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The Oldest Representations of Wheeled Vehicles in Central and Southeastern Europe

Author(s): Stephen Foltiny


Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Jan., 1959), pp. 53-58
Published by: Archaeological Institute of America
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/502108
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The Oldest Representationsof Wheeled Vehicles
in Central and Southeastern Europe
STEPHEN FOLTINY

PLATE 19

Since I952, the Museum of Szentendre, Hungary, claybowl (which was likewisecoveredby the wide-
has been conducting excavationsin Budakalasz, mouthedbowl) lay on its side (pl. I9, fig. 2; diame-
I5 km. north of Budapest,near the bank of the ter of mouth 9.2 and 94, height 8.3 cm.). A flake
Danube.In the courseof this successfulfield work,' and a coreof jasperwere also found with the two
the largestknown cemeteryof the Late Neolithic vesselsunderthe same bowl. Both the interiorand
Baden-Pecel culture was discovered. The site the exteriorof the wagon and the pedestalledbowl
yielded332 gravesof that cultureup to the begin- were paintedred.
ning of I956, and the excavations are not yet fin- The wagonitselfwas standingon its wheelswhen
ished. In September, I953, an important find was it was discovered.It has four solid wheels, height
unearthed in the grave Nr. I77: a clay model of a 3.9, width 34 cm. They representthe clay model
wagon with four solid wheels which representsthe of wheels which were carvedof a single piece of
earliest explicit evidence for wheeled vehicles in wood, with a central hub. On the Budakalasz
Centraland SoutheasternEurope (pl. i9, fig. 6). wheels the hub is indicatedby a round, flat pro-
The chariotwas publishedin preliminaryreports,2 trusion(pl. 19,figs. 4, 6; diameter0.65cm.). There
and referredto' severaltimes, but its significance were no tireson thesewheels,but their edges were
concerningthe economicand social life, as well as simplyroundedoff. Judgingfrom this construction,
some religiousrites,of the Baden-Pecelculturewas the wheelsmay have revolvedon axlesfixed to the
not sufficientlyemphasized.Thereforeit is desirable bottomof the car. Each pair of wheels was joined
to attempta new analysisand a comprehensivere- by a single solid axle which is indicatedby two
view of the Budakalaszwagonand,at the sametime, parallellines on the bottom of the model (pl. I9,
to deal with the problem of the earliestwheeled fig. 3). Betweenthe two axles,four pairsof parallel
vehiclesin Centraland SoutheasternEurope. verticallines representthe planks of the platform.
The handle of the wagon-shapedvessel served
I
as a pole.Soproni6assumedthat the sidesof the car
The grave Nr. 177 in which our wagon model body were woven of wicker. (The height of the
was found was a symbolicgrave,4a so-calledkeno- whole claymodelis 8.I, the width of mouth8.9 and
taphion.6It containedno skeleton and no ashes. the length of mouth 9.2 cm.)
The chariot, in the shape of a scoop with four As far as grave Nr. 177 is concerned,it can be
wheels, was evidently buried under a wide-mouthed taken for granted that it belonged to the Baden-
clay bowl (pl. 19, fig. i; diameter of mouth 28.3, Pecel culture. As the excavator7convincingly
height io.8 cm.). Closeto the wagon, a pedestalled pointedout, all threeceramictypesfound in it are
S. Soproni, "Negyezer eves rezkori temet6 Budakaliszon" 412, 441, 553. V. G. Childe, "The Diffusion of Wheeled Vehi-
(Four thousand years old Copper Age cemetery at Budakalasz) cles," Ethnographisch-ArchdologischeForschungen, Berlin 2
let is Tudomany (Budapest 1953) 1416-20. J. Banner, "Die (1954) I4. F. Fiilep, in Vestnik Drevnei Istorii (Moscow I955)
P&eler Kultur," Archaeologia Hungarica 35 (1956) (quoted I, I55-56. M. Gimbutas, "The Prehistory of Eastern Europe,"
infra as Banner 1956) III-28. Cf. S. Soproni, A negyezereves Part I, BASPR 20 (Cambridge I956) (quoted infra as Gimbutas
agyagszeker (Budapest 1956). 1956) 123. Banner 1956, 126-28. F. Hancar, "Kulturelement
2 "Prehistoriccart excavated in Hungary," Hungarian Bulle- Pferd. Wertung und Einbau," Saeculum 7 (Freiburg-Miinchen
tin, Budapest, Nov. 5, 1953. S. Soproni, "A budakalaszi kocsi" I956) 445.
("Un char cultuel de Budakalasz") Folia Archaeologica Buda- 4Soproni 1954, 29-30. Banner I956, I28, 209.
5 M. Ebert, Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte 6
pest 6 (i954) 29-36 in Hungarian, I98-99 French summary (I926) 326. Cf.
(quoted infra as Soproni 1954). RE 9, pt. i (1921) 17I-72.
3 Franz Hancar, "Das Pferd in prahistorischer und friiher
6 Soproni I954, 32.
historischer Zeit," Wiener Beitrige zur Kulturgeschichte und T ibidem 30.
Linguistik II (1955) (quoted infra as Hancar 1955) 38, 41,
54 STEPHEN FOLTINY [AJA 63
characteristic of that culture.The red-paintedscoop Baden assemblagewith the Middle Helladic and
discovered in grave I58 of the same cemetery (pl. 19, with the Catacombgrave culture2'north of the
fig. 5) offers the best analogy to our model. Instead Black Sea. In consideringall this evidence,I be-
of wheels, it has four knob-like feet. lieve that we may place the Budakalaszwagon at
It is interesting to note that, independently of the beginning of the 20th century B.C.
Soproni, E. Beninger8 also stressed the relationship Concerning the construction of our chariot,
between the shaping of our wagon and the Ossarn Hancar22 pointedto the wagonsof the RoyalCeme-
pottery,9 and thus the native character of this tery at Ur. In what is called the "King'sgrave"23
wagon-shaped vessel within the Baden-Pecelculture. two four-wheeledchariotscameto light andanother
As to the chronology of this Late Neolithic cul- similarcar was found in grave PG I232.24All the
ture, opinions vary. Sopronil? and Banner"l placed wheelswereof solidwood,and thosein the "King's
its beginning in the 24th or 23rd century B.C.,and grave"had tires; therewere no tireson the wheels
they assigned a span of at least 250-300years to its in grave PG I232, but the edges were simply
duration. According to Pittionil2 and Grbic,18 it roundedoff as in Budakalasz.However,in Ur the
started around 2200 B.C. Menghinl4 dated Early wheelswere made of threepiecesof wood clamped
Baden-Pecel in the area of the Sudeten lands to 2Io0. togetherby transversestruts.The body of the car
Milojcic15 and Hancar16 are of the same opinion, was fixed directlyto the axle-treeitself. From the
but they prefer a dating closer to 2000 B.C. Childe"7 frontof eachwagonprojecteda pole.The axle-holes
dated the cultural stage to which the chariot of were circular,but the centralpart of the axle-tree
Budakalasz can be assigned between 2200 and I8oo. was in all probabilitysquare (implying that the
Ehrich18 did not discuss the problems of absolute wheels must have revolvedfreely on the axle). No
chronology but, on his chronological table, he seems evidencewas availableaboutthe arrangementsfor
to advocate an early date for the beginning of the turning.The diameterof the wheelsvariedbetween
Baden-Pecel culture (before 2000 B.C.), because this 60 and o00 cm., the length of the axles between
group runs partly parallel with Early Helladic III. 70 and oo00
cm.
Gimbutas19claims the contemporaneityof the Early As to the dimensions,they seem to correspond
Baden, First Northern20and Jordansmiihl cultures. to those of other early wagons in the Near East.25
According to her, these cultural groups appeared Soproni26comparedthe wagon of Budakalasz
at about the beginning of the second millennium B.C., with the cart of StorezevajaMogila27in the lower
but she emphasizes the relationship of the Late Dnieperareaand with the wooden wheel of Beck-
8 HanZar I955, 38 n. 102 a. continuation during the Early Bronze Age. Cf. Banner 1956,
9 The Ossarn type is a sub-group of the Baden-P&celculture 236-37.
in Austria. Cf. R. Pittioni, Urgeschichte des 6sterreichischen 20 In German this culture is called "Funnel-necked-beaker
Raumes (Wien 1954) (quoted infra as Pittioni I954) 202-08. culture." Cf. V. G. Childe, "The Origin of Neolithic Culture in
L?Soproni I954, 30. 11Banner 1956, 242-47. Northern Europe," Antiquity 23 (1949) 129-35, and Gimbutas
12 Pittioni 1954, 274.
I956, 124 sqq.
13 M. Grbic, "Preclassical Pottery in the Central Balkans," 21 This hypothesis has recently been criticized by Banner
AIA 6I (1957) I38. 1956, 142-43, but according to Hancar 1955, 97, the beginning
14 Oswald Menghin, "Europa und einige angrenzende Gebiete of the Catacomb grave culture is around 2I00 B.c.
ausser dem igiischen und italischen Kulturkreis," Handbuch 22 Hancar I955, 38 (note 102 a) and 420 sq.
der Archdologie, II Textbd. (Miinchen 1954) (quoted infra as 23 C. L. Woolley, Ur Excavations, Vol. II: The
Royal Ceme-
Menghin 1954) 158. tery, Publicationsof the Joint Expedition of the British Museum
15 Vladimir Milojci6, Chronologic der juingeren Steinzeit and of the Museum of the
University of Pennsylvania to Meso-
Mittel- und Suidosteuropas(Berlin I949) 94. potamia (1934) 64. Cf. V. Christian,Altertumskundedes Zweist-
x Hancar romlandes (Leipzig 1940) 227-28.
1955, 38, 412.
17Childe 1954, 10, 14. 24Woolley, op.cit. (supra n. 23) o08-09.
18 R. W. Ehrich, "The Relative Chronology of Southeastern 25 Cf. L.Ch.Watelin-S. Langdon, Excavations at
Kish, Oxford
and Central Europe in the Neolithic Period," in Relative Chron- University-Field Museum
Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia,
ologies in Old World Archaeology, edited by R. W. Ehrich vol. IV, 1925-1930 (Paris 1934) 30-34, plate 23:I-2. For
(Chicago I954) o08-29, chronological table 126. However, details see V. G. Childe, "The First Waggons and Carts-from
Ehrich places the Baden site of Homolka in Bohemia to a period the Tigris to the Severn," ProcPS for
which is only "slightly earlier" than 800oB.C. ("Homolka: A Childe 1951) I951 (quoted infra as
I77-94. Childe 1954, and Hancar 1955, 420 sq.
Fortified Village in Bohemia," Archaeology 9 [X956] 240). 2 Soproni 1954, 31.
19 Gimbutas 1956, 122-23. The
dating of the Baden-P&el 27 Childe 1954, 10 (dated between 2400-2000 B.C.). Hancar
complex on p. 211, fig. 126, seems to be somewhat late. This I955, II8, 412 (assigned to 2200 - 100 B.c.). Gimbutas
I956,
may be valid for the very late Baden assemblage or for its 78, 92.
1959] OLDEST REPRESENTATIONS OF WHEELED VEHICLES 55
dorf;28each of them are made of a single solid piece prints were discovered in the soft andesite stone of
of wood. The diameter of the wheels of Storezevaja the main street at Kiiltepe35 and at Fraktin.36
Mogila is about 50 cm., that of the Beckdorf wheel
II
65.5 and 67 cm. The latter's edges were rounded
off, and the wheel had a round hub. As to the purpose of the chariots, Childe37 sup-
According to Childe29and Hancar,30representa- posed that the first economic use of wheeled vehicles
tions of chariots from the following sites can be was for transporting bulky foodstuffs from fields to
considered as approximately contemporary with settlements. In the case of the Budakalasz wagon,
the Budakalasz model: Palaikastro,31Ziischen82and Hancar38stressed that it was undoubtedly used for
Kiiltepe.33On the early polychrome car from Palai- heavy transport. In this connection he mentioned
kastro there is no trace of a pole. The axles were that bulky stone pieces were found in the graves
fixed to the bottom of the clay model. Childe of the Baden-Pecel cemetery at Budakalasz. As
(I954, 6) treated the Long Stone Cist with porthole Banner reported, smaller or greater stone slabs or
slab at Ziischen as parallel to the similar Stone Cists stone pieces were unearthed in 53 of the first 115
in Southern Sweden and so as contemporary with graves published so far.39In many cases, a layer of
the late Bell-Beaker culture of Central Europe but, stones (0.25-0.50 cubic meter) lay over the skele-
he conceded, it may be somewhat earlier. The cart tons. In grave Nr. 32, the skeleton was surrounded
figures on the Ziischen cist walls are a little am- by 10 flat stone slabs (the height of the slabs varied
biguous. Though the oxen yoked in a pair to a pole between 20 and 35 cm.).
are carved clearly, the wheels are represented only On the other hand, it should be remembered that
by cup-marks, and not by circles. However, the the earliest vehicles were often hearsesor ceremonial
Budakalasz wagon seems to guarantee the oxcarts cars. Around 3000 B.C.the burial of wheeled vehicles
at Ziischen. was firmly associatedwith royal funerals in Mesopo-
The first vehicles represented on seals of the style tamia40and, later, in other areas of the Old World.
used by the Assyrian merchant colony at Kiiltepe In the Sumerian language, we find separatewords41
(Kanes) were still of the heavy Sumerian type, but for the transport wagon, for the throne wagon42
they were drawn by horses.34Traces of wheel im- and for the chariot of the king, the latter being
28 A. Cassau, "Ein friihbronzezeitlicheroder endsteinzeitlicher He also mentioned that certain seal impressions found on Old
Wagenradfundin Beckdorf, Kr. Stade," Nachrichtenaus Nieders- Assyrian tablets of the 20th and i9th centuries seem to illustrate
achsens Urgeschichte 12 (Hannover 1938) 63-71. S. Schneider, that wagons were used by Assyrians in the pre-Hittite period of
"Die pollenanalythische Altersbestimmung des Wagenrades von Asia Minor. A drawing of one of the pertinent seal impressions
Beckdorf, Kr. Stade," ibidem 72-77. J. G. D. Clark, Prehistoric is found in Eduard Meyer'sbook Reich und Kultur der Chettiter
Europe, The Economic Basis (New York 1952) (quoted infra (Berlin 1914) 54 (cf. Hancar 1955, pl. 23 a-b). It is interesting
as Clark 1952) 308. This wheel was dated to an early stage of that, as Dr. Lewy writes, certain texts speak of "two wagons
the Northern Bronze Age on the strength of pollen analysis. (full of) straw" which seems to indicate that the designation
It is, however, not certain when it was deposited in the bog. "wagon of straw" was used in much the same sense as in our
29 Childe 1954, o0and 14. times: the expression "a wagon full of straw" indicating the
80Hancar 1955, 412. dimensions of a load of straw in much the same way as one
81 Sir Arthur Evans, The Palace of Minos at Knossos, Vol. IV, speaks of "so and so many sacks of wheat."
Part II (London 1935) 807-09, fig. 787. This clay model has 84Childe 1954, II.
been referred to MM I a. 85Hancar 1955, 486. Cf. T. Ozgiic, "Vorliufiger Bericht iiber
82 Jorg Lechler, "Neues iiber Pferd und Wagen in der Stein- die Grabungen von 1950 in Kiiltepe, ausgefiihrt im Auftrage
zeit und Bronzezeit," Mannus 25 (1933) 123-36; see 131-32 des Turk Tarih Kurumu," Belleten 17 (I953) 109-18. See
and fig. 20, 22-24. Lechler claimed some carvings on a slab in p. III.
the cist of Ziischen near Fritzlar, Hessen, as representationsof 36 K. Bittel, "Beobachtungen in
Kappadokien," AA (Berlin
oxcarts. According to him, the solid wheels revolved on a fixed 1939) 548-68. See p. 566. The age of the road made of andesite
axle, in a hub. Childe first (ProcPS 1951) rejected this assump- stones near Fraktin is not certain. It is probably of a later date
tion, but later (x954) he accepted it. Menghin 1954, 39. Herbert than the site of Kiiltepe.
Kuhn, Die Felsbilder Europas (Stuttgart 1952) 153-54 and 287, 37 Childe 1951, 177.
assigned the oxcarts at Ziischen to a period between 1800-1400. 8 Hancar
1955, 38.
While this date is somewhat late, the representationson the 39 Banner 1956, I9I-92. The data on the other
217 graves are
Ziischen cist walls are in all probabilitylater than the Budakalasz not yet published.
model. 40 Childe 1951, 194. V. G. Childe, "Rotary motion," in
8 Thanks are due to Miss Hetty Goldman, Institute for Singer,
Holmyard and Hall, A History of Technology, Vol. I (Oxford
Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J., who called my attention to 1954) (quoted infra as Childe 1954 b) 187-215. Cf.
209.
the presidential address delivered before the American Oriental 41Hancar 1955, 429.
Society by Dr. Julius Lewy, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 42 Cf. A. Alfoldi, "Die Geschichte des Throntabernakels,"
Ohio. As Dr. Lewy kindly stated in a letter sent to the author, La Nouvelle Clio (Bruxelles-Mainz 1950) 537-66. The author is
Old Assyrian merchants transportedgoods sometimes on wagons. indebted to Prof. Alfoldi for this referenceand other suggestions.
56 STEPHEN FOLTINY [AJA 63
used also for war chariots.The wagons of the In this connection,it must be mentionedthat in
Baden-Pecelculturemay havebeenusedfor normal at least threegravesof that culturea pair of oxen
economicpurposesand for religiousrites. were buriedtogetherwith humancorpses.In grave
At this point the questionarises:what animals Nr. 3 at Als6nemedi,a male and a femaleskeleton
wereemployedfor drawingthe wheeledvehiclesof were found near the skeletonsof two oxen.55In
the Baden-Pecelculture? There is no doubt that graveNr. 28 of the samecemetery,a male skeleton
the earliestdraft animalswere oxen.43The oldest was lying close to the skeletonsof two oxen.58In
vehicleswere attachedto the draftanimalsby pole grave 3 of the Budakalaszcemetery,57a human
and yoke.The animalswerearrangedon eitherside double burial was associatedwith a pair of oxen.
of the centralpole. On the basis of this evidence,Banner58supposed
Domesticatedoxen as sacrificialanimals were that the oxen were buriedtogetherwith a wooden
oftenfoundin the gravesof the Baden-Pecelculture wagon. Unfortunately,no traces of such wagons
in Hungary and elsewhere.Such sites are known could be observed.
fromBogojeva,44 Als6nemedi,45
H6dmez6vasarhely-
III
Bodzaspart,46Ull6,47 Budakalasz48 and Zlota.49
However, there seems to be fairly definite evi- Archaeologistsgenerally agree that the first
dencefor the domesticationof the horsein the same wheeled vehicles were invented in Mesopotamia
culture.Though horseswere not numerousamong and diffused from there. But how did the first
the animalsof the Baden-Pecelculture,they very wagons reach the Carpathianbasin? In dealing
probablywere controlledwith a bridle-bittermi- with our claymodel,Soproni59 offeredtwo different
in
nating cheek-pieces of antler.50
The domestication He
possible interpretations. first consideredthe
of the horseis demonstratedalso by the ceremonial possibility that the earliest chariots came from
burial of this animal in Zlota51and in F6llik.52 the Balkan peninsula, because the Baden-Pecel
Remainsof variousdomesticanimals(horseamong culture has close connectionswith that area. But
others) were discoveredin graves on both sites. the wheeled vehicles appear there later than in
While thereis a slight chronologicaldifferencebe- Hungary.
tween the Baden-Pecelculture and that of Zlota On the other hand, there are earlier and con-
(respectivelythatof the Corded-ware)thesegroups temporarywagons and carts in SouthernRussia,
are closelyrelated.53 but Sopronihas not yet found sufficientevidence
But it is worthnoting that,even if the horsewas for close contactsbetween the two territories.
a domestic animal, it was not used for drawing In the author'sopinion,Soproni'sfirstalternative
heavy four-wheeledwagons. Horses as draft ani- shouldbe abandonedcompletely.The oldest chari-
mals appear regularly in company with spoked ots of the Greek mainland are known from the
wheels.54Thus the wagonsof the Baden-Pecelcul- i6th centuryB.C.60and these are war chariotswith
ture definitelywere drawn by oxen. spoked wheels.
43Childe I954, 2. V. G. Childe, "Wheeled Vehicles," in A A. Mozsolics, "Traditions des steppes a l'age du bronze en
History of Technology (cf. supra n. 40) vol. I, I954 (quoted Hongrie," ArchErt (1946-48) 63-74, notes II and I2. Hancar
infra as Childe I954 c) 716-29. See p. 7I9. Hancar I955, 38, I955, 40. Gimbutas I956, 123. For the domesticationof animals
44I. Soproni 1954, 34-35. G. Clark, "Horses and Battle-axes," see the following articles: R. H. Dyson, "Archaeology and the
Antiquity I5 (I941) 50-70. Cf. p. 63. Domestication of Animals in the Old World," American Anthro-
44ArchErt I8 (I898) 256-57; 19 (I899) 62-64. The site pologist 55 (1953) 66i-73. F. E. Zeuner, "Domestication of
now belongs to Yugoslavia. Animals," in A History of Technology (supra n. 40) 327-52,
45 J. Korek, "Ein Griberfeld der Badener Kultur bei Als6ne- and E. F. Zeuner, "The Domestication of
Animals," Scientia 9I
medi," ActaA Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricac I (1951) (Milano I956) 23-28.
(quoted infra as Korek 195I) 35-5I. 61 Zurowski, I5-17.
46Banner 1956, 76-86, 206. Hancar I955, 37. 52 Pittioni 1954, 246-47, fig. 172.
47Banner I956, 67-68. 53 Banner I956, 208.
48 ibidem 11-28, 206. 54 Childe
I954, 2. Childe 1954 c, 72I.
49 J. Zurowski, "Neue Ergebnisse der neolithischen Forschung 65 Korek 1951, 38 and pl. ix fig. i.
im siidwestpolnischen Lossgebiet," PZ 21 (1930) (quoted infra 56 ibidem 39 and pl. xi fig. I-2.
as Zurowski) 3-20. V. G. Childe, Prehistoric Migrations in 67 Banner 1956, 113.
Europe (Oslo I950) (quoted infra as Childe 1950) I42. Hancar 68ibidem 206.
1955, 37- 59 Soproni I954, 32-34.
50 J. Banner, "Angaben zur Frage des Domestizierens der 60 Childe I95I, 193 and Childe
1954, I2. F. Schachermeyr,
Pferde in der Urzeit," Dolgozatok I5 (Szeged 1939) I65-66. Poseidon und die Entstehung des griechischen Gotterglaubens
1959] OLDEST REPRESENTATIONS OF WHEELED VEHICLES 57
Thus it seems clear at the present time that the a) frequent double or triple burials. In Als6ne-
first wagons were brought to Central Europe from medi,63 Bogojeva,63Lichtenworth,64Leobersdorf,64
the steppe area of Southern Russia. A study of the Vucedol,6 Budakalasz,66and Palotabozsok,67many
early sites of the Pontic-North European Plain and double and several triple or multiple graves (man
their dates leads to this conclusion. Until recently and woman; woman and child; 2 children; man
little attention has been paid to the problem of and child; 2 men) came to light.68
cultural correlations between the Carpathian basin b) burials of animals together with, or beside,
and the area east and southeast of the Carpathians the human graves.69
during the Neolithic period. Therefore most of the c) appearanceof domesticated horse. Apart from
evidence that would warrant final decision is still the bridle-bit of H6dmez6vasarhely-Bodzaspart,we
lacking. There are, however, several cultural ele- must mention a similar finding from the Usatovo-
ments which indicate close relationship between culture.70 In his excellent book on the history of
the two areas in Neolithic times. Marija Gimbutas the horse, Hancar pointed out the great significance
gave a detailed discussion of these elements in her of these cheek-pieces for the evolution of later
much-needed book. As far as the area outside the bridle-bits.
Carpathians is concerned, we will refer to her d) a specific peculiarity of the burial rites in the
results. Pontic area was the use of red ochre in graves.
As Childe and others have shown,6l there was Similarly, ochre grains were found in grave Nr. 40
already an active trade between Hungary and the of the cemetery in Als6nemedi.71 The decoration
territory east of the Carpathians in the period pre- of a vessel of grave Nr. 44 in Budakalasz consisted
ceding the Baden-Pecel culture. For implements, of ochre-filling, and the red-painted pottery is fre-
obsidian was distributed all over the Central Dan- quent in the Baden-Pecel culture.72Although red
ube basin and northward to Moravia, Bohemia and painting was known in earlier Neolithic cultures
Silesia. It was concentrated in Poland in the Upper in Hungary, it is interesting to note that this kind
Vistula area. of painting generally appears in those cemeteries
Recent research has demonstrated other connec- of the Baden-Pecel culture where we find animal
tions between Eastern Hungary and the territory burials.
east of the Carpathians.62Apart from these contacts, e) copper beads in cylindrical form point to the
close relationship is seen between the Baden-Pecel Pontic-North European Plain. They are known in
complex and the contemporary cultures of the area Hungary from the cemeteries in Alsonemedi73 and
northeast, east and southeast of the Carpathians. in Budakalasz.74Similar findings came to light in
Some of the common traits are: the Northern Caucasus75(Lesken, Kabardino Park,

(Bern I950) 50-64. G. E. Mylonas, "The Figured Mycenean graves contained double or, occasionally, triple burials in this
Stelai," AIA 55 (I95I) I34-47. cemetery.
61Childe I950, 96. Clark 1952, 243. Hancar I955, 74. 67 ibidem I28-34.
Gimbutas 1956, x 6. 68 Cf. Gimbutas I956, I51, 154 and x68-69.
62 I. Kutzian, "Die Ausgrabungen in Tiszapolgar-Basatanya," 69See notes 55-58, and Gimbutas 1956, I68. Cf. O. F.
Discours des chercheurs hongrois a la ConferenceArcheologique Gandert, "Neolithische Griber mit Rinderbeigabenund Rinder-
de l'Academie Hongroise des Sciences, Budapest, 3-6 octobre bestattungen in Mitteleuropa,"Actes de la Ille session Zurich
1955 (Budapest I955) 69-87. See pp. 81-82. The contacts be- I950 (Congres Internationaldes Sciences Prehistoriqueset Proto-
tween the Hungarian Early Copper Age and the Cucuteni, resp. historiques, Zurich I953) 201.
Tripolye, cultures are stressed here. J. Korek and P. Patay, "A 70 Hancar I955, 72, 523, 529, 552 and 553. Gimbutas I956,
Herpalyi-halom k6korvegi es rezkori telepiilese" ("The Settle- i68.
ment at Herpaly-halom from the Late Neolithic and the Early 71 Korek 1951, 41. Gimbutas 1956, 55-60, 71, 74-75, 80-82.
Copper Ages"), Folia Archaeologica 8 (1956) 23-39 in Hun- 72 Banner 1956, I68-69.
garian, 40-42 English summary. Some intrusive cultural elements 73Korek I95I, 46-47: in graves Nr. 3-4, 20, 34, and 36
from southeast of the Carpathians are claimed by the two cylindrical copper beads were found. They are of native copper.
authors. Cf. K. Szepesi, "Chemische Untersuchung der Funde aus dem
63 Korek 1951, 36-41. Graberfeld von Als6nemedi," ActaA Academiae Scientiarum
64 K. Willvonseder, "Zwei Grabfunde der Badener Kultur Hungaricae I (I95I) 8o.
mit Metallbeigaben aus Nieder6sterreich," WPZ 24 (1937) 74 Banner I956, I99. Copper beads were discovered in at least
15-28. 13 graves of the first II5 already published. They have not yet
65 R. R. Schmidt, Die been analyzed.
Burg Vucedol (Zagreb I945) (quoted
infra as R. R. Schmidt I945) 41. 76 Gimbutas 1956, 57, 62-63, 67, 69.
66Banner 1956, 113-28, 220-21. At least 26 (out of 221)
58 STEPHEN FOLTINY [AJA 63
Konstantinovka and Kislovodsk), in the Catacomb IV

graves between the lower Dniester and lower The earliestspoked wheels appearedin Central
Volga,76 in the Jordansmiihl-Brzesc Kujawski and SoutheasternEuropeby the end of the Early
group,77 in the Globular Amphora culture78 and Bronze Age.85Models of four-spokedwheels are
in the Ziota group.79 known from the sites of the Mad'arovce(Mag-
A great number of other copper ornaments and
yarad) group in Slovakia,86the Veterov-groupin
tools are also characteristicof the Baden-Pecel cul- Moravia87 and from WesternHungary.88
ture in Hungary,80 Austria,8"and in Yugoslavia.82 These culture groups show a relationshipwith
On the basis of the evidence presented above, it the Shaft Graves in Mycenae.Certainobjects of
seems reasonable to suggest that wagons, invented antler or bone in the Moravian,Slovakian and
in Mesopotamia during the fourth millennium B.C.,
Hungarianarea can be connectedwith contempo-
spread-in the course of the third millennium- raryfindingsin Greece.89 These correlationsare of
through Armenia, the Caucasus, the Dnieper and great importance for the Bronze Age chronology
the Danube to Central Europe,83 and that they of CentralEurope.The Greek analogiesbelong to
reached this latter area at the beginning of the the I6th century and thus they demonstratethat
second millennium. The small easternethnic groups,
spokedwheels were used in CentralEuropebefore
which brought the knowledge of wheeled vehicles
1500 B.C.
to Central Europe, did not make great changes in It must be emphasizedthat the Baden-Pecelcul-
the material culture, but adapted themselves to the ture played a significantrole in the formationof
local environment. These steppe people probably the Mad'arovce groupin SouthernSlovakia,North-
were attracted by the fertile lands. One reason for easternAustriaand NorthwesternHungary,where
their migration could be, among others, the desicca- the characteristic
antlerobjectsand also the models
tion of the steppe caused by the Sub-Boreal climate of spoked wheels90first appear.91
period, which started in the fourth quarter of the
third millennium B.c.84The rich ores of the Car- INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY
pathians may have lured them. PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY
76 ibidem 80. 85 K. Tihelka, "Nejstarsihlinene
napodobeninyctyrramennych
77 ibidem I 8. kol na fizemi 6 S R" (Die iltesten t6nernen Nachahmungen
78 ibidem 145.
79 ibidem 156. vierarmigerRader auf dem Gebiete der CSR.), Pamdtky Archeo-
logicke 45 (I954) 219-222 in Czech, 223-224 German summary.
80 See notes 73 and 74. Korek and Banner report of neckband,
Cf. Childe 1954, I4.
chisel, awl and diadem. 86 Pittioni 1954, 323. P. Patay, "FriihbronzezeitlicheKulturen
81 Pittioni 1954, 205. The chemical analysis of the axe of
in Ungarn," DissPan Ser. II, No. I3, 77-81.
Zwerndorf has shown, beside copper, 1.7% of arsenic. The ingot 87 K. Tihelka, "Sidliste V&terovskehoTypu Na Morave" (Die
torques of Lichtenw6rth and Leobersdorf contained, beside
Siedlungen des Veterov Typus in Mahren), Acta Musei Moraviac,
copper, traces of silver, nickel and lead. Since arsenic is un- Scientiac Sociales 37 (1952) 313-34 with German summary.
known in the ore-depositsof the Eastern Alps, the origin of the
Zwerndorf axe cannot be decided. In this connection, H. Otto K. Tihelka, "Nilezy Ze Sidliste Veterovskeho Typu Na Novfch
and W. Witter (Handbuch der iltesten vorgeschichtlichenMetal- Horach U Veterova" (Die Funde aus der Siedlung des VeteIov-
lurgie in Mitteleuropa [Leipzig 1952] 48) suggested a Central- Typus bei Veterov, Mahren), ibidem 38 (1953) 27-62 with
German origin. On the other hand, as Gimbutas (1956, 70) German summary.
pointed out, there is no doubt about the existence of a North 88 K. v. Miske, Die prahistorischeAnsiedlung Velem St. Vid
Caucasian metallurgy since the beginning of the second mil- (Wien 1908) plate 56:13, I5-I6.
lennium B.C. The influence of this center radiated to Southern 89 Pittioni 1954, 369. I. Hnizdova, "Die Frage der Formen
and Central Russia. The ornaments of this early phase contained vom Typus Veterov in der Aunjetitzer Kultur in B6hmen,"
95-97% copper and no tin or antimony. There was some quan- Pamdtky Archeologicke 45 (1954) 216-18. Cf. J. Werner,
tity of arsenic, iron, and occasionally some of nickel. However, "Mykene-Siebenbiirgen-Skandinavien,"Atti del 1? Congresso
it will be wise to wait for decisive evidence from future research, Internazionale Di Preistoria E Protostoria Mediterranea g95o
as far as the origin of the Austrian ingot torques and axe is (Firenze I952) 293-308.
concerned. 90 See note 86.
82ArchErt i8 (I898) 24. R. R. Schmidt 1945, 71. 91 The author is grateful to the Wenner-Gren Foundation for
83 Hancar 1955, 553. Gimbutas 1956, 78-79.
Anthropological Research in New York for financial assistance
84Gimbutas 1956, 15I, I69. which made possible preparationof this paper.
FOLTINY PLATE 19

Fig. I. Wide-mouthed bowl from grave Nr. I77, Fig. 2. Pedestalled bowl from
Budakalasz cemetery; ht. Io.8 cm same grave; ht. 8.3 cm

Fig. 4.

Fig. 3. Decoration of the Budakalasz wagon Fig. 5. Scoop from grave


Nr. I58, same cemetery

Figs. 4 and 6. Wagon model from grave Nr. I77, Budakalasz cemetery; ht. 8.i cm

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