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SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
SUBMITTED BY: Samiullah Khan UNDER MENTORSHIP OF: Dr.Reshma Nasreen
MBA (PHRMA) 4th SEM DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT, FMIT JAMIA HANDARD NEW DELHI
LIST OF CONTENTS
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DECLARATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION LITRATURE REVIEW RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA COLLECTION QUESTIONNAIRE DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY BIBILOGRAPHY
Reshma Nasreen for all the help rendered to me during the project work and going out of way to help me with each and every aspect of project. V.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank my mentor Dr. I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. I would also like to thank my Family for their moral as well as financial support during the study. Regional Sales Manager . I would like to thank all PHYSICIANS for their support and help which made whole project the learning experience of life time. K. Sritech Pharma for his valuable guidance and suggestions which has saved me from many pitfalls during the course of my study. . Arora.
Regional Sales Manager .110062 . I further declare that this project work is based on my original work and no part of this project has been published or submitted to anybody. Department of Management .Jamia Hamdard . V.Reshma Nasreen . Arora. K.DECLARATION The Project entitled “Prescription Pattern of General Physician in Western Uttar Pradesh’’ is an original piece of work and which was carried out under the supervision of Mr. SAMIULLAH KHAN MBA (PM) 4th SEM D/O MANAGEMENT JAMIA HAMDARD NEW DELHI . Sritech Pharma and under the guidance of Dr.
which include bacteria. The Cardiologist use to attend between 20-40 everyday. . Only few of them trust herbal substitute for cholesterol. In addition. Rosuvas was most prescribed anti-cholesterol drug among cardiologist. Cholesterol is a waxy steroid of fat that is manufactured in the liver or intestines to produce hormones and cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all mammals. in terms of technology. high levels of cholesterol in the blood can clog arteries and potentially is linked to diseases such as heart disease The research was conducted on GENERAL PHYSICIAN in Meerut and Bulandshahar. steroid hormones. almost every type of medicine is now made indigenously. Most of the Cardiologist did not trust Herbal Drugs. but small quantities are synthesized in other eukaryotes. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by animals. The Patients suffered from various factors and cholesterol is one of the major sources of diseases.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry today is in the front rank of India’s science-based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology. Around 35%-60% of the cardiac patients suffered problem due to cholesterol. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes. quality and range of medicines manufactured. Cardiologists were not aware of the ch-balance of Amway.The questionnaire mainly includes the questions related to prescribing behavior of Cardiologist and factors affecting their prescription pattern. and Vitamin D. assisted and spearheaded this dynamic development in the past 53 years and helped to put India on the pharmaceutical map of the world. cholesterol is an important component for the manufacture of bile acids. The anti-cholesterol drugs have very huge market and its herbal substitute can be money making machine if proper strategies are employed. International companies associated with this sector have stimulated. where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. Indian Pharma Industry boasts of quality producers and many units approved by regulatory authorities in USA and UK. Although cholesterol is an important and necessary molecule for mammals. From simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds. It ranks very high in the third world. The research was conducted on 20 Physicians in the two cities . Most of the Cardiologist were overloaded with work and participated casually in the research work. Regular detailing of drugs by Medical Representatives and better quality Products plays an important role in shifting brand loyalty of Cardiologist. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes. such as plants and fungi.
Function Cholesterol is required to build and maintain membranes. cholesterol is an important component for the manufacture of bile acids. Cholesterol is the principalsterol synthesized by animals. while the bulky steroid and the hydrocarbon chain are embedded in the membrane. but small quantities are synthesized in other eukaryotes. However. Cholesterol is recycled. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes. and thechemical suffix -ol for an alcohol. It is excreted by the liver via the bile into the digestive tract. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes. For a person of about 68 kg (150 pounds). such as plants and fungi. depending on how it is transported within lipoproteins. The body compensates for cholesterol intake by reducing the amount synthesized. The name cholesterol originates from the Greek chole. it was only in 1815 that chemist Eugène Chevreulnamed the compound "cholesterine" Since cholesterol is essential for all animal life. However. which include bacteria. thus reducing cholesterol reabsorption. in 1769.Introduction Cholesterol is a waxy steroid of fat that is manufactured in the liver or intestines to produce hormones and cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all mammals.(bile) and stereos (solid). it modulates membrane fluidity over the range of physiological temperatures. cholesterol reduces the permeability of the plasma membrane to protons (positive hydrogen ions) and sodium ions. François Poulletier de la Salle first identified cholesterol in solid form in gallstones. . alongside the no polar fatty acid chain of the other lipids. The hydroxyl group on cholesterol interacts with the polar head groups of the membrane phospholipids and sphingolipids. where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. and Vitamin D. In this structural role. Typical daily additional dietary intake in the United States is 200–300 mg. Typically about 50% of the excreted cholesterol is reabsorbed by the small bowel back into the bloodstream. Although cholesterol is an important and necessary molecule for mammals. high levels in blood circulation. it is primarily synthesized from simpler substances within the body. Phytosterols can compete with cholesterol reabsorption in the intestinal tract. steroid hormones. and total body content is about 35 g. In addition.000 mg) per day. are strongly associated with progression of atherosclerosis. high levels of cholesterol in the blood can clog arteries and potentially is linked to diseases such asheart disease. typical total body cholesterol synthesis is about 1 g (1.
Bile contains bile salts. especially saturated fat and trans fat. plays a larger role in blood cholesterol than intake of cholesterol itself. Total fat intake. several types of oil and chocolate. beef. Within cells. and testosterone. The role of cholesterol in such endocytosis can be investigated by using methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) to remove cholesterol from the plasma membrane. Saturated fat is present in full fat dairy products. cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes. including the adrenal glandhormones cortisol and aldosterone as well as the sex hormones progesterone. and consequently in many fast foods. Human breast milk also contains significant quantities of cholesterol. and shrimp. which solubilize fats in the digestive tract and aid in the intestinal absorption of fat molecules as well as the fat-soluble vitamins. cholesterol is converted to bile. rich in cholesterol. and Vitamin K. Major dietary sources of cholesterol include cheese. Vitamin E. estrogens. snack foods. animal fats. which are suggested to help lower serumcholesterol levels. Some research indicates that cholesterol may act as an antioxidant. and fried or baked goods. Dietary sources Animal fats are complex mixtures of triglycerides. The amount of cholesterol present in plant-based food sources is generally much lower than animal based sources. pork. In many neurons. provides insulation for more efficient conduction of impulses. Cholesterol is an important precursor molecule for the synthesis of Vitamin D and the steroid hormones. and do not occur in significant amounts in nature. . plant products such as flax seeds and peanuts contain cholesterol-like compounds called phytosterols. since it is derived from compacted layers of Schwann cell membrane. Recently. all foods containing animal fat contain cholesterol to varying extents. Trans fats are typically derived from the partial hydrogenation of unsaturated fats. egg yolks. cholesterol is the precursor molecule in several biochemical pathways.poultry. including caveola-dependent and clathrindependent endocytosis. In the liver. Vitamin D. Vitamin A. Cholesterol is essential for the structure and function of invaginated caveolae and clathrin-coated pits. which is then stored in the gallbladder. assisting in the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. a myelin sheath. and their derivatives. cell signaling and nerve conduction. As a consequence. with lesser amounts of phospholipids and cholesterol. In addition. Trans fat is most often encountered in margarine and hydrogenated vegetable fat. cholesterol also functions in intracellular transport.Within the cell membrane.
This molecule is then reduced to mevalonate by the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. rate-limiting and irreversible step in cholesterol synthesis and is the site of action for the statin drugs (HMG-CoA reductase competitive inhibitors). lanosterol is then converted to cholesterol. coronary artery disease leading to coronary heart disease). Oxidosqualene cyclase then cyclizes squalene to formlanosterol. Those wishing to reduce their cholesterol through a change in diet should aim to consume less than 7% of their daily caloriesfrom animal fat and fewer than 200 mg of cholesterol per day. Synthesis All animal cells manufacture cholesterol with relative production rates varying by cell type and organ function. which are dehydrated to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMGCoA). Synthesis within the body starts with one molecule of acetyl CoA and one molecule of acetoacetyl-CoA. Regulation of cholesterol synthesis . Finally. Two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate then condense to form squalene by the action of squalene synthase in the endoplasmic reticulum. Three molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate condense to form farnesyl pyrophosphate through the action of geranyl transferase. This step is the regulated. Moreover. other sites of higher synthesis rates include the intestines. and reproductive organs. because any reduction to dietary cholesterol intake could be counteracted by the organs compensating to try to keep blood cholesterol levels constant.A change in diet in addition to other lifestyle modifications may help reduce blood cholesterol. (and thus reduce the likelihood of development of. which is a key metabolite for various biological reactions. Mevalonate is then converted to 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate in three reactions that require ATP. Avoiding animal products may decrease the cholesterol levels in the body not only by reducing the quantity of cholesterol consumed but also by reducing the quantity of cholesterol synthesized. the benefits of a diet supplemented with plant sterol esters has been questioned. changed to reduce dietary fat and cholesterol. It is debatable that a diet. Also pointed out is the experimental discovery that in the diet. can lower blood cholesterol levels. About 20–25% of total daily cholesterol production occurs in the liver. ingested animal protein can raise blood cholesterol more than the ingested saturated fat or any cholesterol. This molecule is decarboxylated toisopentenyl pyrophosphate. adrenal glands. Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1964 for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. among others.
This enzyme's activity can also be reduced by phosphorylation by an AMP-activated proteinkinase. it can dissolve and travel in the water-based bloodstream at exceedingly small concentrations. The membrane domain functions to sense signals for its degradation. When cholesterol levels fall. SREBP is bound to two other proteins: SCAP (SREBPcleavage-activating protein) and Insig1. Brown and Dr. HMG CoA reductase contains both a cytosolic domain (responsible for its catalytic function) and a membrane domain. triglycerides and cholesterol .Joseph L.In the presence of cholesterol. as well. Because this kinase is activated by AMP. it follows that cholesterol synthesis is halted when ATP levels are low. it is transported in the circulatory system within lipoproteins. whereas HMG-CoA reductase leads to an increase of endogenous production of cholesterol. Increasing concentrations of cholesterol (and other sterols) cause a change in this domain's oligomerization state. A higher intake from food leads to a net decrease in endogenous production. Insig-1 dissociates from the SREBP-SCAP complex.Biosynthesis of cholesterol is directly regulated by the cholesterol levels present. though the homeostatic mechanisms involved are only partly understood. allowing the complex to migrate to the Golgi apparatus. Plasma transport and regulation of absorption Cholesterol is only slightly soluble in water. The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element). which is produced when ATP is hydrolyzed. complex discoidal particles which have an exterior composed of amphiphilic proteins and lipids whose outward-facing surfaces are water-soluble and inward-facing surfaces are lipid-soluble. whereas lower intake from food has the opposite effect. Among these are the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. where SREBP is cleaved by S1P and S2P (site-1 and -2 protease). Goldstein in the 1970s. In 1985. Cholesterol synthesis can be turned off when cholesterol levels are high. Since cholesterol is insoluble in blood. which makes it more susceptible to destruction by the proteosome. A large part of this signaling pathway was clarified by Dr. The main regulatory mechanism is the sensing of intracellular cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum by the protein SREBP(sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and 2). The former scavenges circulating LDL from the bloodstream. Michael S. they received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work. Their subsequent work shows how the SREBP pathway regulates expression of many genes that control lipid formation and metabolism and body fuel allocation. two enzymes that are activated by SCAP when cholesterol levels are low. which stimulates the transcription of many genes.
which contain an even higher percentage of cholesterol. in order of increasing density. The vesicle then fuses with a lysosome. although some cholesterol is carried as the "free" alcohol and some is carried as fatty acyl esters referred to as cholesterol esters. However. which is recognized by the LDL receptorin peripheral tissues. Upon binding of apolipoprotein B100. very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL).and endpoints for cholesterol transport. the blood vessel cleave and absorb more triacylglycerol from IDL molecules. and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). there are several types of lipoproteins within blood called. LDL molecules. The cholesterol within all the various lipoproteins is identical. taken up by the LDL receptor on the liver cell surfaces and the other half continue to lose triacylglycerols in the bloodstream until they form LDL molecules. which has an enzyme called lysosomal acid lipase that hydrolyzes the cholesterol esters. Phospholipids and cholesterol. which are taken up from the bloodstream by the liver. During transport in the bloodstream. Both the LDL and its receptor are internalized by endocytosis to form a vesicle within the cell. VLDL molecules are produced by the liver and contain excess triacylglycerol and cholesterol that is not required by the liver for synthesis of bile acids. These molecules contain apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein E in their shell. which serve as ligands for specific receptors on cell membranes. being amphipathic. low-density lipoprotein (LDL).500 molecules of cholesterol ester. the lipoprotein particles are molecular addresses that determine the start. Cholesterol which is not used by muscles remains in more cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants. contain apolipoprotein B-48. intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). are the major carriers of cholesterol in the blood. which have the highest percentage of cholesterol within them. The IDL molecules have two possible fates: Half are into metabolism by HTGL. The more cholesterol and less protein a lipoprotein has the less dense it is. . and apolipoprotein E in their shells. apolipoprotein C. In this way. are transported in the surface monolayer of the lipoprotein particle. many LDL receptors become localized in clathrin-coated pits. In addition to providing a soluble means for transporting cholesterol through the blood. therefore. lipoproteins have cell-targeting signals that direct the lipids they carry to certain tissues. Chylomicrons are the transporters that carry fats from the intestine to muscle and other tissues that need fatty acids for energy or fat production.esters are carried internally. The shell of the LDL molecule contains just one molecule of apolipoprotein B100. and each one contains approximately 1. For this reason. the least dense type of cholesterol transport molecules. the different lipoproteins contain apolipoproteins.chylomicrons. Chylomicrons.
LDL receptor synthesis is blocked so that new cholesterol in the form of LDL molecules cannot be taken up. recycling and excretion Cholesterol is susceptible to oxidation and easily forms oxygenated derivatives known as oxysterols that can be formed by three different mechanisms. A great interest in oxysterols arose when it was shown that they exerted inhibitory actions on cholesterol biosynthesis. On the converse. autoxidation. Also. These plaques are the main causes of heart attacks. the cholesterol can be used for membrane biosynthesis or esterified and stored within the cell. having small numbers of large HDL particles is independently associated with atheromatous disease progression within the arteries. strokes. Additional roles for oxysterols in human physiology include their participation in bile acid biosynthesis. so as to not interfere with cell membranes. The excretion and reabsorption of bile acids forms the basis of the enterohepatic circulation which is essential for the digestion and absorption of dietary . the same regulatory protein as was used to control synthesis of cholesterol de novo in response to cholesterol presence in the cell. These LDL molecules are oxidized and taken up by macrophages. Metabolism. These cells often become trapped in the walls of blood vessels and contribute to artherosclerotic plaque formation. which become engorged and form foam cells. their function as transport forms of cholesterol and as regulators of gene transcription. Having large numbers of large HDL particles correlates with better health outcomes. A mixture of conjugated and non-conjugated bile acids along with cholesterol itself is excreted from the liver into the bile. Cholesterol is oxidized by the liver into a variety of bile acids. In contrast. Synthesis of the LDL receptor is regulated by SREBP. When this system is deregulated. more LDL receptors are made when the cell is deficient in cholesterol. glucuronic acid. oxidation secondary to lipid peroxidation and by cholesterol metabolizing enzymes. a finding that subsequently became known as the “oxysterol hypothesis”. These in turn are conjugated with glycine.Now within the cell. When the cell has abundant cholesterol. Differences in cholesterol homeostasis affect the development of early atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness). leading to the association of so-called LDL cholesterol (actually a lipoprotein) with "bad" cholesterol. many LDL molecules appear in the blood without receptors on the peripheral tissues. taurine. HDL particles are thought to transport cholesterol back to the liver for excretion or to other tissues that use cholesterol to synthesize hormones in a process known as reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Approximately 95% of the bile acids are reabsorbed from the intestines and the remainder lost in the feces. or sulfate. and other serious medical problems.
some at reducing triglyceride levels and some help raise HDL cholesterol. Mevacor Crestor Lescol Lipitor Pravachol Zocor Baycol (withdrawn August 2001) Generic Name lovastatin rosuvastatin fluvastatin atorvastatin pravastatin simvastatin cerivastatin Fibrates Fibrates are regarded as broad-spectrum lipid lowering drugs. They are the most effective drugs in lowering LDL cholesterol. the good cholesterol. Apparently it decreases plasma levels of triglycerides by decreasing their synthesis. . Their main action is to decrease triglyceride levels but they also tend to reduce LDL cholesterol and help to raise HDL cholesterol. Statins Statins are also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. They inhibit HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase) an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cholesterol. Brand Name Altocor. Decreased cholesterol production leads to an increase in the number of LDL membrane receptors. which increases clearance of LDL cholesterol from circulation. Also reduces plasma levels of VLDL cholesterol by reducing its release into the circulation and increasing catabolism. when more concentrated. Mechanism of action is not well established.fats. although lecithin and bilirubin gallstones also occur less frequently Treatment There are several types of lipid lowering drugs. as in the gallbladder. Some are better at lowering LDL cholesterol. especially in the liver. cholesterol crystallises and is the major constituent of most gallstones. Under certain circumstances.
which removes LDL cholesterol from the blood. Depletion of cholesterol from the liver increases LDL receptor activity. Brand Name Zetia Generic Name ezetimibe Bile Acid Sequestrants (also known as Anion-Exchange Resins) Bile acid sequestrants reduce serum cholesterol levels.5 to 3 g daily it lowers both cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by inhibiting synthesis. It works by reducing the absorption of dietary cholesterol. They cause no change or sometimes even cause a slight increase in trigylceride concentrations and are therefore not suitable for patients with elevated triglyceride levels. Tricor. Decrease in bile acid leads to an increase in hepatic synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol.Brand Name Antara. In doses of 1. It also increases HDL cholesterol. The bound complex is insoluble and is excreted in the faeces. After oral administration. Brand Name Colestid. through the intestines. Lipofen.Triglide Atromid-S Lopid Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors Generic Name fenofibrate clofibrate gemfibrozil This is a new class of antihyperlipidemic drugs. Brand Name Generic Name . Questran Light Welchol Nicotinic Acid Group Generic Name colestipol cholestyramine colesevelam Niacin (also known as Nicotinic acid) is limited by its side effects especially vasodilatation. they are not absorbed but bind to bile acids in the intestine and prevent their reabsorption. Flavored Colestid Questran.
Lesterol. It probably acts by reducing reabsorption of bile acids: plasma triglycerides remain unchanged. Lorelco. Probucol. but is available in Canada under the following brand names. It is not available in U. has been shown to reduce both LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Outlook (Prognosis) If you are diagnosed with high cholesterol. Brand Name Lovaza. Omacor Combination Drug Therapy Generic Name omega-3-acid ethyl esters Niacin and ezetimibe are available in combination with statins. Panesclerina. you will probably need to continue lifestyle changes and drug therapy throughout your life. as single dose forms. and Superlipid. a form of soluble fibre. Brand Name Advicor Simcor Generic Name niacin/lovastatin niacin/simvastatin Brand Name Vytorin Other Drugs Generic Name ezetimibe/simvastatin Ispaghula Husk. Periodic monitoring of your blood levels is necessary. Lurselle.Niacor Fish Oil niacin Fish oil preparations are used to lower very high triglyceride levels in the blood. Bifenabid.S. can be used as an adjunct to a lipid lowering diet in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. . Reducing high cholesterol levels will slow the progression of atherosclerosis.
as the high revenue streams of Lipitor will experience significant challenges before the commencement of the next decade. Despite the maturing status of Lipitor. Off the immediate entry of Ranbaxy’s generic Lipitor. Japan and the UK. and features 10 . Pfizer’s lack of success to replace Lipitor with Torcetrapib has escalated the company’s near-term battles besides the ever-tighter regulatory hurdles. there is significant unrest between Pfizer’s key stakeholders about the future of the drug. the drug has repeatedly maintained steady growth over the past 5 years. Abbott’s Tricor and Bristol Myers Squibb’s Pravacol. creating formidable therapeutic challenges as healthcare payers influence pricing.6bn. Pfizer’s Lipitor (atorvastatin) generated global revenues of $13. reduced R&D efficiency and increased competition. Principally. as this area continues to dominate the pharmaceutical market. The future of Lipitor is therefore vitally important to Pfizer.Possible Complications Possible complications of high cholesterol include: • • • • Atherosclerosis Coronary artery disease Stroke Heart attack or death Lipitor In 2006. as well as the fast expanding generic market in which India’s Ranbaxy is a dominant force. Moreover. The blockbuster medicine has single-handedly driven the overall revenue margins of the cardiovascular segment. the rising incidence of multiple diseases. there are strong drivers of growth including unmet therapeutic needs. in key markets. especially in this uncertain period of economic changes and pressures. the rising living standards and fast-developing geographical markets. Astrazeneca’s Crestor. as Lipitor’s blockbuster revenue is seriously threatened by imminent patent expiration in some of the drug’s largest markets such as the US. However. crowding out the yearly revenues of other lipid-regulating blockbuster drugs: Merck& Co’s Zocor and Zetia. making it the best selling drug in pharmaceutical history. the legal challenges surrounding the number one drug have set a new benchmark for pharmaceutical companies protecting branded products. ageing populations. Nevertheless. This report includes detailed five-year forecasts over the period 2008-2013. Industry observers predict that Pfizer’s crises are far from over. amongst the heightened Lipitor topics are the imminent exposure of the $1 billion annual drug sales or more.
A. • Statins are combined with other drugs • Statins are followed by Fibrates as anti. Lipitor . the thief of memory Author: Duane Graveline . Wolfe.cholesterol drugs. 2. Hidden truth about cholesterol lowering drugs Author: Sidney M. • There are many ways to control cholesterol apart from FDA approved drugs. • Diet control and proper exercise regime can also help in reducing cholesterol. Larry D.Mathew Publication: Gield&van publication. Drugs for cholesterol Author: Hans. 2006 Finding of this report states that • Statins are the most preferred anti –cholesterol drugs. Literature review 1. Sasich. Rose-Ellen Hope Publication: inset Publication Finding of this report states that • Prescription drugs are not only way to lower cholesterol. 3.and 15-year forecasts to help you understand the medium-term prospects for these markets.
• • The author has backed most of his claims with the help of relevant data. Research Methodology STUDY REQUIREMENT – The product research of CH-balance in Meerut and Bulandshahar OBJECTIVE . The author has emphasized about a herbal replacement of statins. The detail about its products. 4. • The author has discussed in detail about all the harmful effects of statins. Amway : The cult of free enterprises Author: Duane Graveline Publication: jack Publication Finding of this report states that • • • The history of Amway The brief description about its competitor and strategies.Publication: jack Publication Finding of this report states that • The author has discussed about the memory loss and other problems faced by user of Lipitor and other statins.
P. SUB OBJECTIVE To study and observe the different aspects of nutraceutical marketing in India. To study and observe the psychological aspect of prescribing behavior of General Physicians. To study the nutraceutical prescribing Pattern of physicians in Meeerut and buandshahar (U. Scope of the research The research will provide an in-depth analysis of existing trends in nutraceutical business. To study the ground realities of nutraceutical business in semi urban cities.) To study the details of marketing strategies employed by different nutraceutical companies in order to tap the urban market.. Research Design . The research will provide different aspects of prescribing behavior of General Physicians in terms of nutraceuticals. It will help neutraceutical marketers to design new marketing model and strategies to penetrate Pharma market. To study and analyze the different marketing trends in semi urban market.
and case studies. Such preparation allows one the opportunity to make any required changes before the costly process of data collection has begun. Marketing research can be classified one of three categories: 1. the who. clarifying concepts. surveying certain people about their experiences. focus groups. why. but in other cases different phases of the same research project will fall into different categories. gaining insight. exploratory research studies would not try to acquire a representative sample. Exploratory research Conclusive research : a) Descriptive research b) Causal research These classifications are made according to the objective of the research. but it does not seek to test them. whilst reducing the cost of obtaining it. Exploratory research may develop hypotheses. The key is to create a design that enhances the value of the information obtained. Exploratory research is characterized by its flexibility. Conclusive research is the research design which leads us to conclusion. 2. determine the proportion of the population that uses a product. Exploratory research can be performed using a literature search. gathering explanations. It is classified into: a) Descriptive research. In some cases the research will fall into one of these categories. When surveying people. people surveyed. . As opposed to exploratory research. 2. descriptive research should define questions. and forming hypotheses. Case studies can include contrasting situations or benchmarking against an organization known for its excellence. seek to interview those who are knowledgeable and who might be able to provide insight concerning the relationship among variables. or predict future demand for a product.There are two basic types of descriptive research: longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies. thus allowing one to monitor behavior such as brand-switching. what. Longitudinal studies are time series analyses that make repeated measurements of the same individuals. when. b) Causal research a) Descriptive research is more rigid than exploratory research and seeks to describe users of a product.There is a huge array of alternative research designs that can satisfy research objectives. In other words. where. 1. and the method of analysis prior to beginning data collection. eliminating impractical ideas. and how aspects of the research should be defined. but rather. Exploratory research has the goal of formulating problems more precisely.
Cohort analyses are useful for long-term forecasting of product demand. Research Design Used in the ProjectDescriptive format of conclusive research. become involved. It accomplishes this goal through laboratory and field experiments. A special type of cross-sectional analysis is a cohort analysis. The questionnaire design was such that it Motivated the respondents to cooperate. articles in the Newspapers. DATA ANALYSIS How Many numbers of cardiac patients are attended by you everyday? . Data Presentation-it is based on statistical analysis of the feedbacks obtained. longitudinal studies are not necessarily representative since many people may refuse to participate because of the commitment required. b) Causal research seeks to find cause and affect relationships between variables. Secondary Data: it includes information obtained from literature review. Crosssectional studies sample the population to make measurements at a specific point in time. Data Collection Sampling Procedure: 350 General Physician Practitioners Primary data: It was collected through well structured questionnaire from General Medical Practitioners.However. which tracks an aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval over time. and provide complete. Honest and accurate answers. magazines and internet.
Around 40% of the Cardiologist admitted examining between 20-40 patients. Only 14% of them said their patients number exceeds 40 per day. 2.Findings: 1. 3. How many percentage of heart patients have cholesterol related problems? . About half of the Cardiologist admitted examining up to 20 patients daily.
It shows that cholesterol is the major problem behind heart problems.Findings: 1. Above 40%of the cardiologist admitted that more then 60% of heart patients have cholesterol related problems. 2. Which drugs among you prescribe for cholesterol? .
It was followed by world famous . 2. The market in meerut and bulandshahar was dominated by ranbaxys rosuvas. Pfizers LIPITOR 3. Your opinion about Herbal drugs for cholesterol control? .Findings: 1. Hamdards lipo tab and Himalayas shuddha gugglu was least prescribed in this catogery.
Do you prescribe CH-Balance for cholesterol reduction? . Only 12% of the cardiologist admitted prescribing herbal medicines for cholesterol control and find them good as compare to conventional alternatives. 2. 3. Around 1/3 of doctors interviewd said that the herbal cholesterol drugs are of average quality and they prescribe them some times.Findings: 1. Majority of them admitted not prescribing herbal drugs. 5.
Only 12% of the cardiologist admitted they know ch balnce and use it some time. Majority of them admitted not knowing the product. . Around 24% admitted knowing ch-balance but did not prescribe them.Findings: 1. 3. 2.
. • Most of the doctors use to attend up to 20 patients. • Most of the cardiologist didn’t prescribe herbal substitute of rosuvas because of fear of quality of herbal products.followed by pfizers star product Lipitor. • Only few doctors know the product and very few of them try to prescribe it.Conclusion of the study • • Indian nutraceutical market is growing @ 40% The prescribing behavior of General Physician plays an important role in Nutraceutical Marketing. • The doctors were prescribing the Rosuvas of Ranbaxy. • Ch. • The patients were mainly suffered from complications related to cholesterol. • Ch – Balance is the product of Amway. • • Internet Promotion of Ch-balance can be used as a powerful tool for promoting Pharma Products. • The herbal and nutraceutical market covers very less percentage of anti cholesterol drugs. The nutraceutical marketing in semi – urban cities has huge potential and will be money making machines for pharmaceutical & other marketing companies if proper strategies and marketing model is employed.balance has very little penetration in anti-cholesterol market. • Amway is world famous network marketing company.
• So. • The questionnaire does not include any question to measure the psychological behavior of rural practitioner. . • Any kind of research on Indian population and its buying behavior cannot be accurate because of its diverse population with more diverse living style and culture.Limitations of the study • India is inhabited by people of different culture. • This is the reason why many market model and strategies employed by several companies in India did not yield expected result.P may match the tradition and culture of other Hindi speaking state but it differs from south India or north east states or other nonHindi states. Bulandshahar (Uttar Pradesh). • The findings of the research are not sufficient to formulate any new rural marketing model or strategy because : a) The questionnaire is only confined to prescribing aspect of rural practitioner. d) The samples of the research were confined to one region of country. c) The questionnaire does not include any question related to demography of region. the result may not be as accurate due to lack of measurement of psychological behavior of rural prescriber. • The culture and tradition of western U. the conclusion or findings of research may vary if done on a district of south India or any non-Hindi state. b) The questionnaire does not include any question to measure the psychological aspect of rural practitioners. • So. religion and traditions. • The Product research on the Ch balance was done on cardiologist from Meerut . • The language and tradition changes here after every 10 km.
naturalsecrets.Compettition and Marketing Strategies in Nutaceutical Industry .siraj (2009) : Prescribing pattern and Drug usuage : DMV Publication : 12-99 7. Nutraceutical Marketing. Rudy C.divisnutraceuticals.Bibliography 1. G. Stuart .Slatter (1992). Netherlands. www. Aslam . B. Eric Laat. en. Centraal Planbureau (2003) : How does Nutraceutical Marketing influence doctors Prescribing behavior . Elements of Pharmaceutical Pricing. First Edition. www. Douven. Susan F Marseken (2010).com 10. Miriam T Timpledon. Frank A. Lambert M Surhone. DMS Publication 4th Volume : 11231149 3. GMV Publication : 212-276 4.P.com . Windmeijer. Pradhan. Herbal & natural products Marketing . Kolassa (2007).Suresh (2001). M.parrynutraceuticals.wikipedia.Memade Publication : 346-389 6. E. Sage Publication: New Delhi 2. CBS Publication : 34-22 5.org/wiki/Nutraceutical 8.com/ 9.
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