The Oldest Representations of Wheeled Vehicles in Central and Southeastern Europe Author(s): Stephen Foltiny Source: American Journal

of Archaeology, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Jan., 1959), pp. 53-58 Published by: Archaeological Institute of America Stable URL: Accessed: 06/01/2010 07:12
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Oldest in

of Representations Central







has been conducting excavationsin Budakalasz, I5 km. north of Budapest,near the bank of the field work,' Danube.In the courseof this successful the largestknown cemeteryof the Late Neolithic Baden-Pecel culture was discovered. The site yielded332 gravesof that cultureup to the begin-

claybowl (which was likewisecovered the wideby mouthedbowl) lay on its side (pl. I9, fig. 2; diameter of mouth 9.2 and 94, height 8.3 cm.). A flake and a coreof jasperwere also found with the two vesselsunderthe same bowl. Both the interiorand the exteriorof the wagon and the pedestalled bowl were paintedred. The wagonitselfwas standingon its wheelswhen ning of I956, and the excavations are not yet finIt an important find was it was discovered. has four solid wheels, height ished. In September, I953, width 34 cm. They representthe clay model unearthed in the grave Nr. I77: a clay model of a 3.9, the of wheels which were carvedof a single piece of wagon with four solid wheels which represents earliest explicit evidence for wheeled vehicles in wood, with a central hub. On the Budakalasz Centraland Southeastern Europe (pl. i9, fig. 6). wheels the hub is indicatedby a round, flat proThe chariotwas publishedin preliminary reports,2 trusion(pl. 19,figs. 4, 6; diameter 0.65cm.). There and referredto' severaltimes, but its significance were no tireson thesewheels,but their edges were concerningthe economicand social life, as well as simplyroundedoff. Judgingfrom this construction, culturewas the wheelsmay have revolvedon axlesfixed to the some religiousrites,of the Baden-Pecel Therefore is desirable bottomof the car. Each pair of wheels was joined it not sufficiently emphasized. re- by a single solid axle which is indicatedby two to attempta new analysisand a comprehensive at the sametime, parallellines on the bottom of the model (pl. I9, view of the Budakalasz wagonand, to deal with the problem of the earliestwheeled fig. 3). Betweenthe two axles,four pairsof parallel verticallines representthe planks of the platform. vehiclesin Centraland Southeastern Europe. The handle of the wagon-shaped vessel served I as a pole.Soproni6 assumedthat the sidesof the car The grave Nr. 177 in which our wagon model body were woven of wicker. (The height of the keno- whole claymodelis 8.I, the width of mouth8.9 and was found was a symbolicgrave,4a so-called It containedno skeleton and no ashes. the length of mouth 9.2 cm.) taphion.6 As far as grave Nr. 177 is concerned,it can be The chariot, in the shape of a scoop with four was evidentlyburiedundera wide-mouthed taken for granted that it belonged to the Badenwheels, clay bowl (pl. 19, fig. i; diameter of mouth 28.3, Pecel culture. As the excavator7convincingly height io.8 cm.). Closeto the wagon, a pedestalled pointedout, all threeceramictypesfound in it are
Since I952, the Museum of Szentendre, Hungary,
S. Soproni, "Negyezer eves rezkori temet6 Budakaliszon" (Four thousand years old Copper Age cemetery at Budakalasz) let is Tudomany (Budapest 1953) 1416-20. J. Banner, "Die P&eler Kultur," Archaeologia Hungarica 35 (1956) (quoted infra as Banner 1956) III-28. Cf. S. Soproni, A negyezereves agyagszeker (Budapest 1956). 2 "Prehistoriccart excavated in Hungary," Hungarian Bulletin, Budapest, Nov. 5, 1953. S. Soproni, "A budakalaszi kocsi" ("Un char cultuel de Budakalasz") Folia Archaeologica Budapest 6 (i954) 29-36 in Hungarian, I98-99 French summary (quoted infra as Soproni 1954). 3 Franz Hancar, "Das Pferd in prahistorischer und friiher historischer Zeit," Wiener Beitrige zur Kulturgeschichte und Linguistik II (1955) (quoted infra as Hancar 1955) 38, 41,
412, 441, 553. V. G. Childe, "The Diffusion of Wheeled Vehicles," Ethnographisch-ArchdologischeForschungen, Berlin 2 (1954) I4. F. Fiilep, in Vestnik Drevnei Istorii (Moscow I955) I, I55-56. M. Gimbutas, "The Prehistory of Eastern Europe," Part I, BASPR 20 (Cambridge I956) (quoted infra as Gimbutas 1956) 123. Banner 1956, 126-28. F. Hancar, "Kulturelement Pferd. Wertung und Einbau," Saeculum 7 (Freiburg-Miinchen I956) 445. 4Soproni 1954, 29-30. Banner I956, I28, 209. 5 M. Ebert, Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte 6 (I926) 326. Cf. RE 9, pt. i (1921) 17I-72. 6 Soproni I954, 32. T ibidem 30.



[AJA 63

characteristic that culture.The red-painted of scoop Baden assemblagewith the Middle Helladic and discovered in grave I58 of the same cemetery (pl. 19, with the Catacombgrave culture2'north of the fig. 5) offers the best analogy to our model. Instead Black Sea. In consideringall this evidence,I beof wheels, it has four knob-like feet. lieve that we may place the Budakalaszwagon at
It is interesting to note that, independently of Soproni, E. Beninger8 also stressed the relationship between the shaping of our wagon and the Ossarn pottery,9 and thus the native character of this wagon-shaped vessel within the Baden-Pecelculture. As to the chronology of this Late Neolithic culture, opinions vary. Sopronil? and Banner"l placed its beginning in the 24th or 23rd century B.C.,and they assigned a span of at least 250-300years to its duration. According to Pittionil2 and Grbic,18 it
started around
2200 B.C.

the beginning of the 20th century B.C.


dated Early

Baden-Pecel in the area of the Sudeten lands to 2Io0. Milojcic15 and Hancar16 are of the same opinion, but they prefer a dating closer to 2000 B.C. Childe"7 dated the cultural stage to which the chariot of Budakalasz can be assigned between 2200 and I8oo. Ehrich18 did not discuss the problems of absolute chronology but, on his chronological table, he seems to advocate an early date for the beginning of the
Baden-Pecel culture (before 2000

because this

Concerning the construction of our chariot, Hancar22 pointedto the wagonsof the RoyalCemeat Ur. In what is called the "King'sgrave"23 tery two four-wheeled chariots cameto light andanother similarcar was found in grave PG I232.24All the wheelswereof solidwood,and thosein the "King's grave"had tires; therewere no tireson the wheels in grave PG I232, but the edges were simply roundedoff as in Budakalasz. However,in Ur the wheelswere made of threepiecesof wood clamped struts.The body of the car togetherby transverse was fixed directlyto the axle-treeitself. From the frontof eachwagonprojected pole.The axle-holes a were circular,but the centralpart of the axle-tree was in all probabilitysquare (implying that the wheels must have revolvedfreely on the axle). No evidencewas availableaboutthe arrangements for The diameter the wheelsvariedbetween of turning. 60 and o00 cm., the length of the axles between
cm. 70 and oo00 to those of other early wagons in the Near East.25

group runs partly parallel with Early Helladic III. Gimbutas19claims the contemporaneityof the Early Baden, First Northern20and Jordansmiihl cultures. According to her, these cultural groups appeared at about the beginning of the second millennium B.C., but she emphasizes the relationship of the Late

As to the dimensions,they seem to correspond

Soproni26 comparedthe wagon of Budakalasz with the cart of Storezevaja in Mogila27 the lower areaand with the wooden wheel of BeckDnieper

8 HanZar I955, 38 n. 102 a. continuation during the Early Bronze Age. Cf. Banner 1956, 9 The Ossarn type is a sub-group of the Baden-P&cel culture 236-37. 20 In German this culture is called "Funnel-necked-beaker in Austria. Cf. R. Pittioni, Urgeschichte des 6sterreichischen Raumes (Wien 1954) (quoted infra as Pittioni I954) 202-08. culture." Cf. V. G. Childe, "The Origin of Neolithic Culture in Northern Europe," Antiquity 23 (1949) 129-35, and Gimbutas 11Banner 1956, 242-47. L?Soproni I954, 30. 12 Pittioni 1954, 274. I956, 124 sqq. 13 M. Grbic, "Preclassical Pottery in the Central Balkans," 21 This hypothesis has recently been criticized by Banner AIA 6I (1957) I38. 1956, 142-43, but according to Hancar 1955, 97, the beginning 14 Oswald Menghin, "Europa und einige angrenzende Gebiete of the Catacomb grave culture is around 2I00 B.c. ausser dem igiischen und italischen Kulturkreis," Handbuch 22 Hancar I955, 38 (note 102 a) and 420 sq. 23 C. L. Woolley, Ur Excavations, Vol. II: The der Archdologie, II Textbd. (Miinchen 1954) (quoted infra as Royal CemeMenghin 1954) 158. tery, Publicationsof the Joint Expedition of the British Museum 15 Vladimir Milojci6, Chronologic der juingeren Steinzeit and of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania to MesoMittel- und Suidosteuropas(Berlin I949) 94. potamia (1934) 64. Cf. V. Christian,Altertumskundedes Zweistx Hancar romlandes (Leipzig 1940) 227-28. 1955, 38, 412. 17Childe 1954, 10, 14. 24Woolley, op.cit. (supra n. 23) o08-09. 25 Cf. L.Ch.Watelin-S. Langdon, Excavations at 18 R. W. Ehrich, "The Relative Chronology of Southeastern Kish, Oxford and Central Europe in the Neolithic Period," in Relative Chron- University-Field Museum Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia, ologies in Old World Archaeology, edited by R. W. Ehrich vol. IV, 1925-1930 (Paris 1934) 30-34, plate 23:I-2. For (Chicago I954) o08-29, chronological table 126. However, details see V. G. Childe, "The First Waggons and Carts-from Ehrich places the Baden site of Homolka in Bohemia to a period the Tigris to the Severn," ProcPS for I951 (quoted infra as which is only "slightly earlier" than 800oB.C. ("Homolka: A Childe 1951) Childe 1954, and Hancar 1955, 420 sq. I77-94. Fortified Village in Bohemia," Archaeology 9 [X956] 240). 2 Soproni 1954, 31. 19 Gimbutas 1956, 122-23. The dating of the Baden-P&el 27 Childe 1954, 10 (dated between 2400-2000 B.C.). Hancar complex on p. 211, fig. 126, seems to be somewhat late. This I955, II8, 412 (assigned to 2200 - 100 B.c.). Gimbutas I956, may be valid for the very late Baden assemblage or for its 78, 92.




dorf;28each of them are made of a single solid piece of wood. The diameter of the wheels of Storezevaja Mogila is about 50 cm., that of the Beckdorf wheel 65.5 and 67 cm. The latter's edges were rounded off, and the wheel had a round hub. According to Childe29and Hancar,30representations of chariots from the following sites can be considered as approximately contemporary with Ziischen82 the Budakalasz model: Palaikastro,31 and On the early polychrome car from PalaiKiiltepe.33 kastro there is no trace of a pole. The axles were fixed to the bottom of the clay model. Childe (I954, 6) treated the Long Stone Cist with porthole slab at Ziischen as parallel to the similar Stone Cists in Southern Sweden and so as contemporary with the late Bell-Beaker culture of Central Europe but, he conceded, it may be somewhat earlier. The cart figures on the Ziischen cist walls are a little ambiguous. Though the oxen yoked in a pair to a pole are carved clearly, the wheels are represented only by cup-marks, and not by circles. However, the Budakalasz wagon seems to guarantee the oxcarts at Ziischen. The first vehicles represented on seals of the style used by the Assyrian merchant colony at Kiiltepe (Kanes) were still of the heavy Sumerian type, but they were drawn by horses.34Traces of wheel im28 A. Cassau, "Ein friihbronzezeitlicheroder endsteinzeitlicher Wagenradfundin Beckdorf, Kr. Stade," Nachrichtenaus Niedersachsens Urgeschichte 12 (Hannover 1938) 63-71. S. Schneider, "Die pollenanalythische Altersbestimmung des Wagenrades von Beckdorf, Kr. Stade," ibidem 72-77. J. G. D. Clark, Prehistoric Europe, The Economic Basis (New York 1952) (quoted infra as Clark 1952) 308. This wheel was dated to an early stage of the Northern Bronze Age on the strength of pollen analysis. It is, however, not certain when it was deposited in the bog. 29 Childe 1954, o0and 14.

prints were discovered in the soft andesite stone of the main street at Kiiltepe35 and at Fraktin.36

As to the purpose of the chariots, Childe37 supposed that the first economic use of wheeled vehicles was for transporting bulky foodstuffs from fields to settlements. In the case of the Budakalasz wagon, Hancar38stressed that it was undoubtedly used for heavy transport. In this connection he mentioned that bulky stone pieces were found in the graves of the Baden-Pecel cemetery at Budakalasz. As Banner reported, smaller or greater stone slabs or stone pieces were unearthed in 53 of the first 115 graves published so far.39In many cases, a layer of stones (0.25-0.50 cubic meter) lay over the skeletons. In grave Nr. 32, the skeleton was surrounded by 10 flat stone slabs (the height of the slabs varied between 20 and 35 cm.). On the other hand, it should be remembered that the earliest vehicles were often hearsesor ceremonial cars. Around 3000 B.C. burial of wheeled vehicles the was firmly associatedwith royal funerals in Mesopotamia40and, later, in other areas of the Old World. In the Sumerian language, we find separatewords41 for the transport wagon, for the throne wagon42 and for the chariot of the king, the latter being
He also mentioned that certain seal impressions found on Old Assyrian tablets of the 20th and i9th centuries seem to illustrate that wagons were used by Assyrians in the pre-Hittite period of Asia Minor. A drawing of one of the pertinent seal impressions is found in Eduard Meyer'sbook Reich und Kultur der Chettiter that, as Dr. Lewy writes, certain texts speak of "two wagons (full of) straw" which seems to indicate that the designation "wagon of straw" was used in much the same sense as in our times: the expression "a wagon full of straw" indicating the dimensions of a load of straw in much the same way as one speaks of "so and so many sacks of wheat."
84Childe (Berlin 1914) 54 (cf. Hancar 1955, pl. 23 a-b). It is interesting

1955, 412.

Sir Arthur Evans, The Palace of Minos at Knossos, Vol. IV, Part II (London 1935) 807-09, fig. 787. This clay model has been referred to MM I a. 82 Jorg Lechler, "Neues iiber Pferd und Wagen in der Steinzeit und Bronzezeit," Mannus 25 (1933) 123-36; see 131-32

and fig. 20, 22-24. Lechler claimed some carvings on a slab in 36 K. Bittel, "Beobachtungen in the cist of Ziischen near Fritzlar, Hessen, as representationsof Kappadokien," AA (Berlin oxcarts. According to him, the solid wheels revolved on a fixed 1939) 548-68. See p. 566. The age of the road made of andesite axle, in a hub. Childe first (ProcPS 1951) rejected this assump- stones near Fraktin is not certain. It is probably of a later date tion, but later (x954) he accepted it. Menghin 1954, 39. Herbert than the site of Kiiltepe. 37 Childe 1951, 177. Kuhn, Die Felsbilder Europas (Stuttgart 1952) 153-54 and 287, 8 Hancar assigned the oxcarts at Ziischen to a period between 1800-1400. 1955, 38. 39 Banner 1956, I9I-92. The data on the other While this date is somewhat late, the representationson the 217 graves are Ziischen cist walls are in all probabilitylater than the Budakalasz not yet published. model. 40 Childe 1951, 194. V. G. Childe, "Rotary motion," in Singer, 8 Thanks are due to Miss Hetty Goldman, Institute for Holmyard and Hall, A History of Technology, Vol. I (Oxford Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J., who called my attention to 1954) (quoted infra as Childe 1954 b) 187-215. Cf. 209. the presidential address delivered before the American Oriental 41Hancar 1955, 429. Dr. Julius Lewy, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 42 Cf. A. Alfoldi, "Die Geschichte des Throntabernakels," Society by Ohio. As Dr. Lewy kindly stated in a letter sent to the author, La Nouvelle Clio (Bruxelles-Mainz 1950) 537-66. The author is Old Assyrian merchants transportedgoods sometimes on wagons. indebted to Prof. Alfoldi for this referenceand other suggestions.

die Grabungen von 1950 in Kiiltepe, ausgefiihrt im Auftrage des Turk Tarih Kurumu," Belleten 17 (I953) 109-18. See p. III.

85Hancar 1955, 486. Cf. T. Ozgiic, "Vorliufiger Bericht iiber





[AJA 63

used also for war chariots.The wagons of the In this connection, must be mentionedthat in it Baden-Pecel culturemay havebeenusedfor normal at least threegravesof that culturea pair of oxen economicpurposesand for religiousrites. were buriedtogetherwith humancorpses. grave In At this point the questionarises:what animals Nr. 3 at Als6nemedi,a male and a femaleskeleton wereemployedfor drawingthe wheeledvehiclesof were found near the skeletonsof two oxen.55In the Baden-Pecel culture? There is no doubt that graveNr. 28 of the samecemetery, male skeleton a The oldest was lying close to the skeletonsof two oxen.58 the earliestdraft animalswere oxen.43 In vehicleswere attachedto the draftanimalsby pole grave 3 of the Budakalaszcemetery,57 human a and yoke.The animalswerearranged eitherside double burial was associated on with a pair of oxen. of the centralpole. On the basis of this evidence,Banner58 supposed Domesticatedoxen as sacrificialanimals were that the oxen were buriedtogetherwith a wooden culture wagon. Unfortunately,no traces of such wagons oftenfoundin the gravesof the Baden-Pecel in Hungary and elsewhere.Such sites are known could be observed. fromBogojeva,44 Als6nemedi,45 H6dmez6vasarhelyBodzaspart,46Ull6,47 Budakalasz48 and Zlota.49

However, there seems to be fairly definite eviArchaeologistsgenerally agree that the first of dencefor the domestication the horsein the same wheeled vehicles were invented in Mesopotamia culture.Though horseswere not numerousamong and diffused from there. But how did the first the animalsof the Baden-Pecel culture,they very wagons reach the Carpathianbasin? In dealing were controlledwith a bridle-bittermi- with our claymodel,Soproni59 offeredtwo different probably The in cheek-pieces antler.50 domestication possible interpretations. of He first consideredthe nating also of the horseis demonstrated by the ceremonial possibility that the earliest chariots came from and in F6llik.52 the Balkan peninsula, because the Baden-Pecel burial of this animal in Zlota51 Remainsof variousdomesticanimals(horseamong culture has close connectionswith that area. But others) were discoveredin graves on both sites. the wheeled vehicles appear there later than in difference be- Hungary. While thereis a slight chronological tween the Baden-Pecelculture and that of Zlota On the other hand, there are earlier and conthesegroups temporarywagons and carts in SouthernRussia, that (respectively of the Corded-ware) are closelyrelated.53 but Sopronihas not yet found sufficientevidence But it is worthnoting that,even if the horsewas for close contactsbetween the two territories. a domestic animal, it was not used for drawing In the author's firstalternative opinion,Soproni's The oldest chariheavy four-wheeledwagons. Horses as draft ani- shouldbe abandoned completely. mals appear regularly in company with spoked ots of the Greek mainland are known from the cul- i6th centuryB.C.60 these are war chariotswith Thus the wagonsof the Baden-Pecel wheels.54 and ture definitelywere drawn by oxen. spoked wheels.
43Childe I954, 2. V. G. Childe, "Wheeled Vehicles," in A A. Mozsolics, "Traditions des steppes a l'age du bronze en History of Technology (cf. supra n. 40) vol. I, I954 (quoted Hongrie," ArchErt (1946-48) 63-74, notes II and I2. Hancar infra as Childe I954 c) 716-29. See p. 7I9. Hancar I955, 38, I955, 40. Gimbutas I956, 123. For the domesticationof animals 44I. Soproni 1954, 34-35. G. Clark, "Horses and Battle-axes," see the following articles: R. H. Dyson, "Archaeology and the Domestication of Animals in the Old World," American AnthroAntiquity I5 (I941) 50-70. Cf. p. 63. 44ArchErt I8 (I898) 256-57; 19 (I899) 62-64. The site pologist 55 (1953) 66i-73. F. E. Zeuner, "Domestication of now belongs to Yugoslavia. Animals," in A History of Technology (supra n. 40) 327-52, 45 J. Korek, "Ein Griberfeld der Badener Kultur bei Als6ne- and E. F. Zeuner, "The Domestication of Animals," Scientia 9I medi," ActaA Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricac I (1951) (Milano I956) 23-28. 61 Zurowski, I5-17. (quoted infra as Korek 195I) 35-5I. 52 Pittioni 1954, 246-47, fig. 172. 46Banner 1956, 76-86, 206. Hancar I955, 37. 53 Banner I956, 208. 47Banner I956, 67-68.
48 ibidem 11-28, 206. 49 J. Zurowski, "Neue Ergebnisse der neolithischen Forschung 54 Childe I954, 2. Childe 1954 c, 72I.

im siidwestpolnischen Lossgebiet," PZ 21 (1930) (quoted infra as Zurowski) 3-20. V. G. Childe, Prehistoric Migrations in Europe (Oslo I950) (quoted infra as Childe 1950) I42. Hancar 1955, 3750 J. Banner, "Angaben zur Frage des Domestizierens der Pferde in der Urzeit," Dolgozatok I5 (Szeged 1939) I65-66.

65 Korek 1951, 38 and pl. ix fig. i. 56 ibidem 39 and pl. xi fig. I-2. 67 Banner 1956, 113. 68ibidem 206. 59 Soproni I954, 32-34. 60 Childe I95I, 193 and Childe 1954, I2. F. Schachermeyr, Poseidon und die Entstehung des griechischen Gotterglaubens




Thus it seems clear at the present time that the first wagons were brought to Central Europe from the steppe area of Southern Russia. A study of the early sites of the Pontic-North European Plain and their dates leads to this conclusion. Until recently little attention has been paid to the problem of cultural correlations between the Carpathian basin and the area east and southeast of the Carpathians during the Neolithic period. Therefore most of the evidence that would warrant final decision is still lacking. There are, however, several cultural elements which indicate close relationship between the two areas in Neolithic times. Marija Gimbutas gave a detailed discussion of these elements in her much-needed book. As far as the area outside the Carpathians is concerned, we will refer to her results. As Childe and others have shown,6l there was already an active trade between Hungary and the territory east of the Carpathians in the period preceding the Baden-Pecel culture. For implements, obsidian was distributed all over the Central Danube basin and northward to Moravia, Bohemia and Silesia. It was concentrated in Poland in the Upper Vistula area. Recent research has demonstrated other connections between Eastern Hungary and the territory east of the Carpathians.62 Apart from these contacts, close relationship is seen between the Baden-Pecel complex and the contemporary cultures of the area northeast, east and southeast of the Carpathians. Some of the common traits are:
(Bern I950) 50-64. G. E. Mylonas, "The Figured Mycenean
Stelai," AIA 55 (I95I) I34-47. 61Childe I950, 96. Clark 1952, 243. Hancar I955, 74.

a) frequent double or triple burials. In Als6nemedi,63 Bogojeva,63Lichtenworth,64Leobersdorf,64 Vucedol,6 Budakalasz,66and Palotabozsok,67many double and several triple or multiple graves (man and woman; woman and child; 2 children; man and child; 2 men) came to light.68 b) burials of animals together with, or beside, the human graves.69 c) appearanceof domesticated horse. Apart from the bridle-bit of H6dmez6vasarhely-Bodzaspart,we must mention a similar finding from the Usatovoculture.70 In his excellent book on the history of the horse, Hancar pointed out the great significance of these cheek-pieces for the evolution of later bridle-bits. d) a specific peculiarity of the burial rites in the Pontic area was the use of red ochre in graves. Similarly, ochre grains were found in grave Nr. 40 of the cemetery in Als6nemedi.71 The decoration of a vessel of grave Nr. 44 in Budakalasz consisted of ochre-filling, and the red-painted pottery is frequent in the Baden-Pecel culture.72Although red painting was known in earlier Neolithic cultures in Hungary, it is interesting to note that this kind of painting generally appears in those cemeteries of the Baden-Pecel culture where we find animal burials. e) copper beads in cylindrical form point to the Pontic-North European Plain. They are known in Hungary from the cemeteries in Alsonemedi73 and in Budakalasz.74Similar findings came to light in the Northern Caucasus75(Lesken, Kabardino Park,
graves contained double or, occasionally, triple burials in this cemetery. 67 ibidem I28-34.
68 Cf. Gimbutas I956, I51, 154 and x68-69.

Gimbutas 1956, x 6. 62 I. Kutzian, "Die Ausgrabungen in Tiszapolgar-Basatanya," Discours des chercheurs hongrois a la ConferenceArcheologique de l'Academie Hongroise des Sciences, Budapest, 3-6 octobre 1955 (Budapest I955) 69-87. See pp. 81-82. The contacts between the Hungarian Early Copper Age and the Cucuteni, resp. Tripolye, cultures are stressed here. J. Korek and P. Patay, "A Herpalyi-halom k6korvegi es rezkori telepiilese" ("The Settlement at Herpaly-halom from the Late Neolithic and the Early Copper Ages"), Folia Archaeologica 8 (1956) 23-39 in Hungarian, 40-42 English summary. Some intrusive cultural elements from southeast of the Carpathians are claimed by the two authors.
63 Korek 1951, 36-41.
64 K. Willvonseder, "Zwei Grabfunde der Badener Kultur mit Metallbeigaben aus Nieder6sterreich," WPZ 24 (1937) 65 R. R. Schmidt, Die Burg Vucedol (Zagreb I945) (quoted infra as R. R. Schmidt I945) 41.

69See notes 55-58, and Gimbutas 1956, I68. Cf. O. F. Gandert, "Neolithische Griber mit Rinderbeigabenund Rinderbestattungen in Mitteleuropa,"Actes de la Ille session Zurich et I950 (Congres Internationaldes Sciences Prehistoriques Protohistoriques, Zurich I953) 201. 70 Hancar I955, 72, 523, 529, 552 and 553. Gimbutas I956, i68. 71 Korek 1951, 41. Gimbutas 1956, 55-60, 71, 74-75, 80-82. 72 Banner 1956, I68-69.
73Korek I95I, 46-47:

cylindrical copper beads were found. They are of native copper. Cf. K. Szepesi, "Chemische Untersuchung der Funde aus dem Graberfeld von Als6nemedi," ActaA Academiae Scientiarum
Hungaricae I (I95I) 8o. 74 Banner I956, I99. Copper beads were discovered in at least 13 graves of the first II5 already published. They have not yet

in graves Nr. 3-4, 20, 34, and 36


been analyzed.

76 Gimbutas 1956, 57, 62-63, 67, 69.





At least 26 (out of 221)



[AJA 63

Konstantinovka and Kislovodsk), in the Catacomb graves between the lower Dniester and lower Volga,76 in the Jordansmiihl-Brzesc Kujawski group,77 in the Globular Amphora culture78 and in the Ziota group.79 A great number of other copper ornaments and tools are also characteristicof the Baden-Pecel culture in Hungary,80 Austria,8"and in Yugoslavia.82 On the basis of the evidence presented above, it seems reasonable to suggest that wagons, invented in Mesopotamia during the fourth millennium B.C., spread-in the course of the third millenniumthrough Armenia, the Caucasus, the Dnieper and the Danube to Central Europe,83 and that they reached this latter area at the beginning of the second millennium. The small easternethnic groups, which brought the knowledge of wheeled vehicles to Central Europe, did not make great changes in the material culture, but adapted themselves to the local environment. These steppe people probably were attracted by the fertile lands. One reason for their migration could be, among others, the desiccation of the steppe caused by the Sub-Boreal climate period, which started in the fourth quarter of the third millennium B.c.84The rich ores of the Carpathians may have lured them.
ibidem 80. 77 ibidem I 8. 78 ibidem 145. 79 ibidem 156. 80 See notes 73 and 74. Korek and Banner report of neckband, chisel, awl and diadem. 81 Pittioni 1954, 205. The chemical analysis of the axe of Zwerndorf has shown, beside copper, 1.7% of arsenic. The ingot torques of Lichtenw6rth and Leobersdorf contained, beside copper, traces of silver, nickel and lead. Since arsenic is unknown in the ore-depositsof the Eastern Alps, the origin of the Zwerndorf axe cannot be decided. In this connection, H. Otto and W. Witter (Handbuch der iltesten vorgeschichtlichenMetallurgie in Mitteleuropa [Leipzig 1952] 48) suggested a CentralGerman origin. On the other hand, as Gimbutas (1956, 70) pointed out, there is no doubt about the existence of a North Caucasian metallurgy since the beginning of the second millennium B.C. The influence of this center radiated to Southern and Central Russia. The ornaments of this early phase contained 95-97% copper and no tin or antimony. There was some quantity of arsenic, iron, and occasionally some of nickel. However, it will be wise to wait for decisive evidence from future research, as far as the origin of the Austrian ingot torques and axe is concerned. 82ArchErt i8 (I898) 24. R. R. Schmidt 1945, 71. 83 Hancar 1955, 553. Gimbutas 1956, 78-79. 84Gimbutas 1956, 15I, I69.

The earliestspoked wheels appeared Central in and Southeastern Europeby the end of the Early Bronze Age.85Models of four-spokedwheels are known from the sites of the Mad'arovce(Magthe in yarad) group in Slovakia,86 Veterov-group Moravia87 from WesternHungary.88 and These culture groups show a relationship with the Shaft Graves in Mycenae.Certainobjects of antler or bone in the Moravian,Slovakian and Hungarianarea can be connectedwith contempoThese correlations of are raryfindingsin Greece.89 for the Bronze Age chronology great importance of CentralEurope.The Greek analogiesbelong to the I6th century and thus they demonstrate that wheels were used in CentralEuropebefore spoked
1500 B.C.

It must be emphasizedthat the Baden-Pecel culture played a significantrole in the formationof the Mad'arovce NorthSlovakia, groupin Southern easternAustriaand Northwestern Hungary,where the characteristic antlerobjectsand also the models
of spoked wheels90first appear.91
INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 85 K. Tihelka, "Nejstarsihlinene napodobeninyctyrramennych kol na fizemi 6 S R" (Die iltesten t6nernen Nachahmungen vierarmigerRader auf dem Gebiete der CSR.), Pamdtky Archeologicke 45 (I954) 219-222 in Czech, 223-224 German summary. Cf. Childe 1954, I4. 86 Pittioni 1954, 323. P. Patay, "FriihbronzezeitlicheKulturen in Ungarn," DissPan Ser. II, No. I3, 77-81. 87 K. Tihelka, "Sidliste V&terovskeho Typu Na Morave" (Die Siedlungen des Veterov Typus in Mahren), Acta Musei Moraviac, Scientiac Sociales 37 (1952) 313-34 with German summary. K. Tihelka, "Nilezy Ze Sidliste Veterovskeho Typu Na Novfch Horach U Veterova" (Die Funde aus der Siedlung des VeteIovTypus bei Veterov, Mahren), ibidem 38 (1953) 27-62 with German summary. 88 K. v. Miske, Die prahistorischeAnsiedlung Velem St. Vid (Wien 1908) plate 56:13, I5-I6. 89 Pittioni 1954, 369. I. Hnizdova, "Die Frage der Formen

vom Typus Veterov in der Aunjetitzer Kultur in B6hmen," Pamdtky Archeologicke 45 (1954) 216-18. Cf. J. Werner, Atti del 1? Congresso "Mykene-Siebenbiirgen-Skandinavien," Internazionale Di Preistoria E Protostoria Mediterranea g95o 90 See note 86. 91 The author is grateful to the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research in New York for financial assistance which made possible preparationof this paper.
(Firenze I952) 293-308.




Fig. I. Wide-mouthed bowl from grave Nr. I77, Budakalasz cemetery; ht. Io.8 cm


2. Pedestalled bowl from same grave; ht. 8.3 cm

Fig. 4.

Fig. 3. Decoration of the Budakalasz wagon

Fig. 5. Scoop from grave Nr. I58, same cemetery

Figs. 4 and 6. Wagon model from grave Nr. I77, Budakalasz cemetery; ht. 8.i cm

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