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A STUDY ON THE CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF MOBILE PHONE

SERVICE PROVIDERS IN ERODE DISTRICT WITH SPECIAL


REFERENCE TO BSNL

By

Madhumitha Muthukumar
Reg.No. 71104631029

of

KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERUNDURAI.

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted to the

FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

In partial fulfillment of the requirements


for the award of the degree

of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

JUNE, 2006
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report titled “A STUDY ON THE CUSTOMER

PERCEPTION OF MOBILE PHONE SERVICE PROVIDERS IN ERODE

DISTRICT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BSNL” is the bonafide work of

Ms. MADHUMITHA MUTHUKUMAR who carried out the research under my

supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported

herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis

of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any

other candidate.

Supervisor Director

Viva – Voce held on __________

Internal Examiner External Examiner


ABSTRACT
ABSTRACT

“A study on the customer perception of mobile phone service providers in


Erode district with special reference to BSNL” is a project aimed at studying the
competitive position of BSNL, the strength and weakness of BSNL’s competitors,
accessing the present level of service provided by BSNL and identifying the
areas which require attention by BSNL for improving its services.

The type of research undertaken for the study was descriptive research
and the sampling design used is stratified proportionate random sampling. The
sample size was 420.The target respondents were the customers of AIRTEL,
AIRCEL, BPL, BSNL, and RELIANCE in a proportionate number. The data was
collected using a standardized questionnaire, through the interview mode.

From the analysis it was found that AIRTEL and AIRCEL are the main
competitors for BSNL. AIRTEL’s promotional campaign has played a significant
role in attracting customers and its huge amount of value added services and
add-on card features has also added to its success. AIRCEL’s call tariff and its
early entry into the market and its SMS facilities has made customers choose its
service.

It is also found that the good network coverage, call tariff and roaming
facilities are the strengths of BSNL whereas SMS charges, poor customer care,
lack of value added services, lack of effective promotional campaigns and high
network congestion are some of BSNL’s weakness. It is found from the analysis
that the awareness of the schemes that BSNL introduce is not known to the
public. The study has also revealed that there are small proportions of BSNL
customers who are not satisfied with the services that BSNL offers.

The study has brought out factors which the mobile service providers
should concentrate upon to offer the best of services. The factors are customers
care, coverage, performance, pricing and accessibility.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to acknowledge and thank the various people who

contributed to this project.

I acknowledge my sincere gratitude to our Director and my project guide

Prof. Suresh Kumar, M.Sc., M.B.A., for his constant motivation and

management insight. His encouragement and valuable suggestions helped me

throughout the project.

I express my deepest sense of gratitude to Mr. Atul Kareliya , Deputy

General Manager (U&A), BSNL, Erode for granting me the permission to carry

out my research work in BSNL and also for his constant encouragement and

support during the tenure of my project.

I would like to thank Mr.S.Murugappan P.G.D.E.D.,MBA., and

Mr.R.Somasundaram M.E.,PGDM.,PGDFTM., Faculty , of the Department of

Management Studies, Kongu Engineering College for helping me in statistical

analysis.

I would also like to thank all members of the Faculty, of the Department of

Management Studies, Kongu Engineering College and my family and friends who

supported me at various stages in completing this project work successfully.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS

Chapter Page
Particulars
No. No.
ABSTRACT (ENGLISH)
ABSTRACT (TAMIL)
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Telecommunication
1.2 Indian Telecommunication Industry
1.3 Cellular phones & Importance
1.4 Company Profile
1.5 About The Project
2 AIM, OBJECTIVES & LIMITATIONS
2.1 Aim of the Project
2.2 Objectives
2.3 Minor Objectives
2.4 Limitations
3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 The Research Design
3.2 Data Sources
3.3 Questionnaire Design
3.4 Pre-Testing, Revision, Final Draft
3.5 Sampling Technique
3.6 Test Used
4 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
4.1 Analysis of Data
4.2 Chi Square Analysis
4.3 Factor Analysis
4.4 Kruskal Wallis Test
4.5 Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test
5 FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Findings
5.2 Suggestions
6 CONCLUSION
APPENDIX 1
APPENDIX 2
BIBILIOGRAPHY
REFERENCES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF TABLES

Tabl
Page
e Particulars
No.
No.
4.1.1 Profile of the Respondents
4.1.2 Table showing the reasons for selection of AIRTEL service
4.1.3 Table showing the reasons for selection of AIRCEL service
4.1.4 Table showing the reasons for selection of BPL service
4.1.5 Table showing the reasons for selection of BSNL service
4.1.6 Table showing the reasons for selection of Reliance service
4.1.7 Table showing the service providers and the schemes selected by
the customers
4.1.8 Table showing why people do not prefer BSNL
4.1.9 Table showing the overall ranking obtained by various service
providers in terms of various attributes
4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type
of scheme selected by AIRTEL customers
4.2.2 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type
of scheme selected by AIRCEL customers
4.2.3 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type
of scheme selected by BPL customers
4.2.4 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type
of scheme selected by BSNL customers
4.2.5 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type
of scheme selected by Reliance customers
4.2.6 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and
the corresponding customer satisfaction level
4.2.7 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and
the gender of the respondents
4.2.8 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and the
age of he respondents
4.2.9 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and the
occupation of the respondents
4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and the
0 income level of the respondents
4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of
1 scheme selected by Airtel customers
4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of
2 scheme selected by Aircel customers
4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of
3 scheme selected by BPL customers
4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of
4 scheme selected by BSNL customers
4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of
5 scheme selected by Reliance customers
4.3.1 Table showing the factor analysis-rotated component matrix
4.4.1 Table showing the Kruskal Wallis Test for ranking done by BSNL
customers
4.4.2 Table showing the K test results performed on the ranking of Airtel,
Aircel, Bpl & Reliance customers over other service providers.
4.5.1 Table showing the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test calculation for the other
service providers
4.6.1 Table showing the income level of the respondents and the
satisfaction level of the BSNL customers
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF FIGURES

Tabl
Page
e Particulars
No.
No.
1.1 Market share of mobile services in India
4.1.1 Chart showing the reasons for choosing Airtel service
4.1.2 Chart showing the reasons for choosing Aircel service
4.1.3 Chart showing the reasons for choosing BPL service
4.1.4 Chart showing the reasons for choosing BSNL service
4.1.5 Chart showing the reasons for choosing Reliance service
4.1.6 Chart showing the service providers and the percentage of
Prepaid & Postpaid customers
4.1.7 Chart showing the reasons for not choosing BSNL service
4.2.1 Chart showing the service providers and the gender of the
respondents
4.2.2 Chart showing the service providers and the age group of the
respondents
4.2.3 Chart showing the service providers and the occupation of the
respondents
4.2.4 Chart showing the service providers and the income level of the
respondents
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1. TELECOMMUNICATION

Telecommunications is the communication of information over a distance.


The term comes from a contraction of the Greek tele, meaning 'far', and
communications, meaning "n: the discipline that studies the principles of
transmitting information and the methods by which it is delivered (as print or radio
or television etc.)". The world becomes more and more reliant on
telecommunication technologies for commerce, communication and access to
information.

1.2. INDIAN TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY

The Indian telecommunications industry has experienced high growth in


recent years. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India or TRAI (established in
the year 1997) is the independent regulator established by the Government of
India to regulate the telecommunications business in India, to lay down the
standards of quality ,and to issue telecom tariff orders[1].
1.2.1. Regulatory Framework

The government has liberalized the telecommunication services sector


and opened it for private participation. The regulatory norms for certain
telecommunication services are as follows:
o Mobile services: Four licenses have been awarded in each of the 22-
telecom circles. Three licenses have been awarded to private service
providers and one to the government operator. The private licenses have
been issued based on a bidding process.
o Fixed line Services: There is no restriction on the number of players in the
fixed line segment. The licenses have been awarded based on a fixed
entry fee, issued on a non-exclusive basis for a period of 10 years,
extendable by 10 years at a time.
o National & International Long Distance Services: There is no restriction on
the number of players in the long distance markets. Licenses are issued
based on an entry fee, on a non-exclusive basis for 10 years, extendable
by 10 years at a time.
o Internet Services: There is no restriction on the number of players in the
ISP segment.

1.2.3. Industry Structure

The present operational regulatory structure of telecommunications


services industry in India is set forth below:
Ministry of Communications

Telecom Commission DOT TRAI &TDS


(Policy maker & (Regulation &
(Policy Role)
Licensor) Adjudication)

Private Private Other


MTNL Mobile Fixed line BSNL VSNL Private
Licensees Licensees Licensees

1.2.4. Factors responsible for the growth of telecommunication industry

The Indian telecommunications market is under penetrated and hence


offers tremendous growth potential. The mobile and fixed line penetration levels
in India are lower than those in most developed countries in the world. The
following factors are expected to contribute to the growth of the Indian
Telecommunications Industry:
o Economic Growth and continued development of the Indian Economy
o Higher growth rate of service oriented sector, leading to an increased
demand for telecommunication services;
o Increased use of Information Technology and Internet, leading to a large
demand for data communication services;
o Declining tariff, reduced equipment cost and reduced handset costs over
time.
o Increasing customer choice and demand for value added services.
o Increasing globalization of the Indian Business, leading to increase
international voice & data traffic.

1.3. CELLULAR PHONES & ITS IMPORTANCE

A technological triumph in telecommunication industry is the cell phone, a


radio-linked device that is taking the world by storm. Over the last few years,
mobile phones have become a more and more widespread means of
communication. They have become a part of everyday life with ever more people
enjoying the service and extra freedom they provide.

The widespread use of mobile phone has increased over the past decade
to the point of becoming an essential part of business, commerce and society.
Mobile phones are convenient because they are small and mobile. To own one
often confers status and power. Most important, mobile phones give access to
the world anytime, anywhere and have come to provide great assistance to
users. Mobile phones are also economically priced to be affordable by the
majority. Technological improvements are continuing to place mobile phones on
the forefront of communication tools. They let the users to embrace constant
communication. Their use of mobile phone is diverse, and depends on design
and usability.

Cell phones were used —not just talking on them but also playing games,
getting information off the Internet, sending short text messages, listening music,
setting alarms, to organize work and much more.
1.3.1. Indian Cellular market

After the liberalization of the Indian Telecom Sector in 1994, the Indian
cellular market witnessed a surge in cellular services. By 2005, there were a total
of 12 players in the market with the five major players being Bharti Tele-Ventures
Limited (Bharti), Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), Hutchinson-Essar
limited (Hutch), Idea Cellular limited (Idea) and Reliance India Mobile (RIM).

All the players except RIM offered services based on the Global System
for Mobile (GSM) technology. RIM provided services based on Code Division
Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. As competition in the telecom arena
intensified; service providers took new initiatives to woo customers.

The market shares of major players are shown in the figure below:

FIG 1.1.Market share of mobile services in India


1.3.2. India-The fastest growing mobile markets in the world

India has become one of the fastest growing mobile markets in the world.
The mobile services were commercially launched in August 1995 in India. In the
initial 5-6 years the average monthly subscribers additions were around 0.05 to
0.1 million only and the total mobile subscribers base in December 2002 stood at
10.5 millions. However, after the number of proactive initiatives taken by
regulator and licensor, the monthly mobile subscriber additions increased to
around 2 million per month in the year 2003-04 and 2004-05. For the year 2005-
06, the first 9 months have seen an addition of 26 million mobile subscribers,
which translates into average addition of 3 million subscribers monthly. The
additions in the month of December 2005 alone have touched around 4.5 million
[2].

At the time of launch of GSM cellular service in the country there were a number
of impediments in the form of high handset costs, exorbitant tariffs, high initial
entry/activation charges, Mobile Party Pays (MPP) regime etc. With the passage
of time these initial barriers have almost disappeared as on date [2].

Tariff: The mobile tariffs in India have also become lowest in the world. A new
mobile connection can be activated with a monthly commitment of Rs.200 to
Rs.250. The average mobile tariffs prevalent in India are much lower than the
rates that are prevalent in different countries in the neighborhood. In India the
approximate per minute cellular tariff is Rs.1 where as its Rs.1.50 in China, Rs.3
in Bangladesh and Nepal, Rs.3.80 in Pakistan and Rs.5 in Srilanka [2].
Handset Sales: The data pertaining to sale of handsets in India provided by
Indian Cellular Association (ICA) for the last three years is as under:-
* 2003: 19 Million
* 2004: 24 Million
* 2005: 32 Million
The above data also is in synchronization, which supports the high growth of
mobile subscribers in last 3 years. With the monthly additions of about 5 million
subscribers, the sale of handsets is likely to pick up substantially in 2006 and
may reach somewhere in the range of 60-65 millions per annum. The
replacement market in India is mentioned to be about 10% of the total subscriber
base [2].

Mobile telephony services are rapidly expanding and have contributed


approximately 91% to new subscriber additions in December 2005. The
segment’s subscriber base grew a record 6.24% month on month (mom) to
75.92mn. Of the total subscriber’s added, almost 71% subscribers belonged to
the GSM segment and the rest were CDMA segment. This strong growth is
largely attributed to the lifetime validity cards launched by all major operators.
1.4. COMPANY PROFILE (BSNL)

On October 1, 2000 the Department of Telecom Operations, Government


of India became a corporation and was christened Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
(BSNL). Today, BSNL is the No. 1 Telecommunications Company and the largest
Public Sector Undertaking of India with authorized share capital of Rs.179 billion
million and net worth of Rs.646 billion. It has a network of over 45 million lines
covering 5000 towns with over 35 million telephone connections.

With latest digital switching technology like OCB,EWSD,AXE-


10,FETEX,NEC etc. and widespread transmission network including SDH
system upto 2.5 gbps, DWDM system upto 80 gbps,Web telephony,DIAS,VPN,
Broadband and more than 400,000 data customers , BSNL continues to serve
this great nation .

Its responsibilities include improvement of the already impeccable quality


of telecom services, expansion of telecom network, introduction of new telecom
services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers.

BSNL has managed to shoulder these responsibilities remarkably and


deftly. Today with over 45 million line capacity, 99.9% of its exchanges digital,
nation wide Network management & surveillance system (NMSS) to control
telecom traffic and over 4,00,000 route kms of OFC network, Bharat Sanchar
Nigam Ltd is a name to reckon with in the world of connectivity. Along with its
vast customer base, BSNL's financial and asset bases too are vast and strong.
Consider the figures, as they speak volumes on BSNL’s standing:
o The telephone infrastructure alone is worth about Rs.1,00,000 crore (US $
22.74 billion)
o Turnover of Rs.31,400 crore ( US $ 7.14 billion)
BSNL's nationwide coverage and reach, comprehensive range of telecom
services and a penchant for excellence; have provided the ingredients for
restructuring India for a bright future. Today, BSNL is most trusted Telecom
Brand of India.

When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation, and much
beyond, one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle - BSNL. A company
that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of a
leader. It is working round the clock to take India into the future by providing
world class telecom services for people of India. BSNL is India's no. 1 Telecom
Service provider and most trusted Telecom brand of the Nation. Driven by the
very best of telecom technology from chosen global leaders, it connects each
inch of the nation to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable the customer to
step into tomorrow.

Here is an overview of the World Class services offered by the BSNL:

1. Basic telephone services


2. Dataone broadband
3. SancharNet internet
4. Integrated Service Digital Network Service (ISDN)
5. Intelligent Network Service
6. I-NET
7. Leased lines and datacom
8. Cellular mobile service
9. Tarang-Wireless in local loop

1.4.1. Cellular mobile service from BSNL

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited on October 19, 2002, launched its much-
awaited cellular services CellOne. BSNL is the first in India to launch Cellular
Service, Nationwide at one time. India’s fastest growing cellular service

, along with (pre-paid service) has brought cellular


telephony to the masses, through innovative technology and strategic pricing.

This ambitious service uses state-of-the-art GSM technology to attain


global excellence and leadership in business. BSNL’s entry into this sector has
brought GSM cellular service at an affordable cost to the common man. All
serving a single objective, to provide better communication to millions across
India. Customers have reposed tremendous faith in BSNL and it has enrolled
over 30 Lakh cellular customers within ten months of launch of Cellular service,
an unprecedented mark in Indian Cellular Market.

1.5. ABOUT THE PROJECT

BSNL cellular mobile service division in India faces a very tough


competition from the various private players. Even though BSNL cellular service
is doing extremely well within a short time of its launch when compared to other
players, it still has some drawbacks.
BSNL cellular service in the Erode district competes with players like
Airtel, Aircel, BPL, and Reliance, Tata Indicom. With so many cellular network
services in the fray, competition is expected to be tough as the companies
scramble to live up to customer expectations. Continuous improvements are
being made by the management to capture a very high market share. Various
promotional schemes are being introduced by BSNL to out beat the competition
but still could not rise up to the customer expectations.

BSNL cellular service division in Erode would like to analyze the


competition it faces from other players, to know the weak areas and to identify
the unique selling proposition of its services.

In a nutshell the study proposes,


1. To assess the present level of service provided by BSNL.
2. To identify areas which require attention by BSNL for improving its services.
3. To evaluate the strength and weakness of its competitors, to develop a USP
for its services.

To address all these issues, so that the management can take appropriate
measures, a research has been called to provide information on the areas where
BSNL needs attention.
AIM, OBJECTIVES &
LIMITATIONS
CHAPTER 2

AIM, OBJECTIVES & LIMITATIONS

2.1. AIM OF THE PROJECT

The Indian Telecommunication industry has grown into a billion dollar


industry. In this highly competitive industry it is not just enough doing something
right that matters but it is also important that it is doing nothing wrong. Making
profit does not only mean a large customer base but also, on usage level of the
services provided to the customers.

The telecom companies come out with many schemes and offers, to
attract customers and to make them use the various features provided by these
companies. The aim of this study would supplement this effort of the company in
a small way.

2.2. OBJECTIVES

1. To identify the features that encourages customers to avail services


from mobile service providers.

2. To evaluate various features provided by mobile service providers to


identify their USP.
3. To assess the present level of service provided by BSNL and compare
the same with its competitors.

4. To identify new areas which require attention by BSNL for attaining


customer delight.

5. To evaluate the strength and weakness of competitors of BSNL and to


furnish recommendations for meeting the competition.

2.3. MINOR OBJECTIVES

1. To find out the future expectations of customer’s from BSNL.

2. To study the effectiveness of promotional campaign of BSNL.

2.4. LIMITATIONS

1. The sample size of 420 respondents may not be representative of the


entire population.

2. The respondents consisted of various classes of people with varying


levels of education, hence during the interview process the language
and words that was used to ask the question was modifies suitably.
This might have made the respondents interpret the question in a
different fashion, Hence there is a possibility of bias.
3. The linking or loyalty of the respondents to a particular service provider
might have made them to respond in a biased manner.

4. Time at the disposal for the research was limited and hence a more
elaborate study could not be conducted.

5. The area of study is limited to Erode District only; hence the result may
not be true to other geographical regions.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. THE RESEARCH DESIGN

3.1.1. Exploratory Research

The basic problem to be addressed is to assess the strength and


weakness of BSNL vis-à-vis its competitors. In order to gain a sharper
perspective of the problem and develop the research dilemma into a more
precise formulation and state the problem clearly, a few days was spent in
studying the actual problem. The objective and the problem became clear only
after interacting with the various people in the BSNL office and various other
persons who use mobile phones frequently. As a part of the exploration process
a study was also made about BSNL’s competitors. By this process the objectives
of the study could be stated clearly.

3.2. DATA SOURCES

3.2.1. Primary Data

The primary data was collected through an administered questionnaire.


The questionnaire consisted of a variety of questions that lay consistent with the
objectives of the research.
3.2.2. Secondary Data

The websites of the service providers and various other researches done
in this area along with websites of TRAI, Cellular Operators Association of India
served as the secondary sources of data.

3.3. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

Proper care has been taken to ensure that the information needs match
the objectives which in turn match the data collected through the questionnaire.
The basic cardinal rules of questionnaire design like using simple and clear
words, the logical and sequential arrangement of questions has been taken care
of.

3.4. PRE-TESTING, REVISION, FINAL DRAFT

The questionnaire was pretested with 25 respondents chosen at random.


After the pretesting some question regarding the open ended question as to why
people do not prefer BSNL was added. Other minor errors like spell check was
also performed after the pretest and appropriate corrections were made.

The ‘validity’ of the questionnaire was also looked into. Validity refers to
whether the Questionnaire is measuring what it is purported to measure. Content
Validity, i.e. the contents of the questionnaire whether it is aligned with the
objectives was looked into by the guide in charge in the BSNL office and
approval was given. By going through the process of validity confidence was
developed that the questionnaire is free from systematic errors.
The ‘reliability’ of a questionnaire refers to a measurement free from
random errors or put in another way, whether the results obtained from the
measurement are the same for a particular respondent when interviewed
between two intervals. Around 10 respondents who were involved in pre-testing
the questionnaire were interviewed after a period of 10 days and the results did
not show any deviation. Hence reliability was achieved.

Hence pretesting, the validity and the reliability aspects of the


questionnaire were taken care of.

3.5. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The sampling technique used for this research is Stratified Proportionate


Random Sampling.

This technique is used when a population from which a sample is to be


drawn does not constitute a homogenous group, stratified sampling technique is
generally applied in order to obtain a representative sample. Under stratified
sampling the population is divided into several sub-populations that are
individually more homogeneous than the total population (the different sub-
populations are called ‘strata’) and then we select items from each stratum to
constitute a sample. Since each stratum is more homogenous than the total
population, we are able to get more precise estimates for each stratum and by
estimating more accurately each of the component parts; we get a better
estimate of the whole. In brief, stratified sampling results are more reliable [3].
We usually follow the method of proportional allocation under which the
sizes of the samples from different strata are kept proportional to the sizes of the
strata. [3]

3.5.1. Illustration:

Sample size (n) = 420


Population Size (N) = 309900

Airtel - 80000
Aircel - 70000
BPL - 47600
BSNL - 77000
Reliance - 35300
Total 309900

Adopting the proportional allocation, the sample sizes for different strata are:

Airtel - 108 (80000/309900*420)


Aircel - 95 (70000/309900*420)
BPL - 65 (47600/309900*420)
BSNL - 104 (77000/309900*420)
Reliance - 48 (35300/309900*420)

Thus, using proportional allocation, the sample sizes for different strata
are 108:95:65:104:48.
3.6. TEST USED

3.6.1. Chi Square Test

Chi Square tests can be used to determine whether the two attributes are
independent of each other if the population is classified into several categories
with respect to two attributes [4].

The test statistics is given in the appendix 1.

3.6.2. Factor Analysis

Factor Analysis is generally used for data reduction and summarization.It


is used to find certain relationships among the observed values. It also analyses
the interdependence or interrelations among total set of variables.

3.6.3. Kruskal Wallis Test

This ANOVA procedure was concerned with whether several population


means are equal. The data were interval/ratio level and it was also assumed that
the populations follow the normal distribution and their S.D was equal. If the data
are ordinal scale and/or the populations do not follow a normal distribution then
this K test is used. The K test requires no assumptions about the shape of the
populations. For K test to be applied, the samples selected from the population
must be independent. [5]
3.6.4. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

Wilcoxon Signed Rank test is a non parametric test based on the


differences in dependent samples. [5]

3.6.5. Kendall’s Tau c Test

This test is based on the concept of concordant and discordant pairs. This
Kendall’s statistics does not require the assumption of a bivariate normal
distribution, yet by incorporating order most produce a range from -1.0(a perfect
negative relationship) to +1.0(a perfect positive one). Within this range, a
coefficient with a larger magnitude (absolute value of the measure) is interpreted
as having a stronger relationship. These characteristics allow the analyst to
interpret both the direction and strength of the relationship. [6]

3.6.6. Cross tabulation with simple percentage analysis is also used in places
where it is appropriate along with graphs and charts.
ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
CHAPTER 4

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1. ANALYSIS OF DATA

TABLE 4.1.1

PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS

a)SERVICE PROVIDERS

No. Of
S.No Service providers %
Respondents
1 Airtel 108 25.7
2 Aircel 95 22.6
3 Bpl 65 15.5
4 Bsnl 104 24.8
5 Reliance 48 11.4
Total 420 100

b)GENDER

No. Of
S.No Gender %
Respondents
1 Male 275 65.5
2 Female 145 34.5
Grand Total 420 100

c)AGE

No. Of
S.No Age %
Respondents
1 Under 25 yrs 106 25.2
2 Between 25-34 yrs 156 37.1
3 Between 35-44 yrs 99 23.6
4 Between 45-54yrs 41 9.8
5 Greater than 55 18 4.3
Grand Total 420 100
d)OCCUPATION

No. Of
S.No Occupation %
Respondents
1 Businessman 131 31.2
2 Professional 63 15.0
3 Executive 124 29.5
4 Student 66 15.7
5 Housewife 36 8.6
Grand Total 420 100

e)INCOME LEVEL

No. Of
S.No Income level %
Respondents
1 Less than Rs.1 lakh 177 42.1
2 Between Rs.1lakhs-Rs.3lakhs 151 36.0
3 Between Rs.3lakhs-Rs.5lakhs 73 17.4
4 Greater than Rs.5lakhs 19 4.5
Grand Total 420 100

INFERENCE:

The general profile of the respondents given above is self


explanatory.66% interviewed were males and 34% females. Most of the
respondents were between age group 25 to 34 yrs. A large percentage of them
were into business and 42% of the respondents come under the income level of
less than Rs.1 lakh.
TABLE 4.1.2

TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF AIRTEL SERVICE

Reasons for
selection of AIRTEL No. Of
%
service by AIRTEL Respondents
Customers
Call Rate 45 14.6
Good Network
51 16.5
Coverage
Network availability 33 10.7
Good Customer
22 7.1
Care
Promotional offers 14 4.5
Free SMS 43 13.9
Roaming Facilities 31 10.0
Add-on card/Closed
25 8.1
user groups
Influence from
25 8.1
Friends/Relatives
Value Added
20 6.5
Services
Total 309 100.0

INFERENCE

16.5% of the respondents who are AIRTEL customers have chosen Airtel
because of good network coverage, 15% of the respondents because of call
rates and 14% because of free SMS.
Fig 4.1.1

CHART SHO

Value Added Serv

Influence from Friends/Rela

Add-on card/Closed user gr

Roaming Fac
TABLE 4.1.3

TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF AIRCEL SERVICE

Reasons for
No. Of
selection of AIRCEL
Respondent %
service by AIRCEL
s
Customers
Call Rate 46 24.9
Good Network
14 7.6
Coverage
Network availability 4 2.2
Good Customer
20 10.8
Care
Promotional offers 10 5.4
Free SMS 49 26.5
Roaming Facilities 8 4.3
Add-on card/Closed
16 8.6
user groups
Influence from
17 9.2
Friends/Relatives
Value Added
1 0.5
Services
Total 185 100.0

INFERENCE

27% of the respondents who are Aircel customers have chosen its service
because of free SMS, 25% of the respondents have chosen it because of call
tariffs and
Fig 4.1.2

CHART SHO

Value Added Serv

Influence from Friends/Relat

Add-on card/Closed user gro

Roaming Faci
TABLE 4.1.4

TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF BPL SERVICE

Reasons for
selection of BPL No. Of
%
service by BPL Respondents
Customers
Call Rate 32 16.8
Good Network
20 10.5
Coverage
Network availability 23 12.0
Good Customer Care 28 14.7
Promotional offers 6 3.1
Free SMS 14 7.3
Roaming Facilities 14 7.3
Add-on card/Closed
12 6.3
user groups
Influence from
27 14.1
Friends/Relatives
Value Added
15 7.9
Services
Total 191 100.0

INFERENCE

17% of the respondents who are BPL customers have chosen its service
because of call rates, 15% of the respondents have chosen it because of good
customer care and 14% have chosen it because of the influence from the friends
and relatives.
Fig 4.1.3

CHART SHOWI

Value Added Servic

Influence from Friends/Relativ

Add-on card/Closed user grou

Roaming Faciliti

Free SM
TABLE 4.1.5

TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF BSNL SERVICE

Reasons for
selection of BSNL No. Of
%
service by BSNL Respondents
Customers
Call Rate 50 24.8
Good Network
80 39.6
Coverage
Network availability 12 5.9
Good Customer Care 10 5.0
Promotional offers 4 2.0
Free SMS 4 2.0
Roaming Facilities 29 14.4
Add-on card/Closed
4 2.0
user groups
Influence from
7 3.5
Friends/Relatives
Value Added
2 1.0
Services
Total 202 100.0

INFERENCE

40% of the respondents who are BSNL customers have chosen its service
because of good network coverage, 25% of the respondents have chosen it
because of call rates and 15% have chosen it because of the roaming facilities.
Fig 4.1.4

CHART SHO

Value Added Serv

Influence from Friends/Relat

Add-on card/Closed user gro

Roaming Facil

Free S
TABLE 4.1.6

TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF RELIANCE


SERVICE

Reasons for
selection of
No. Of
RELIANCE %
Respondents
service by RELIANCE
Customers
Call Rate 16 13.8
Good Network
26 22.4
Coverage
Network availability 10 8.6
Good Customer Care 8 6.9
Promotional offers 6 5.2
Free SMS 10 8.6
Roaming Facilities 12 10.3
Add-on card/Closed
14 12.1
user groups
Influence from
6 5.2
Friends/Relatives
Value Added Services 8 6.9
Total 116 100.0

INFERENCE

22% of the respondents who are RELIANCE customers have chosen its
service because of good network coverage, 14% of the respondents have
chosen it because of call rates and 12% have chosen it because of the add on
cards/closed user group option.
Fig 4.1.5

CHART SH

Value Added Se

Influence from Friends/Rel

Add-on card/Closed user g

Roaming Fa

Free
TABLE 4.1.7

TABLE SHOWING THE SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE SCHEMES


SELECTED BY THE CUSTOMERS

Prepaid % Postpaid % Grand Total


59.26 40.74
Airtel 64 % 44 % 108 (100%)
43.16 56.84
Aircel 41 % 54 % 95 (100%)
46.15 53.85
Bpl 30 % 35 % 65 (100%)
30.77 69.23
Bsnl 32 % 72 % 104 (100%)
54.17 45.83
Reliance 26 % 22 % 48 (100%)
Grand
Total 193 227 420

INTERPRETATION:

30.77% of the respondents who are customers of BSNL have chosen


Prepaid scheme and 69.23% of the respondents are postpaid customers. Where
as 59.26% of Airtel customers use prepaid connection while 40.74% use
postpaid connection. Airtel holds the highest market share in the prepaid
segment of the market.
Fig 4.1.6

CHART SHOWI
PERCENTAGE

70.00%
59.26%
60.00%
TABLE 4.1.8

TABLE SHOWING WHY PEOPLE DO NOT PREFER BSNL

No. of
S.No Reasons for not choosing BSNL %
Respondents
1 No free SMS 76 26.2
2 Very poor customer care 65 22.4
3 High network congestion 41 14.1
4 Lack of bill collection centers 25 8.6
5 No proper CUG facilities 16 5.5
6 Time delay in getting the connection 14 4.8
7 Lack of awareness 13 4.5
8 Not available at the time their purchase 12 4.1
9 High tariff 8 2.8
10 No free network calls 6 2.1
11 There is no clear clarity 6 2.1
12 No value added services 4 1.4
13 Need the same number 2 0.7
14 Problem in calling Aircel mobiles 2 0.7
Total 290 100.0

INFERENCE

There were 290 (26 did not answer and 104 were BSNL customers who
were not eligible to answer this question) who responded to the open ended
question. Their views were classified carefully into 14 categories as shown
above.18% of the respondents did not choose BSNL because of SMS charges
and 15% of the respondents feel that the customer care is very poor. 14% feel
that there is high network congestion.9% feel that there is not enough bill
collection centers to pay their bills at ease.
Fig 4.1.7

CHART SHOW

Problem in calling Ai
Need the sa
No value add
There is no
No free n
TABLE 4.1.9

TABLE SHOWING THE OVERALL RANKING OBTAINED BY VARIOUS


SERVICE PROVIDERS IN TERMS OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES

A) Cheaper Call Rates

Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank


Airtel 67 89 164 68 24 8 1177 2
Aircel 59 70 68 141 55 27 1404 4
Bpl 45 43 53 87 134 58 1656 5
Bsnl 188 93 54 43 30 12 930 1
Reliance 57 107 61 54 121 20 1395 3
Tata Indicom 4 18 20 27 56 295 2258 6

B) Network Coverage

Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank


Airtel 64 75 154 64 45 18 1265 3
Aircel 8 34 116 126 52 84 1692 4
Bpl 24 110 75 532 635 336 1712 5
Bsnl 198 128 39 26 21 8 828 1
Reliance 123 228 180 112 270 246 1159 2
Tata Indicom 3 14 18 43 121 221 2188 6

C) Network Congestion/Uptime

Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank


Airtel 70 58 80 73 40 99 1512 4
Aircel 173 95 47 53 29 23 999 1
Bpl 14 76 167 65 50 48 1465 3
Bsnl 105 121 51 67 42 34 1182 2
Reliance 41 56 59 112 121 31 1569 5
Tata Indicom 17 14 16 48 138 187 2097 6
D) Roaming

Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank


Airtel 69 117 110 72 32 20 1201 2
Aircel 24 32 86 105 63 110 1741 5
Bpl 26 62 44 74 173 41 1689 4
Bsnl 224 96 51 24 15 10 800 1
Reliance 73 96 110 40 71 30 1290 3
Tata Indicom 4 17 21 105 64 209 2095 6

E) Good Advertisements

Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank


Airtel 160 111 77 42 20 10 941 1
Aircel 16 40 44 147 132 41 1722 5
Bpl 38 40 42 107 110 83 1720 4
Bsnl 40 49 57 40 63 171 1810 6
Reliance 61 94 144 40 53 28 1274 2
Tata Indicom 105 86 60 42 42 85 1345 3

F) SMS Facilities

Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank


Airtel 131 166 60 30 14 19 947 2
Aircel 186 108 72 28 15 11 871 1
Bpl 50 47 157 91 45 30 1384 3
Bsnl 28 43 49 80 93 127 1808 5
Reliance 20 48 64 145 106 37 1640 4
Tata Indicom 116
5 24 54 176 735 2158 6
4

G) Value Added Services

Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank


Airtel 196 93 52 34 30 15 914 1
Aircel 53 101 159 53 45 9 1223 2
Bpl 50 57 89 139 45 40 1452 4
Bsnl 61 39 28 91 69 132 1724 5
Reliance 54 110 67 39 95 55 1436 3
Tata Indicom 6 20 25 64 136 169 2071 6
H) Add On Cards/CUG Facilities

Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank


Airtel 152 122 80 32 22 12 946 1
Aircel 107 143 86 43 24 17 1045 2
Bpl 60 52 88 155 43 22 1395 3
Bsnl 32 43 44 101 91 109 1763 5
Reliance 57 50 112 48 127 26 1476 4
Tata Indicom 12 12 10 37 115 234 2193 6

INFERENCE

From the figures it is seen that BSNL occupies first place in the minds of
the cell phone users when it comes to cheaper call rates, Network Coverage and
Roaming. It occupies second place when it comes to Network congestion, sixth
place for its advertisements and fifth place for SMS facilities, Value added
services and add on cards.
4.2. CHI SQUARE ANALYSIS

TABLE 4.2.1

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND


THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY AIRTEL CUSTOMERS

INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Less than Rs.1lakh 28 12 40
Rs1-3 lakhs 18 18 36
Greater than Rs.3 lakhs 18 14 32
Grand Total 64 44 108

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the income level


and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income
level and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 3.31


Table Value = 5.991 Degrees of Freedom = 2
Probability Value = 0.1911
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the
AIRTEL customers.
TABLE 4.2.2

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND


THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY AIRCEL CUSTOMERS

INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Less than Rs.1lakh 30 20 50
Greater than Rs.1 lakh 11 34 45
Grand Total 41 54 95

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the income level


and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income
level and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 12.21


Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1
Probability Value = 0.0005
Phi Coefficient = 0.358
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the
table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an
association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the
AIRCEL customers. But the association is not strong.
TABLE 4.2.3

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND


THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY BPL CUSTOMERS

INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Less than Rs.1lakh 20 11 31
Greater than Rs.1 lakh 10 24 34
Grand Total 30 35 65

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the income level


and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income
level and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 8.04


Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1
Probability Value = 0.0046
Phi Coefficient = 0.352
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the
table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an
association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the
BPL customers but the association is not very strong.
TABLE 4.2.4

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND


THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY BSNL CUSTOMERS

INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Less than Rs.1lakh 14 26 40
Between Rs1-3 lakhs 10 30 40
Greater than Rs.3 lakhs 8 16 24
Grand Total 32 72 104

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the income level


and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income
level and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 1.04


Table Value = 5.991 Degrees of Freedom = 2
Probability Value = 0.5960
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the
BSNL customers.
TABLE 4.2.5

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND


THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY RELIANCE CUSTOMERS

INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Less than Rs.1lakh 11 5 16
Between Rs1-3 lakhs 6 10 16
Greater than Rs.3 lakhs 6 10 16
Grand Total 23 25 48

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) -There is no association between the income level and
the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income
level and the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 4.17


Table Value = 5.991 Degrees of Freedom = 2
Probability Value = 0.1241
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the
RELIANCE customers.
TABLE 4.2.6

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS


AND THE CORRESPONDING CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION LEVEL

Neither
Satisfied
SERVICE PROVIDERS Dissatisfied Satisfied Grand Total
Nor
Dissatisfied
Airtel 4 10 94 108
Aircel 8 18 69 95
Bpl 4 14 47 65
Bsnl 7 14 83 104
Reliance 5 8 35 48
Grand Total 28 64 328 420

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service


providers and their customer satisfaction level
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service
providers and their customer satisfaction level

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 10.22


Table Value = 15.5.7 Degrees of Freedom = 8
Probability Value = 0.2502
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the service providers and their customer’s satisfaction level.
TABLE 4.2.7

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS


AND THE GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS

SERVICE PROVIDERS Male Female Grand Total


Airtel 62 46 108
Aircel 61 34 95
Bpl 47 18 65
Bsnl 79 25 104
Reliance 26 22 48
Grand Total 275 145 420

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service


providers and gender of the respondents.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service
providers and the gender of the respondents.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 12.29 Table Value = 9.488


Degrees of Freedom = 4 Probability Value =
0.0153
Coefficient of Contingency = 0.169 Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the
table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an
association between the service providers and gender of the respondents. From
the coefficient of contingency it is found that the association is not strong.
Fig 4.2.1

CHART SHOWI
GEN

Reliance

Bsnl
ROVIDERS
TABLE 4.2.8

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS


AND THE AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS

25- 35-
Under25 Greater than
SERVICE PROVIDERS 34 44 Grand Total
yrs 45 yrs
yrs yrs
Airtel 39 36 23 10 108
Aircel 30 37 19 9 95
Bpl 8 23 26 8 65
Bsnl 21 36 21 26 104
Reliance 8 24 10 6 48
Grand Total 106 156 99 59 420

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service


providers and age of the respondents.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service
providers and the age of the respondents.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 37.33 Table Value =


21.026
Degrees of Freedom = 12 Probability Value =
0.0002
Coefficient of Contingency = 0.286 Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the
table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an
association between the service providers and age of the respondents. From the
coefficient of contingency it is found that the association is not very strong.
Fig 4.2.2

CHART SHOWI
AGE G

Reliance

Bsnl

Bpl
TABLE 4.2.9

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS


AND THE OCCUPATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

SERVICE
Business Professional Executive Student Housewife Grand Total
PROVIDERS
Airtel 25 14 37 26 6 108
Aircel 28 10 35 12 10 95
Bpl 24 14 13 5 9 65
Bsnl 36 19 27 17 5 104
Reliance 18 6 12 6 6 48
Grand Total 131 63 124 66 36 420

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service


providers and occupation of the respondents.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service
providers and the occupation of the respondents.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 28.34 Table Value =


26.296
Degrees of Freedom = 16 Probability Value =
0.0288
Coefficient of contingency = 0.251 Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the
table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an
association between the service providers and occupation of the respondents.
From the coefficient of contingency it is found that the association is not strong.
Fig 4.2.3

CHART SHOWI
OCCUP

40.0%
%
.3
34

35.0%
29
30.0%
%
%

.1
.1

24

25.0%
23
TABLE 4.2.10

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS


AND THE INCOME LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS

Less than Between Greater than


SERVICE PROVIDERS Grand Total
Rs.1 lakh Rs1-3 lakhs Rs3 lakhs
Airtel 40 36 32 108
Aircel 50 39 6 95
Bpl 31 20 14 65
Bsnl 40 40 24 104
Reliance 16 16 16 48
Grand Total 177 151 92 420

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service


providers and income of the respondents.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service
providers and the income of the respondents.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 22.91 Table Value =


15.507
Degrees of Freedom = 8 Probability Value =
0.0035
Coefficient of contingency = 0.227 Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the
table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an
association between the service providers and income of the respondents and
from the coefficient of contingency it is found that the association is not very
strong.

Fig 4.2.4

CHART SHOWI
PERCEN

60.00%
5

50.00%
TABLE 4.2.11

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE


OF SCHEME SELECTED BY AIRTEL CUSTOMERS

Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Male 34 28 62
Female 30 16 46
Grand
64 44 108
Total

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the
type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender
and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 1.18


Table Value = 3.841
Degrees of Freedom = 1
Probability Value = 0.2777
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL
customers.
TABLE 4.2.12

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE


OF SCHEME SELECTED BY AIRCEL CUSTOMERS

Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Male 23 38 61
Female 18 16 34
Grand
41 54 95
Total

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the
type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender
and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 2.07


Table Value = 3.841
Degrees of Freedom = 1
Probability Value = 0.1506
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL
customers.
TABLE 4.2.13

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE


OF SCHEME SELECTED BY BPL CUSTOMERS

Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Male 22 25 47
Female 8 10 18
Grand
30 35 65
Total

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the
type of scheme selected by the BPL customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender
and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 0.03


Table Value = 3.841
Degrees of Freedom = 1
Probability Value = 0.8642
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the BPL
customers.
TABLE 4.2.14

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE


OF SCHEME SELECTED BY BSNL CUSTOMERS

Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Male 26 53 79
Female 6 19 25
Grand
32 72 104
Total

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the
type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender
and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 0.71


Table Value = 3.841
Degrees of Freedom = 1
Probability Value = 0.4001
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL
customers.
TABLE 4.2.15

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE


OF SCHEME SELECTED BY RELIANCE CUSTOMERS

Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total


Male 14 12 26
Female 12 10 22
Grand
26 22 48
Total

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the
type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender
and the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers.

CALCUALTIONS

Chi square value = 0.00


Table Value = 3.841
Degrees of Freedom = 1
Probability Value = 0.9614
Level of significance = 5%

INFERENCE:

It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the
table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no
association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the
RELIANCE customers.
4.3. FACTOR ANALYSIS

TABLE 4.3.1

TABLE SHOWING THE FACTOR ANALYSIS-ROTATED COMPONENT


MATRIX

Component
1 2 3 4 5
STATEMENT I.A 1.770E-02 .850 4.224E-02 -5.562E-02 .137
STATEMENT I.B 3.840E-02 .862 .156 6.513E-02 .165
STATEMENT II.A -9.405E-02 .148 .311 9.142E-02 .733
STATEMENT II.B .333 7.157E-02 .742 .179 .122
STATEMENT II.C .131 .181 .838 -1.955E-02 .101
STATEMENT III.A -.122 .172 1.007E-02 .779 .101
STATEMENT IV.A .368 -.104 5.147E-02 .659 9.371E-02
STATEMENT IV.B .261 -2.686E-02 .475 .539 7.718E-02
STATEMENT IV.C .384 .419 .219 .393 -.109
STATEMENT IV.D .526 .564 3.604E-02 .243 -.146
STATEMENT V.A .677 5.901E-02 .221 9.234E-02 3.342E-02
STATEMENT V.B .776 7.275E-02 .270 3.962E-02 1.063E-02
STATEMENT V.C .758 -1.270E-03 .175 6.435E-02 -9.057E-02
STATEMENT VI.A .622 .121 -9.875E-02 .224 .612
STATEMENT VI.B .724 .168 -2.552E-02 .109 .483

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.


Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

a) Rotation converged in 8 iterations.


FACTOR 1

1. There is an easy access to the customer care centers (nearness).


2. Availability of bill payment centers is extremely good.
3. There is an easy availability of SIM/recharge coupons.
4. There is a huge variety of value added services.
5. It is very easy to use the value added service provided by my service
provider.

FACTOR 2

1. My service provider’s network coverage is good.


2. Geographical coverage (signal coverage on roaming) is good.

FACTOR 3

1. The clarity of sound is good.


2. There is no call cutting / call drop.

FACTOR 4

1. Prices are very reasonable when compared to other operators.


2. There is always an easy possibility of choosing different tariff packages.

FACTOR 5

1. I have access to network always.


From the above classification of statements into factors, each factor is given a
name to represent the statements below them.

FACTOR 1 - CUSTOMER CARE

FACTOR 2 - COVERAGE

FACTOR 3 - PERFORMANCE

FACTOR 4 - PRICING

FACTOR 5 - ACCESSABILITY

INFERENCE

Hence to satisfy a customer these five factors are to be concentrated by


cellular service provider to make their service excel its competitors.
4.4. KRUSKAL WALLIS TEST

Null Hypothesis (H0) : There is no significant difference


between the ranking given by the BSNL customers about the AIRTEL, AIRCEL,
BPL, BSNL and RELIANCE service providers.
Alternative Hypothesis (H1) : There is significant difference between
the ranking given by the BSNL customers about the AIRTEL, AIRCEL, BPL,
BSNL and RELIANCE service providers.

4.4.1. Test Statistics

H = {12/n (n+1) [(∑R1)2 / n1 + (∑R2)2 / n2 + ………..+ (∑Rk) 2 / nk]} – 3(n+1)


Within (k-1) degrees of freedom (k is the number of populations i.e. it is 6 in this
case) where:
∑R1, ∑R2……∑Rk are the sums of the ranks of samples 1, 2….k,
respectively.
n1, n2…nk are the sizes of samples 1, 2…k, respectively. N is the
combined number of observations for all samples.

The following table shows the Kruskal Wallis test of BSNL customers have
ranked the other service providers as well as their own service in comparison
with others.
TABLE 4.4.1

TABLE SHOWING KRUSKAL WALLIS TEST FOR RANKING DONE BY BSNL


CUSTOMERS

Media Avg. SERVICE


n
n Rank PROVIDERS
20.50 104 174.93 Airtel
25.00 104 261.20 Aircel
32.00 104 366.87 Bpl
25.00 104 234.32 Bsnl
27.50 104 308.84 Reliance
40.00 104 528.85 Tata
28.00 624 Total

H = 248.191 (corrected for ties)


Degrees of Freedom = 5
Probability Value = 1.34E-51

INFERENCE:

From the above data it is found that the probability value is lesser than the
significant level (0.05) hence the null hypothesis is rejected. Therefore there is
significant relationship between the ranking given by BSNL customers towards
the other service providers and theirs.

From their average score it is found that BSNL customers have ranked
AIRTEL first and they given BSNL the second place. This clearly shows that
BSNL customers themselves are not satisfied with the service of BSNL and
prefer AIRTEL even though they have BSNL connection.
Similarly the same Kruskal Wallis Test is applied to other customers to find out
their difference in ranking. The results of all that is shown in the consolidated
table below.

TABLE 4.4.2

TABLE SHOWING THE K TEST RESULTS PEFORMED ON THE RANKING


OF AIRTEL, AIRCEL, BPL, & RELIANCE CUSTOMERS OVER OTHER
SERVICE PROVIDERS

SERVICE DEGREES OF PROBABILTIY


RESULTS
PROVIDER FREEDOM VALUE
AIRTEL 5 5.13E-62 REJECT H0
AIRCEL 5 2.77E-42 REJECT H0
BPL 5 2.82E-34 REJECT H0
RELIANCE 5 5.9E-35 REJECT H0

INFERENCE:

From the table it is clear that there is a significant difference between the
Airtel, Aircel, BPL, and Reliance customers ranking on Airtel, Aircel, BPL, BSNL,
Reliance and Tata Indicom service providers. From the average scores it is
found that Airtel customers have ranked Airtel first. Aircel customers have given
first rank to Aircel while BPL customers have given first place to Airtel again and
Reliance customers have given first place to reliance service itself.
4.5. WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST:

This test was performed on the entire sample size (420).The ranks
obtained by BSNL is compared with the other service providers like Airtel, Aircel
BPL, Reliance and Tata.

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) : There is no significant difference


between the rankings of Airtel and BSNL.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) : There is significant difference


between the rankings of Airtel and BSNL.

WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST CALCULATION

Variables : AIRTEL – BSNL


Sum of positive ranks = 24887
Sum of negative ranks = 63523

n = 420
Expected value = 44205.00
Standard deviation = 2454.08
Corrected for ties = -7.87 z,
p-value = 1.78E-15 (one tailed, upper)

Average score of Airtel = 21.198


Average score of BSNL = 25.821
INFERENCE

From the calculation it is seen that the probability value is less than
the significant level 0.05.Hence the null hypothesis is rejected. Therefore there is
a significant relation between the rankings of AIRTEL and BSNL. From the
average scores of Airtel and BSNL it is found that the Airtel rankings are better
than BSNL and hence Airtel is preferred over BSNL.

Similarly the tests have been done to other service providers in


comparison with the BSNL and the calculations are given in the consolidated
table below.
TABLE 4.5.1

TABLE SHOWING THE WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST CALCULATION


FOR OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS

WHICH
IS
P SIGNIFICANCE AVERAGE
S.NO VARIABLES RESULT BETTER
VALUE LEVEL(α) SCORES
OF THE
TWO
Aircel-
AIRCEL- Reject 25.469
1 0.0056 0.05 AIRCEL
BSNL H0 BSNL-
25.821
BPL-
Reject 29.698
2 BPL-BSNL 2.31E-12 0.05 BSNL
H0 BSNL-
25.821
Reliance-
26.760
RELIANCE- Reject
3 0.0497 0.05 BSNL- BSNL
BSNL H0
25.821

TATA-
TATA
Reject 39.060
4 INDICOM- 0.00E+00 0.05 BSNL
H0 BSNL-
BSNL
25.821
INFERENCE

Hence from the above table it is found that there is a significant relation
between the rankings of Aircel, BPL, Reliance and TATA with BSNL. BSNL
scores better when compared with BPL, Reliance and TATA and when compared
with Airtel and Aircel it scores lesser.
4.6. KENDALL’S TEST:

Null Hypothesis (H0) - The income level and the satisfaction level of the BSNL
customers are not correlated.

Alternate Hypothesis (H1) - The income level and the satisfaction level of the
BSNL customers are correlated.

TABLE 4.6.1

TABLE SHOWING THE INCOME LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS AND THE


SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE BSNL CUSTOMERS

Less
Satisfaction Between Between Greater
than Grand
level / Income Rs.1-3 Rs.3-5 than Rs.5
Rs.1 Total
level lakhs lakhs lakh
lakh
Satisfied 34 31 16 2 83
Neither satisfied
4 4 4 2 14
nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied 2 5 0 0 7
Grand Total 40 40 20 4 104

CALCULATION:

Concordant Pairs

3 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1
4 1 6 2 4 1 6 2 4 1 6 2
4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2
2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0

3 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1
4 1 6 2 4 1 6 2 4 1 6 2
4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2
2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0
Concordant Pair = 2(4+4+4+2+5) + 16(4+4+2+5) + 31(4+2) + 2(2+5) +4(2+5)
+4(2)
P = 514

Discordant Pairs

3 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1
4 1 6 2 4 1 6 2 4 1 6 2
4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2
2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0

3 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1
4 1 6 2 4 1 6 2 4 1 6 2
4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2
2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0

Discordant Pairs = 34(4+4+2+5) + 31(4+2) +16(2) + 4(5)


Q = 748

TEST STATISTICS:

Tau b(τb ) is used when the rows and the columns of the matrix are equal here

the table does not have equal number of rows and columns so tau c ( τc ) is used.

τc = 2m (P-Q) / N2(m-1)

Where P is the value of concordant pairs


Q is the value of discordant pairs
m is the smaller number of rows or columns
N2 is the total sum of the matrix
τc = { (2*3) (514-748) / (104)2 (3-1)}
tau c ( τc ) = -0.065
INFERENCE:

From the tau c value we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is a
correlation between the income level and the satisfaction level of BSNL
customers. The direction of the association is negative due to the minus sign in
the value i.e. – 0.065. This value is nearer to 0 (the range being -1 to 1) and
hence the association is very weak and hence it reveals that this association
need not be considered.

Therefore BSNL need not consider the income level of the customers
when measuring the satisfaction level. Hence income level of the BSNL’s
customer does not have any influence over the satisfaction level.
FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS
CHAPTER 5

FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

5.1. FINDINGS

 The major reasons as to why people choose the respective service


providers are shown in the table below.

Table 5.1

Service providers Major Reasons


1.Network Coverage
AIRTEL
2.Call tariff
1.Free SMS
AIRCEL
2.Call tariff
1.Call Tariff
BPL
2.Customer care
1.Network Coverage
BSNL
2.Call tariff
1.Network Coverage
RELAINCE
2.Call tariff

 Airtel’s prepaid scheme has a high market share when compared to other
service providers and mostly customers prefer the postpaid service in
BSNL. Airtel’s advantage over prepaid is due to the high visibility; very
good marketing mix, excellent and easy to use value added services, any
amount recharge coupons, variety of schemes in prepaid itself.

 The strength’s of BSNL are excellent coverage, call tariff, roaming facilities
and their reliability.
 The weaknesses of BSNL are SMS charges, poor customer care, high
network congestion, lack of bill collection centers and customer care
centers, lack of proper CUG facilities, time delay in getting the connection,
lack of clarity, inadequate value added services, problems in connecting to
other service providers and mainly the lack of awareness about the BSNL
service schemes to the public.

 Generally the income of the customers does not have any relationship
with the selection of the type of scheme (postpaid/prepaid) offered by the
service provider.

 Nearly 7% of the BSNL customers are not satisfied with the service
offered and hence there is a potential to loose these customers to the
competitors.

 There is an association between the gender and the selection of service


providers. There is very large difference between male and female ratio of
BSNL customers.76% of the BSNL customers are male. Hence BSNL
should take measures to promote its services among the females.

 The age has relationship with the service providers.36.10% of Airtel’s


customers are under 25 yrs of age,39% of Aircel’s customers fall under
the age group of 25-34 yrs.34.6% of BSNL’s customers also fall under the
age group of 25-34 yrs. Only 20% of BSNL’s customers fall under the age
group of under 25 and 35-44 yrs whereas 25% of its customers are above
45 yrs. Hence BSNL should concentrate this segment of customers.
 34.6% of BSNL’s customers are people who do business, 18.3% are
professionals, 26% are Executives/employees, 16.3% are students and
4.8% are housewife. Aircel has the highest percentage of customers from
executives/employed segment. Airtel’s majority of customers are students.

 There is an association between the income level and the service


providers. 38.5% of BSNL’s customers are from the income group of less
than Rs.1 lakh and another 38.5% between Rs.1-3 lakhs. 23.1% of its
customers fall under the group whose income is greater than Rs.3 lakhs.

 The factors like Customer care, Coverage, Performance, Pricing, and


Accessibility should be concentrated by a service provider to satisfy the
customer and to make their service excel its competitors.

 It is found using K test that BSNL customers themselves have not ranked
BSNL first where as other service provider’s customers have ranked their
service as the best.BSNL customers have ranked Airtel the best and
BSNL has to really take care to meet the customers need.

 In comparative ranking of BSNL with other service providers BSNL have


scored better than BPL, Reliance and Tata Indicom but BSNL lost its
score when it is compared with Airtel and Aircel. Hence Airtel and Aircel
services are preferred over BSNL’s service.
 In the overall ranking obtained by various service providers in terms of
various attributes, BSNL gets first rank in Call Tariff, Coverage and
Roaming. It gets second place in congestion next to Aircel. It gets the last
rank in advertisements, fifth place in SMS facilities, value added services
and add on cards/CUG facilities.

 From Kendall’s tau c test it is also found that the income level of the BSNL
customers and their satisfaction level do not have any association. So
when measuring satisfaction level, BSNL need not consider the income
level.

5.2. SUGGESTIONS

1. BSNL’s promotional campaign should be made effective.

2. Information about the schemes should reach the public in an easy and
attractive way.

3. The problem of network congestion has to be solved by taking appropriate


measures.

4. The customer care of BSNL should be tremendously improved by making


the customer care personnel’s very friendly in their approach to the
customer.

5. BSNL should bring out variety of schemes that would satisfy all segments
of the market.
6. Call tariffs can be reduced and made lower in comparison with others in
the field further to attract customers as that is the important feature that
motivates most of the people in choosing the service.

7. SMS charges should be reduced

8. Variety of value added services should be given to customers at a lower


rate.

9. Bill payment should be made easy to customers and bill collection centers
should be opened in many areas enabling customers to easy access.

10. The availability of recharge coupons and the selection of schemes offered
by BSNL should be made easy and comfortable to customers.
CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

The study” The customer perception of mobile phone service providers in


Erode district with special reference to BSNL” has brought to the surface many
gray areas where the BSNL needs to pay attention. It has also revealed certain
things which BSNL can feel good about. BSNL has to mainly focus on improving
its customer care, increasing its bill payment centers and implementing variety of
new attractive promotional campaigns to attract a huge crowd.

The network coverage, roaming and reliability of BSNL has been


the mantra of BSNL services apart from the pricing. The study also authentically
proved that all the factors mentioned so far needed to be improved on a
continuous basis in order to overcome its competitors.
APPENDIX I
FORMULAS:

 Chi Square Statistics (χ2) = ∑ { (fo - fe)2/fe }

Where fo is an observed frequency


fe is an expected frequency

 Coefficient of contingency = {(Ψ2) / ( Ψ2 + N)}

Where N is the sum of rows and columns

 Degrees of Freedom in a chi Square Test of Independence

= (number of rows – 1) (number of columns – 1)


APPENDIX II
“A Study on the Customer Perception of Mobile Phone Service Providers in
Erode District with Special Reference to BSNL “

I am Madhumitha Muthukumar, MBA, Student of Kongu Engineering College,


Erode conducting a survey on comparison of services provided by mobile service
providers in Erode. The details are asked purely for research purpose. Kindly
spend few minutes to fill this form. Please attempt all the answers. Your co-
operation is highly appreciated.

SECTION A (Tick near the appropriate options)

1. My mobile service provider is

a) Airtel
b) Aircel
c) BPL
d) BSNL
e) Reliance
f) Tata Indicom

2. You are into

a) Pre-paid b) Post-paid

If you are a pre-paid user If you are a post-paid user


i) Do you fill the card i) What is your average billing per
a) Monthly month?
b) Every two months a) Less than Rs.500
c) Every three months b) Between Rs.500 to
d) Yearly Rs.1000
e) Any other ________ or c) Between Rs.1000 to
Rs.1500
d) Between Rs.1500 to
Rs.2000
ii) Refill amount_________
e) Greater than Rs.2000
Approx amt_______
3) I selected my service provider because

a) Of the call rates/tariff


b) Of the good network coverage
c) Of the network availability/uptime
d) Of good customer care
e) Their promotional offers were good
f) Of free SMS
g) the roaming facilities are good
h) they offer me add on cards/closed user group connection
i) of the influence from the friends/relatives
j) their value added service( like hello tunes, call waiting, voice mail,
conferencing etc) is good
k) others, please specify __________________________________

4) If you are asked to rank the following attributes of the service providers, how
would you rank them from 1 to 6. Indicate your choice in the space provided.
Eg.
A Cheaper call rates 3 4 2 1 5 6

Relianc Tata
ATTRIBUTES AIRTEL AIRCEL BPL BSNL
e Indicom
A Cheaper call rates
B Network coverage
C Network
congestion/uptime
D Roaming
E Good
advertisements
F SMS facilities
G Value added
services
H Add on card/CUG
facilities
5) There are few statements written below for each one we would like you to tell
whether you agree or disagree with the statement with respect to your current
service provider.(tick in the space provided)

S.No Type of service Agree Agree Neither Disagree Disagree


completely somewha agree somewha Completely
t nor t
Disagree
Coverage of
i
service
My service
providers
a network
coverage is
good
Geographical
Coverage(signa
b
l coverage on
roaming)is good
Reliability of
ii
service
I have access to
a
network always
The clarity of
b
Sound is good
There is no call
c
cutting/call drop
Tariff of the
iii
services
Prices are very
reasonable
a when compared
to other
operators
Customer
iv
Service
There is always
an easy
possibility of
a
choosing
different tariff
packages

I always get
good
information
b about the
services offered
It is very easy to
c report
complaints
Time taken to
activate new
d
accounts are
short
v Accessibility
There is an
easy access to
a customer care
centers
(nearness)
Availability of
bill payment
b centers are
extremely good

There is an
easy availability
c
of SIM/recharge
coupons
Value added
vi
services
There is huge
variety of value
added
services(like
a SMS, closed
user groups,
Wireless
internet,
downloads etc)
It is very easy to
use the values
b added service
provided by my
service provider

6) Overall, how much are you satisfied with your mobile service provider?
a) Extremely dissatisfied
b) Dissatisfied
c) Neither dissatisfied or satisfied
d) Satisfied
e) Extremely satisfied

7) If you have to suggest mobile service for your friend, how likely that you
recommend your current service provider
a) Very unlikely
b) Unlikely
c) Neither likely or unlikely
d) Likely
e) Very likely

8) Is this your first mobile connection?


a) Yes (If yes, Go To Section B)
b) No

If No,
i) Who was your previous service provider?
a) Airtel
b) Aircel
c) BPL
d) BSNL
e) Reliance
f) Tata Indicom

ii) Why did you change the mobile service provider?

a) Higher call tariffs


b) Poor coverage
c) High network congestion
d) SMS charges
e) Poor roaming facility
f) Poor value added services
g) Influence from friends/family
SECTION B

If you are not a BSNL customer answer this section else go to Section C

9) I did not select BSNL services because

SECTION C

10) To help us analyze the research please give us the following details:

a) Gender i) Male ii) Female

b) Your approximate age?

i) Under 25 ii) 25-34 iii) 35-44 iv) 45-54 v) Greater than 55

c) Your occupation?

i) Businessman
ii) Professional (Dr/Lawyer/ Engr)
iii) Executive/ Employed
iv) Student
v) Housewife
vi) others, specify___________

d) Your income level/year approximately?

i) Less than Rs.1 lakh ii) Rs.1 lakh – Rs.3 lakhs


iii) Rs.3 lakhs – Rs.5 lakhs iv) Greater than Rs.5 lakhs

Thank you very much for your assistance and cooperation in the survey.
BIBILIOGRAPHY
BIBILIOGRAPHY

1. www.trai.gov.in

2. Supplement to “The Indian Telecom Services Performance Indicator Report for


the Quarter Ending September 2005” (31st January 2006)

3. C.R.Kothari (2004), “Research Methodology Methods & Techniques”, Second


Edition pp 62-64

4. Richard I. Levin and David S. Rubin (2004), “Statistics for Management”,


Seventh Edition pp 568-581

5. Douglas A.Lind, William G.Marchal and Samuel A. Wathen, (McGraw Hill


Irwin, 2005), “Statistical Techniques in Business & Economics”, Twelfth Edition
pp 556, 564-565

6. Donald R.Cooper and Pamela S.Schinder, (Tata McGraw Hill, 2003),”Business


Research Methods”, Eighth Edition pp 596-600
REFERENCES
REFERENCES

1. David A. Aker, V Kumar and George S.Day (2002),” Marketing research”,


John Wiley & sons , Seventh Edition

2. Kotler Philip(2002), “Principles of Marketing”, Sultan Chand & company


limited, New Delhi

Websites:

1. www.coai.com

2. www.dot.gov.in

3. http://www.indiainfoline.com/sect/Telecom_05012006.pdf

4. http://www.trai.gov.in/PressReleases_content.asp?id=118

5. www.tutor2u.net/business/strategy/competitoranalysis.html