Content Strategy Step 1: A student I worked with had great difficulty understanding and computing basic mathematical procedures
and problem solving. She would get confused with terminology, affecting her ability to compute the problem. For example, she had trouble remembering the differences between real, rational, integers, non-integers and etc. She also had trouble remembering the rules regarding each of those types of numbers. She also had trouble with geometry terminology such as identifying shapes and their properties. This is what I will focus on for part of this assignment. This student also had difficulty deciphering mathematical word problems and consequently problem solving. I will focus on this for the other part of the assignment. Step 2 and 3: Strategy One: Graphic Organizers • GOs connect content in a meaningful way to help students gain a clearer understanding of the material (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, as cited in Baxendrall, 2003). • GOs help students maintain the information over time (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, as cited in Baxendrall, 2003). • GOs heighten student interest when coherently and consistently followed • GOs can be used with both teacher- and student-directed approaches
What it is: Graphic Organizers are tools or processes to build word knowledge by relating similarities of meaning to the definition of a word. This can relate to any subject—math, history, literature, etc. They can help students to organize content in a way that is meaningful for them. These can be hierarchical diagrams, sequence charts, and/or but not limited to compare and contrast charts. How it works: Students can organize their thoughts and also develop a great way to learn and memorize terminology and the relationships between various terminology. For whom it might be appropriate: Graphic Organizers can be used at any age. Younger students would use simple ones whereas older students might use more complex charts. Online resources for each strategy http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/ http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/drafke/graphic%20organizers.htm
Your evaluation of the practicality of the strategy I think this strategy is very practical, especially for a student who is having trouble grasping the relationships between various terminology. It is a great strategy for students who learn visually, but seeing what they are trying to understand directly laid out in front of them in a meaningful manner.
Content area: Mathematics Illinois State Learning Standard: • STATE GOAL 9: Use geometric methods to analyze, categorize and draw conclusions about points, lines, planes and space. o Demonstrate and apply geometric concepts involving points, lines, planes and space. Grade Level: First Learning Objectives: Students will be able to identify a square, circle, rectangle, triangle and know the types of shapes such as quadrilateral, parallelogram etc. Students will be able to name the properties for each shape. Activity: Teacher will give a brief overview of the types of shapes, asking for volunteers to describe their properties (number of sides, etc). Teacher will then hand out cards with terms such as quadrilateral on it as well as terms such as square, triangle, rhombus etc. Students, with help from each other, will organize themselves into a physical hierarchical chart with the cards they have been given. A student with a learning difficulty can participate because it is a group effort, and organized in a way that will help the student learn the terms and understand the relationships between the terms. To help a student or students with a learning difficulty, those students could have previously made their own chart with the assistance of the teacher. Rationale: I chose this strategy because it is a great way for a student, in this case the student I spoke of earlier, to concretely demonstrate what he/she is having difficulty with. It is also a great strategy for students to relate similarities of meaning to the definition of a word, in this case the definition of geometric terms. Strategy Two: Mnemonics • A set of strategies designed to help students improve their memory of new information. 9.A.1a Identify related two- and three-dimensional shapes including circle-sphere, square-cube, triangle-pyramid, rectanglerectangular prism and their basic properties.
Link new information to prior knowledge through the use of visual and/or acoustic cues. a. What it is: Mnemonics is a set of strategies designed to help students improve their memory of new information. Mnemonics link new information to prior knowledge through the use of visual and/or acoustic cues.
How it works Mnemonics assist students with acquiring information in the least amount of time (Lenz, Ellis & Scanlon, 1996). Mnemonics enhance student retention and learning through the systematic use of effective teaching variables. For whom it might be appropriate Mnemonics can be used for all ages, it only needs to be adapted depending on grade level and the level the students are at academically and developmentally. Students who have trouble with memorization might really benefit from a strategy such as this one. Online resources for each strategy http://www.fun-with-words.com/mnemonics.html http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/EdpsyBook/Edpsy6/edpsy6_ mnemonics.htm http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/mnemonics-for-geometry.html
Your evaluation of the practicality of the strategy I think this strategy is quite practical in many settings. For example the use of acronyms in mathematics is quite useful. (ex: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally)
Content area: Mathematics Illinois State Learning Standard:
STATE GOAL 6: Demonstrate and apply a knowledge and sense of numbers, including numeration and operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), patterns, ratios and proportions. o B. Investigate, represent and solve problems using number facts, operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) and their properties, algorithms and relationships. 6.B.1 Solve one- and two-step problems with whole numbers using addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Grade Level: First Learning objectives: Students will be able to read and understand addition and subtraction word problems. Activity: Teacher will ask students guiding questions to help them come up with their own word problems about classmates, school, and extracurricular activities. This will help engage the students in solving word problems because they will relate directly to them. Students will take turns demonstrating the steps either verbally or on the board. For example, one student might identify the numbers listed in the problem and write them on the board. Another student might come up and circle the numbers that are relevant to the problem. Another student might come up and identify the key words in the problem that can clue one in to what type of problem it is, (Mnemonics, keyword: more than, less than, etc.). Students who have particular difficulty with word problems such as the student I spoke of in Step 1, should already have been introduced to the keyword strategy in more detail so they could fully participate in the activity. Rationale: I chose this strategy because it helps students improve their memory of new information. Students will only have been recently introduced to word problems and mnemonics can help students acclimate themselves to this new information. This strategy is good for all students, but especially students who have learning difficulties in this area.
Reference Section: Lenz, Ellis & Scanlon, 1996 Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, as cited in Baxendrall, 2003 http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/ http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/drafke/graphic%20organizers.htm http://www.fun-with-words.com/mnemonics.html http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/EdpsyBook/Edpsy6/edpsy6_mnemonics.ht m http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/mnemonics-for-geometry.html