Take a point P on the circle and join OP.Given: Radius of the circle = 3. (v) Draw the bisector PT of the angle + MPN. (iv) Mark M and N on the arc such that LM = MN .2.2cm P Tl Construction (i) (ii) With O as the centre draw a circle of radius 3.2 cm.2 cm. (iii) Draw an arc of a circle with centre at P cutting OP at L.. Practical Geometry 251 . Now.

(vi) At P.2 Draw a circle of radius 3. 9. draw a tangent to the circle using the tangent-chord theorem. (v) Join PR and QR. (iii) Through P. Q and R are in counter clockwise direction. Given : The radius of the circle = 3. (iv) Mark a point R distinct from P and Q on the circle so that P. (ii) Diameters subtend 90c on the circumference of a circle. (vii) Produce TP to T l to get the required tangent line T l PT.2. construct +QPT = +PRQ . draw a circle of radius 3. draw any chord PQ.2 cm. Rough Diagram Fair Diagram R Q R Q Tl O P T O Tl P T Construction (i) (ii) With O as the centre. Mathematics .2 cm At a point P on it.2 cm. 252 10th Std.3 Construction of pair of tangents to a circle from an external point Results (i) Two tangents can be drawn to a circle from an external point. Take a point P on the circle.Example 9.

(v) Let the two circles intersect at T and T l . They are the required tangents.3 Draw a circle of radius 3 cm. PT = 6. construct the pair of tangents to the circle and measure their lengths. From an external point 7 cm away from its centre. Given: Radius of the circle = 3 cm. Rough Diagram T Fair Diagram 3 cm O 7 cm P T Tl 3 cm cm O M G 7 cm P cm Tl Construction (i) (ii) With O as the centre draw a circle of radius 3 cm.Example 9.3 cm (approximately). Length of the tangent. Practical Geometry 253 . draw another circle. OP = 7 cm. Let it meet OP at M.OT = 49 .9 = 40 2 2 7 -3 2 2 ` PT = 6. (iv) With M as centre and MO as radius. (vi) Join PT and PT l . Mark a point P at a distance of 7 cm from O and join OP.3 cm Verification In the right angled TOPT PT = = OP . (iii) Draw the perpendicular bisector of OP.

Construction of a segment of a circle on a given line segment containing an angle i Construction (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Draw a line segment BC . Draw a circle of radius 4. 2. vertical angle and the altitude from the vertex to the base are given. Draw the tangent at that point using the tangent-chord theorem. Draw a circle of diameter 10 cm. and measure their lengths.3 Construction of triangles We have already learnt how to construct triangles when sides and angles are given. In this section.2 cm. First. Take a point on the circle. 5. let us construct a triangle when (i) (ii) the base. draw the two tangents PA and PB to the circle. 13 cm away from its centre. the major arc BAC is the required segment of the circle containing the angle i .Exercise 9. vertical angle and the median from the vertex to the base are given. 3. Mathematics . By the tangent-chord theorem. Draw the two tangents from a point which is 10 cm away from the centre of a circle of radius 6 cm. From a point P. Draw BY = BX . Also. With O as centre and OB as radius draw a circle. Draw a circle of radius 4.1 1. Draw the tangent at that point using the centre. Take a point which is 9 cm away from a circle of radius 3 cm. Draw the perpendicular bisector of BC which meets BY at O. let us describe the way of constructing a segment of a circle on a given line segment containing a given angle. At B. the base.8 cm. and draw the two tangents to the circle from that point. 9. make +CBX = i . measure the lengths of the tangents. 4. and take any point on the circle. 90–i B i i Y A O P C X 254 10th Std. Take any point A on the circle.

then all the triangle DABC1 . with the given base and the vertical angle. one can justify that 3 ABC is one of the triangles. With O as centre OA as radius. X AX is the tangent to the circle at A and C is any point on the circle. C3 . Remarks (tangent-chord theorem).. A i C2 Y i C3 i i C1 O i C B Now. (the radii of the circle). +XAY = 90c. make the given angle +BAX =i Draw AY = AX . Construction (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Draw a line segment AB. Also. +BAX = +ACB .Construction of a triangle when its base and the vertical angle are given. DABC2 . Thus. OB = OA. Note that AX = AY .. Draw the perpendicular bisector of AB which meets AY at O. draw a circle. . C2 . are points on the circle. Take any point C on the alternate segment of the circle and join AC and BC. Hence. 3 ABC is the required triangle. DABC3 . g are with same base and the same vertical angle. We shall describe the various steps involved in the construction of a triangle when its base and the vertical angle are given. At A. Practical Geometry 255 . If we take C1 .

Rough Diagram Given : In DABC . 256 10th Std.1 Construction of a triangle when its base. draw the circle . Complete the TABC .2 cm. +C = 40c and the altitude from C to AB is of length 4. which is one of the required triangles. Draw AY = AX .2cm 6 cm A 40c M G B Construction (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (ix) Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm. On the perpendicular bisector MO. the vertical angle and the altitude from the vertex to the base are given. +C = 40c C The length of the altitude from C to AB is 4. Example 9.2 cm. 3 ABC l is also another required triangle. Remarks X (viii) Draw CHC l parallel to AB meeting the circle at C and at C l . With O as centre and OA as radius. mark a point H such that MH = 4. Y 4.3.2 cm. The segment AKB contains the vertical angle 40c. Draw AX such that +BAX = 40c. Mathematics . Draw the perpendicular bisector of AB intersecting AY at O and AB at M.4 Construct a DABC such that AB = 6 cm.9. AB = 6 cm .2cm Fair Diagram K A 6 cm 6M cm B C 40c H O l C1 4.

Example 9.2 Construction of a triangle when its base.5 cm.5cm Fair Diagram 60c C 60c 4.5cm 3. Draw the perpendicular bisector of BC intersecting BY at O and BC at M. BC = 5.5 cm O B 60c M 5.. Given : In DABC .5cm 5. +A = 60c.3. the vertical angle and the median from the vertex to the base are given.9. Rough Diagram A K A Al Y B 4.5 cm. The major arc BKC of the circle. Practical Geometry 257 .5 Construct a DABC in which BC = 5. With M as centre.5 cm .2cm M 4.5cm D C X Construction (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Draw a line segment BC = 5. Through B draw BX such that +CBX = 60c. contains the vertical angle 60c. draw an arc of radius 4.5 cm. draw the circle. With O as centre and OB as radius. Draw BY= BX.5 cm meeting the circle at A and Al . (viii) 3 ABC or TAl BC is the required triangle. +A = 60c and the median AM from the vertex A is 4. Median AM = 4.5 cm.

contains the vertical angle 40c. which is the required triangle. draw the circle . (ix) (x) (xi) Produce CB to CZ.7 cm B C 3.3cm D M 4. BC = 4.7 cm. With M as centre draw an arc of radius 4. The major arc BKC of the circle.7cm 5. Find the length of the altitude from A to BC.5cm C Construction (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Draw a line segment BC = 4.2 cm.7 cm. Draw AE = CZ . Rough Diagram A 40c Fair Diagram K Y A 40c Al 4.2 cm E Z B 40c M D 4. (viii) Complete DABC or 3 Al BC . in which BC = 4.7 cm meeting the circle at A and Al . Given : In DABC .5cm 5cm O 4. Draw BX such that +CBX = 40c. Draw BY = BX . Length of the altitude AE is 3. Mathematics . +A = 40c and the median AM from A to BC is 4. 258 10th Std.5 cm.5 cm. X Draw the perpendicular bisector of BC intersecting BY at O and BC at M.6 Construct a DABC .5 cm. +A = 40c and the median AM from A to BC is 4.Example 9. With O as centre and OB as radius.

(i) Three sides and one diagonal. (one can take any two sides of 3 ABC ) (iii) (iv) (v) With O as the centre. ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC intersecting each other at O. That is. the opposite angles are supplementary. +R = 60c and the altitude from R to PQ is 4. +R = 60c and the altitude from R to PQ is 4 cm. then the D C quadrilateral is known as a cyclic quadrilateral.Exercise 9. Construct a DABC in which the base BC = 5 cm. Thus. we shall construct a cyclic quadrilateral based on the different set of measurements of the cyclic quadrilateral as listed below. (iv) Two sides and two angles. (v) One side and three angles. one angle and one parallel line. measure the length of the altitude from A. Now. the sum of opposite angles is 180c. D C O A B In this section. +BAC = 40c and the median from A to BC is 6 cm. four suitable measurements (instead of five measurements) are sufficient for the construction of a cyclic quadrilateral. (i) (ii) Draw a rough figure and draw a 3 ABC or O B 3 ABD using the given measurements. 5.2 cm containing an angle 48c. 9. and OA as radius.5 cm. Using the given measurement. +A = 45c and the median from A to BC is 4cm. 4. A Let us describe the various steps involved in the construction of a cyclic quadrilateral when the required measurements are given. find the fourth vertex D and join AD and CD . Construct a DPQR in which the base PQ = 6 cm. Construct a DABC such that BC = 5 cm. Construct a DPQR such that PQ = 4 cm. In a cyclic quadrilateral. draw a circumcircle of 3 ABC . (iii) Three sides and one angle. Construct a segment of a circle on a given line segment AB = 5.2 1.4 Construction of cyclic quadrilateral If the vertices of a quadrilateral lie on a circle. (vi) Two sides. (ii) Two sides and two diagonals. 3. Also. 2. Practical Geometry 259 .

Now. and AD = 4. BC = 6 cm.2 cm. Given : In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. Mathematics .2 cm.2 cm 7c A 6 cm O A 6 cm B Construction (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements. and AD = 4. AC = 7 cm. ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.2 cm C 7c D 6 cm m m O B m 4. Fair Diagram Rough Diagram C D 6c 4. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC to intersect at O.7 Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 6 cm. 260 10th Std.Type I (Three sides and one diagonal of a cyclic quadrilateral are given) Example 9.2 cm. Join AC and BC. With A and B as centres. BC = 6 cm. With O as the centre and OA (= OB = OC) as radius draw the circumcircle of DABC With A as the centre and radius 4. AB = 6 cm. Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm. Join AD and CD. to intersect at C. AC = 7 cm. draw an arc intersecting the circumcircle at D. draw arcs with radii 7 cm and 6 cm respectively.

Draw a line segment PQ = 4 cm With P as centre and radius 7. QS = 7 cm Given : In the cyclic quadrilateral PQRS . PR = 7. QR = 6 cm. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of PQ and QR intersecting each other at O. PQRS is the required cyclic quadrilateral. 6 cm Q 6 cm Q . PQ = 4 cm.5 cm. draw an arc. draw the circumcircle of DPQR . Join PR and QR. With O as the centre OP(=OQ=OR) as radius. Practical Geometry 261 (viii) Join PS and RS.5 S 7c m cm 4 cm P O P 4 cm Construction (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (ix) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.5 cm Rough diagram R R S m 7. draw another arc meeting the previous arc as in the figure at R. draw an arc intersecting the circle at S. With Q as centre and 7 cm radius . PR = 7. With Q as centre and radius 6 cm. Now.5 cm.8 Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS with PQ = 4 cm. QR = 6 cm.Type II (Two sides and two diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral are given) Example 9.5 cm and QS = 7 cm Fair Diagram 7c 7.

5 cm. With A as centre and radius 4.5 cm O 6 cm 80c A B 4. Join AD and CD.5 cm.5 cm O 80c A 6 cm B Construction (i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.5 cm D 5. Mathematics . +ABC = 80c and AD = 4. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC intersecting each other at O. Rough Diagram Fair Diagram X C D 4. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Through B draw BX such that +ABX = 80c. ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral. draw the circumcircle of DABC .9 Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD when AB = 6 cm. +ABC = 80c and AD = 4.5 cm. Given: In the Cyclic Quadrilateral ABCD.5 cm. Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm. draw an arc intersecting BX at C and join AC. (viii) Now. AB = 6 cm. draw an arc intersecting the circle at D.Type III (Three sides and one angle of a cyclic quadrilateral are given) Example 9.5 cm.5 cm. With O as centre and OA (= OB = OC) as radius. BC = 5. BC = 5.5 cm C 5. 262 10th Std. With B as centre and radius 5.

2 cm 6 cm F O 50c E 5. draw EX such that +FEX = 50c. From E.2 cm F Construction (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.2 cm.Type IV (Two sides and two angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are given) Example 9.2 cm. Draw a line segment EF = 5. Practical Geometry 263 (viii) Join EH. From G. With F as centre and radius 6 cm. EFGH is the required cyclic quadrilateral. FG = 6 cm and +EGH = 40c. Now. draw an arc intersecting EX at G. +GEF = 50c. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of EF and FG intersecting each other at O.2 cm. Given: In the Cyclic Quadrilateral EFGH EF = 5. Join FG. With O as centre and OE (= OF = OG) as radius. draw GY such that +EGY = 40c which intersects the circle at H. . draw a circumcircle. FG = 6 cm and +EGH = 40 o . +GEF = 50c. Fair Diagram Rough diagram G H X G 40c 6 cm Y H 40c 50c E 5.10 Construct a cyclic quadrilateral EFGH with EF = 5.

Type V ( One side and three angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are given) Example 9. Join RS. Now. From Q draw QY such that +PQY = 40c. With O as centre and OP( = OQ = OS ) as radius. Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral PQRS. draw QZ such that +SQZ = 70c which intersects the circle at R. Draw a line segment PQ = 4 cm. draw a cicumcircle of 3 PQS From Q. Fair Diagram Rough diagram X Y S O R P Z S O R 100c 4 cm 70c 40c Q 100c P 4 cm 70c 40c Q Construction (i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements. PQ = 4 cm. Draw perpendicular bisectors of PQ and PS intersecting each other at O. Mathematics . Let QY meet PX at S. 264 10th Std. PQRS is the required cyclic quadrilateral. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) From P draw PX such that +QPX = 100c.11 Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS with PQ = 4 cm. +P = 100c. +PQS = 40c and +SQR = 70c. +P = 100c. +PQS = 40c and +SQR = 70c.

(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) From B. draw BX such that +ABX = 35c.8 cm. AD = 4.2 cm. draw an arc intersecting BX at D. AD = 4.8 cm. Draw perpendicular bisectors of AB and AD intersecting each other at O. one angle and one parallel line are given) Example 9.12 Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD when AB = 5. Draw DY such that DY < AB intersecting the circle at C. AB = 5.8 cm. Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD.Type VI (Two sides . Join BC. (vii) Now. and OA (= OB = OD) as radius.2 cm Rough Diagram C X D C Y 35c A 5. draw a circumcircle of DABD . With O as centre. +ABD = 35c. With A as centre and radius 4.2 cm and AB || CD Fair Diagram D 4.8 cm B 4.2 cm and AB || CD. ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.2 cm O 35c A 5. +ABD = 35c. Draw a line segment AB = 5.8 cm B Construction (i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements. Practical Geometry 265 .

5 cm and BC = 5 cm.Exercise 9. +QPR = 45c and PS = 3 cm. The Fields medal is a prize awarded to two . LM = 4. three or four Mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU). KM = 5 cm. AD = 4.3 1.5 cm. given AB = 6 cm.5 cm and EG = 6. 3. FH = 6. The Fields medal is often described as the Nobel Prize for Mathematics. where AB = 6. 7. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD where AB = 6 cm. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS such that PQ = 5. 266 10th Std. QR = 4. BD = 8 cm and CD = 5. QR = 5. Physiology or medicine. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral KLMN such that KL = 5. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS given PQ = 5 cm. 9. BC = 5. +BAC = 60c and +ACD = 30c Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD.8 cm. Do you know? Every year since 1901.5 cm.5 cm. Sweden. a meeting that takes place every four years.2 cm and LN = 5.5 cm +ABC = 50c.6 cm. 6. BC = 5 cm and +ACD = 30c 8. 2. +ABC = 110c.3 cm.5cm. 10. Literature and for Peace. +QPR = 35c and +PRS = 70c Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD such that AB = 5.5 cm and AB || CD. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral EFGH where EF = 7 cm. QR = 4 cm. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD with AB = 7 cm.5 cm.8 cm. The Nobel Prize is an international award administered by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm. There is no Nobel Prize for Mathematics. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. 5.5 cm. Mathematics . +A = 80c. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS. the prestigious Nobel Prize has been awarded to individuals for achievements in Physics. Chemistry.5 cm.5 cm. AD = 4. 4. PR = 7 cm and PS = 4. +ABC = 70c. with PQ = 6. EH = 4.

10 GRAPHS I think. A polynomial function in x can be represented by a graph.2 Quadratic Graphs Definition Let f : A " B be a function where A and B are subsets of R . They show how two different quantities are related to each other like weight is related to height. One should never forget that graphical results are at best only approximations. He created analytical geometry which paved the way of plotting graphs using coordinate axes. Sometimes algebra may be hard to visualize. and of value only in proportion to the accuracy with which the graphs are drawn. y = f (x) . The graph of a second degree polynomial 2 y = f (x) = ax + bx + c. a ! 0 is a continuous non-linear curve. y) is called the graph of f . Learning to show relationships between symbolic expressions and their graphs opens avenues to realize algebraic patterns. x ! A. Descartes devised the cartesian plane while he was in a hospital bed watching a fly buzzing around a corner of his room. The following graphs represent different polynomials.1 Introduction Graphs are diagrams that show information. Students should acquire the habit of drawing a reasonably accurate graph to illustrate a given problem under consideration. therefore I am . of all such ordered pairs (x. . The set "^ x. yh . known as a parabola. A carefully made graph not only serves to clarify the geometric interpretation of a problem but also may serve as a valuable check on the accuracy of the algebraic work. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) France 10. a ! 0 is an oblique line with slope a. The graph of a first degree polynomial y = f (x) = ax + b.Rene Descartes Introduction Quadratic Graphs Special Graphs 10.

b = –2. Consider y = ax + bx + c By completing squares. we have learnt how to draw the graphs of linear polynomials of the form 2 y = ax + b.b m 2a 4a 2 If a > 0.b .No.0.4ac m $ 0 .5) 14 a polynomial of degree 4 In class IX.b and 4a it is symmetric about x = .3 a = 1. (square of an expression is always positive) a 4a 2 The vertex of the curve (parabola) is V c. Now we shall focus on graphing a quadratic function y = f (x) = ax + bx + c . y-axis negative (i) open downward (ii) lies below and on the line y = 0 (iii) symmetric about x = 0 i. the above polynomial can be rewritten as b 2 1 b2 4ac ` x + 2a j = a c y + -a m . c = 0 y = x 2 . Mathematics . –4) (i) open upward (ii) lies above and on the line y = 0 (iii) symmetric about x = 0. 4ac .e. then the curve is open upward. S. y-axis positive (i) open upward (ii) lies above and on the line y = –4 (iii) symmetric about x = 1 268 10th Std.2x ..b . a ! 0 and describe the nature of a quadratic graph.2). 1 Polynomial 2 ( y = ax + bx + c ) y = 2 x2 a = 2. 0) positive Nature of curve 2 2 (0. it lies below or on the line y = 4ac . 4 2 Hence 1 c y + b . a polynomial of degree 3 y = 1 (x + 4) (x + 1) (x . where a . a polynomial of degree 2 y = (x + 4) (x + 1) (x . 2a Let us give some examples of quadratic polynomials and the nature of their graphs in the following table.y y y O x O x O x y = (x + 1) (x . i.b . b = 0. b and c are real constants.3) (x ..b 4a and it is symmetric about x = . then the curve is open downward. b = 0. 0) 3 (1.e.2) . c = 0 y = –3 x2 a = –3. a ! 0 . 2a 2 If a < 0. c = –3 Vertex Sign of a (0. it lies above or on the line y = 4ac .

8) (-3. (3. That is. 8). (1. (-1. 2). The curve. 2) 2 xl -5 -4 -3 -2 -2 -4 O -1(0. (-2. as the 2 graph of y = ax + bx + c does not contain line segments. x x 2 2 2 -3 9 18 -2 4 8 -1 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 4 8 3 9 18 y = 2x Plot the points (. 18) y 2 24 22 20 18 Scale x-axis 1cm = 1 unit y-axis 1cm = 2 units (3. the part of the graph to the left side of y-axis is the mirror image of the part to the right side of y-axis. 8). (. The bigger the graph. 8) (1. 2).0) 0 1 2 3 4 2x 2 16 x yl Fig. (.2.Procedures to draw the quadratic graph y = ax + bx + c (i) (ii) Construct a table with the values of x and y using y = ax + bx + c . (0.1 Draw the graph of y = 2x . Note (i) It is symmetrical about y-axis. 18). (iii) Plot the points on the graph paper and join these points by a smooth curve. 0). Solution First let us assign the integer values from .1. 18) 12 10 8 6 4 y= (2. 10.3 to 3 for x and form the following table. 2 2 Example 10. 18). The scale used on the x-axis does not have to be the same as the scale on the y-axis. Choose a suitable scale. 2) 14 (ii) The graph does not lie below the x-axis as the values of y are non-negative. the more accurate will be the results obtained from it. (2. thus obtained is the graph of y = 2x . Join the points by a smooth curve. The scale chosen should allow for the largest possible graph to be drawn.1 Graphs 269 .3.

2 10. (ii) The graph is symmetrical about y-axis.Example 10. (–2. 0) -1 -3 -6 -9 0 1 2 3 4 x (–1. –27). –12) and (3.1 To solve the quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 graphically. –12). -12) Note (i) The graph of y =. 10.–3). Mathematics 2 2 . (2. 270 10th Std. let us draw 2 the graph of y = ax + bx + c . The curve thus obtained. -12) -12 -15 (2.3x –27 –12 –3 –3 –12 –27 Plot the points (–3. (–1. To find the roots of the quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 graphically.3x does not lie above the x-axis as y is always negative.3x 6 3 y Scale x-axis 1cm = 1 unit y-axis 1cm = 3 units xl -5 -4 -3 -2 (0.coordinates of the points of intersection of the curve with the x-axis are the roots of the given equation. (0. –27). Join the points by a smooth curve. -27) (3. x x 2 2 2 –3 9 –2 4 –1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 y =. 0). y = . –3).–3) (-2.2 Draw the graph of y =. provided they intersect.3x 2 2 -18 -21 -24 -27 -30 -33 (-3.The x.3 to 3 for x and form the following table.–3) (1. is 2 the graph of y =.2. -27) yl Fig.3x Solution Let us assign the integer values from . (1.

the solution set is {–1. the curve lies below and above the x-axis. -4) yl Fig. Now. 0). 5). (1. 0). (3. 5) xl -5 -4 -3 (-1. (iii) The curve is symmetric about the line x= 1.Example 10. 5) 4 2 = x2 -2 x3 y O 0 1 2 (4. (ii) The values of y are both positive and negative. -3) -4 (2. (–1. (–2. –4). 0) and (3.2x .2x .3 Graphs 271 . The curve intersects the x-axis at the points (–1. (4. Solution 2 Let us draw the graph of y = x . 5) and join the points by a smooth curve. 0). form the following table by assigning integer values from –3 to 4 for x and 2 finding the corresponding values of y = x . 0) 3 4 x (0. 10.3 . 3}. y =0 always.3 = 0 graphically. ( It is not symmetric about the y-axis.2x . –3).) (-3. x x2 . –3).3 . Note (i) On the x-axis. (0. The x-coordinates of the above points are –1 and 3. -3) (1. Thus. 12) 16 14 12 10 8 6 (-2.3 Solve the equation x . 0) -2 -1 -2 (3. 12).2x –3 y –3 9 6 –3 12 –2 4 4 –3 5 –1 1 2 –3 0 0 0 0 –3 –3 1 1 –2 –3 –4 2 4 –4 –3 –3 3 9 –6 –3 0 y 22 20 18 Scale x-axis 1cm = 1 unit y-axis 1cm = 2 units 2 4 16 –8 –3 5 Plot the points (–3. (2. Hence.

15) 14 10 8 6 4 2 y = 2x 2 (2. let us form the following table by assigning integer values for x from –3 to 3 and 2 finding the corresponding values of y = 2x + x . Join the points by a smooth curve. –5). x x 2x 2 2 2 –3 9 18 –3 –6 9 –2 4 8 –2 –6 0 –1 1 2 –1 –6 –5 0 0 0 0 –6 –6 1 1 2 1 –6 –3 y 20 18 16 2 4 8 2 –6 4 3 9 18 3 –6 15 x –6 y Plot the points (–3. 10. The curve cuts the x-axis at the points (–2 . (1. 2 (i) Draw the graph of y = 2x (ii) Draw the graph of y = 6 . 0) 2 3 4 5 x To solve y = 2x + x . 0). (0.x (iii) The points of intersection of the two graphs are the solutions of 2 2x + x . Remarks xl -5 -4 2 Scale x-axis 1cm = 1 unit y-axis 1cm = 2 units (3. -3) -4 (-1. -6) yl Fig.Example 10.6 . (2. Hence. (–2. 15) on the graph.4 Solve graphically 2x + x . 0) -3 -2 -1 -2 O 0 1 (1. 4) (-3. 9) +x-6 12 (-2. 9). (–1. Mathematics 2 (1. –3).6 = 0 Solution First. one can proceed as follows. 272 10th Std. The x-coordinates of the above points are –2 and 1. The curve.4 .5 .5. 4) and (3. 1. -5) -6 -8 (0. thus obtained. 0) and (1.5 }.5.6 = 0 . –6). is the graph of y = 2x + x .6 . the solution set is {–2 .6 graphically. 0).

x + 6 .6 = 0.2 ) (0. 2) 2 y=2 (2. (0. 2 2 Now. The x-coordinates of the points are –2 and 1. Now. 8) 12 10 Hence. 6) (-1. 2x + x .6 = 0 is { –2 . 8) and (1. y = – x + 6 (-1 . 8). form the following table. 18) 2x + x . Solution First. x y = -x + 6 –1 7 0 6 1 5 2 4 2 2 (1. the roots of 2x + x .6 = 0 are nothing but the x-coordinates of the points of intersection of y = 2x and y = – x + 6. (–2.6 = 0 . (3.6 = 0 . x x 2 2 2 2 –3 9 18 –2 4 8 –1 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 4 8 3 9 18 y 24 22 20 Scale x-axis 1cm = 1 unit y-axis 1cm = 2 units y = 2x 2 Plot the points (–3.5 Draw the straight line by joining the above points.5. (0 -2 -4 O 0) 0 +6 4 3 x yl Fig. 18).5}. solve the two equations y = 2x and 2 2 2 (-3.5 Draw the graph of y = 2x and hence solve 2x + x . Graphs 273 2 . Thus. 7) 8 6 4 5) (2. Draw the graph by joining the points by a smooth curve.5). let us draw the graph of y = 2x .2). for the straight line y = . 8) 14 x2 y= 1 1. (1. (2.6 = 0 . ( y + x – 6 = 0 . 2). 18) 18 16 (3. 8). 10. since y = 2x (-2.5 2 –x xl -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 . 4. the solution set for the equation 2x + x . (–1. Thus. 1. 18). To find the roots of 2x + x . Form the following table. 0). 4) (1.5 .Example 10. The points of intersection of the line and the parabola are (–2 .

The curve so obtained. 6) (0. the roots of x + 2x + 4 =0 are obtained form the points of intersection of y = x . 0) (-1.2 does not intersect the curve y = x + 3x + 2 . 12) and (3. 0) 1 2 3 4 5 Thus. 6). x x 3x 2 y 2 2 2 –4 16 –12 2 6 –3 9 –9 2 2 –2 4 –6 2 0 –1 1 –3 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 3 2 6 2 4 6 2 12 y 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 3 9 9 2 20 Plot the points (–4. 2).2 . -1) (0. Solution First. 10. (–2. 20) y = x2 (2. Now. x + 2x + 4 =0 has no real roots. 2). form the table for the line y = x-2 x –2 –4 0 –2 1 –1 2 0 xl 2 (-4.6 2 y = x-2 The straight line y = x . 0). let us form a table for y = x + 3x + 2 . x + 2x + 4 =0 ( x + 3x + 2 – x +2 = 0 ( y = x-2 a y = x + 3x + 2 2 2 2 2 2 Scale x-axis 1cm = 1 unit y-axis 1cm = 2 units (3. -2) (-2.Example 10. -4) -4 -6 y= x– 2 yl Fig.2 and y = x + 3x + 2 . 12) (1. (–1. 2) (-2. 6). 6) 6 4 (-3. join the points by a smooth curve. Let us draw the graph of the straight line y = x . is the graph of y = x + 3x + 2 . Now. Thus. Now. 274 10th Std.6 Draw the graph of y = x + 3x + 2 and use it to solve the equation 2 x + 2x + 4 = 0. (0. 0) -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 2 0 -2 + 3x +2 O x (1. (–3. 2) (2. (2. Mathematics 2 . 20). (1. 0).

3 and hence find the roots of x . then we have y = k . Solve the following equations graphically 2 (i) x .x + 3 2.4x .4x 2 (iii) y = ^ x + 2h^ x + 4h (iv) y = 2x .1 1.10 = 0 .3h = 0 3. 5.6 = 0 . Draw the graph of y = x + 2x .8 and hence find the roots of x .15 = 0 . for some positive k. find the value of y when x = 4. known as a Rectangular Hyperbola. 4. (i) y = 3x 2 2 (ii) y =. If y is directly proportional to x. we will know how to draw graphs when the variables are in (i) Direct variation (ii) Indirect variation. then we have y = kx. the variables are said to be in indirect variation and the graph is a smooth curve .Exercise 10.12 and hence solve x + 2x + 2 = 0 . k > 0.1h = 0 (iv) ^2x + 1h^ x .6 and hence solve 2x + x . Draw the graph of y = x and hence solve x . In this case the variables are said to be in direct variation and the graph is a straight line. Draw the graph of y = x . 6.3 Some Special Graphs In this section. Draw the graph of the following functions. x y 2 8 3 12 5 20 8 32 10 40 (The equation of a rectangular Hence. Graphs 275 .3x .5h^ x .7 Draw a graph for the following table and identify the variation.x . If y is inversely proportional to x. Draw the graph of y = x + x . for some positive k. h y p e r b o l a i s o f t h e f o r m xy = k. ) Example 10.x . 7.2x . x In this case. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 10.10 = 0 (iii) ^ x .5 = 0 .4 = 0 (ii) x . Draw the graph of y = 2x + x .

This type of variation is called indirect variation. Plot the points (2. 12). From the given values. (5. Example 10. we have k = 8 = 12 = g = 40 . ` k = 4 2 3 10 The relation y = 4x forms a straight line graph. 32) and (10. Thus.7 A cyclist travels from a place A to a place B along the same route at a uniform speed on different days. y =k x y 50 45 40 Scale x-axis 1cm = 1 unit y-axis 1cm = 5 units (10. 32) y= 16 4x (5. The following table gives the speed of his travel and the corresponding time he took to cover the distance. 276 10th Std. (3. Speed in km / hr x Time in hrs y 2 60 4 30 6 20 10 12 12 10 Draw the speed-time graph and use it to find (i) the number of hours he will take if he travels at a speed of 5 km / hr (ii) the speed with which he should travel if he has to cover the distance in 40 hrs. y decreases. 8) 5 O 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 x Fig. 40) and join these points to get the straight line.8 35 30 25 20 (8. we found that as x increases. (8. Mathematics . Solution From the table. 12) 10 (2. 10. 40) where k is the constant of proportionality. Here. 20) 15 (3. 8).Solution From the table. 20). Clearly. y also increases. y = 4x =16 when x=4. we observe that as x increases. Let ( y = kx . the variation is a direct variation. xy = 120.

10) Interest 45 40 30 20 10 0 x 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Deposits 450 650 800 900 Fig. y 80 70 60 50 Scale x-axis 1cm = 1 km y-axis 1cm = 10 hrs (2. (10 . 10). y = 120 . (6 . we have (i) The number of hours he needed to travel at a speed of 5 km/hr is 24 hrs. 40) (4.I on deposits for senior citizens. 30). earned ` y Clearly y = 1 x and the graph is a 10 straight line. 20) (100. 60) Time 40 30 24 20 10 (3. Draw the graph for the relation between the sum deposited and the interest earned for one year.I.Thus. 60). 10. 24) (6. 12) and (12 . Scale x-axis 1cm = ` 100 y-axis 1cm = ` 10 (700. 10. The amount to be deposited to earn an interest of ` 45 is ` 450. is 3 km / hr. 40) (300.9 Fig. 70) 60 50 x (600. Solution Let us form the following table. From the graph. 20). From the graph. 20) xy = 12 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 9 (10.9 Graphs 277 . 30) (200. x Plot the points (2 . we see that (i) (ii) The interest for the deposit of `650 is `65. (4 . 50) 1 (400. 12) (12. Draw the graph using the points given in the table. 60) 10 y = (500.8 A bank gives 10% S. Join these points by a smooth curve. Deposit ` x 100 10 200 20 300 30 y 80 70 65 400 40 500 50 600 60 700 70 S. Example 10. 10) x Speed 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 0 (ii) The required speed to cover the distance in 40 hrs. Hence find (i) the interest on the deposit of ` 650 (ii) the amount to be deposited to earn an interest of ` 45. 30) (5.

A bus travels at a speed of 40 km / hr. and to find x when y = 10 . Write the distance-time formula and draw the graph of it. No. 6. Draw the graph for the relation between the quantity and cost . Draw the Graph of xy = 20. Use the graph to find y when x = 5 . x . (ii) How many note books can be bought for ` 165. No. The following table gives the cost and number of notebooks bought. The cost of the milk per litre is ` 15.2 1. (ii) the cost of 3 litres of milk. above all other sciences. while those of other sciences are to some extent debatable and in constant danger of bieng overthrown by newly discovered facts . y > 0.Albert Einstein 278 10th Std. Notable Quotes 1. find the distance travelled in 3 hours. Draw graph for the data given in the table. x y 1 2 3 6 5 10 7 14 8 16 Draw the graph for the above table and hence find (i) the value of y if x = 4 (ii) the value of x if y = 12 4. One reason why mathematics enjoys special esteem. Hence find the number of days taken by 12 workers to complete the work. Hence. 2. of note books x Cost `y 2 30 4 60 6 90 8 120 10 150 12 180 Draw the graph and hence (i) Find the cost of seven note books. of workers x No of days y 3 96 4 72 6 48 8 36 9 32 16 18 5. 2. Mathematics . is that its laws are absolutely certain and indisputable. In mathematics the art of proposing a question must be held of higher than solving it -Georg Cantor.Exercise 10. Hence find (i) the proportionality constant. 3.

His book. consider the following two different series (i) 82. . statistics is no longer merely the collection of data and their presentation in charts and tables . They give us an idea of the concentration of the observation (data) about the central part of the distribution. R. Statistics is defined as the collection. 28. He established the discipline of mathematical statistics. enumerated or estimated according to reasonable standards of accuracy. Horace Secrist defined statistics as follows: “By statistics we mean aggregates of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes. numerically expressed. For example. analysis and interpretation of numerical data. 95 and (ii) 120. 62. Median and Mode.11 STATISTICS 11. Mean.it is now considered to encompass the science of basing inferences on observed data and the entire problem of making decisions in the face of uncertainity. Baron.A. In the former. a concept borrowed from physics.F. The word ‘Statistics’ is known to have been used for the first time in “ Elements of Universal Erudiation” by J. 89. The knowledge of measures of central tendency cannot give a complete idea about the distribution. The two distributions have the same Mean 85. British statistician. We have already learnt about the measures of central tendency namely. 74.1 Introduction It is easy to lie with statistics. It is hard to tell the truth without it -Andrejs Dunkels Introduction Measures of Dispersion Range Variance Standard Deviation Coefficient of Variation According to Croxton and Cowden. 130. Fisher said that the science of statistics is essentially a branch of Mathematics and may be regarded as mathematics applied to observational data. is a leading founder of modern field of statistics. In modern times. ‘ The Grammar of Science’ covered several themes that were later to become part of the theories of Einstein and other scientists. the numbers are closer to the Statistics 279 Karl Pearson (1857-1936) England Karl Pearson. He introduced moments. presentation. collected in a systematic manner for a pre-determined purpose and placed in relation to each other”.

5 . 42. Range (R). 50. Let us study about some of them in detail. 48. Quartile Deviation (Q. 45.5. 24. Range = L. 48. 38.5.1 Range Range is the simplest measure of dispersion.22 = 34 Now the coefficient of range = L .4. 46.5 + 42. 39.22 = 34 = 0.2.S = 56.S L+S Example 11.D).2 Measures of dispersion Measures of dispersion give an idea about the scatteredness of the data of the distribution. 56 + 22 78 ` Example 11.8. 43. From the given data the largest value. 45.1 Find the range and the coefficient of range of 43. Solution Let us arrange the given data in the ascending order 42. Mean Deviation (M. 50.5.5 From the given data. 48.4 = 8.9.S.42.4.436.5. 46.1 The coefficient of range = L . 44. 48. 45. 45. 280 10th Std. 49. Find the range and coefficient of range. 47.4 Range = L.S = 50. Range of a set of numbers is the difference between the largest and the smallest items of the set.8. Mathematics .D) are the measures of dispersion. 47.S L+S = 56 .42.1 L+S 50.4 92. 44. 49. the numbers are widely scattered about the Mean 85. 49. 46.5. 22.6. 11.9.Smallest value = L.2.mean 85 where as in the second series.4 = 8.2. 11.8. 46. 24. 42.5 and the smallest value S = 42. 56. 43.8.2 The weight (in kg) of 13 students in a class are 42.5. 38.6.087. 39.7. The coefficient of range is given by L . ` Range = Largest value . 43.9 = 0.S = 50.D) and Standard Deviation (S. Thus the measures of central tendency may mislead us. the largest value L= 50.7.2. L = 56 and the smallest value. We need to have a measure which tells us how the items are dispersed around the Mean.2. 56. S = 22. 49. Solution Let us arrange the given data in the ascending order 22.

If the range is 2. The variance is always positive. We use x and v to denote the mean and the standard deviation of a distribution respectively.e / fd o2 # c /f /f Note For a collection of n items (numbers). Standard deviation is expressed in the same units as the data.26 The smallest value = 7. Solution Range = largest value . It shows how much variation is there from the mean.2. 11. where as a high standard deviation indicates that the data is spread out over a large range of values. Depending on the nature of data. we always have /^ x . then find the smallest value in the collection. Statistics 281 . (i) Direct method This method can be used.c / d m2 n n / d2 .2.26.x h = 0 . / x = nx and / x = nx . we shall calculate the standard deviation v (after arranging the given data either in ascending or descending order) by different methods using the following formulae (proofs are not given).smallest value ( ` 7.3 The largest value in a collection of data is 7. This measure of dispersion is known as the Variance and the positive square root of the Variance is known as the Standard Deviation.smallest value = 2.44.c / x m2 n n / d2 n / d2 .Example 11.44.c / d m2 # c n n d = x-x Grouped d=x–A d = x-A c / fd2 /f / fd2 . The term ‘standard deviation’ was first used by Karl Pearson in 1894 as a replacement of the term ‘mean error’ used by Gauss.e / fd o2 /f /f / fd2 . Data Ungrouped Direct method Actual mean Assumed mean method method Step deviation method / x2 . when the squares of the items are easily obtained.44 .26 = 5.2 Standard deviation A better way to measure dispersion is to square the differences between each data and the mean before averaging them.18. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean.

Calculate the standard deviation of the data.25 / x =68 (ii) / x =690 2 = 14 .x . 10. 36.c / x m2 n n 690 .5h2 86. 6 d2 49 25 1 0 16 81 /x Let us form the following table. Solution x 2 5 6 8 10 11 12 14 x2 4 25 36 64 100 121 144 196 Here.25 . 5. / x = 126 282 10th Std. obtained by 6 students were 20. 30. v . 14.Example 11. 11.3.72.x h n 2 or v = / d2 n where d = x .68 2 `8 j 8 86. Standard deviation. The standard deviation. Actual mean method This method can be used when the mean is not a fraction. 12. 6. Find the standard deviation of the data. x 14 16 20 21 25 30 d= x-x -7 -5 -1 0 4 9 v= = / d2 n 28.25 . The marks out of 40.74. Mathematics /d = 0 / d2 = 172 . Solution Now. Example 11. 8. = ( = 20 + 14 + 16 + 30 + 21 + 25 n 6 x = 126 = 21. the number of items.4 The number of books read by 8 students during a month are 2.5.67 = 172 6 Thus.^8. A. 14. M. v = = = = n =8 / x2 . v = /^ x . 21 and 25. 16.5 A test in General Knowledge was conducted for a class.

58. n n Note Assumed mean method and step deviation method are just simplified forms of direct method. v = / d2 .(iii) Assumed mean method When the mean of the given data is not an integer. integers.c / d m2 .49 7 Standard deviation v .6 Find the standard deviation of the numbers 62.64 7 49 1056 49 /d = 8 (iv) Step deviation method / d2 =160 ` = 32. we use assumed mean method to calculate the standard deviation. 63. 55. v = / d2 . We choose an assumed mean A and calculate d by using d = x .8 `7j 7 160 .4. 50. 52. Solution Let us take A=55 as the assumed mean and form the following table. We calculate the deviations using d = x .A . Statistics 283 .A where c is the common factor of the values of x–A.64 This method can be used to find the standard deviation when the items are larger in size and have a common factor. Example: 11. 53.c / d m2 n n # c. c We use the formula. Here A is an assumed mean which is supposed to be closer to the mean. x 50 52 53 55 58 62 63 d=x–A = x – 55 -5 -3 -2 0 3 7 8 d 2 v = = = = /d n 2 /d m -c n 2 2 25 9 4 0 9 49 64 160 . We choose a suitable item A such that the difference x–A are all small numbers possibly. Now the standard deviation.

Mathematics .c / d m2 n n #c 46 .70 d 10 16 30 -4 9 40 -3 4 50 -2 1 60 -1 1 60 -1 0 70 0 1 80 1 1 80 1 4 90 2 9 100 3 /d = -4 Now v = = = / d2 = 46 / d2 .21. d = x . assumed mean method and step deviation method.16 # 10 100 ` Standard deviation. actual mean method.Example 11. 50.A and form the following table. 80. Solution We observe that all the data have 10 as common factor.07.. 284 10th Std. namely direct method. Take c = 10. The standard deviation for a collection of data can be obtained in any of the four methods. Students are advised to follow any one of the above methods. the different methods should not give different answers for v for the same data. 60. Find the standard deviation. 70. Results (i) The standard deviation of a distribution remains unchanged when each value is added or subtracted by the same quantity. 40. v .7 The marks obtained by 10 students in a test in Mathematics are : 80. 10 2 x d = x . (ii) If each value of a collection of data is multiplied or divided by a non-zero constant k.16 # 10 = 10 100 460 . n = 10. Here the number of items. Take A = 70 as assumed mean. 90. 30.4 2 # 10 10 ` 10 j 46 . then the standard deviation of the new data is obtained by multiplying or dividing the standard deviation by the same quantity k. 100. 60. As expected.

Let us add 4 to each term of the given data Solution Given data 3.Example: 11.9 = 35 4 16 4 / d = .. Let v1 be the S. 5. of the new data.3 2 4 ` 4j 11 .c / d m2 n n 2 11 .c / d m2 n n 11 . 6. 9. Then add 4 to each item and find the standard deviation of the new data.12 16 40 -4 36 126 –6 4 42 -2 144 144 12 16 48 4 /d = -2 Standard deviation. 7 to get the new data 7. v = v = = / d2 = 36 / d2 .126. 5.c / d m2 n n 324 .3 4 ` 4j v = v1 = 11 . 7. find the standard deviation of the new data. When the values are multiplied by 3. If each value is multiplied by 3. the standard deviation remains unchanged even when each item is added by the constant 4. 11 Take A = 6 x 3 5 6 7 d=x–6 -3 -1 0 1 d 9 1 0 1 2 Take A = 10 x 7 9 10 11 d = x – 10 -3 -1 0 1 d 9 1 0 1 2 /d = -3 Standard deviation.. 10.6 2 ` 3j 3 312 = 104 3 Statistics 285 . 42 and 48.9 Find the standard deviation of 40. Let the assumed mean A be 132. 6.v = = / d2 = 11 / d2 .. Example 11. 48 and find v .8 Find the standard deviation of the data 3.144.D. 40. Let the assumed mean A be 44 2 x 2 d = x .c / d m2 n n 36 .9 = 35 4 4 16 In the above example..3 / d2 = 11 Standard deviationv1 = = / d2 .2 2 ` 3j 3 104 3 / d = . we get Solution Let us consider the given data 120. 42.132 x d = x – 44 d d 144 120 .6 / d2 =324 Standard deviation = = v1 = / d2 .

.2.D. 6 Their mean. 12 2 / x2 .1 . g. of any n consecutive odd integers. i + n is v = 12 2 (ii) S. is given by v = 2 n . of any n consecutive even integers.D. i + 2.10 Prove that the standard deviation of the first n natural numbers is v = Solution The first n natural numbers are 1. 12 Hence. 2 6 n 1 4n 2 3n 3 ` + j` + . the standard deviation also gets multiplied by 3 . g . i d N (i) S. the standard deviation v = = = = = = = = n -1 . with common difference d is v = d 12 Thus.3^n + 1h E ` + j.j 2 6 2 n -1 .c / x m2 n n 2 n^n + 1h^2n + 1h -` n + 1j 6n 2 2 ^n + 1h^2n + 1h -` n + 1 j 6 2 n 1 ^2n + 1h .D. of any n successive terms of an A. n.P. 2 3 2 n 1 2^2n + 1h .In the above example.^n + 1h E ` + j.1 . n d N 12 286 10th Std.j 2 6 n 1 n 1 ` + j` . n d N 12 2 (iii) S. the S.D. 12 2 It is quite interesting to note the following: 2 n -1 The S. i + 1. of the first n natural numbers is v = Remarks n -1 . Thus. when each value is multiplied by 3. Mathematics . 2 n -1 . 2 2n Sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers is / x2 = n^n + 1h^2n + 1h .3. x = Rx = 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n n n n^ n + 1h n + 1 = = . is given by v = 2 n .D. of i. Example 11.

when the deviations are taken from arithmetic mean. 12 Standard Deviation of grouped data (i) Actual mean method In a discrete data. r x= /d = 0 = 432 = 9.1 = 12 2 n -1 12 2 100 .x . deviation can be calculated using the formula v = f Example 11.1 . 48 / fd = 0 / fd 2 = 124 / fx /f Standard deviation.61.1.12 / / The following table shows the marks obtained by 48 students in a Quiz competition in Mathematics.12 -9 0 8 10 12 fd 2 27 24 9 0 8 20 36 / f =48 / fx =432 Arithmetic mean. v = = = / fd2 /f 124 48 2.Example 11. Solution Standard deviation of the first n natural numbers = Standard deviation of the first 10 natural numbers = 10 . Statistics 287 .11 Find the standard deviation of the first 10 natural numbers.58 . x 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 f 3 6 9 13 8 5 4 fx 18 42 72 117 80 55 48 d=x– x =x–9 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 fd -9 . where d= x .2.87. the standard 2 fd . data x frequency f 6 3 7 6 8 9 9 13 10 8 11 5 12 4 Solution Let us form the following table using the given data. Calculate the standard deviation.

20 0 32 96 fd 144 192 80 0 128 768 =1312 2 /f =36 / fd =72 / fd2 Standard deviation v = = = = = / fd2 .5-8.5 22 6.14 v .7 Find the variance of the following distribution.36 9 292 = 9 32.5.(ii) Assumed mean method When deviations are taken from the assumed mean. Mathematics 3.5-5.5-6.44 ` Example 11. -c Rf Rf 2 2 Example 11.12 -8 -4 0 4 8 fd .13 Find the Standard deviation of the following distribution.12 . x 70 74 78 82 86 90 f 1 3 5 7 8 12 d = x – 82 .5-4. the formula for calculating standard deviation is v= Rfd Rfd m where d = x .72 2 ` 36 j 36 328 .5 11 7.22 9 328 .24 .e / fd o2 /f /f 1312 .5 17 .5 9 4.5-7.5 14 5. x f 70 1 74 3 78 5 82 7 86 8 90 12 Solution Let us take the assumed mean A = 82.A. Class interval Frequency 288 10th Std.

the common factor of all items.1.5 5.5 4.5-6. 2 Step deviation method Example 11.5-5. class interval 3.5-4.` 13 j = 129 .5-7.10 10.18 .70 x mid value 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 f 8 12 17 14 9 7 4 x–A –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 d = x-A c -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 fd .17 0 9 14 12 fd 2 72 48 17 0 9 28 36 /f = 71 / fd = . Find the standard deviation of the data.30 30.20 20.169 5329 Thus.169 73 73 73 5329 = 9417 . Class Interval Frequency 0-10 8 10-20 12 20-30 17 30-40 14 40-50 9 50-60 7 60-70 4 Solution Let A = 35.40 40.Solution Let the assumed mean A be 6. c = 10.5-8.24 .60 60. v = 2 = 73 / fd = 13 / fd2 = 129 / fd2 .e / fd o2 /f /f = 9248 5329 2 = 129 .24 .5 6.15 The following table gives the number of goals scored by 71 leading players in International Football matches.5 x mid value 4 5 6 7 8 f 9 14 22 11 17 d=x-6 -2 -1 0 1 2 fd .14 0 11 34 fd 36 14 0 11 68 2 /f Now variance. In the 4th column.5 7.50 50. the variance is (iii) v . class interval 0.74.30 / fd2 = 210 Statistics 289 .

5 15.5 25. Length cm No.16 Length of 40 bits of wire.V = v # 100 x where v is the standard deviation and x is the mean of the given data.80 0 90 100 30 / f = 40 Variance. 290 10th Std.1 = 760 . of bits (f) 2 3 8 12 9 5 1 d= x–A fd fd 1800 1200 800 0 900 2000 900 2 .900 # 10 71 5041 14910 .5 55.5.60 .67.16.900 # 10 5041 14010 # 10 = 2. correct to the nearest centimetre are given below.75 / fd2 .5 65.7792 # 10 5041 Standard deviation.1 = 759 4 4 4 2 v = 189.5 45.60 . of bits 1-10 2 11-20 3 21-30 8 31-40 12 41-50 9 51-60 5 61-70 1 Solution Let the assumed mean A be 35..30 .5 no.30 2 # 10 ` 71 j 71 210 . It is also called as a relative standard deviation. v .3 Coefficient of variation Coefficient of variation is defined as C.20 . Mathematics .` 20 j2 = 40 40 /f /f / fd = 20 / fd2 = 7600 11.5 35.e / fd o2 = 7600 . Length 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 mid value x 5.10 0 10 20 30 .e / fd o2 # c /f /f 210 . v 2 ` = 190 . Example 11.Standard deviation v = = = = = / fd2 .2. Calculate the variance.

18 Following are the runs scored by two batsmen in 5 cricket matches .6 . 12. 18 18 ` The coefficient of variation is 24.4. the given data is less consistent. = 5 2 x d = x .M x = 12 + 15 + 18 + 20 + 25 5 90 = 18.428 # 100 = 442. 20. (iii) When the coefficient of variation is less.428. the given data is more consistent. 25. Batsman A Batsman B 38 37 47 35 34 41 18 27 33 35 Statistics 291 . A. Solution Let us calculate the A. Example 11. (ii) When the coefficient of variation is more. ` The coefficient of variation = = 4.M of the given data.17 Find the coefficient of variation of the following data.6 Example 11.18 d 12 15 18 20 25 -6 -3 0 2 7 36 9 0 4 49 /d = 0 v = / d2 = 98 = 98 5 v # 100 r x / d2 n = 19. 18.Remarks (i) The coefficient of variation helps us to compare the consistency of two or more collections of data.Who is more consistent in scoring runs.8 . 15.

Example 11.9.4.8 5 . Find the sum of all the items and also the sum of the squares of all the items. Coefficient of variation = v # 100 r x = 4.65.14 .4 5 .4 # 100 34 = 940 34 = 27. the coefficient of variation for B is less than the coefficient of variation for A.14 (2) From (1) and (2).V = v # 100 r x = 9.19 The mean of 30 items is 18 and their standard deviation is 3. x = 18 The sum of 30 items .65 (1) 104 = 20.Solution Batsman A x 18 33 34 38 47 170 Now r d= x-x . ` The coefficient of variation for the runs scored by batsman A is 27.6. Solution The mean of 30 items.. ` Batsman B is more consistent than the batsman A in scoring the runs.16 -1 0 4 13 0 d 256 1 0 16 169 442 2 Batsman B x 27 35 35 37 41 175 r d= x-x -8 0 0 2 6 0 x = 175 = 35 5 v = = d 64 0 0 4 36 104 2 x = 170 = 34 5 v = = / d2 n / d2 n 442 = 88. C. Now.4. 35 7 ` The coefficient of variation for the runs scored by batsman B is = 13. 292 10th Std. Coefficient of variation.6 # 100 35 = 460 = 92 = 13. Standard deviation. Mathematics /x v 2 = 30 # 18 = 540 ( x = /x n ) v =3 / x2 .c / x m2 = n n .

25 = 216. The mean and the standard deviation of a group of 20 items was found to be 40 and 15 respectively. Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation.D. / x = 40 Mean of 20 items.53 = 790.^Corrected meanh2 n 2 = 35540 .40 = 225 20 2 ( x . . / / / ` / x2 2 Corrected / x 2 / = 32000 + 4500 = 36500 = 36500 .( ( ( / x2 / 30 2 x .53 + 43 = 36500 .9720 = 270 / x2 = 9990 / x = 540 and / x2 = 9990.14. v = -c n n 2 x 2 ( . x = n / x = 40 ( 20 ( Now.75 . the corrected v = .18 = 9 2 ` Example 11.72. Solution Let us find the correct mean. Statistics 293 .324 = 9 30 .5 20 2 2 x x 2 m = 225 Variance.14. Corrected v = 216. / 2 ` The corrected Mean = 39.5 and the corrected S.2809 + 1849 = 36500 . While checking it was found that an item 43 was wrongly written as 53.960 = 35540.20 / x2 .75.32000 = 225 # 20 = 4500.5) 20 = 1777 .72. (1) (given) The corrected Mean = 790 = 39. ` corrected /x /x = 20 # 40 = 800 = 800 + 43.1560. 2 2 Corrected x Now.(39.

6.9h2 = 82 a / x = 35 and /1 = 5 To find /^ x . x1 = C. 2 2 a /1 = 5 and /^ x .4/^ x .22 /^ x . = 58 294 10th Std.x h = 62. x = n 5 2 /x /^ x2 .7h2 . Mathematics a C.7h .2 .6. /^ x .2 # 100 58 2120 = 36.x h + 4/1 = 82 /^ x .x h .18x + 81h = 82 / x2 . x ` x = v # 100 .9h2 = 82 . What are their arithmetic means? Solution We know that coefficient of variation.V = 21.V = 58 and v = 21.x h2 . Solution Given that ` Let us find Now ( ( ( ( / x = 35.x h .7 .x h = 0 The coefficient of variations of two series are 58 and 69.4 (0) + (4 # 5) = 82 /^ x . C.V v # 100 .x h2 .2h2 = 82 /6^ x .Example 11.2/6^ x .9h2 = 82 /^ x . Mean of the first series. Their standard deviations are 21. /^ x .7h # 2 @ + / 4 = 82 2 2 /^ x . C.630 + 405 = 82 / x2 = 307.2 @2 = 82 /^ x .2 and 15. n = 5. / x = 35 = 7 . then find / x = 35 and n = 5.V = v # 100.`18/ xj + `81/1j = 82 / x2 . let us consider ( ( ( ( ( ( ` Example 11.x h = 62 / x2 = 307 and /^ x . if 2 / x and /^ x .21 For a collection of data.

7. 56. 4 7.6 # 100 69 = 1560 69 = 22. 26. 29 (ii) 41.M of the II series = 22. 20. 34 Calculate the standard deviation of the following data. 15. Find the range and coefficient of range of the following data. The number of books bought at a book fair by 200 students from a school are given in the following table.V = 69 and v = 15. 3. 27. Exercise 11. 30. If each observation is multiplied by 2. 34. Calculate the standard deviation of the first 13 natural numbers. 25. Find the largest value of the collection of data.6 and the A. 5.1.7.5.5. 6. a C. 52. Calculate the variance of the following data 2 4 6 8 10 x 4 4 5 15 8 f 12 5 14 4 16 5 Statistics 295 . 40. No. 3. (i) 10.2. 9.8. 34 .31. 28. If the range is 0. The standard deviation of 20 observations is 5 . 33. find the standard deviation and variance of the resulting observations. (ii) 38. 23.84 kg.5 2. 46. 8. 12. x f 3 7 8 10 13 15 18 10 23 8 8.Mean of the second series x2 = v # 100 C. of books No of students 0 35 1 64 2 68 3 18 4 15 Calculate the Standard deviation.6.M of the I series = 36. Calculate the standard deviation of the following data.6 A. 40.6.35. 29.V = 15. 4. (i) 59.46 kg. The smallest value of a collection of data is 12 and the range is 59. find the smallest measurement. The largest of 50 measurements is 3. 24.1 1.

If n = 10. 16.10h2 = 79. 14. / x2 = 1530. Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation. 26. The time (in seconds) taken by a group of people to walk across a pedestrian crossing is given in the table below. then calculate the coefficient of variation . A group of 100 candidates have their average height 163. The marks scored by two students A. The amount of money collected is shown in the table below. n = 9 and /^ x .D is 6. A B 58 56 51 87 66 43 Who is more consistent?. 32. Find the variance of the following distribution Class interval Frequency 13. 19.10.x h2 . What is the standard deviation of their heights? Given / x = 99 .2.8 cm with coefficient of variation 3. 20. At the time of checking it was found that an item 12 was wrongly entered as 8. If the coefficient of variation of a collection of data is 57 and its S.84. 296 10th Std. Mathematics . then find the mean. The mean and standard deviation of 20 items are found to be 10 and 2 respectively. Find the sum of all the items and the sum of the squares of all the items. Calculate the coefficient of variation of the following data: 20. 18. 18. Time (in sec) 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 No of people 4 8 15 12 11 Calculate the variance and standard deviation of the data. A group of 45 house owners contributed money towards green environment of their street. 24. 12. 17. Find / x 60 88 65 46 2 and /^ x . Amount (`) No of house owners 0-20 2 20-40 7 40-60 12 60-80 19 80-100 5 Calculate the variance and standard deviation. 11. x = 12 and 15. B in a class are given below. 20-24 15 25-29 25 30-34 28 35-39 12 40-44 12 45-49 8 Mean of 100 items is 48 and their standard deviation is 10.

36.72 (C) 0.56 (C) 1.28 4 For a collection of 11 items. 3. then the variance of 28. 10. 29 is (A) 28 2.4. 13.x ) = (A) Rx (B) x (C) nx (D) 0 6. y. 18. 17.1 3.5 (B) 43. The range of the collection is 28. then the S.52.44 (D) 0.25 10. The greatest value of a collection of data is 72 and the least value is 28. 19. If the standard deviation of a set of data is 1.04 9.1) x (D) 0 7.5 (D) 3. If the variance of 14. 7. 11.44. 26. z + 5 is (A) t 3 (B) t + 5 (C) t (D) x y z 8.1.60 is (A) 64 (B) 128 (C) 32 2 (D) 32 Statistics 297 . (Rx) .2 Choose the correct answer 1.Exercise 11. Then the coefficient of range is (A) 44 (B) 0. z. Rx = 132 . For any collection of n items. 10.4 (B) 2. The range of the first 10 prime numbers 2. 10. (B) 26 (C) 29 (D) 27 The least value in a collection of data is 14. then the arithmetic mean is (A) 11 (B) 12 (C) 14 (D) 13 5. y + 5.D is (A) 3. If the variance of a data is 12. then the standard deviation of x + 5. Then the greatest value of the collection is (A) 42. Variance of the first 11 natural numbers is (A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 5 2 (D) 10 11. If t is the standard deviation of x.2) x (C) (n . The variance of 10.6.5 (B) 3 (C) 2. then the variance is (A) 0. 10 is (A) 10 (B) 10 (C) 5 (D) 0 12. For any collection of n items.96 (D) 0.4 (D) 42. 5. R (x .5 (C) 42.x = (A) nx (B) (n . 22. 30 is 32.25. 23 .

Standard deviation of a collection of data gets multiplied or divided by the quantity k. Mathematics . 12 2 q q q q 298 10th Std. n -1 . C. Coefficient of range = L . Coefficient of variation.e / fd o2 where d = x.S . (ii) q v = / d2 . The coefficient of variation is (A) 42 (B) 25 (C) 28 (D) 48 Points to Remember 14. /f / fd2 .c / d m2 where d = x. x = 20 and n = 12.x and x is the mean. then the standard deviation of the new data is (A) 12 (B) 4 2 (C) 6 2 (D) 9 2 Given / (x . Standard deviation of a collection of data is 2 2 . 15. n Standard deviation for a grouped data (i) v = (ii) q v= / fd2 where d = x . The coefficient of variation is (A) 25 (B) 20 (C) 30 (D) 10 Mean and standard deviation of a data are 48 and 12 respectively. q (i) (ii) Range = L. L+S q Standard deviation for an ungrouped data (i) v = / d2 n n where d = x . the difference between the greatest and the least of the observations.13.V = v # 100 . v = Variance is the square of standard deviation.x ) 2 = 48.x and x is the mean.S. Standard deviation of the first n natural numbers.A and A is the assumed mean. /f /f Standard deviation of a collection of data remains unchanged when each value is added or subtracted by a constant. If each value is multiplied by 3.A and A is the assumed mean. if each item is multiplied or divided by k. It is used for comparing the consistency x of two or more collections of data.

Markov (1856-1922). Cyclones.. Tsunami.12 PROBABILITY It is remarkable that a science which began with the consideration of games of chance should have become the most important object of human knowledge -P.. Most of the events occur quite unexpectedly and result in heavy loss to humanity. a Russian Mathematician A. He put forth a mathematical system of inductive reasoning based on probability. A gambler’s dispute-problem posed by Chevalier de Mere in 1654 led to exchange of letters between two famous French Mathematicians Blasie Pascal and Pierre de Fermat which created a mathematical theory of Probability. Gauss (1777-1855). The occurrences of events like Earthquakes. all time. Probabilities always pertain to the occurrence or nonoccurrence of events. Let us define the terms random experiment. Pierre de Laplace (1749-1827). Laplace. The family of major contributors to the development of Probability theory includes mathematicians like Christian Huggens (1629-1695). Laplace established many fundamental results in statistics. are unpredictable. sometimes referred to as a French . Introduction Classical Definition Addition Theorem 12. Chebyshev (1821-1894). almost everything that we see or do is subject to chance. In 1812. Bernoulli (1654-1705). etc. Kolmogorov introduced an axiomatic approach which is considered as the basis for Modern Probability theory. sample space and different types of events used in the study of probability. DeMoivre (1667-1754). Probability 299 Pierre de Laplace (1749-1827) France Laplace remembered as one of the greatest scientists of Newton. He only introduced the principles of probability.D. Epidemics. Such predictions well in advance of their actual happenings require the study of Probability theory. trial. Poisson (1781-1845). If we predict the occurrences of such events well in advance based on their past occurrences with a good amount of accuracy. Lightning. one among them is “probability is the ratio of the favoured events to the total possible events”. one can think of preventive measures or damage control exercises much to the relief of human society.1 Introduction In every day life. In 1933.

12. Mathematics S = "1. 6 . one can list out all possible outcomes of the experiment. results in an outcome that belongs to A. Noting down whether a newborn baby is male or female. T .1 . Thus. Any process of observation or measurement is called an experiment. is an event. 4. "T . "3 . sample space. mutually exclusive events can’t occur simultaneously. "1. A subset of the sample space S is called an event. HH. 4. Let us illustrate random experiment. events with the help of some examples. " H . then we say that the event A has occurred. Mutually exclusive events Two or more events are said to be mutually exclusive if the occurrence of one event prevents the occurrence of other events. and "TT . In tossing a coin. then A + B = z . " HT.. The occurrence of tail.. picking up a ball from a bag containing balls of different colours and observing the number of accidents at a particular place in a day are some examples of experiments. and "6 . 300 10th Std. That is. the occurrence of Head and the occurrence of Tail are equally likely events. Tossing an unbiased coin S = " H. 3. Random Experiment Sample Space Some Events The occurrence of head. "2. 5 . TT. 5. TH . HH . If the experiment.Mathematicians use the words “experiment” and “outcome” in a very wide sense. A random experiment is one in which the exact outcome cannot be predicted before conducting the experiment. tossing a coin. is another event. when conducted. However. 2. if A and B are two mutually exclusive events. 3. 6 . once Tossing an unbiased coin S = " HT. are some of the events Fig. The set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is called its sample space and it is denoted by the letter S. are some twice of the events Rolling an unbiased die once Equally likely events Two or more events are said to be equally likely if each one of them has an equal chance of occurrence. Each repetition of the experiment is called a trial. Let A be a subset of S.

Probability 301 . the occurrence of head excludes the occurrence of tail. E = S . Complementary events Let E be an event of a random experiment and S be its sample space.2 1 E 3 Note In this chapter. For example. 6 in rolling a die is a sure event. 5} . 12. 6 5 Fig. g. In throwing a die. the six possible outcomes are mutually exclusive. En are exhaustive events if their union is the sample space S. they are assumed to be unbiased. 4. Impossible event An event which will not occur on any account is called an impossible event. Note that E and E are mutually exclusive events. 2. Then the complementary of the event E is given by E = {1. It is denoted by E . Favourable outcomes The outcomes corresponding to the occurrence of the desired event are called favourable outcomes of the event. since two or more faces cannot turn up simultaneously. 6} be an event of getting a multiple of 2. Thus. Similarly if an unbiased die is rolled. 3. 5. E2.In tossing a coin. getting 7 in rolling a die once is an impossible event. 4. 3. 4. getting one of 1. let E = {2. For example. S E 2. For example.(see Figure 12. Sure event The sample space of a random experiment is called sure or certain event as any one of its elements will surely occur in any trail of the experiment. It is denoted by z . Thus. 5 are favourable to the event E. then the outcomes 1. . if E is an event of getting an odd number in rolling a die. whenever we refer coins or dice. The set containing all the other outcomes which are not in E but in the sample space is called the complimentary event of E.2) Exhaustive events Events E1.E. we consider only random experiments all of whose outcomes are equally likely and sample spaces are finite. 3.

2 Classical definition of probability If a sample space contains n outcomes and if m of them are favourable to an event A. n (B) Hence P (B) = =3 =1. n (A) ` P (A) = =1.m n n n m = 1 . total number of outcomes ` P (A) = n (A) = m. (iv) The probability of an impossible event is 0. A = {4} ` n (A) = 1 . That is P (z) = 0 .m = n . That is P (A) = number of outcomes favourable to A . 5. denoted by P(A). (i) Let A be the event of getting 4. The Probability of the event A. we write n(S) = n and n(A) = m . 6} 302 10th Std. That is 0 # P (A) # 1 . 12. That is P (S) = 1 . 3. is defined as the ratio of m to n. n (S) n Note (i) The above classical definition of probability is not applicable if the number of possible outcomes is infinite and the outcomes are not equally likely. (iii) The probability of the sure event is 1. then. ` n (B) = 3 .both inclusive. n (S) 6 Let B be the event of getting an even number. Mathematics (ii) . 4.1 A fair die is rolled. ( P (A ) = 1 n P (A) + P (A ) = 1 . the sample space S = {1. Find the probability of getting (i) the number 4 (ii) (iv) an even number a number greater than 4. 6} . (v) The probability that the event A will not occur is given by P (not A) = P (A ) or P (Al ) = n .12. n (S) 6 2 B = {2. ` n (S) = 6 . Fig. 4.3 (iii) a prime factor of 6 Solution In rolling a die. (ii) The probability of an event A lies between 0 and 1. (vi) Example 12. 2.P (A) .

n (C) Hence P (C) = =2 =1. 13. 3. P (A) = ` n (S) 4 Let B be the event of getting at least one head. Then C = {2. Then. Then C = { HT. P (C) = ` n (S) 4 2 Example 12. n (C) = 2 =1. TH } Thus. n (B) = 3. 3. ` Let A be the event of choosing a prime number. n (D) Hence. Then B = { HH. 19} . 7.2 In tossing a fair coin twice. HT. 17.(iii) Let C be the event of getting a prime factor of 6. D = {5. 5. find the probability of getting (i) two heads (ii) atleast one head (iii) exactly one tail Solution In tossing a coin twice. 3} ` n (C) = 2 . 6} n (D) = 2 . n (A) = 1. Then A = { HH } .3 An integer is chosen from the first twenty natural numbers. Thus. n (S) 20 5 Probability 303 (ii) . 2. g. What is the probability that it is a prime number? S = { 1. TH } Thus. A = {2. TH. 11. n (A) = 1. n(A) = 8. n (A) P(A) = = 8 = 2. 20 } . P (D) = =2 =1. n (S) 6 3 Example 12. n (B) = 3. Hence. HT. Let A be the event of getting two heads. ` (i) n(S) = 4. the sample space S = {HH. TT} . n (S) 6 3 (iv) Let D be the event of getting a number greater than 4. n (C) = 2. ` P (B) = n (S) 4 (iii) Let C be the event of getting exactly one tail. Solution Here n(S) = 20.

(2. 6). 1).4 Let A be the event of getting a sum 8. the sample space is S = { (1. (5. 5). Then. 3). 5). (5. 2). 5). (2. Thus. Number of non-defective items. 6) } Fig. 4).Example 12. 1). . ` Probability that the chosen item is non-defective. 6). 1). (2. (5.5 Two unbiased dice are rolled once. (5. P(A) = n (S) 36 B = {(1. 3). (6. 6). 1). 3). Solution Total number of items n(S) = 35. (5.6). (6. (3. 4). (4. 2). 1). 3). 5). n (A) P (A) = = 28 = 4 . 12. (6. (4. 2).4 There are 7 defective items in a sample of 35 items. 5 n (S) 35 Example 12. Solution When two dice are thrown. 5). (5. ` (iii) Let C be the event of getting a sum greater than 8. 3). 3). 4). (4. 2)}. (5. 5). (6. (1. 2). 6). (5. 2). 1). (4. ` n (S) = 6 # 6 = 36 ` Then (1. (6. n(C) = 10. (5. (4. (4. (6. Find the probability that an item chosen at random is non-defective. (3. 2). Number of defective items = 7. 6)} . 3). 4). 3). 6). 6)} . Let A be the event of choosing a non-defective item. (i) (1. (4. 5). ` 304 10th Std. (4. (2. (3. (3. n (A) = 5 . 2). 4). 6). (4. (6. (4. Find the probability of getting (i) a sum 8 (ii) a doublet (iii) a sum greater than 8. (6. n (S) 36 18 (ii) Let B be the event of getting a doublet ` Thus. n (B) P(B) = = 6 =1. 6). (6. (1. (2. 4). (5. n (S) 36 6 C = {(3. n(B) = 6. 1). (3. n(A) = 35 . 4). Hence. 4). (6. n(A) = 5. (6. (1. (6. (2. 4). (5. (2. (3. 5).7 = 28 . 3). 5). (3. 4). 5). (3. Mathematics . 6). A = {(2. 5). n (C) P(C) = = 10 = 5 .

(i) Probability of choosing a boy is P(B) = n (B) = 20 n (S) 35 (ii) & P (B) = 4 . n (B) = 2. Find the probability of getting (i) a king (ii) a black king (iii) a spade card (iv) a diamond 10. Let B and G be the events of selecting a boy and a girl respectively. n (C) = 13. ` n (S) = 35. n (S) = 52. n (B) = 20 and n (G) = 15.7 There are 20 boys and 15 girls in a class of 35 students . Solution Let S be the sample space of the experiment. n (A) = 4 = 1 . P (D) = n (S) 52 Example 12. n (D) = 1. Thus. n (C) = 13 = 1 . one card is drawn at random. ` P (A) = n (S) 52 13 (ii) Let B be the event of drawing a black king card Thus. A student is chosen at random. Find the probability that the chosen student is a (i) boy (ii) girl. ` P (C) = n (S) 52 4 (iv) Let D be the event of drawing a diamond 10 card. The 52 playing cards are Solution Now. & P (G) = 7 Probability 305 . classified as (i) Let A be the event of drawing a king card ` n (A) = 4. n (D) = 1 . ` P (B) = n (S) 52 26 Spade A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 J Q K 13 Hearts A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 J Q K 13 Clavor Diamond A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 J Q K 13 A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 J Q K 13 (iii) Let C be the event of drawing a spade card Thus. n (B) = 2 = 1 .6 From a well shuffled pack of 52 playing cards.Example 12. 7 n (G) = 15 Probability of choosing a girl is P(G) = n (S) 35 3.

(ii) a leap year selected at random will have only 52 Fridays. then find the number of blue balls in the bag. Solution (i) Number of days in a leap year = 366 days. Then A is the event that it will not rain. Thur).76. (Sun.Example 12. i. 52 weeks and 2 days. P (A ) = 1 .24. a P (A) + P (A ) = 1 Example 12. Solution Let the number of blue balls be x. Fri).76. (Wed.24. Now 52 weeks contain 52 Fridays and the remaining two days will be one of the following seven possibilities. If the probability of drawing a blue ball from the bag is thrice that of drawing a red ball. (Fri. 306 10th Std. Mathematics . (Thur.. (iii) a non-leap year selected at random will have 53 Fridays.9 A bag contains 5 red balls and some blue balls.0. Wed). What is the probability that it will not rain on that day? Solution Let A be the event that it will rain. n (S) = 5 + x . Let B be the event of drawing a blue ball and R be the event of drawing a red ball. number of blue balls = 15. Tue). ` The probability that it will not rain is 0. Given ( ( ( P (B) = 3P (R) n (B) n (R) =3 n (S) n (S) x =3 5 c 5+x 5+xm x = 15 Thus. Sun). Sat) and (Sat. Given that Thus.8 The probability that it will rain on a particular day is 0. Mon). Example 12.10 Find the probability that (i) a leap year selected at random will have 53 Fridays. ` Total number of balls. (Tue.76 = 0.e. (Mon. P (A) = 0.

Mon). Sun) . n (S) = 7. (Fri.. Mon. (Tue. n (S) 7 Let C be the event of getting a Friday in the remaining one day . Then Thus. Thur. Frih. ` P (C) = Example 12. k > 0 We know that P (A) + P (A ) = 1 . (Mon. Then n(S) = 7. Fri and Sat. n (A) p(A) = = 2.then find P(A). Here S = "(Sun. (Thur.^ Fri. ` 7k + 12k = 1 ( 19k = 1. (Tue. Thur). (Wed. C = {Fri} ( n (C) = 1. Here ` S = {Sun. Then Probability 307 . i. (Mon. (Wed. Sat). Then n(A) = 2. Solution Given that P (A) : P (A ) = 7 : 12 . Tue). Sun) . Let P(A) = 7k and P( A ) = 12k. Tue. Now. To get 53 Fridays in a non leap year. Fri). (Sat. Thur). n (S) 7 (ii) To get only 52 Fridays in a leap year. P (B) = n (S) 7 Note that A and B are complementary events. Wed. 19 Aliter P (A) = 7 12 P (A ) 12 P(A) = 7× P (A ) = 7 [1–P(A)] 19 P(A) = 7 Thus. Then B = "(Sun. A = "^Thur. Tue. Let B be the event of not getting a Friday in the remaining two days. n(B) = 5. Wed. Wed). Mon).. k = 1 19 P(A) = 7k = 7 . (iii) Number of days in a non-leap year = 365 days.11 If A is an event of a random experiment such that P (A) : P (A ) = 7 : 12 . there must be no Friday in the remaining two days. . Tue). (Sat. Mon. Sath. . there must be a Friday in the seven possibilities: Sun.The probability of getting 53 Fridays in a leap year is same as the probability of getting a Friday in the above seven possibilities. 52 weeks and 1 day.e. Let A be the event of getting one Friday in the remaining two days. Wed). Thur. P(A) = 7 19 n (C) 1 = . Fri and Sat }. n (B) 5 = .

Exercise 12. (i) (ii) not a Diamond (ii) exactly two tails (iii) not an Ace. 10. 5. What is the probability that the name of the selected country will begin with A ? 11. A ball is drawn at random. an even-numbered ball (ii) a white ball. What is the probability that the number on the card is (i) a multiple of 4 (ii) not a multiple of 6. Bangladesh. 3. China. A ball is drawn at random. The tickets are numbered from one to hundred. 8. Find the probability of getting at least one head A bag contains 6 white balls numbered from 1 to 6 and 4 red balls numbered from 7 to 10. Find the probability of getting the same number on all the three dice. A two digit number is formed with the digits 3. Find the probability that it is (i) a perfect square (ii) not a perfect cube. 13. 5 and 7. For a sightseeing trip. Find the probability that the two digit number formed with the two numbers turning up is divisible by 3. Three dice are thrown simultaneously. 20 cards are numbered from 1 to 20. a tourist selects a country randomly from Argentina. What is the probability of getting at most one head. 12. A box contains 4 Green. Find the probability that the drawn card is (i) a Diamond 7. 1 1. One egg is chosen at random. One card is drawn randomly from a well shuffled deck of 52 playing cards. One card is drawn at random. Find the probability of getting a total of 9. What is the probability of getting a ticket with a number divisible by 10? A die is thrown twice. 2. Find the probability that the selected ball is (i) Red in colour (ii) not Green in colour. Three rotten eggs are mixed with 12 good ones. A number is selected at random from integers 1 to 100. (iii) at least two heads. 5 Blue and 3 Red balls. Find the probability that the number so formed is greater than 57 (repetition of digits is not allowed). 14. Find the probability of getting (i) 9. Angola. Two dice are thrown together. 4. 308 10th Std. Russia and Algeria. Three coins are tossed simultaneously. What is the probability of choosing a rotten egg? Two coins are tossed together. A ticket is drawn from a bag containing 100 tickets. Mathematics . 6.

Piggy bank contains 100 fifty-paise coins. A bag contains 12 balls out of which x balls are white. Find x. B) = n (A) + n (B) . the probability of drawing a white ball will be twice that of in (i). 18. Thus. Two dice are rolled and the product of the outcomes (numbers) are found. Note (i) The event A . 20 two-rupees coins and 10 five. then (1) becomes P (A . Probability 309 .rupees coins. P (A . What is the probability that it is acceptable by (i) A (ii) B ?. 16. 8 have minor defects and 4 have major defects. Divide both sides by n (S) . but the trader B will not accept the shirts which have major defects.n (A + B) .3 Addition theorem on probability Let A and B be subsets of a finite non-empty set S. B) n (A) n (B) n (A + B) = + n (S) n (S) n (S) n (S) (1) S A A+B B A. then A + B = 0 . 19. B) = P (A) + P (B) a P (A + B) = 0 . This result is known as the addition theorem on probability. green and white. Find the probability that the drawn coin (i) will be a fifty-paise coin (ii) will not be a five-rupees coin. What is the probability that the product so found is a prime number? A jar contains 54 marbles each of which is in one of the colours blue.B Fig. How many white marbles does the jar contain? 9 A bag consists of 100 shirts of which 88 are good. (iii) A + B is same as A \ B in the language of set theory. (i) If one ball is drawn at random. (ii) If 6 more white balls are put in the bag.5 If the subsets A and B correspond to two events A and B of a random experiment and if the set S corresponds to the sample space S of the experiment.P (A + B) . One coin is drawn at random. B is said to occur if the event A occurs or the event B occurs or both A and B occur simultaneously.15. B) = P (A) + P (B) . (ii) If A and B are mutually exclusive events. 17. One shirt is drawn at random. what is the probability that it will be a white ball. Then n (A . The event A + B is said to occur if both the events A and B occur simultaneously.we get n (A . 12. The probability of drawing a blue marble is 1 and the probability of drawing a green 3 marble is 4 . 50 one-rupee coins. A trader A will accept only the shirt which are good. 12.

3 = 7 . B = " HTT. B) = 3 + 7 . HHT. n (S) 8 Now. (ii) If A1. Since A + B = A . THT.P (A + C) + P (A + B + C) . n (B) = 7. A2 . B and C are any 3 events associated with a sample space S. and hence n (A) = 3. n (S) = 8. A3 . A = " HTT. 12. Thus.6 Example 12. 8 310 10th Std. An are mutually exclusive events. ` P (A) = n (A) = 3. g . and hence n (B) = 7. B . find the probability that either exactly two tails or at least one head turn up. Using addition theorem on probability. An) = P (A1) + P (A2) + P (A3) + g + P (An) . THH . HHT. . HTT.P (A + B) where A + B mean only A and not B.P (A + B) . (iv) P (A + B ) = P (A) . A3. HTH. one can notice that A . A2 and A3 are three mutually exclusive events. g. Thus. then P (A1 . A2 . THT. However.12 Three coins are tossed simultaneously. P (A . the events A and B are not mutually exclusive. C) = P (A) + P (B) + P (C) . TTH. S A A+B B A+B A+B Fig. n (S) 8 Let B be the event of getting at least one head. then P (A1 .P (B + C) . 8 8 8 8 In the above problem. P (A + B) = P (A) = 3 . THT .Results (without proof) (i) If A.P (A + B) ` P (B) = Thus Note P (A . Hence. B) = P (B) = 7 .P (A + B) . TTT. P (A + B) = P (B) . Let A be the event of getting exactly two tails. B = B. 8 ` P (A or B) = P (A) + P (B) . HHH . Similarly A + B means only B and not A. TTH. Solution Now the sample space S = " HHH. (iii) If A1. A2. then P (A . we applied addition theorem on probability. HTH. Mathematics . TTH. A3) = P (A1) + P (A2) + P (A3) . THH. Thus.

24 and the probability that she will be selected in both. (5. since ` n (A + B) = 1 and P (A + B) = 1 . 5). only B Fig. 5). B) = P (A) + P (B) .24 and P (A + B) = 0. 6) .11 P ( she will be selected for admission in at least one of the two colleges) is P (A .0. 12. P (A . 1).16.24 .14 The probability that a girl will be selected for admission in a medical college is 0. (5. and P(A) = 6 . 36 36 36 36 Example 12. Probability 311 . (i) P (A) = 0.1 = 11 . A = "(5. n (A) = 6 . B) = P (A) + P (B) . 3).Example 12.11 = 0. 5) . ` Thus. 5). P (B) = 0. Let A be the event of getting 5 in the first throw. (2. B = "(1. Find the probability that at least one of the two throws comes up with the number 5 (use addition theorem). . Solution Let A be the event of getting selected in a medical college and B be the event of getting selected for admission in an engineering college. 5). Solution In rolling a die twice. n (S) = 36. (6. 36 ` By addition theorem.16 + 0. 5). The probability that she will be selected for admission in an engineering college is 0. is 0. .16. (3. (5. A+B A+B A+B Find the probability that she will be selected in at only A least one of the two colleges. (4. (5. 36 A and B are not mutually exclusive events . (i) (ii) A + B = "(5. . 5) . (5. 4).13 A die is thrown twice. (5. n (B) = 6 and P (B) = 6 .P (A + B) . 5).11. ` Thus.P (A + B) = 0. = 6 + 6 . the size of the sample space .29. 2). 36 Let B be the event of getting 5 in the second throw.7 Find the probability that she will be selected either in a medical college only or in an engineering college only.

n (A) = 5 . Find P(A). 2 2 Also P (C) = 1 P (B) = 1 ` 3 pj = 3 p . ` P (A . C .P (A + B) @ = ^0. ` Hence n (A) = 5. 2 2 2 4 Given that A. Then n (S) 13 a A and B are mutually exclusive events Let B be the event of getting the letter T. 2 2 Solution Let P (A) = p .16 .0. Now 312 10th Std. (repetition of letters is allowed) Solution There are 13 letters in the word ENTERTAINMENT.15 A letter is chosen at random from the letters of the word “ENTERTAINMENT”.11h = 0.P (A + B) @ + 6 P (B) . Find the probability that the chosen letter is a vowel or T. ` Hence P (A or B) = P (A) + P (B) = 5 + 3 = 8 . C) = P (A) + P (B) + P (C) and S = A . Example 12. ` n (S) = 13. B .11h + ^0. Now P (B) = 3 P (A) = 3 p . Mathematics P (S) = 1. .0.24 .16 Let A.18. B and C are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Let A be the event of getting a vowel. 13 13 13 Example 12.(ii) P ( she will be selected for admission in only one of the two colleges) = P (only A or only B) = P (A + B ) + P (A + B) = 6 P (A) . B . C be any three mutually exclusive and exhaustive events such that P (B) = 3 P (A) and P (C) = 1 P (B) . B. P (A) = n (S) 13 n (B) = 3 P (B) = n (B) = 3 .

P (B) = 13 . n (B) = 13. Hence. Solution Let S be the sample space. 52 52 52 52 Now P (A . One ball is drawn at random. 3 green and 2 red balls. B . 20 n (S) n (G) Probability of getting a green ball. n (B + C) = 13. B and G are mutually exclusive. n (S) = 52. P (G) = = 3 . P (C) = 26 . P (B) = = 5 . n (C) = 26. n (C + A) = 2 and n (A + B + C) = 1. Example 12.P (A + B) . n (A + B) = 1.18 A bag contains 10 white. ` P (A) = 4 . 20 n (S) n (B) Probability of getting a black ball. 20 20 20 10 Probability 313 a W. Find the probability that the ball drawn is white or black or green. ` n (S) = 20.P (B + C) . B and C be the events of getting a King. C) = P (A) + P (B) + P (C) .1 . P (W) = = 10 . 13 A card is drawn from a deck of 52 cards. Now. G) = P (W) + P (B) + P (G) = 10 + 5 + 3 = 9 . 5 black. P (W . Also.P (C + A) + P (A + B + C) = 4 + 13 + 26 .13 . Solution Let A. 52 52 52 P (A + B) = 1 .17 P (A) + P (B) + P (C) = 1 p+ 3 p+ 3 p = 1 2 4 4p + 6p + 3p = 4 p= 4 .That is. Let W. a Heart and a Red card respectively. B . 13 Example 12. 13 P (A) = 4 . n (A) = 4. B and G be the events of selecting a white. P (C + A) = 2 and P (A + B + C) = 1 .2 + 1 = 44 .16 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 = 7 . black and green ball respectively. 20 n (S) ` Probability of getting a white or black or green ball. Find the probability of getting a King or a Heart or a Red card. ( ( Thus. . n (W) Probability of getting a white ball. P (B + C) = 13 .

7. 5. 314 10th Std. 12. A two digit number is formed with the digits 2. If A and B are two events such that P (A) = 1 . If an item is chosen at random. then find 5 5 P (A . 10. A bag contains 50 bolts and 150 nuts. P (B) = 2 and P (A . 11. Half of the bolts and half of the nuts are rusted. 40% of the students participated in Mathematics-quiz. 4. 3. Find the probability that the ball drawn is white or red. 2 10 If a die is rolled twice. A basket contains 20 apples and 10 oranges out of which 5 apples and 3 oranges are rotten. B) . 6 red and 10 black balls. 5. 8. 2. P (A . Mathematics . A card is drawn at random from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. Find the probability that the sum of the numbers on the faces is neither divisible by 3 nor by 4. Two dice are rolled simultaneously. One number is chosen randomly from the integers 1 to 50. B) = 1. A box contains 10 white. Each individual letter of the word “ACCOMMODATION” is written in a piece of paper.then find 4 5 2 P (A + B) . A ball is drawn at random. Find (i) P (A + B) (ii) P (Al . find the probability that the fruit is either an apple or a good fruit. 9. find the probability that it is rusted or that it is a bolt. Find the probability that it will be a spade or a king. In a class. find the probability that (i) the letter ‘A’ or ‘O’ is selected (ii) the letter ‘M’ or ‘C’ is selected. 30% in Science-quiz and 10% in both the quiz programmes. 13.2 1.Exercise 12. and all 13 pieces of papers are placed in a jar. If a student is selected at random from the class. If A and B are mutually exclusive events such that P (A) = 3 and P (B) = 1 . Bl ) . find the probability that the student participated in Mathematics or Science or both quiz programmes. If P (A) = 1 . Find the probability that the number is divisible by 2 or 5. P (B) = 7 . Find the probability that it is divisible by 4 or 6. find the probability of getting an even number in the first time or a total of 8 . B) = 1 . 9 (repetition is allowed). 6. If a person takes out one fruit at random. If one piece of paper is selected at random from the jar.

25.6 There are 6 defective items in a sample of 20 items.25. the probability that it will get an award for efficient use of fuel is 0. B) = (A) 0.14. The probability that a new car will get an award for its design is 0. The probability of the problem being solved by all the three is 8 . Bhl@ 6. 3. P (B) = 0.35 and the probability that it will get both the awards is 0. then P(S) = (C) 1 (D) 1 (A) 0 (B) 1 8 2 If p is the probability of an event A. then P (A . then p satisfies (A) 0 1 p 1 1 (B) 0 # p # 1 (C) 0 # p 1 1 (D) 0 1 p # 1 Let A and B be any two events and S be the corresponding sample space. Find the probability that (i) it will get atleast one of the two awards. (B) P (A + B) . Find the 35 35 probability that the problem can be solved by atleast one of them. The probability that it is a non-defective item is (B) 0 (C) 3 (D) 2 (A) 7 10 10 3 Probability 315 7. then P^zh = (A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) 1 4 2 If S is the sample space of a random experiment.14 (D) 0.05 and P (A + B) = 0. If z is an impossible event.61 (B) 0. B and C is 2 . .14.P (A + B) (C) P (S) 5.15.P (B) (D) P6^ A . A and 15 7 C is 12 . The probability that a student will score centum in mathematics is 4 . 2. Choose the correct answer 1. Exercise 12. 5 3 7 The probability of the problem being solved by A and B is 8 .16 (C) 0. 2 and 3 respectively. 4. B and C can solve a problem are 4 . (ii) it will get only one of the awards. Then P (A + B) = (A) P (B) .3 15. The probability 5 that he will not score centum is (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (A) 1 5 5 5 5 If A and B are two events such that P (A) = 0. The probability that A. One item is drawn at random.

50. 4 white balls and 3 red balls. If A and B are mutually exclusive events and S is the sample space such that P (A) = 1 P (B) and S = A . B . the probability that it is not red is (A) 5 (B) 4 (C) 3 (D) 3 12 12 12 4 Two dice are thrown simultaneously. then the probability of success is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 0 3 3 316 10th Std. If a ball is selected at random. The probability of getting neither an ace nor a king card is (A) 2 (B) 11 (C) 4 (D) 8 13 13 13 13 The probability that a leap year will have 53 Fridays or 53 Saturdays is (A) 2 (B) 1 (C) 4 (D) 3 7 7 7 7 The probability that a non-leap year will have 53 Sundays and 53 Mondays is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0 7 7 7 The probability of selecting a queen of hearts when a card is drawn from a pack of 52 playing cards is (A) 1 (B) 16 52 52 Probability of sure event is (A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 1 13 (C) 100 (D) 1 26 (D) 0. P (A + B) = 0. 16. B and C are given by 1 . 9. The probability of getting a doublet is (A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) 2 36 3 6 3 A fair die is thrown once. 13. Mathematics .39 (B) 0. and 5 .8.25 (C) 0. 15. 18. 10. B . The probability of getting a prime or composite number is (A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 5 (D) 1 6 6 Probability of getting 3 heads or 3 tails in tossing a coin 3 times is (A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 1 8 4 8 2 A card is drawn from a pack of 52 cards at random. then P (A) = 3 1 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 3 (A) 4 2 4 8 The probabilities of three mutually exclusive events A.11 (D) 0.24 A bag contains 5 black balls. Then P^ A . 14. C h is 3 4 12 19 (B) 11 (C) 7 (D) 1 (A) 12 12 12 If P (A) = 0. 19.25.14 then P (neither A nor B) = (A) 0. 1 . If the probability of success is twice the probability of failure. P (B) = 0. 17. 20. 11. The outcome of a random experiment results in either success or failure.1 12.

15 6. one-one and onto function 10. a = 9. 1. 7.3 1. ^21. 5. .9h. (iii) range = ". (i) not a function (ii) function 2. 430 (ii) 3550 3. b = 15 f = "^5. c = 8. a = –2. 30 7. b = –5. {–5. (i) not a function 4.4 1.11h. f. (i) A (ii) z 3. 6} (iii) {4. 7. 1 . 2. (i) {b. . {–5. (i) 12 and 14 (ii) 13 and 15 9. x f (x) .1 . 8. (iv) one-one function (ii) co-domain = ". . 6h. C h (iv) ^ A + Bh \C (ii) {4. "^6. domain ={1. . c} (ii) z (iii) {a. 28} Exercise 1. ^18.7h. 2h.^7. 8.11. range is $. . range ={1. 5}.9. 9} 10. –2}. 4. –3}.1 2.1. 3. (i) 450 2. 12. 7. d = –1 7. 11. (i) function (ii) function 12.Answers 1. . 4. 1h. 9} (iv) bijective 3.9.13 . 4.13h. e. 8.11. ^9. 24. .^6. 5h. ^ A + C h (iii) A\^ B . 3. . 7.10. 4h. 300 8. –3. f is not a function from A to A 2 2 8.2 2. (i) {2. ^ A + Bh or ^ A\Bhl 5.7. not associative Exercise 1. . 6. (i) one-one function (ii) constant function (iii) one-one and onto function (ii) one-one function (iii) not a function 5. (i) Al . 35 (iii) 1850 5. . . s} 4. (i) {12} (ii) ^ A + Bh . (i) 10 (ii) 25 (iii) 15 Exercise 1.13 . (i) 6. 20. 9} (ii) {4. . SetS and FunctionS Exercise 1. 100 9. ^15.7. 6. x f (x) –1 2 6 1 –3 1 9 2 –5 6 15 4 (iii) not a function (iv) not a function (v) function –4 3 18 5 21 6 Answers 317 13. .^8.

6h. 1. (i) .P : 6. 1 . the general term is 5n +1 3.2 3. Mathematics . (or) 5 . 740 10. 35. with r = 5 (iii) G. 5.P.5 6 B 16 D (ii) 34 7 A 17 D (iii) 2 8 B 18 B 9 B 19 A 10 B 20 C 2. with r = 1 3 12 (v) G. with r = 1 (vi) not a G. the terms : 2 . (i) 260 (ii) 375 4. 55350 9.27. g (or) 9. r = 5 3 9 27 9. 9. (i) 16 1 A 11 A 4 3 6 4 10 6 (iii) 5 (iv) 2 3 3 C 13 C 4 A 14 D 5 A 15 A 8 5 (ii) –32 2 C 12 B 16. 2560 4. SequenceS and SerieS oF real numberS 1.14. ^6. 2. t15 = 55 6.. 5 . 8 terms 8. 2.243 (iii) .P. 78 (iv) –21. 4. `37. 15. 156 times 318 10th Std. 1 (or) 1. t12 = 23 2 9. 1 . 81. 1020 3. 2.P. 2 5 5 2 2 5 12 15 10. 1 . A. 2 Exercise 2. 1. 6. common difference is –5. with r = 2 (ii) G. –6 or –6.500 6. "^4.57 4. 6. (i) G. (i) 23 Exercise 1.1 3 9 . `91. 11. 15 days 14. 5 13. (i) n = 8 (ii) n = 11 6. g 5. 2.3 . 4h. 6. n = 10 5. x f (x) 15. 1.4 1. ^8. A. 1. (i) 17 21 3. 10. 13995 13. 18. 3625 bricks 16. 378. 3h.1 . (i) 1890 (ii) 50 5. 2. 7227 11.. A. 000 # ` 55 j 100 100 Exercise 2. 2. (i) 27 terms (ii) 34 terms First year : 100. . 10 or 10.3 1. 2 7 2. 2 . 2. 18 .P. with r = 2 (iv) G.1 (ii) . 3. 0. 6. –3240 39 + 40 + 41 + g 7. 5h. 7 14. . t17 = 84 10. ^10. 18432 (iii) 36. g 12. g 4. 256 5.P. 11 2. 75 Exercise 2. 3. 16.2 1. 3. .P. Not an arithmetic series 20. 2 (or) 2. 2. 2. r = 5 or 2 . t15 = 2200 16. 36 11 11 11 12.200 15. (i) 2850 (ii) 7875 6. g. 11. 1000` 105 j 13. 25 313 Exercise 2. 2. n = 5 7. 18 8. 50. 195.P. 6. 10 2.1. 1. t29 = 3 8. 4 11.15 4 4 (ii) –1536. 1. t27 = 109 12.P.

(i) 765 12 (ii) 5 (3 .` 4 j E 81 4 9 5 70 610 n . 5 8.x .1 . 5 6.000 (iii) 42 (iv) ` 800 (v) 253cm 2 (vi) 720 km Exercise 3. 1 7 4. (i) 4.1. 11 .4 x . q = 0.2 (ii) 0. – 2 (ii) 2 2 2 3 3 (vii) 1 . . – 4 5. 5 . 4 1.11x + 40. 1 . 1 . 2 9. 4 2 2 3 (iv) x . (i) k = 12 1 A 11 B 2 D 12 A (ii) k = 9 3 C 13 B 3.1 5. 3818 cm 7 B 17 B 2 6.^0.` 1 j E 6 3 3.125 (iii) x + 2x .1h . 22 23 31 Exercise 3. 1 3 2 10. number of mangoes 1023. 3 + 6 + 12 + g ` 10 j 81 3 9 15 ^ h 9.2 x + 1 5 2 2 x + 1 (vi) x2 . . – 2 (iii) (v) 15.1. (i) n = 6 (ii) n = 6 6. s15 = 5 4 . (i) 2 2 2 Answers 319 .1 . 3 (iv) 1 . 11 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.3 1. 2nd option. 11. (i) 1 .6 1.2.7n (ii) 1 .000 . s20 = 15 .7 5 6 D A 15 16 A B 3. algebra Exercise 3.1 n B 8. 4 . 0.5 27 s27 = 1 .2 81 .3x .3 (iii) 2 . 1 1. Remainder is .6. b = 11. 1 3. 91 Exercise 2.13. 3 2.3 x + 51 . .x . 1 2 3 (ii) ` 18. ` 14.1 . (i) x . (i) 23 . 75 . 29241 4 D 14 D 4.41 (vi) x . 1 (viii) . 2 .8x + 2 2 3. (i) 7.9 2. 3 .20 5.50 (v) 2x .1 3 . . (i) 1035 (ii) 4285 (iii) 2550 (iv) 17395 (v) 10630 (vi) 382500 4. 2 x + 2x .2. 2 . p =.1 (viii) x2 . .1h10 0. 6 . Remainder is 5 1.1) 2 23 20 (ii) 10 ^10 . 3 2 7.3x + 1 (ii) x . 201825 cm 9 B 19 C 3 8 B 18 A 10 B 20 A 1.15 (vi) 2 .1 10.4 (ii) 3x .211 3 9 9 2 8 32 32 3 2 55 .2x + 4 (iii) x + 4 (iv) x . 1 .1 (iv) 0. 7 2. a =. Exercise 2. r = 2 3 Exercise 2.5 x + 5 .3 x + 2 (vii) x (v) x 3 2 3 3 Exercise 3.1 @ . .4.` 1 j E 4 3 20 2.10 2. (i) 4 .

1) ^a + 1h 3 2 3 3 3.3h^2x + 1h (viii) ^ x .3a 2 (iii) 5c 3 (iv) 7xyz 2 2 (i) c . (i) x .11 x+1 4^3x + 4h 320 10th Std.2h^ x + 3x + 7h Exercise 3.10h (v) ^ x .y h^ x + x y + y h (vi) 2(x + 1) (x + 2) 1.3xy + 9y ) 9. (i) ^ x .6 1. 6. 264a b c 4 4 4 2 5. (i) 7x yz 2 3 (ii) x y (ii) x .7 1. (i) 4x .8h^2x .1h^ x .3) ^ x .3yh (x .1h (vii) (xi) x-1 x+1 ^ x + 1h ^2x .16x + 12 (ii) x + 1 (iii) 2^ x + 1h Exercise 3. (ii) (3x . (i) 3x 2.1h (iv) x + 3x + 9 x+3 2 (viii) (x + 3) (xii) (x – 2) 1.12h^ x .10 1 1 (iii) (iv) x+4 x-1 (iii) x + 1 x-5 (v) 2x + 1 x+2 (vi) 1 (iv) x . 12x y z 7.1h^ x + 2h^ x .10h (xii) ^ x + 2h^ x . a m+3 2 8.8 1.5h^ x + 8x + 4x .1h^ x + 1h^ x .1h^ x + 1h (ix) 4x ^2x + 1h (x) (a . 10xy^ x + 3yh^ x .5 (v) 1 (vi) 3x + 1 (vii) x .6 x-7 Exercise 3.1h 10.2h^ x .5 1. 6 (a .7) ^4x + 5h (v) (x – 2) ( x – 1) Exercise 3.1h^2x + 3h^2x .1 x (ii) x + 9 x-2 (ii) x . Mathematics . (i) (x – 3) (x – 2) ( x + 6) (i) ^ x + 1h (x + 2) (iv) x(x + 2) (5x + 1) 2 3 2 4 2 (ii) ^ x + 2x + 3h^ x + 2x + x + 2h 2 3 2 3 3 2 (iii) ^2x + x .9x + 5h 2.1h^ x .9 2 2 4 2 2 4 (iii) ^ x .4h (vii) ^ x .1) (a + 3) 3.1h ^ x + 1h 2 1 2 x -1 (vi) 2 x + 2 x + 2x + 4 (ii) (x) 1 (iii) ^ x .1 x .4h 2 (x) ^ x .x + 6h (ii) ^ x .3h^ x .2 (viii) ^ x .1h^4x . (i) (v) (ix) 2x + 3 x-4 x -x+1 ^ x .2h^ x + 3h 2 (vi) ^ x + 1h^ x + 2h^ x + 10h (ix) ^ x .5x . a b c 2 2 2 4.d 2 (iii) m + 3 (iv) x + 11 2 (v) x + 2y 2 3 2 2 (vi) 2x + 1 (vii) x .2yh^3x + 1h Exercise 3.1h (iii) ^ x . 2.21h (iv) ^ x .3h 2 (iv) ^ x . 420x ^3x + yh2 ^ x . x y z xy^ x + yh 2 3 3 2 (iv) x + 4 2.3x .Exercise 3.1h^ x + 6h^2x + 1h (xi) ^ x .1h^ x + x . (x + 4) (x .

1h^ x . 1 .3y .7. 3 m 2 24 cm 9. 9 and 6 5 km/hr 3. 49 years. (vii) .12 Exercise 3. 1 . b . (iii) $ 1 . 1 .3 + 5 . (i) x .70 (iv) a = 9. 2 2 2. 6 6 a 8 8 a Exercise 3. $.b) (b .3.5 1 2 2 (v) " 3 . 5 3.11 1 .769 h (viii) ). $. $7. (iv) $. 3 . 3 Exercise 3. 5. (i) x + 2x + 4 (v) x + 1 x-2 2. 2 . 1 (iv) (viii) 0 2 x-5 Exercise 3. . 2 (iii) $. 9.1. $5. 1 . 3 1 5 7.2h^3x + 1h 2 4 3 (ii) (x + 5) (x . '.3x + 2 2 2.4 . a . 2 (vi) ". (i) ". 12 days Speed of the first train = 20 km / hr and the speed of the second train = 15 km / hr Answers 321 . 6. 8 or 1 8 5.6. 2x + 2x + 5 2 x +2 1. b =. 6.2 . (vi) $ a + b .Exercise 3.b) 3 (b + c) 5 (iii) 2x . ". 3 10. 1 . 5 $.13 1. (i) 14 a b c (iv) x + y 2. 5 . 3 $.12 (ii) 17 (a . 3 .4 .c) (vi) 8 5 (x + y) 2 (a . 12 1 2 2 b a 2. 45km/hr 10.x + 1 2 (iv) 4x .y) (b .3 2 (iv) x + 12 x 3 4 5 3 2 2 (ii) (vi) 3. b = 9 (iii) a = 49.5 . 5 3 (ii) ' . 3 . 3 .14 1.5 . a . $. 5m or 10m.2b .b . 7 years 8. 2 x+1 4 x+4 5x . ' 12 .5) (x + 3) (v) ^2x + 3h^3x . 2.16 1. b = 49 (ii) a = 12.15 1. 2 . 3 . 3a a 2 ^9 + 769 h ^9 .c) (v) 11 x 9 y 2 2 3 (iii) x . 8.5z (vi) ^2x .11 (a + b) (x . b =. (i) 4x .2x + 3 2 (ii) 2x + 2x + 1 2 (iii) 3x . .7 x + 6 2x .` a + b j. b2 3 (v) $ 1 . 20 m.1. 4.b .2 .1 2 (iii) (vii) 2 (x + 4) x+3 2 x+1 4. 10m 7. (iv) $ a . 3 . 8 . 3 4.42. (ii) $ 2 .2h^2x + 1h Exercise 3.3 . (i) "4. (i) a =.

(i) x .r .16x + 9 = 0 5. (i) 3 # 4 (ii) 4. 2 # 4 . . 4x . 4 # 2 5. p k (iii) 5 .7x + 12 = 0 3. c 500 250 400 m .17 1. 1 # 10. f 200 250 300 400 3. 4 3 x . p = ! 3 5 Exercise 3. 0 9. 10 # 1. 2 # 3 (ii) 3 # 1 (iii) 3 # 3 (iv) 1 # 3 2. 3 # 10. 2 (ii) x .18 1. (i) 6. x + 3x .18 (iii) 3x .18x + 25 = 0 12. 0 3 2 (iv) 0. matriceS Exercise 4. 8 # 1 .19 11.1 400 500 1. Mathematics . (i) c m (ii) c m (iii) K 1 O 7. (v) 4 # 2 6 f8 13 p. 2 # 15. 3 # 2 . (i) 25 2 (ii) ! 3 (iii) – 5 or 1 (iv) Real and equal (v) Non-real (vi) Real (iv) 0 or 3 Exercise 3. x .18x + 1 = 0 10. 5 # 6.11x + 1 = 0 2 (ii) 27x .4 = 0 2 2 2 2 2. 1 # 15 J1 N J J1 9 N 1 N J K 2 2O 1 N K1 2 O K2 2O K 0 -3 O 1 2 1 0 K O (ii) K 0 2 O (iii) K 1 1 O 6.6x + 3 = 0 9.3x + 2 = 0 2 7. 15 # 2 . (i) 2 # 3 400 200 300 p . (i) 13 6 6. 6 # 5 . 10 # 3 . (i) x . ^ 6 8 13 h 4. a = !24 1 B 11 D 21 D 2 C 12 B 22 A 3 A 13 A 23 C 4 A 14 A 24 C 5 C 15 A 25 A 6 D 16 D 7 B 17 D 8 C 18 D 9 C 19 B 10 C 20 C 4.Exercise 3. 1 # 8 . (i) K 2 1 O K K1 1 O O 2 2 4 3 2 0 O K K3 O K3 3 O K O 3 K 0O L P 2 P L L2 2 P L2 P 2 4 5 nd rd (iii) 2 row and 3 column 8. (i) Real (ii) Non-real (iii) Real and equal 2. 15 # 1.6x + 2 = 0 (iii) 35 18 2 (ii) ! 1 3 4. k =.5 2 (ii) .29x + 25 = 0 8.25 8 (iii) 4x .30 # 1 . 1 # 30 . A = c m 3 1 0 322 10th Std.

5 m 10 After 2. ^ 5000 h 1650 III day 7. J 2 12 N K 5 . –3. AB = c 1 D 11 B 15 4 9 6 m . (–12. –1) 7. 2) 10.42 (iv) e o 21 -6 5. 12.45 14 5 1. 3 j. coordinate geometry Exercise 5. 5 12 0 17 6 Exercise 4. x = 3.2 13. (–2. 3 O KL 5 P TV DVD Video 55 27 20 11. `0. (i) 3 sq. units (ii) a = 13 2 11. z =. x = 2 . –2) 6. 0). f 1600 p II day . y =. (–4.11 m 22 12 (iii) 3 # 5 . e 4. f 72 30 25 47 33 18 J 2 13 K 5 Y = K 14 5 K -2 L 5 CD 16 store I 27 p stroe II 22 stroe III N O O O P 6.4 2 D 12 D 3 A 13 D 4 D 14 B 5 B 15 C 6 D 16 B 7 B 17 A 8 C 18 C 9 C 19 B 10 A 20 D 5. x = 4 . 3h.m.00p.3. (i) a = –3 (ii) 32 sq. (–24.2 x = 2. `. 3) 8. AB ! BA 11. 9 j 2 2 17 12. –3) 3. (–1.40 64 (iii) c m 22 1 4.–2) (ii) (2. 3 Answers 323 13 .18 14 3 -1 3.1 2.00p.1. units 2. 1) (ii) (0. 130 2 (iii) 19 sq. y =.Exercise 4. ^. `. X = K 11 O. a = 3. (i) ( 6 ) (ii) c 8 .–2) 2.5 O 7.3 2 0 . y =. x = –3. (i) (–2.3 1. 4 child 5 c 10 adult Before 2. (–6. x = –3. e o o 16 . 4 : 7 internally 130 .m. (i) 4 # 2 (ii) not defined 2. (2. j 7 1.2) 4. b = –4 8.2. y = –1.5 1750 I day 3. BA = c m.6 33 . 2 Exercise 5. 8) 9. units . (i) (5. Exercise 4.1 1. c m 5. y = 0 (iv) 2 # 2 12 .4 . (iii) a = 1. 5 : 2 internally .

2 .y . 5x + 3y + 8 = 0 17. 13. y = 5 . y-intercept 1 2 5 3 (ii) 2x . 1 . x + y .2 = 0 (ii) 9x .5 sq.4 y = –2 .13. x + 3y .5 = 0 15.2 = 0 7. . 15. a = –1 14.2 (iii) slope 2. 2x + y . 3 . 16 (iii) . 12. b = 6 (ii) not collinear (ii) k = 2 (ii) 8 sq.18 = 0 x-y-8 = 0 18.2 10. (i) .3y + 6 = 0 18. 9 12 5 2 3. (i) 3x + y . (i) 1 5.22 = 0 7. . 2x + y . (i) x . units (iii) 0c (iii) 1 (iii) collinear (iii) k = 7 3 (iii) 60. (3. Mathematics . (i) slope 1.1 2 11.5 3 5 14.3y . y-intercept 0 3 (iv) slope .3 2. (i) 4x + y . x . 6x + 11y .6 = 0. (i) 3. 2x + y = 0 (iii) 15x .5 = 0 17.6 h = 22 9 11. (i) k = 1 5. (i) collinear 4. x + 2y . 6x + 5y . x . y-intercept 1 (ii) slope 5 .4 . 3x . units.5 = 0 1. 5 units Exercise 5. x = –5 (iii) tan i = b a 7.9 10 2. a = 6 5.2 .4 = 0 (ii) 3 x .2y + 4 = 0 (iii) 4 5 9.6 = 0 19.4 . 3x . .6 = 0 1.8y . .5 = 0 12. (i) 3x + 2y .12 = 0 20. x .6 = 0 (ii) x + y + 6 = 0 9. 1 : 4 (iii) undefined (ii) 60c (ii) –2 6.5 4.7 = 0 14.66 = 0 Exercise 5. x + 2y . (i) 17 sq. (i) 1 3 4. 2x + 3y . 11 .4y + 20 = 0 16. 0 10. x + y .2y + 6 = 0 5.6 = 0 16. units 1. a = 5 6. y = –5 8. 2x + 3y . (i) 0 12.9 = 0 1 C 13 C 2 B 14 C 3 A 15 C 4 D 16 D 5 A 17 B 6 B 18 B 7 D 19 D 8 A 20 A 9 D 21 A 10 C 22 B 11 C 23 B 12 B 324 10th Std.5y + 27 = 0 11. p = 1.2 3 y + ^3 3 .3. 2) 19. 3 (ii) 30c (ii) undefined (iii) 1 13.2y + 3 = 0 (ii) –8.6 = 0 13. y-intercept . .10 = 0 .3 (ii) 7 4 8. (i) 45c (ii) 7. units Exercise 5. 2x + 3y . .y + 3 = 0 4. x + 3y . 1 sq.7h = 0 6. x + 2y . (i) 45c 3. 2x .1 7 4 Exercise 5.

1. 3 Minutes 4. 12cm.6 cm. Yes 2.2 1. 18 9.8cm (iii) 4 Exercise 6. 1. trigonometry Exercise 7. 5 6 m 12. 6.4cm. 10cm. (i) 4 (ii) 12 3.6 m 3.5cm 4. 1. 72 cm 7. (i) 7. 30 2 m 14.8m 7. (i) 9 (ii) 55 64 64 4. 174. 40 3 m 18. 3. 30c 8.8m Exercise 6.40 m 13.098 m 15.6. 60 m . (i) No (ii) No Exercise 7.1 1. 10. 65c 2.3 1.3 1 B 11 B 2 C 12 C 3 C 13 A 4 A 14 D 5 A 15 C 6 B 16 C 7 A 17 D 8 A 18 B 9 C 19 B 10 B 20 D Answers 325 .5cm (ii) 5.25cm 2 10. (i) x = 4cm. 3 XYZ (ii) 4. (i) 3 XWY. 30 cm 7. (i) 20cm (ii) 6cm (iii) 1 6.2 1. 40 cm 11. (i) Yes (ii) No 6. 87 m 3. z = 10cm (iii) x = 8.1 1. 7.4cm. 166. 64cm 12.5cm 11. 2. 140m 2 10. 90m Exercise 7.2m 9. y = 9cm (ii) x = 3. (i) 12 (ii) 1 Exercise 6.4 1 A 11 D 2 B 12 D 3 A 13 C 4 D 14 D 5 B 15 D 6 C 16 A 7 B 17 B 8 D 18 B 9 B 19 D 10 B 20 C 6. geometry Exercise 6. No 9. y = 2. 19 3 m 16. 6 cm 11. 40 m 6. 3 YWZ. Crow B 10. 3464 km 17.3km 13. (i) No (ii) Yes 3.5 cm 2. y = 2. 1912.7 m 5. 9m 2 8.

44. 26400 cm 3 13. d = 35 cm 6. 718 2 cm 3 Exercise 8. 550 cm2 . 288rcm2 3 2. 2 5. 704 cm2 13. 352 cm2 5.8 km 7.1r cm2 . h = 40 cm. 7.m 8.3 2.4 4 A 15 D 5 B 16 B 6 C 17 C 10. 3} 2. 11m 13 cm Exercise 8.2. h = 8 cm. 5} 1.1 7 A 18 B 8 B 19 D 3 A 14 B 9 D 20 A 10 C 21 D 11 C 22 C 2. 12 cm 9. 38. 750 lead shots 16. 57. 1 . h = 7 cm 8. C1 : C2 = 5 : 2 10. h = 28 cm 9.1 m 2 2. menSuration Exercise 8. 4158cm2 19.2. C1 : C2 = 9 : 25. 1034 sq. 23. 10 cones 15.5 cm. 120 kms 4. 2. 12 mins. {–2.1 1. 24 days 326 10th Std.8. 3050 2 cm 3 1. 3. x = 2 6. 3 . r = 3.40 Exercise 8. 10 cm 10. r = 2.29 Kg 20. ` 2 46 .5 litres 6. l = 30 cm 14.1 . y = 4.04 cm 12. 70 cm 17. 11. 1416 cm2 16. 8 cm 3 19. (i) y = 8 (ii) x = 6 5. 3 hrs. 4158 cm 11. 612r cm2 11.33r cm2 1. 1408. 1936 cm2 4.88r cm2 5. 1: 8 4. (i) `105 (ii) ` 45 (iv) $. (i) k = 15 (ii) ". 16 cm 14.5 cm 3. r = 36 cm. 1 cm 12. 2.2 (iii) "5. T1 : T2 = 9 : 25 20. 16 cm 3 14. 2} 6. 7. {–3. 2 cm 10. l = 12 1 B 12 D 2 C 13 D 3 3 15. 10. 18480 cm 5. 5} Exercise 10. 5 . ` 2640 7. 2 13 cm 18. (i) ". graph Exercise 10.1 cm 3 8. {–1. 1386 litres 13.2 3 3.5. 70r cm2 6. 704cm2 . 301 5 cm2 7 18. 11. 5cm 15. 314 2 cm 7 3 17. 4620 cm 3 7. No solution (ii) 11 3. {–2. Mathematics . h = 15 3 cm.8 cm 17. 1848cm 3 4. 7623cm 3. 4. 2 . V1: V2 = 20: 27 9. 3168 cm2 12.6 cm 16. 12.

20. 10. (i) 1 4 17. 3 (ii) 10. 6.3 13 13 Exercise 12. 25 16. 12 Exercise 11.74 15. 12 1. 8 25 5 8 11. (i) 22 25 4 5 9 3 4 3 5 17 20 24 25 Exercise 12.97 (ii) 4. 1 (ii) (ii) (ii) (ii) 6.2. 2.64 2. (i) 5. 3 10.76. 1.1 1. 20. 9. 1 10 2. 0. (i) 1 8. 70 7 C 8 B 9 A 10 B 12. 5 . 8 13 1 C 11 D 7. 1 3 36 18. (i) 7 13 8 9. 71 6.107 13. 4 14.69 10. (i) 5 9 Exercise 12. probability 1.08 12.2 5 D 15 B 6 C 14.06 11. 1. (i) 1 4 8. 416. (i) 0. 4 10 5 13 13. 1 4. StatiSticS Exercise 11. 6.99 19. 3. 1 3 5 (iii) 12 7. (i) 1 2 12. 101 9 D 19 A 10 A 20 B 105 3 B 13 C Answers 327 . 1159. 1 14. 53.38 kg 31.43 20. (i) 36. 7. (ii) 4 3 8 1 2 1 6 17 18 (iii) 1 2 4 3 11. 2 D 12 C 9 9. 36.44 (ii) 44. 5 9 5. 5 (ii) 4 5 4. 3. 15.11. 240400 18. 0. 2 5 . 3 19.61 4. 3 4 A 14 B 5 A 15 B 6 B 16 C 7 A 17 D 8 A 18 A 15.45 (ii) 0. 4800. 3 20 9 2 3 3. 20 8.24 5.1 3. 2 5. A is more consistent 1 D 11 D 2 A 12 B 3 C 13 C 4 B 14 D 3. (i) 1 (ii) 2 16. 39 15. 4 12. 5.5 17. (i) 1 (ii) 24 10 25 13.

Prove that the sequence " bn .1 2bc ( Ans : 1 ) a b+c 2bc 2 The quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 has no real roots and a + b + c < 0. if and only if an = n . leave a remainder of 1. 12. we get 3 as a quotient and 5 as a remainder.P.1 . x ! . If f (x) = 0 has no real roots.5x + 2 = 0.Miscellaneous problems (Not for examination) 1.1) and log10 (2 + 3) taken in that order constitute an A.1)(x . then f (x) has same sign for all x) (Ans: c < 0) Find all real numbers x such that f (x) = 2 x .2)(x . 5. Mathematics . is an A. 10. Find the two-digit number. 14.sin a + cos a + sec a .17r . cos x If we divide a two-digit number by the sum of its digits.17r . (Ans : 1210) 1 + 1 2 2 2 -2 Simplify the expression a b + c # (1 + b + c . Prove that 14r . 8.4x2 .3) (x .1 bn + 1 .P. g . 7.1 cos a sin a 2 11. n > 1. 13.a ) (a + b + c) 1 . is a G. then prove that f (2x) = .cot a .1 > 0. Find the sum of the first ten numbers appearing in both progressions.? ( Ans : x = log5 2 ) In a G. 3f (x) + 1 If f (x) = x . (Hint. 16. 21. Now if we divide that two-digit number by the product of its digits. Certain numbers appear in both arithmetic progressions 17. 3. 4.1.17r + 14 = 0.P. 17. with common ratio r. Find the sign of the number c. 9. where x1 and x2 are the roots of the equation Compute 1 2 2 1 2 3x1 + 5x1 x2 + 3x2 2 ( Ans : . g and 16.1 = .4) = 15 for real values of x. f (x) + 3 x+1 Solve the equation (x . 2 6 6 2 2 Prove that sin a + cos a + 3 sin a cos a = 1 3 2 Prove that sin x +2cos x = tan x + tan x + tan x + 1 . we get 4 as a quotient and 3 as a remainder. 6. c Ans : x = 5 ! 21 m 2 x x For what values of x do the three numbers log10 2 .4x + 6x1 x2 . 15.320 ) x . if and only if bn = bn .P. 21. 73 Prove the identity: cosec a . n > 1 . the sum of first four terms is equal to 15 and the sum 4 3 2 of their squares is equal to 85. being divided by 4. 328 10th Std. 2. log10 (2 . a + an + 1 Prove that the sequence " an . (Ans : 23) Find the sum of all two-digit numbers which.1 . ( Ans x 2 1 ) x -x+6 2 x 2 4 8 Solve the equation 1 + a + a + g + a =(1 + a) (1 + a )(1 + a ) (1 + a ) (Ans: x = 15) 2 3 2 3 6x x .

26. (Ans: Number of camels is 36 ) After covering a distance of 30 km with a uniform speed there is some defect in a train engine and therefore.) If sin i + sin2 i + sin3 i = 1. 20. 5 j ) 19. (Ans : 192 3 sq. 2! 3! 4! n 1 where n! = 1 # 2 # 3 # g # n . Find the height of the mountain. A rectangular pool has the dimensions 40 ft × 20 ft. Find the area of the triangle formed by the centers of these disks. 4) and (1.18. 24.1 . Twice the square root of the number of herd had gone to mountains and the remaining 15 camels were seen on the bank of a river. then find the coordinates of the remaining angular points.366 km ) If the opposite angular points of a square are (3. Consequently. after ascending 1000 m towards the mountain up a slope of 30c inclination.inches) Six circular discs each having radius 8 inches are placed on the floor in a circular fashion so that in the center area we could place a seventh disk touching all six of these disks exactly at one point each and each disk is touching two other disks one point each on both sides.ft of concrete to be used to create a border of uniform width and depth around the pool. Show that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 29. its speed is reduced to 4 of its original speed. the sum of first and the last term is 66. ( Ans : 6 ) 25. A tower subtends an angle a at a point A in the plane of its base and the angle of depression of the foot of the tower at a height b just above A is b . Find the area formed by these six disks in the center. 30. the train would have reached 9 minutes earlier. 28. prove that l2 m2 (l2 + m2 + 3) = 1 At the foot of a mountain the elevation of its summit is 45c. the elevation is found to be 60c. inches) From a cyliderical piece of wood of radius 4 cm and height 5cm. = 1(n + 1) ! (n + 1) ! Miscellaneous Problems 329 . the train reaches 5 its destination late by 45 minutes.P.Prove that the total surface area of the remaining 2 wood is 76r cm . 2 2 2 2 In an increasing G. a right circular cone with same base radius and height 3 cms is carved out. 21. ( Ans: Speed of the train is 30 km/hr and the distance of the journey is 120 km. 27. Prove that the height of the tower is b cot b tan a. how wide the border will be ? (Ans : 3 ft) Simplify (1 + 2 ) (1 + 2 ) (1 + 2 ) g (1 + 2 ) . then prove that cos6 . Had it happened after covering 18 kilo metres more. If the border is to have a depth of 3 inches and if we use all of the concrete.sin i = l and sec i .4 cos4 i + 8 cos2 i = 4 If cosec i . 2 3 4 n (Ans : (n + 1) (n + 2) ) 6 There are three circular disks such that two of them has radius r inches and the third has radius 2r inches. 1 j and `. We have exactly 99 cu. 23. 31. –1). Find the speed of the train and the distance of journey. These three disks are placed in a plane such that each of its boundary has exactly one point in common with any other boundary. One-fourths of a herd of camels was seen in the forest. Find the total number of camels. ( Ans: ` 9 . ( Ans: 1. 22. (Ans : 2 2 r2 sq. the product of the second and the last but one is 128 and the sum of the terms is 126.cos i = m. How many terms are there in the progression.

I. Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning. P. Knight. 6. 13. Lothar Redlin. G. Dover Publications James Stewart.K. Cambridge University Press 2007 Ann Xavier Gantert.S Publishers 2009 D. Peter J.R. Surjeet Publications 2007 H. 11. S. Thomson Brooks/Cole.st-and. January 2007 http://www-history. Pearson Publishing. 2. Publications 2010 H..Miroshin. Dover Publications Imre Lakatos.Plaksenko.S. Saleem Watson. N. Collection of Problems and Exercises in Mathematics.R. A. Knight.Hall.html V. Challenging Problems in Algebra. Higher Algebra.mcs.Dorokhin.Govorov. College Algebra. 3. 7. 9. 14. An Introduction. Posamentier.Bazhora. Mir Publications 1990 G. The Moscow Puzzles: 359 Mathematical Recreations. 330 10th Std. 12.ac. Eccles. Jan 2010 Michael Sullivan.Dybov. Charles T.Reference 1. Salkind. Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery. Richard G. Elementary Algebra for Schools. 10.uk/BiogIndex. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Mathematics . Problems in Mathematics. Sage Publications 1984 Alfred S. Challenging Problems in Geometry.Smirnova. College Algebra. Matrix Algebra.B. Charles T.Hall. S.T. Posamentier. 2009 Boris A Kordemsky. Z. 8. Salkind. 5. January 1976 Krishnan Namboodiri. Dover Publications Alfred S.S. 4. S. Amsco School Publications Inc. Niemi.

30 Hrs Difficulty Level Level Difficult Average Easy Percentage of Marks 12 28 60 331 .QUESTION PAPER DESIGN Subject : Mathematics Class : X Time: 2.30 Hrs Max marks: 100 Weightage of marks to Learning Objectives Objectives Knowledge Understanding Application Skill Total Percentage 19 31 23 27 100 Weightage to the form of Questions Form of Questions Number of Questions Marks Time (in minutes) Section-A Very Short Answer (Objective) 15 15 20 Section-B Short Answer 10 20 35 Section-C Long Answer 9 45 65 Section-D Very Long Answer 2 20 30 Total 36 100 2.

Sections and Options Sections A Question numbers From To 1 15 Number of Questions 15 16 30th Question is compulsory and is in ‘either’ ‘or’ type 16 45th Question is compulsory and is in ‘either’ ‘or’ type 2 This Question is in ‘either’ ‘or’ type 2 This Question is in ‘either’ ‘or’ type Questions to be answered 15 B 16 30 10 C 31 45 9 46 D 47 1 1 Weightage to Content Chapter No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total Chapter Sets and Functions Sequences and series of Real Numbers Algebra Matrices Coordinate Geometry Geometry Trigonometry Mensuration Practical Geometry Graphs Statistics Probability 1 1 15 1 1 16 1 1 16 4 1 mark 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 Number of Questions 2 marks 5 marks 10 marks 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 Total Marks 15 14 21 10 16 9 11 15 20 20 8 8 167 332 .

The order of the first 14 questions should be in the order of the chapters in the Text Book. 5. 2. Exercises and Framed questions Sec A (1 mark) From the Examples given in the Text Book From the Exercises given in the Text Book Framed questions from specified chapters Total --10 (1) 5 (1) 15 (1) Sec B (2 marks) 6 (2) 8 (2) 2 (2) 16 (2) Sec C (5 marks) 6 (5) 8 (5) 2 (5) 16 (5) Sec D (10 marks) 1 (10) 3 (10) --4 (10) Total Marks 52 96 19 167 Percentage 31 58 11 100 � Numbers in brackets indicate the marks for each question. 5.A 1. 3. results. Answer both the questions. 30 should be framed based on the examples and problems given in the exercises from any two different chapters of 2.B 1. 6 questions are from the examples and 8 questions are from the exercises. 3. 3. Each question carries five marks. Question no. Section . Section . 6 questions are from the examples and 8 questions are from the exercises. 46(b) and 47(b) should be from the examples given in the text book. 5 and 8. Answer any 8 questions from the first 14 questions. 2.Distribution of Marks and Questions towards Examples. 5 and 8. The order of the first 14 questions should be in the order of the chapters in the Text Book. Out of 15 questions. 3. 45 is compulsory and is in either or type. Each question carries ten marks. Out of first 14 questions. 3. Questions numbered 30(a).D 1.C 1. 30(b). This section contains two questions numbered 46 and 47. Section . 2. Each question carries one mark. The two questions under question no. one from the chapter 9 and the other from the chapter 10. 45(a) and 45(b) should be framed based on the examples and problems given in the exercises from the chapters 2. Each question carries two marks. each with two alternatives (‘either’ ‘or’ type ) from the same chapter. The two questions under question no. 47(a). 45 should be framed based on the examples and problems given in the exercises from any two different chapters of 2. The remaining 5 questions should be framed from the five different chapters 2. 4. All the 15 questions numbered 1 to 15 are multiple choice questions each with 4 distractors and all are compulsory. Question No. 10 questions are from the multiple choice questions given in the Text Book. 4. 30 is compulsory and is in either or type. 333 . One of the questions 46(a). 5 and 8 subject to the condition that all of them should be from different chapters. The remaining three questions should be from the exercises. examples and exercises. 6. Out of first 14 questions. 2. 5. 3. 3. 9 questions are to be answered from the questions numbered 31 to 45. 10 questions are to be answered from the questions numbered 16 to 30. Answer any 9 questions from the first 14 questions. 6 and 7 on the basis of the Text Book theorems. Section .

. � Other numbers indicate the marks.X Std.334 BLUE PRINT . Knowledge SA 2(1) 2(1) 2(1) 4(2) 2(1) 1(1) 1(1) 2(1) 5(1) 2(1) 5(1) 1(1) 2(1) 5(1) 1(1) 2(1) 2(1) 5(1) 10(2) 10(2) 5(1) 2(1) 10(5) 20(4) 5(5) 16(8) 2(1) 5(1) 30(6) 1(1) 1(1) 8(8) 6(3) 25(5) 5(1) 40(4) 1(1) 2(1) 5(1) 1(1) 5(1) 5(1) 1(1) 5(1) 1(1) 1(1) 2(1) 5(1) 5(1) 1(1) 1(1) 5(1) 5(1) 5(1) 2(1) 5(1) LA VLA VSA SA LA VLA VSA SA LA VLA VSA SA LA Understanding Application Skill Total VLA marks 15 14 21 10 16 9 11 15 20 20 8 8 167 Chapter / Objective VSA Sets and Functions 1(1) Sequences and Series of Real Numbers Algebra Matrices Coordinate Geometry Geometry Trigonometry Mensuration 1(1) Practical Geometry Graphs Statistics Probability Total 2(2) � Numbers in brackets indicate the number of questions.

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