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# METU

Phasors

Phasors

^ V cos (wt + θ) ^ V sin (wt + θ)

**by Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAİOĞLU Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department
**

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 1

METU

Phasors

j Operator

Definition

**j is a vector with zero real (horizontal) component and unity (imaginary) component
**

j=0+ j1 or j=1 90o

1.0

90o

j

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 2 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 2

METU

Phasors

j Operator

Definition

j

90o

**Multiplication of a vector by j operator shifts (rotates) the angle of vector by 90o j=1 90o
**

150o

Example

Multiply the phasor 4 60o by j

j

60o

**4 60o x j = 4 60o x 1 90o = 4 x1 60o + 90o = 4 150o
**

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 3 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 3

METU

Phasors

Properties of j Operator

Powers of j

j2 = 1 90o x 1 90o = 1 180o = - 1

90o

j

**j3 = 1 270o = 1 -90 = - j j4 = 1 4x90o = 1 360o = 1 1/j = 1 / 1 90o = 1 -90o = - j
**

J2 = -1 J4 = 1

360o 180o

- 90o

j3 = 1 / j = -j

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 4 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 4

Dr. SEVAİOĞLU. Prof. Prof. Dr. SEVAİOĞLU.METU Phasors Phasors Euler’s Identity e jθ = cos θ + j sin θ Graphical Representaion │e jθ │ = │ cos θ + j sin θ │ = √ │ cosθ │2 + │ j sin θ │2 =1 sin θ ^ 1. Page 5 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. O. O. Page 5 .0 θ z x cos θ y x2 + y2 = z2 z = √ x2 + y2 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

Switzerland. Dr. Page 6 . not far from Basel. that Leonard was brought up.METU Phasors (1707-1783) Swiss Mathematician Leonhard Euler was born in Basel. Prof. In 1736 Euler published Mechanica which provided a major advance in mechanics. as we have mentioned. Euler made substantial contributions to differential geometry. Many unpublished results by Euler in this area were rediscovered by Gauss. O. Paul Euler had. investigating the theory of surfaces and curvature of surfaces. but the family moved to Riehen when he was one year old and it was in Riehen. some mathematical training and he was able to teach his son elementary mathematics along with other subjects. Leonhard EULER EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. SEVAİOĞLU. Other geometric investigations led him to fundamental ideas in topology such as the Euler characteristic of a polyhedron.

Page 7 .METU Phasors Phasors Euler’s Identity ^ jθ ^ V e = V (cos θ + j sin θ) ^ ^ V │e jθ │ = V │ cos θ + j sin θ │ ^ = V √ cos2 θ + sin2 θ ^ =V ^ Graphical Representaion ^ j sin θ V V ^ θ ^ cos θ V EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Prof. SEVAİOĞLU. Dr. O. O. Page 7 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Dr. Prof. SEVAİOĞLU.

Prof. Let θ be a linear function of time t. O. Dr. Prof.METU Phasors Phasors Graphical Representaion Definition of Basic Terms Now.e. i. O. Dr. rotate it clockwise θ = wt w=2πf = 2 x π x 50 = 314 Radians/sec ( f = 50 Hz ) 1 Radian = 360 o / (2 π) = 57. SEVAİOĞLU.29 o EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Page 8 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. SEVAİOĞLU. Page 8 .

Page 9 . SEVAİOĞLU. O. Dr.METU Phasors Phasors Euler’s Identity Graphical Representaion ^ V = Magnitude = cos θ + j sin θ ^ ^ V e jwt = V (cos wt + j sin wt) jθ e V (t) = V sin θ = V sin wt ^ ^ V(t) θ ^ V (t) = V sin θ V ^ ^ V ^ θ V (t) = V cos θ V (t) = V cos θ wt (radians) ^ θ = wt V (t) = V cos wt ^ ^ EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Prof.

i. O. Dr. SEVAİOĞLU. Prof. Dr. Page 10 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Prof. SEVAİOĞLU. θ = wt │t = 0 + φ = φ ^ ^ ^ φ ^ V cos φ Initial phase angle = φ EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.e. O. Page 10 . ^ V (t) = V cos (wt + φ) │t = 0 In other words the phasor is at an angular position φ at t = 0 The phasor on the RHS is then represented mathematically by the following notations.METU Phasors Symbolic Representation Graphical Representaion V sin θ = V sin φ V = Magnitude Mathematical Notation Now let a phasor be located at an angular position φ initially.

O. SEVAİOĞLU. Dr. Page 11 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Prof. θ( t1 ) = w t1 + φ Initial phase angle = φ ^ ^ Angle swept during t = t1 wt1 φ Then the horizontal component becomes. the phasor will be at an angular position wt1 + φ at t = t1 ^ V cos θ = V cos (wt1 + φ) ^ EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. O. Prof. Page 11 . Dr. V (t) ^ = V cos (wt + φ) │t = t1 ^ = V cos (wt1 + φ) In other words. SEVAİOĞLU.METU Phasors Angular Displacement Graphical Representaion V sin θ = V sin (wt1 + φ) Total Angular Displacement Total angular displacement at time t = t1 may then be expresssed as.

Prof. O. O. Page 12 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. SEVAİOĞLU. ^ V e jθ( t1 ) = ^ e j w t1 + φ V ^ sin θ = ^ sin (wt + φ) V V 1 ^ ^ Angle swept during t = t1 Initial phase angle = φ wt1 φ ^ V e j w t1 + φ Amplitude Phase angle ^ V φ ^ V cos (wt1 + φ) EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Dr. Page 12 . SEVAİOĞLU. Prof.METU Phasors Mathematical Notation Notation Graphical Representaion The phasor on the RHS may be represented mathematically as. Dr.

Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU. Dr. O. r = √ a 2 + b2 θ = Tan-1 ( b / a ) θ b r θ a EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Page 13 .METU Phasors Operations with Phasors Rule -1 Graphical Representaion A simple way of converting a complex number written in rectangular coordinates into polar (phasor) coordinates Let the complex number written in rectangular coordinates be a+jb Then a+jb= r where. SEVAİOĞLU. Page 13 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Prof. Prof.

O.2 Graphical Representaion A simple way of converting a complex number written in polar (phasor) coordinates into rectangular coordinates Let the complex number written in polar (phasor) coordinates be r θ b r θ a Then r θ =a+jb where. Dr. Dr. O.METU Phasors Operations with Phasors Rule . SEVAİOĞLU. Prof. SEVAİOĞLU. Page 14 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Prof. Page 14 . a = r cos θ b = r sin θ EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

Page 15 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. SEVAİOĞLU.METU Phasors Polar and Rectangular Representations Conversion Rules Polar Representation Rectangular Representation a = r cos θ. θ = Tan-1(b / a) a+jb b r θ a EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. SEVAİOĞLU. Prof. O. b = r sin θ r θ r = √ a2 + b2 . Dr. O. Prof. Page 15 . Dr.

Prof. θ =Tan-1(b/a) + rtot θtot EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Page 16 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.METU Phasors Addition and Subtraction of Phasors Method Is there an easier way of doing that ? Suppose that two phasors are to be added r1 θ 1 + r2 θ 2 = rtot θ tot • First convert the phasors into rectangular form. SEVAİOĞLU. Dr. • and then perform addition or subtraction Polar Representation a = r cosθ. O. O. Prof. Dr. b =r sin θ Rectangular Representation r1 θ 1 r2 θ 2 a1 + j b 1 a2 + j b 2 atot + j btot r = √ a2 + b2 . SEVAİOĞLU. Page 16 .

Dr. Page 17 . Prof. Dr.METU Phasors Multiplication and Division of Phasors Method Suppose that two phasors are to be multiplied ( a1 + j b1 ) x ( a2 + jb2 ) = aresult + j bresult • First convert the phasors into polar form. θ =Tan-1(b/a) Polar Representation a1 + j b 1 a2 + j b 2 X r1 θ 1 r2 θ 2 r1 r 2 θ 1 + θ 2 a = r cos θ. SEVAİOĞLU. • and then perform multiplication and division Rectangular Representation r = √ a2 + b2 . Prof. Page 17 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. O. b = r sinθ aresult + j bresult EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. SEVAİOĞLU. O.

5 -1.0 IS(t) = I cos wt + + VS(t) = ^ cos wt V R Ohm’s Law ^ V ^ I 1. SEVAİOĞLU. Dr. Page 18 _ Angle (Radians . O.5 0 -0.METU Phasors ^ Waveform Representation of Resistive Circuits Waveform Representation of Resistive Circuits Consider the resistive circuit shown on the RHS ^ Vs(t) = V cos wt ^ Is(t) = Vs(t) / R ^ = Vs cos wt / R ^ = I cos wt where.0 -1.5 1. Prof.0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. ^ ^ I =V/R 2.

5 Angle (Radians) ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 = R Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 = Tan-1 ( 0 / R ) = 0 0 -0. Prof. Dr.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of Resistive Circuits Phasor Representation of Resistive Circuits Consider the resistive circuit shown on the RHS Ohm’s Law Waveform Representation Phasor Representation ^ Vs(t) = V cos ( wt + 0o ) ^ Is(t) = I cos ( wt + 0o ) 2. Page 19 .0 Vs = V Is = I ^ ^ 0 Z = V 0 ^ I 0 =Z 0 =R ^ 0 ^ V ^ I 1. SEVAİOĞLU.0 0. O.5 ^ I ^ V EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.5 -1.0 -1.5 1.

0 ^ I(t) = I sin wt + + V(t) = V cos wt ^ L ^ V ^ I 1.90o) = coswt cos 90 + sin wt sin 90 2. ^ ^ V = Lw I ^ V Angle (Radians) 5 -1.5 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.90o) cos (wt . ^ ^ Is(t) = I sin wt = I cos (wt .5 0 -0. Page 20 _ 6 . SEVAİOĞLU. Dr. O.METU Phasors Waveform Representation of Inductive Circuits Waveform Representation of Inductive Circuits Consider the inductive circuit shown on the RHS Vs(t) = L dI(t) / dt Let now.0 1 2 3 4 ^ ^ Vs(t) = L dI(t) / dt = L w I cos wt = V cos wt where. Prof.5 -1.0 0.5 1.

5 -1.90o) 2.0 Vs = V Is = I ^ ^ 0 -90o Z= V 0 ^ I -90o = Z 90 o = Lw 90 o ^ ^ V ^ I 1.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of Inductive Circuits Phasor Representation of Inductive Circuits Waveform Representation Phasor Representation Ohm’s Law ^ Vs(t) = V cos wt ^ Is(t) = I cos (wt .5 1.0 -1. O. Page 21 .5 1 2 3 4 Z = Lw 90 o = j wL Angle (Radians) ^ I -90o 5 6 ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 + (wL)2 = wL Z ^ V = Tan-1 ( wL / 0 ) = 90 o ^ ^ V=LwI EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.0 0. Prof. Dr. SEVAİOĞLU.5 0 -0.

5 -1.C w V ^ I ^ = I cos ( wt + 90o) cos (wt + 90o) = coswt cos 90 .0 0. Dr.5 0 -0. Page 22 _ .METU Phasors I(t) =^ cos( wt+90o) I Waveform Representation of Capacitive Circuits Waveform Representation of Capacitive Circuits Consider the capacitive circuit shown on the RHS ^ Vs(t) = V cos wt ^ Is(t) = C d/dt Vs(t) = .sin wt sin 90 + + V(t) = V cos wt ^ C sin wt ^ V 1. SEVAİOĞLU.0 -1. O.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Angle (Radians) where. ^ ^ I =CwV ^ I EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Prof.5 1.

Prof. SEVAİOĞLU.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of Capacitive Circuits Phasor Representation of Capacitive Circuits Waveform Representation Phasor Representation ^ Vs(t) = V cos wt ^ I(t) = I cos ( wt + 90o) ^ V 1. O.5 -1.0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Vs = V ^ ^ Ohm’s Law 0 Z= Is = I 90o V 0 ^ I 90o = Z -90 o = 1 / Cw -90 o ^ ^ I 90o Z = 1 / jwC = 1 .5 0 -0.5 1.j / Cw ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 + (1/Cw)2 = 1 / Cw Z = Tan-1 ( -Cw / 0 ) = -90 o Angle (Radians) ^ I ^ V ^ ^ I=CwV EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Dr.90 o / Cw = .0 -1. Page 23 .

I(t) ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 + (wL)2 Z = Tan-1 ( wL / R) = θ Z = √ R2 + (wL)2 θ I = V 0 / (√ R2 + (wL)2 θ ) ^ ^ = I^ -θ ^ ^ ^ + I(t) = I cos (wt . Prof. Dr.θ) + V(t) = V cos wt ^ ^ L wt (Radians) I = V / √ R2 + (wL)2 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. SEVAİOĞLU. Page 24 _ . O.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of AC Circuits Phasor Representation of R-L Circuits Consider the R-L circuit shown below ^ Vs = V Z = R + j wL 0 V(t).

I(t) Z = R + (1 / jwC) = R – j (1 / wC) ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 + (1 / wC)2 Z = Tan-1 (1 / (wCR)) = θ < 0 Z = √ R2 + (1/wC)2 θ I = V 0 / (√ R2 + (1 / wC)2 -θ ) ^ ^ = I^ θ ^ ^ ^ + I(t) = I cos (wt + θ) V(t) = V cos wt ^ ^ C wt (Radians) I = V / √ R2 + (1 / wC)2 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Dr. O.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of AC Circuits Phasor Representation of R-C Circuits Consider the R-C circuit shown below Vs = V ^ 0 V(t). Prof. SEVAİOĞLU. Page 25 _ + .

13o EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.53.13o Z =R Z = √ R2 + (wL)2 Tan-1 ( wL / R ) X >0 ^ V ^ I . Dr. Page 26 . O. Prof. SEVAİOĞLU.METU Phasors R-L Element R j wL Phasor Representation of AC Circuit Elements Resistance R R-C Element R -j /wC ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 = R Z = Tan-1 (0 / R) = 0 0 X =0 ^ V ^ I 0o ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 + (wL)2 Z = Tan-1 ( wL / R ) ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 + (1/wC)2 Z = Tan-1 ( (1/wC) / R ) Z =√ R2 + (1/wC)2 -Tan-1((1/wC)/R ) X <0 ^ V ^ I 53.

1/wC) 2 + ^ I(t) = I cos (wt . SEVAİOĞLU. Dr. Page 27 _ .1/wC)2 θ ) ^ = I -θ ^ ^ ^ ^ I = V / √ R2 + (wL . O.1/wC)2 ^ Ohm’s Law EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.1/wC) ⎢Z ⎢ = √ Z = R2 + (wL.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of R-L-C Circuits Phasor Representation of R-L-C Circuits Consider the R-L-C circuit shown on the RHS Vs = V ^ 0 1/j = -j R L Z = R + jwL .θ) ^ V(t) = V cos wt C + Tan-1 ((wL . Prof.1/(wC))/R) = θ I = V 0 / (√ R2 + (wL .j / wC = R + j (wL.

1.1/wC)2 = √ 22 + 1.θ) V(t) = 220 √ 2 cos (wt + 0o) + Vs = V ^ C = 2 mF 0 = 2 + j 1.01 H Solve the R-L-C circuit shown on the RHS for current phasor + ^ I(t) = I cos (wt .j 1.55 Ω ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 + (wL.j / wC = .j / (314 x 2 x 10-3) = .14 .580 φ = 0o w = 2 π f =2 x 3.098 Ω Z = Tan-1 ((wL .098 17.14 x 50 = 314 radians /sec XL = j wL = j 0.55 / 2) = θ = 17. Page 28 _ Z = R + jwL . O.01 x 314 = j 3.59 Ω ^ Z = 2.580 Ω θ > 0. (Inductive) EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.1/(wC))/R) = Tan-1 (1.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of R-L-C Circuits R-L-C Circuits R=2Ω L = 0.552 = 2. SEVAİOĞLU. Prof.14 Ω XC = 1 / (jwC) = .59) Ω . Dr.j / wC = 2 + j(3.

098 17.58 0 ^ ^ ^ = I -θ = 148. SEVAİOĞLU. Dr.01 H Solve the R-L-C circuit shown on the RHS for current phasor ^ I = V 0 / ( √ R2 + (wL . O.1/wC)2 θ ) = 220 √2 0 / 2.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of R-L-C Circuits Example R=2Ω L = 0. Prof.58 o Amp + ^ I(t) = I cos (wt .30 -17. Page 29 .θ) V(t) = 220 √ 2 cos (wt + 0o) + _ C = 2 mF φ = 0o EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

58o I = 148.58 o + I(t) = 148.01 H .58 o Amp 220 √2 R=2Ω L = 0. Dr.30 -17. Page 30 .17. Prof.58 o Amp ^ V = 220 √2 Volts . O.30 cos (wt – 17.58o) V(t) = 220 √ 2 cos (wt + 0o) 148.30 -17.30 C = 2 mF Angle (Radians) + _ V(t) I(t) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 φ= 0o EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.METU Phasors Phasor Representation of R-L-C Circuits Example (Continued) Draw the voltage and current phasors and waveforms V = 220 √2 0 Volts (peak) I = 148. SEVAİOĞLU.17.

13 o Z = 5 53. Prof.53. SEVAİOĞLU.METU Phasors Example Problem R=3Ω I(t) Solve the circuit on the RHS for current waveform by using the phasor method + + Solution Waveform Representation Phasor Representation ^ V(t) = V cos wt = 220 x √ 2 cos wt j wL = jX =4Ω ^ Vs(t) = V cos wt = 220 x √2 cos wt ^ Vs = V 0 = 220 x √2 0 Volts ⎢Z ⎢ = √ R2 + X2 =√ 32 + 42 = 5 Ω Z = Tan-1 ( 4 / 3 ) = 53. Dr. Page 31 _ . O.13o Amp EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.22 .13o Ω I = 220 x √2 0 5 53.13o Amp = 62.

22 .22 ^ I V(t) I(t) .13o 0 Volts . O.5 -1. Prof.METU Phasors Example Problem I = 62.22 cos ( wt 53.53.53.0 0.0 -1.13o 2.5 1.0 1.13o Amp 5 6 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.5 1 2 3 4 Angle (Radians) 53. Page 32 .13o) Phasor Representation ^ Vs = V 0 = 220 x √2 I = 62.53. Dr. SEVAİOĞLU.13o Amp Vs = V 0 = 220 x √2 0 ^ Draw the waveforms and phasors for the previous problem Waveform Representation ^ Vs(t) = V cos wt = 220 x √2 cos wt I(t) = 62.5 0 -0.

Page 33 . Dr. Prof.1847 Ω 10-3 ) R1= 1 Ω C=1 mF R2 = 2 Ω ZL = jwL = j 314 x 0.854239 Ω L=0.91019 + j 2.314 ) = 1 / (1.91019 – j 0.9540 -17.43o = 0.1847 + 1/1) = 1 /( 1 + j0.14 Ω ZC // R1 = 1 / ( 1/Zc + 1/R1 ) = 1 / (1/-j3.14 = 0.METU Phasors Example A Calculate the equivalent impedance seen between the terminals A and B of the AC circuit given on the RHS (w = 314 rad / sec) First. SEVAİOĞLU.91019 – j 0.43o ) = 0.04814 17. let us calculate impedances ZC = 1 / ( jwC ) = 1 / ( j314 x 1x = .01 = j 3. O.j 3.285761 + j 3.01 H B EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.285761 Ω ( ZC // R1 ) + ZL = 0.

O.44o = 1.31o (0.6870 Ω EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.9958 x 2 72.31o // 2 0 = 2.91019 +2) + j 2.9958 72.8542 Ω B a = r cos θ. Page 34 .854239) // 2 = 2.91019 + j 2. let us calculate: ( Req + j ZLeq ) // R2 ( Req + j ZLeq ) // R2 = (0.99160 72.07685 44. b = r sinθ 1.87 Ω Req= 0. SEVAİOĞLU.46966 27. Prof.METU Phasors Example (Continued) (Continued) A Now.854239 5.299 + j 0.31o = 4.91019 Ω R2 = 2 Ω XLeq = 2. Dr.

Page 35 . Dr. Prof. so that maximum power is transferred from source to the load + Vs X3 X2 R4 B EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.METU Phasors Maximum Power Transfer Condition in AC Circuits Question Given Circuit Load Impedance: ZL = RL + j XL R1 A What must be the value of the impedance ZL of the load in the AC circuit shown on the RHS. SEVAİOĞLU. O.

Page 36 . Prof.METU Phasors Maximum Power Transfer Condition in AC Circuits Solution First simplify the AC circuit to its Thevenin Equivalent Form as shown on the RHS Given Circuit R1 A Load Impedance ZL = RL + jXL Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Zeq = Req + jXeq A Load Impedance ZL = RL + jXL + Vs X3 R4 X2 + Veq B B EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Dr. SEVAİOĞLU. O.

+ XL )2 ) Load Impedance: ZL = RL + jXL Zeq = Req + jXeq A + Veq B Load Impedance ZL = RL + jXL EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.+ RL )2 + ( Xeq. P = RL Veq.+ ZL ))2 Hence.2 / ( Zeq. / Ztotal )2 = ( Veq. Prof. O. Page 37 .2 RL / (( Req.+ ZL )2 = Veq. SEVAİOĞLU. Dr.METU Phasors Maximum Power Transfer Condition in AC Circuits Solution (Continued) Then the problem reduces to the determination of the load impedance in the simplified circuit shown on the RHS P = RL I 2 I2 = ( Veq. / ( Zeq.

2 RL ( -2 (Xeq.METU Phasors Maximum Power Transfer Condition in AC Circuits Solution (Continued) Load Impedance: ZL = RL + jXL Zeq = Req + jXeq A Let us now first maximize P wrt XL by differentiating P with respect to XL dP / dXL = 0 d/dXL Veq. = .2 RL ( -2 (Xeq. Page 38 . Prof. SEVAİOĞLU. O. + XL ) = 0 The above expression becomes zero when.XL + Veq B EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.+ XL )2 ]2 = 0 or Veq.+ RL )2 + ( Xeq.2 RL / (( Req. + XL) / [( Req. Dr.+ XL )2 ) = 0 or Veq. Xeq.+ RL )2 + ( Xeq.

SEVAİOĞLU.+ RL )2 + Veq B EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.2 / ( Req. power becomes the same as that for the DC case. O. Dr. P = Veq.+ RL )2 + ( Xeq.2 RL / (( Req. Page 39 . Prof.+ XL )2 ) =0 P = RL Veq.METU Phasors Maximum Power Transfer Condition in AC Circuits Solution (Continued) Load Impedance: ZL = RL + jXL Zeq = Req + jXeq A Hence.

+ RL )2 – 2 ( Req. d = ( Req.+ RL )2 = 0 Veq.+ RL ) Veq. = RL or (c) ZL = Zeq * EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Page 40 . SEVAİOĞLU.2 RL / ( Req.METU Phasors Maximum Power Transfer Condition in AC Circuits Solution (Continued) Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Zeq = Req + jXeq A Load Impedance Now.+ RL ) RL ] = 0 ( Req. Dr. O.2 [( Req.2 [( Req.+ RL ) – 2 RL = 0 Req. Req.Xeq (b) Load resistance must be equal to the Thevenin Equivalent Resistance of the simplified circuit.+ RL )2 – 2 ( Req.+ RL )2 – 2 ( Req.2 RL ] / d2 = 0 where. Prof. we must maximize P wrt RL by differentiating P with respect to RL dP / dRL = 0 d/dRL Veq.+ RL )2 or Veq.+ RL ) RL = 0 ( Req. = RL + Veq B Z L = Zeq* Conclusions: For maximum power transfer. (a) XL = .

Page 41 . • Repeat this solution procedure for all sources • Then sum up all the solutions found I3 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. SEVAİOĞLU. Prof. O. Dr.METU Phasors The Principle of Superposition in AC Circuits Question I1 IS Solve the AC circuit shown on the RHS by using The Principle of Superposition I5 Vs + I6 I4 I2 Solution • Kill all sources except one. • Restore back the killed sources and kill another source. • Solve the resulting circuit.

Prof. O. Page 42 . Dr. SEVAİOĞLU.METU Phasors The Principle of Superposition in AC Circuits Procedure SC I5 Vs + I6 I1 IS SC I2 I3 I2 I6 SC I5 I1 + Vs OC I2 I4 I4 I3 I7 I2 I1 I5 Vs + I6 I4 SC OC I2 I3 I7 I2 EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

sequentially and solve the resulting ccts Find the current IZ2 flowing in impedance Z2 in the following circuit by using the Principle of Superposition + Vs Z1 Is I Z2 Z2 + Vs Z1 OC I1 Z2 I1 = Vs / ( Z1 + Z2 ) This method is particularly useful when there are sources with different frequencies EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.METU Phasors Example 1 Question Solution Kill all sources except one. O. Dr. SEVAİOĞLU. Prof. Page 43 .

O. Prof. sequentially and solve the resulting ccts Z1 SC I2 Is Z2 I2 = ( IS / Z2 ) / [( 1 / Z1 ) + ( 1 / Z2 ) ] EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Dr. Page 44 . SEVAİOĞLU.METU Phasors Example 1 Solution Sum up the resulting currents I Z2 = I1 + I2 Kill all sources except one.

13o Amp This method is particularly useful when there are sources with different frequencies EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Page 45 . O. sequentially and solve the resulting ccts Z1 = 1 – j1 Ω Find the steady-state current waveform flowing in impedance Z1 in the following circuit by using the Principle of Superposition Z1 = 1 – j1 Ω + OC Vs= 310 coswt I1 Z2 = 2 + j5 Ω I Z2 Z2 = 2 + j5 Ω + Vs= 310 coswt Is= 100 A (DC) I1 = Vs 0 / ( Z1 + Z2 ) = Vs 0 / (1 –j1 +2 + j5) = Vs 0 / ( 3 + j4 ) = Vs 0 / 5 53.13o = 62 -53. SEVAİOĞLU. Dr.METU Phasors Example 2. Sources with Mixed Frequencies Question Kill all sources except one.13o = 310 / 5 -53. Prof.

METU Phasors Example 2. Dr. SEVAİOĞLU. respectively IZ2 = 62 -53. Prof. Page 46 .13o + 100 (DC) Amp EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. O. Sources with Mixed Frequencies Solution I 2= 0 Kill all sources except one sequentially and solve the resulting ccts OC Is= 100 A (DC) I2 Z2 = 2 Ω Z1 = 1 – j1 Ω I2 Z2 = 2 + j5 Ω Is= 100 A (DC) I 2 = 100 Amp (DC) Sum up the resulting currents I Z2 = I1 + I2 Please note that the capacitor and inductor in the above cct behave as OC and SC.

13o + 100 (DC) Amp ^ I = 62 Amp Vs1(t) =310 cos wt I DC = 100 Amp Let us now draw the current and voltage waveforms Z1 = 1 – j1 Ω I2 + Z2 = 2 + j5 Ω Is= 100 A (DC) + Vs= 310 coswt 0 π/2 π 3π/2 2π Angle (Radians) EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Prof. Dr. Sources with Mixed Frequencies Waveforms IZ2 = 62 -53.METU Phasors Example 2. O. Page 47 . SEVAİOĞLU.

. Prof. Dr. Page 48 . SEVAİOĞLU. EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. O..METU Phasors Any questions please .