INDIAN JOURNAL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE

Editor-in-Chief
A. Lal The Indian Journal of Library and Information Science (Print ISSN 09739548, Online ISSN 0973-9556, Registered with Registrar of Newspapers for India: D E L E N G / 2 0 0 7 / 2 2 2 4 2 ) p r o v i d e s comprehensive international coverage of library & information science and technology. IJLIS is published 3 times a year by the Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. It presents peer-reviewed survey and original research articles on specific areas are: new information technology, education and training, human resource management, the changing role of the library, future developments, opportunities, bibliographic databases, cataloging issues, electronic publishing, acquisitions,collection development,administration, management,archives, preservation, and special collections,automation and cataloging. Its papers include letters to the editor, book reviews, calendar of events, conference reports, interviews, and much more.

Editors
Gayas Makhdumi Jamia Millia Islamia University New Delhi Krishan Gopal Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi

International Editorial Advisory Board
Dariush Alimohammadi Tarbiat Moallem University Tehran, Iran Farnaz Fassihi Tehran Iran Musa Khan Aga Khan University Karachi, Pakistan Tella, Adeyinka University of Botswana Botswana Yazdan Mansourian Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran Iran

National Editorial Advisory Board
A. R. D. Prasad Indian Statistical Institute Bangalore Anand Kumar Prasad K.V.S, Delhi B.L. Meena Delhi Public Library, Delhi Bulu Maharana Sambalpur University Sambalpur C. Baskaran Algappa University, Karaikudi G. Rathinasabapathy Tamilnadu Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Chennai Harish Chandra I.I.T, Chennai Hemant Sharma Jiwaji University, Gwalior I.V. Malhan University of Jammu, Jammu Jamal A. Siddiqui Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut K. Kaliyaperumal Madras University, Chennai M. Nagarajan Annamalai University Annamalai Nagar Mehtab Alam Ansari AMU, Aligarh P.C. Sharma U.C.M.S. & GTB Hosp Delhi Prakash Chand NISCAIR New Delhi Ramesha Bangalore University Bangalore Ramsevak Sumath Bharati Vidya Bhawan New Delhi Reyaz Rufai University of Kashmir Kashmir Shakuntala Lomte Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad S. Sudarshan Rao University College of Arts & Social Sciences Hyderabad S. Thanuskodi Annamalai University Annamalai Nagar S.S. Joshi Guru Jambheshwar University, Hissar Sanjay K Kaushik Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohatak Shyam Lal U.G.C, New Delhi Sri Pal Singh Bharati Vidya Bhawan New Delhi Sudhir Kumar Arora Indira Gandhi National Open University New Delhi Vinod Kumar Guru Jambheshwar University, Hissar

Printed at
R.V. Printing Press C-97, Okhla Industrial Area Phase-1, New Delhi

© 2009 Redflower Publication Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved. The views and opinions expressed are of the authors and not of the Indian Journal of Library and Information Science. The Indian Journal of Library and Information Science does not guarantee directly or indirectly the quality or efficacy of any product or service featured in the the advertisement in the journal, which are purely commercial.

Corresponding address

Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.
41/48, DSIDC, Pocket-II, Mayur Vihar Phase-I P.O. Box 9108, Delhi - 110 091(India) Phone: 91-11-65270068/48042168, Fax: 91-11-48042168 E-mail: redflowerppl@vsnl.net, Web:www.rfppl.com

Indian Journal of

Library and Information Science
May - August 2010 Volume 4 Number 2

Contents
Collection processing in the digital era-digital preservation ...........................................................................................89 Sheela. V Outsourcing in library and information centers: The concept and its prospects .........................................................95 Anil Kumar Dhiman, Hemant Sharma Application of total quality management in the academic library .............................................................................. 103 S. Thanuskodi Information seeking pattern at ICFAI business school library, Bangalore: A user study ....................................... 107 Khaisar Muneebulla Khan, Pradeep Hegde The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for Global Development .................................................................................................................................................... 115 Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen YemisiOluyemisi A study of job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamilnadu ................................................................ 133 S. Nattar Blogs and blogging in libraries .......................................................................................................................................... 147 Mohammad Aqil, Mohd. Asad Siddique Information and communication technology - A growth and current challenges in small scale inustries in Cuddalore district .......................................................................................................................... 155 S. Kavitha, M. Nagarajan Characterstics and choice of Librarianship as a career among librarians in OGUN State, Nigeria ................................................................................................................................................... 161 Salaam M.O., Owolabi K.A. A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus Library University of Madras .................................................................................................................................................... 167 Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar N. Author’s Instructions ........................................................................................................................................................... 183

India Journal of Library and Information Science Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

Collection processing in the digital era-digital preservation

Sheela V. ABSTRACT Preservation of digital information is widely considered to require more constant and ongoing attention than preservation of other media. A library is an organization. The organisation of libraries is already changing as electronic information increasingly becomes part of their charge. Digital imaging technology offers distinctive advantages to institutions with impressive collections of scholarly resources. Information content can be delivered directly to the reader without human intervention by readers remotely, although such delivery may tax the capabilities of even the most sophisticated projection equipment and networks. This article explains the different types of digital resources in general and digital preservation in particular based on the user’s benefits. Keywords: Information Dissemination, Digital Resources, Preservation

INTRODUCTION

Digital Preservation is the management of digital information over time. The constant input of effort, time and money to handle rapid technological and organisational advance is considered the main stumbling block for preserving digital information. Indeed, while we are still able to read our written heritage from several thousands years ago, now the digital information created more demands. As libraries move more into the electronic environment. In addition, the need for consortial activity has
Author’s Affiliations: *Assistant Librarian, Karnataka State Open University, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 06 Karnataka, E-mail: she579@gmail.com , Phone No: (M): 9341024224.
Reprints Requests: Sheela V., Assistant Librarian, Karnataka State Open University, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 06 Karnataka, E-mail: she579@gmail.com , Phone No: (M): 9341024224. (Received on 10.04.09, accepted on 03.02.10)
© Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

become evident both for provision and preservation of digital information. Digital collections, however, as a proposition of the libraries supply of information, will grow for the foreseeable future and the quantity of information requiring are will become considerable. The advent of electronic information as libraries take the responsibility for the preservation of information in non-artifactual forms. Electronic information will have to make a conscious commitment to providing resources. Where the role of a library is to facilitate access to information ‘’Digital Preservation refers to the various methods of keeping digital materials alive into the future’’ according to recent statement from the council on library and information resources. Digital preservation typically centers on the choice of interim storage media. The term digital preservation means the planning resource allocation and application of preservation methods and technologies necessary to ensure that digital information of contemning value remains accessible and usable. The concept of

90

Sheela V.

digital preservation encompasses material that begins its life in digital form as well as materials that is converted from traditional to digital formats. Digital preservation can therefore be seen as the set of processes and activities the ensure continued access to information and all kinds of records, scientific and cultural heritage existing in digital formats. In the language of digital imaging and electronic resources, preservation is no longer just the product of a program but an ongoing process. In this regard the way digital information is stored is important in ensuring their longevity. The long –term, error –free storage of digital information, with means for retrieval and interpretation, for the entire time span the information is required for. In this ‘’long-term’’ is defined as’’ long enough to be concerned with the impacts of changing technologies, including support for new media and data formats or with a changing user community. ‘’retrieval’’ means obtaining needed digital files from the long term, error –free digital storage, without files from the long term, error –free digital storage, without possibility of corrupting the continued error –free storage of digestion files. ‘’Interpretation means that the retrieved digital files are decoded and transformed into usable representations. OBJECTIVE OF THE ACTIVE PRESERVATION

Now a large quantity of information exists in digital forms, including e mails, blogs, social networking website, national electronics website, web photo albums and sites which change their content over time. The unique characteristic of digital forms makes it easy to create content and keep it up –to- date, but at the same time brings many difficulties in the preservation of this content. Margaret Hedstrom points out that’’ digital preservation raises challenges of a fundamentally different nature which are added to the problems of preserving traditional format materials. In order to understand the tasks of digital preservation. We need to device some

working definitions for the concepts of ‘’document’’ and ‘’digital objective’’ David Levy has offered some useful intuitive definitions ‘’Documents are talking things, they are bits of the material world’’ as paper and printing technologies have natured, people have grown to expect a document to hold human verbal communication fixed so that it can be repeated. The great advantage of digital media, the case of copying and modification, also becomes a major liability. The RLG report state that ‘A reliable digital repository is one whose mission is to provide long –term access to managed digital resources, that accepts responsibility for the long term maintenance of digital resources on behalf of its depositors and for the benefit of current and future users. Then the finally digital preservation refers to the various methods of keeping digital materials alive into the future. The most common application of digital technologies is an library is digital copies that can be used for ready reference in live of casual browsing through the original sources. Preservation goals are met because physical access to the original document is limited. Additionally, digital products that draw together, organize and enhance access to widely dispersed research materials may have transcendental impact on the people who use them. Each of these preservation applications places separate but increasingly rigorous demands on digital technologies. CONVERSION OF INFORMATION FROM ANALOGY TO DIGITAL A major challenge is choosing paths from analog to digital is obtaining an in depth understanding of the particular characteristics of the collections or the individual items being converted. The most important characteristics are: - Format of the source including size, its structure and its physical condition. - Physical condition and its impact on the ability of the item to be handled during the conversion
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Collection processing in the digital era-digital preservation

91

process. - Visual characteristics - Colour as an essential carrier of information content - Level of detail Beyond these specific characteristics there is a significant impact on the cost, quality of the conversion project. CHALLENGES OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION

Hedstrom further explained almost all digital library researches have been focused on ‘architectures and systems for information organization and retrieval, presentation and visualization and administration of intellectual property rights’ and that ‘digital preservation remains largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods’. While the rapid advance of technology threats access of digital contents in length. STRATEGY OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION

The first challenges of digital preservation faces is that the media on which digital contents stand are more vulnerable to deterioration and catastrophic loss. While acid paper are prone to deterioration in terms of brittleness and yellowness, the deterioration really happens it happens over decades too. It is also highly possible to retrieve all information without loss after deterioration is spotted. Once the deterioration starts is most cases there is already data loss. This characteristic of digital forms leaves a very short time frame for preservation decisions and actions. Another challenge is the absence of established standards, protocols and proven methods for preserving digital information. Another challenge, perhaps a more serious and important one is the problem of long-term access. Digital technology is developing extremely fast and one retrieval and playback technology can become absolute in a matter in a years. When faster, more capable and cheaper storage and processing devices are developed the older version gets replaced almost immediately. This process is known as digital obsolescence. This challenge is exacerbated by the lack of established standards, protocols and proven methods for preserving digital information. We used to save copies of data on tapes, but media standards for tapes have changed considerably over the last five to ten years and there is no guarantee that tapes will be readable in the future.
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

In 2006, the online computer library center (OCLC) developed a four point strategy for the long-term preservation of digital objects that consisted of: * Assessing the risks for loss of content posed by technology variable such as commonly used proprietary file formats and software applications. * Evaluating the digital content objects to determine what type and degree of format conversion or other preservation actions should be applied. * Determining the appropriate metadata needed for each object type and show it is associated with the objects. * Providing access to the content. There are several additional strategies that individuals and organizations may use to actively combat the loss of digital information. Refreshing is the transfer of data between two types of the same storage medium so there are no bitrate changes or atteration of data. Refreshing will likely always be necessary due to the deterioration of physical media. Migration is the transferring of data to newer system environments. This may include conversion of resources from one format to another. Resources that are migrated run the risk of losing some type of functionality since newer formats may be

92

Sheela V.

incapable of capturing all the functionality of the original format, or the converter itself may be unable to interpret all the nuances of the original format. The National Archives electronic records archives and Lockheed Martin are jointly developing a migration system that will preserve any type of document, created on any application or platform and delivered to the archives on any type of digital media. Creating duplicate copies of data on one or more systems is called replication. Data that exists as a single copy in only one location is highly vulnerable to software or hardware failure, intentional or accidental atteration and environmental catastrophes like fire, flooding etc. digital data is more likely to survive if it is replicated in several locations. Emulation is the replicating of functionality of an absolute system. Emulation has been a popular strategy for retaining the functionality of old video game systems. The feasibility of emulsion as a catch –all solution has been debated in the academic community. Metadata is data on a digital file that includes information on creation, access rights, restrictions, preservation history and rights management, metadata attached to digital files may be affected by file format obsolescence. It retains information, but not the structure information is presented in. Digital objects that can speak to their own authenticity are called trustworthy digital objects it enable digital objects to maintain a record of their change history so future users can know with certainty that the contents of the object are authentic. Digital sustainability encompasses a range of issues and concerns that contribute to the longevity if digital information. Unlike traditional, temporary strategies and more permanent solutions, digital sustainability implies a more active and continuous process, digital sustainability incorporates activities in the present that will facilitate access and availability in the future.

To standardize digital preservation practice and provide a set of recommendations for preservation program implementation, the reference model for an open Archival information system was developed. In January 2004, the council on library and Information resources hosted a roundtable meeting of audio experts discussing best practices, which culminated in a report delivered March 2006. This report investigated procedures for reformatting sound from analog to digital, summarizing discussions and recommendations for best practices for digital preservation. CONCLUSION

Digital information sources are often more expensive than print. The libraries responsibility to preserve electronic information is equal to its responsibilities for collections of printed materials and other formats. Attention should be given to electronic information in the development of a preservation plan for the library, the term digital resources is defined as any work encoded and made available for access through the use of a computer. It includes both online data and electronic data is physical formats. The criteria used to evaluate electronic resources do not greatly differ from those used for books or materials in other formats. As with the more traditional formats the cost of the work and the requirements of serving, cataloguing, storing and preserving must be considered in the decision. The library selects electronic works for its permanent collections which rank high on the following list of criteria; usefulness in serving the current or future informational needs of researches, reputation of the information provides, amount of unique information provided, scholarly content, currency of the information, frequency of updating and easy of access. Academic libraries have a unique opportunity in the area of digital preservation. As libraries and other institutions embark on the digital
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Collection processing in the digital era-digital preservation

93

preservation process, judgement must be used to balance risk against the maturity of the process. Documents that are extremely rare, we would like to say that we will preserve our cultural heritage materials in perpetuity. Indeed there are many challenges for doing digital preservation. There is much research yet to be done. Finally, it must be said that there will always remain the element of trust in the organization that takes on the role of ‘trusted digital resources’. We rarely doubt the accuracy and validity of our statement –although we want to have at least this same level of trust in digital resources. Ultimately, users will need to be able to trust the people and organizations who have taken on the responsibility for managing the processes and technology of digital preservation.
REFERENCE

3.

Garrett.J.D, et.al. Preserving digital information: Report of the task force on archiving of digital information 1966. Granger, Stewart. ‘’Emulation as a Digital Preservation Strategy’’. D-Library Magazine, 2000; 6(10). Edwards, Eli ‘‘Ephemeral to enduring : The Internet Archive and its Role in preserving Digital Media’’. Information Technology & Libraries, 2004; 23 (1). Hoeven.J. ‘’Diosure: emulator for digital preservation: D-Library Magazine, 2007; 13(11/12) Jantz. R & Giarlo. M.J ‘’Digital preservation: Architecture and technology for trusted digital repositories’’. D-Library Magzine, 2005; 11(6). Ross.S. Changing Trains at Wigan: Digital preservation and the Future and Scholarship. London, National preservation office, 2000. Suleman.H and Fox.E. A framework for building open digital libraries. D-Library Magazine, 2001; 7(12).

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

1. 2.

Kusum Verma (ed), The electronic Library, Akansha publishing house, 2004. Kaul. A.K, E-Libraries in 21st century, ABD publishers, 2008.

10. Jantz.R. Public opinion polls and digital preservation: An application of the Fedora Digital object repository system. D-Library Magazine, 2003; 9(11).

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

94

ARTICLES APPEARING IN FORTHCOMING ISSUES
A study of Indian contributions to international conferences on scientometrics, bibliometrics and informatics P. Rajendran, B. Ramesh babu, R. Jeyshankar Bibliometric analysis of herbal literature and research output P. Vinayagamoorthy, P. Chellappandi, J. Shanthi Collection development policy of scientific serials in a university environment Khemanna Aldi, P.G. Tadasad Creation of library blogs B. Ravi Information literacy in India: an overview S. Thanuskodi Internet and its use in enriching and upgrading of information resources in an engineering library L. santhi, N.Radhakrishnan, B.S. SwaroopRrani Leadership skills for the future librarianship Keshava, Lokeshappa H. Oclc worldcat B. Ravi Personal benefits are below expectations of the library and information science (LIS) professionals in the academic libraries of Dakshina Kannada Purushothama Gowda M Scholarly communication in Indian university libraries B.P. Mahesh Chandra Guru, R.T.D. Ramesh Gandhi, M. Gopalswamy, S. Raghavendra The preservation of digital information: issues and observations Sheela V. Use of data mining in a library Rakesh Kumar Mishra Use of information sources by the bachelor of technology students: a case study of the Shobhit University Devendra Kumar, Akhtar Hussain, Nishat Fatima A citation analysis of the indian journal of engineering and materials science Kousik Chatterjee Web based library and information services-an overview S. Nattar

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 95 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

Outsourcing in library and information centers: The concept and its prospects

Anil Kumar Dhiman* Hemant Sharma** ABSTRACT Outsourcing is the contracting to external companies or organizations' functions that would otherwise be performed by organization's employees. This is common phenomenon in business organization but it is also gaining attention of library professionals. This paper reflects the idea of outsourcing and its uses and prospects in library field. It also differentiates the concept of outsourcing with privatization. Keywords: BPO, Flexible workforce, Library services, Outsourcing, Privatization.

INTRODUCTION Outsourcing is the contracting to external companies or organizations’ functions that would otherwise be performed by library employees. It is a new name for the old practice of "contracting out" for services that organizations choose not to provide internally with their own staff. It has become a standard practice in both the corporate and the not-for-profit worlds. The outsourcing has become popular in the 1980s primarily as a way to reduce costs and
Author’s Affiliations: *Information Scientist, Gurukul Kangri University, Hardwar, Email:akvishvakarma@yahoo.com, ** Reader & Head, SOS in Library & Information Science, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh) Email: shrhemant@yahoo.com Reprints Requests: Dr. Anil Kumar Dhiman, Information Scientist, Gurukul Kangri University, Hardwar, Email: akvishvakarma@yahoo.com. (Received on 27.05.09, accepted on 18.06.09)
© Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

increase profitability in the corporate sector. The automotive industry led the way in outsourcing by contracting with companies specializing in a particular aspect of the manufacturing process (Marcum 1998). As far as our country India is concerned, it has come a long way since the very beginning of offshore of outsourcing by ESD in the 1970s and 1980s when the technology gap was significant. The country has rapidly adjusted its ICT infrastructure to accommodate this increasing influx of foreign investment which is only going to grow. As per NASSCOM McKinsey Report 2002, outsourcing in India is projected to increase significantly to over $24 billion by 2008. NASSCOM has played a key role in enabling the government in India to develop industry friendly policies. It has been a proponent of free trade, arguing for zero tariff protection, strong intellectual property and data protection laws, deregulation of the telecom market and the creation of software technology parks and private sector participation in the education system measures which have resulted in significant growth of the industry. Many companies realize the profitability in

96

Anil Kumar Dhiman, Hemant Sharma

offshore of outsourcing that it has become a popular almost necessary management tool from large multinationals to small start-ups. It is more likely than not that a company that utilizes offshore outsourcing looked to India since it captures approximately 80-84 percent of the business process outsourcing (BPO) market. As the premier country for outsourcing, India has many key characteristics that helped create a sustainable environment for BPO to flourish. TYPES OF OUTSOURCING Currie and Willcocks (1998) distinguish four types of outsourcing in their research on outsourcing approaches: - total outsourcing - multiple supplier outsourcing - joint venture/strategic alliance outsourcing - insourcing Total outsourcing involves developing a partnership with a single supplier, with IT perceived as a service or support function. The aim is usually to reduce IT costs, or eliminate a problem IT function, but the outsourcing organization retains strategic control. Multiple suppliers sourcing is less concerned with partnerships as the aim is to foster innovation and create competition between suppliers, although it is recognized that suppliers will form alliances among themselves for bidding purposes. Contracts are usually short-term, and the client coordinates a portfolio of services from various suppliers, with the aim of retaining strategic control. Joint venture/strategic alliance outsourcing is more concerned with development of new knowledge for the client, and there is more emphasis on shared risks and rewards. Sometimes various organizations will foster the creation of a supplier company to which they will outsource work, but still have more control than they would do in a multiple supplier or total outsourcing arrangement. Insourcing, or keeping the IT

department and services in-house, occurs when organizations view IT as core to their business, or when they mistrust possible suppliers. A more recent type of outsourcing is the Application Service Provider model, where organizations purchase software use on an 'as and when' basis (Kern, Kreijger and Willcocks, 2002). OUTSOURCING AND PRIVATIZATION Outsourcing is the contracting to external companies or organizations, functions that would otherwise be performed by library employees. It is different from privatization which is the shift of policy making and the management of library services or the responsibility for the performance of core library services in their entirety, from the public to the private sector (ALA, 1999a). The definitions given in Outsourcing Task Force's report in context of library and information centers are worth to mention in this regard. - Outsourcing is the contracting to external companies or organizations, functions that would otherwise be performed by library employees. - Privatization is the shifting of policy making and management of library services or the responsibility for the performance of core library services in their entirety, from the public to the private sector. - Core services are those professional activities that define the profession of librarianship. These include collection development and organization; gathering and providing information; making the collection accessible to all library users; providing assistance in the use of the collection; and providing oversight and management of these activities. There are no exact distinctions between the terms “outsourcing” and “privatization” and both are subject to arbitrary interpretations. Within the context of this report, the Task Force has utilized the term "outsourcing" for contracting for specific services; and the term "privatization" when the
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Outsourcing in library and information centers: The concept and its prospects

97

responsibility for day-to-day management of a library or for establishing or altering policies that affect the delivery of service, is delegated to an external commercial agency. The Task Force recognized that a library could in fact contract out “core services” such as selection or cataloging, and still not be considered as “privatized.” Only if the library contracted out for day-to-day management of operations, or relinquished control over policy to a contractor could it be considered “privatize.” From at least one perspective, however, “day-to-day management of a library” might be construed as a “specific service” to be contracted out, and from that perspective, a library that contracted out its day-to-day management but retained control over policy could not be construed as “privatized.” So privatization is contracting out for services in a way that shifts control over policies for library collections and services from the public to the private sector. Outsourcing varies widely, ranging from the simple-getting someone else to do your work for you-to the complex-the acquisition of services from external service providers. Basically defined, outsourcing is the transfer of an internal service or function to an outside vendor (Bordeianu and Benaud 1997). OUTSOURCING IN LIBRARY & INFORMATION CENTERS

of outsourcing of such routine library operations as collection development, materials selection, materials processing, cataloging, and management. Routine non-library services, like janitorial services and photocopying, have long been procured through contracts with outside vendors, but in the early part of the 20th century, Library of Congress began mass-producing catalogue cards and providing them to other libraries, in the process becoming perhaps the first vendor of cataloguing services. The outsourcing of cataloging and physical processing had become so widespread that by the late 1990's, more than 60 percent of libraries reported outsourcing portions of its cataloging and more than 80 percent of academic libraries reported outsourcing binding (Benaud and Bordeianu, 1998; Urban Libraries Council, 1999). Over the years, libraries have contracted out not only cataloging services, but other functions as well, including the development of automated systems and the acquisition of materials. Library managers also used outsourcing as a tool when they implement blanket and standing orders to vendors. Vendors assume the role of acquisitions staff and bibliographers (Woodsworth 1998). These practices were not generally labeled as outsourcing when first adopted, and they are common practice today. While not a good idea to totally outsource cataloging functions, (Dunkle 1996) suggests cataloging by vendors may provide greater accuracy and consistency of cataloguing records. Collection Management is an area of increased outsourcing. The most prevalent forms of collection management outsourcing (consortia purchasing and approval plans) often are not labeled as outsourcing within libraries. However in both instances, libraries permit external companies or organizations to select library materials rather than relying on local selectors. With the advent of electronic books, journals and databases, it is now much easier for libraries to collaborate on the purchasing of materials.

Outsourcing is a topic of interest to most librarians in all types of libraries. Libraries have a long history of outsourcing or contracting out work and/or services to both nonprofit organizations and/or for-profit commercial firms. Outsourcing activities often include non-library functions, such as maintenance and janitorial services, and auxiliary library services, such as vending and photocopying. There is generally little objection to the outsourcing of these functions. But we can see outsourcing is being used in acquisition, technical and other processes. Library literature reflects a continuing discussion
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

98

Anil Kumar Dhiman, Hemant Sharma

Databases, e-books, e-journals are now routinely purchased via consortia (Dhiman, 2004, Dhiman & Rani, 2006 and Dhiman & Rani, 2007). Participating libraries benefit by gaining access to more resources at a lower cost; however, they lose control over many of the collections they own. The databases, books and journals that become major resources in their collections and major expenditures in their budgets are decided upon in large part by publishers, vendors and/or consortia with limited input from the individual libraries are presented with an all or nothing choice, and invariably accept all, even though a portion of the materials may not be suitable for local needs. While outsourcing has become increasingly prevalent in technical services and collection development, it is only beginning to be seen in reference service. Historically, the physical nature of reference sources and library patrons made local in-person reference service necessary. However, as libraries have begun to offer virtual reference service to remote patrons, they find that it is possible to use outsourced virtual reference librarians from library service providers (e.g., Tutor.com's Librarians By Request) or collaborative services (e.g., QuestionPoint's 24x7 Cooperative Virtual Reference). Some reports indicate that virtual reference outsourcing can be successful and cost-effective (Duvernay and Bonanni, 2004). Outsourcing of library management is a relatively new phenomenon. The Office of Budget Management during 1980s determined that federal library services could be privatized. This led to library services of federal agencies, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Departments of Energy, Labor and Housing and Urban Development being privatized (Martin et al., 2000). The effects of outsourcing can clearly be seen in India too. Flexible workforce which is a new

pattern or contract is just one of the types of outsourcing. In this working type, agency staff, part time student helpers, workers on annual hour basis or term - time, are appointed and the desired work gets completed in less expenditure and short time. A trend to pass certain jobs to consultants, avoiding headache of dealing with employees has also been developed. Such jobs involve retrospective cataloguing, stock taking, cataloguing and classification of current stock, compilation of bibliographies and automation of the library etc. (Dhiman, 2008; Singh and Kumar, 2005). Besides, we are also having consortia purchasing. UGC-INFONET is one such big deal, which is providing access to more than 4500 ejournals to more than 150 participating universities (Murthy et al., 2004). Besides, individual libraries can also be seen to have private/contract term workforce. PRACTICAL STEPS OF OUTSOURCING IN LIBRARY & INFORMATION CENTERS

John N. Berry’s February, 1998, Library Journal editorial questions the wisdom of outsourcing, saying that no systems for measuring outsourcing's impact are in place. Cost cutting and efficiency are not the only issues in a serviceoriented venue such as a library. The most important measure of any change is in the quality of library service offered to all users and potential users (Berry 1998). When organizations consider outsourcing library activities, it is important that the program is carefully and strategically planned. Outsourcing without thorough preplanning may cause considerable difficulty and expense in the future. When your decision to outsource has been confirmed, you will need to initiate three stages to provide the most benefit of outsourcing to your organization. They are: - Planning- In this stage processes and routines are examined and quantified, and the costing out of internal workflow and operations occurs. In addition, the selection of a vendor and the “howIndian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Outsourcing in library and information centers: The concept and its prospects

99

to’s” of contractual negotiation occur in this stage. - ImplementingRestructuring and reorganizing workflow occurs in this stage, along with the introduction of new processes and routines, and the development of new policies. Then, you learn how to use new systems and further assimilate your work with that of the vendor. - Managing- This stage involves quality management and problem resolution. Specific quality indicators should be developed so that quality can objectively be assessed. To thoroughly address this stage, there necessitates a project manager and a library administrator. Going through the above stages, one can go for outsourcing process for getting its maximum benefits. CONCLUSION

although the people who are let go or reassigned might disagree. Ronald A. Dubberly, Retired Director of the Atlanta-Fulton Public library, states that only the outsourced will survive in lean economic times (Dubberly 1998). Leaving no question concerning his attitude, Dubberly argues that libraries caught in the economic crunch of having to provide more services with reduced revenue can do so only by utilizing outsourcing. He also predicts government will merge tax-supported service oriented departments, including libraries. Those public libraries that fail to adapt will cease to operate. Librarians must consider outsourcing as a tool to provide better service using less money and to insure continuing library service to their communities. Michael Gorman is one of the most outspoken critics of outsourcing, especially outsourcing of cataloguing and technical services. He state with some asperity that the outsourced catalogue is “corruption of the bedrock of library competence” (Gorman 1995). More recently he wrote that library managers who decide to contract with outside vendors for cataloguing, selection or acquisition services “are saying, in effect, that professional library skills and experience can be replaced by distant vendors who probably lack the former and certainly lack the latter.” He opposes outsourcing because in his view it leads to an “inevitable debasement of service,” and because it undermines “the very foundations of our profession” (Gorman 1998). Schuman, the past president of ALA, is perhaps even more vehement in her opposition to outsourcing. In his view, outsourcing and privatization-which considers merely different faces of the same phenomenon-”threaten the profession’s very core-perhaps its very 'soul' as a public service.” She examines and attempts to refute three assumptions that she believes underlie all outsourcing decisions: - The private sector can-and will-do it better and cheaper; - Private sector accountability to the

In the business world, functions that are not central to the organization's perceived core business are those most likely to be outsourced, while core competencies or functions that are essential to the company are kept in-house, but outsourcing in libraries remains controversial. The central issue then becomes: what constitutes a core competency or function? Libraries operate in a constantly evolving environment. What they do, what services they provide, and how they organize their resources to provide those services, is all subject to a changing paradigm. It is said that outsourcing is stealing library jobs away from deserving librarians and paraprofessionals. This is not the case in many outsourcing initiatives, but if the goal of outsourcing for a library is to save money, staff cuts are one of the most cost-effective ways of doing so. If the library can be described as a moral agent and can be held accountable for its actions, is the library, as a whole, more important than the sum of its parts and therefore the individual employees? It is considered “good” for the library,
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

100

Anil Kumar Dhiman, Hemant Sharma

marketplace is more effective than government bureaucracy; and - Libraries have always outsourced, and managers should be free to employ this useful tool. She concludes with a plea for librarians to articulate a clear, passionate, and convincing case (Schuman 1998). In 1999 in response to the move from in-house services to outsourcing at a multitude of libraries, the American Library Association (ALA, 1999b) resolved "the following fundamental values of libraries in the context of discussing outsourcing and privatization of library services. These values include: - That libraries are an essential public good and are fundamental institutions in democratic societies; - That intellectual freedom is a basic democratic privilege, and that ALA defends the right of library users to read, seek information and speak freely, as guaranteed by the First Amendment; and - That any outsourcing activities in libraries must be compatible with ALA advocacy of policies that support libraries as democratic institutions serving people of all ages, income levels and races, and providing the range of information resources needed to live, learn, govern and work. Thus, the decision to outsourcing is a difficult one which can affect employees throughout the organization and the quality of service provided. It is true that library staffs can be distressed by the changes or by dismissal, but in the end it can provide needed monetary relief. The goodness of the library needs to be taken into account. When looking at the effect of outsourcing on the quality of library services, there is no clear cut proof that quality suffers. If it does suffer, the library can communicate to get the quality to the level they desire or change vendors. Besides, outsourcing can also be seen as conflicting with ethical norms is in its overall effect on the library world in general. So, we can conclude with the words of White (2000), “there are numerous redundant and

unskilled tasks that can be outsourced without sacrificing something essential from the library profession, but if the end result is closing an entire department or outsourcing an entire library operation, then a line has been crossed. As librarians and library administrators we must hold onto and nurture those tasks that are deemed essential to the essence of librarianship. Otherwise the profession will lose its core values and open itself up to additional attacks from outside the library.” REFERENCES

1.

American Library Association. 1999a. Outsourcing and Privatization in American Libraries: Report of the ALA Outsourcing Task Force. American Library Association, Chicago. http://www.ala.org/ Template.cfm?Section=outsourcing&Template=/ Content Management/ ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=64971 (accessed May 1, 2005). American Library Association. 1999b. Outsourcing and Privatization in Libraries: ALA Policy on Outsourcing and Privatization. American Library Association, Chicago. http://www.ala.org/ Template.cfm?Section=outsourcing&Template=/ ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=42921 (accessed May 1, 2005). Berry, John. 1998. The Measure of Outsourcing: No Vendor serves People better than the Librarians Who work there Already. Library Journal, 1998; 123: 6. Bordeianu, Sever and Benaud, Claire-Lise. 1997. Outsourcing in American Libraries-An Overview. Against the Grain, 1997; 9 (5) : 1,16,18,20. Benaud, Claire-Lise and Bordeianu, Sever Michael 1998. Outsourcing Library Operations in Academic Libraries: An Overview of Issues and Outcomes. Libraries Unlimited, Englewood, 1998. Currie, W. L., and Willcocks, L. P. 1998. Analysing Four Types of IT Sourcing Decisions in the Context of Scale, Client/Supplier Interdependency and Risk Mitigation. Information Systems Journal, 1998; 8: 119 - 43.
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Outsourcing in library and information centers: The concept and its prospects

101

7.

Dhiman, A.K. Acquisition, Preservation and Retrieval of Digital Resources: Role of Library Consortia. In Ashu Shoukeen edited `KODEL : Introspect and Prospects (50th All India Library Conference Papers)'. Indian Library Association, New Delhi, 2004; 11626. Dhiman, A.K. and Yashoda Rani. Library Consortia: Some Problematic Issues. Indian Journal of Information, Library & Society, 2006; 19 (1-2) : 16-31. Dhiman, A.K. and Rani, Yashoda. 2007. Resource Sharing, Networking and Library & Information Networks. Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi, 2007.

16. Kern. T., Kreijger, J., & Willcocks, L. Exploring ASP as Sourcing Strategy: Theoretical Perspectives, Propositions for Practice. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 2002; 11(2) : 153-177. 17. Martin, Robert S., et.al. 2000. The Impact of Outsourcing and Privatization on Library Services and Management: a Study for the American Library Association. American Library Association, Chicago. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/iftoolkits/ outsourcing/ outsourcing_doc.pdf. 18. Marcum, James, W. Outsourcing in Libraries: Tactic, Strategy, or "Meta-strategy"? Library Administration & Management, 1998; 12 (1) : 15-25. 19. Murthy, T.A.V., Kembhavi, A. and Cholin, V. Access to Scholarly Journals and Databases: UGC-INFONET E-Journals Consortium. University News, 2004; 42 (34) : 1-5, 8. 20. Schuman, Patricia Glass. The Selling of the Public Library. Library Journal, 1998; 123 (13): 50-52. 21. Singh, S.P. and Kumar, K. Special Libraries in Electronic Era. Bookwell, Delhi, 2005. 22. Urban Libraries Council. Outsourcing Metropolitan Public Libraries: A Frequent Fast Facts Survey. Urban Libraries Council, Evanston IL, 1999. 23. White, Herbert S. Why Outsourcing Happens, and What to Do About It.American Libraries, 2000; 31 (1): 66-71. 24. Woodsworth, Anne. 1998. Outsourcing: A Tempest in a Teapot. Library Journal, 1998; 123(5): 46.

8.

9.

10. Dhiman, A.K. Hand Book of Special Libraries and Librarianship. Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi, 2008. 11. Dubberly, Ronald A. Why Outsourcing is Our Friend. American Libraries, 1998; 29 (1): 72- 74. 12. Dunkle, Clare B.Outsourcing the Catalog Department: A Meditation Inspired by the Business and Library Literature. Journal of Academic Librarianship., 1996; 22 (1) : 33-44. 13. Duvernay, Jennifer and Bonanni, Mimmo. 2004. Taking the Plunge to 24x7: The Ramifications of Extending VR Service through Outsourcing. Virtual Reference Desk Project, Syracuse. http:// www.vrd2004.org/proceedings/presentation.cfm ?PID=342. 14. Gorman, Michael. The Corruption of Cataloging. Library Journal, 1995; 120: 32-34. 15. Gorman, Michael. 1998. Our Singular Strengths: Meditations for Librarians. American Library Association, Chicago, 1998.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

102

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 103 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

Application of total quality management in the academic library

S. Thanuskodi
ABSTRACT

In 21st Century Total Quality Management is primary requirement of any service providing organization. Students are now demanding quality service for their monies worth. The managers of quality must have an intention to assess the product; sound knowledge of product features and characteristics; customer preferences and resources. All academic library staff must receive training, including skill training; on the job guidance; retraining. Well-trained staff are the competitive weapon for better quality service in an academic library. The successful personnel management includes the following: Job Analysis, Job Evaluation, Staffing, Recruitment and Selection, Tests, etc. A planned, proactive process approach to facilitate change by aligning people with processes and technology to achieve an organization’s vision and performance objectives. Key Words: Total Quality Management (TQM), Common Communication Format (CCF), Academic Library, Customer, Evaluation.

INTRODUCTION

The application computers and TQM in Library serve as panacea for all the existing ills of libraries. The Computerization of various sections viz., acquisition, classification and cataloguing and the circulation and use of the reading materials besides making provision for information and retrieval systems. The successful personnel management includes the following: Job Analysis, Job Evaluation, Staffing, Recruitment and Selection, Tests, etc. A planned, proactive process

approach to facilitate change by aligning people with processes and technology to achieve an organization's vision and performance objectives. During the digital era, the role of library professional is to perform the total quality management very effectively to satisfy the requirements of users (Ramamoorthy G, Chinnaian S and Ramprasath,R, 2009) QUALITY Quality is often used synonymously with excellence. However, for proper quality management, defining quality and its measurement are essential. Quality has been defined variedly in different contexts. There is wide range of definitions or approaches to quality, describing the relative nature of the concept in the context of higher education. Some of the definitions are discussed here. Green and Harvey (1993) identified five different approaches to quality in higher education. These are, quality :

Author’s Affiliations: *Lecturer, Library & Information Science Wing DDE - Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar – 608 002, E-mail: thanuskodi_s@yahoo.com Reprints Requests: Dr. S. Thanuskodi, Lecturer, Library & Information Science Wing, DDE - Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar–608 002, E-mail: thanuskodi_s@yahoo.com
(Received on 18.06.09, accepted on 10.10.09 ) © Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

104

S. Thanuskodi

· in terms of exceptional (high standards); · in terms of consistency; · as fitness for purpose (meeting stated purposes); · as value for money; and · as transformative (transformation of the participant). Nunan and Calvert (1992) point out that "The term quality defies any definition which will be universally accepted. When it is linked to performance, quality implies evaluation for comparative purposes; ‘measures’ of quality involve norms and standards and judgments of quality are assisted through use of norm or criterion referenced indicators. Where measurement focuses on the student as a product of education, quality is seen as `value-based' by the process of education. When the emphasis is management of quality, attention focuses on strategies for achieving or improving quality.” GARVIN (1988) IDENTIFIED FIVE APPROACHES TO DEFINE QUALITY

various approaches for achieving improved Quality Information Services. ISO 8420 defines quality as : ‘The totality of features and characteristics of a product, process of service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.’ However, there are certain limitations to this approach. The usefulness of user-based quality definition is dependent on how well the user or customer is informed about opportunities and limitations of a product or service offered. User satisfaction level may also vary in terms of value for money and value for information content received. In the value-based definition, quality is defined in terms of costs and prices. Thus, a quality product is one that provides conformance at an acceptable price or cost. Peter Brophy (1993) defines it as: “Quality is … . the closest fit to user' needs that resources permit.” The managers of quality must have an intention to assess the product; sound knowledge of product features and characteristics; customer preferences and resources. QUALITY CONTROL

· Transcendent approach (Quality always exists) · Product based approach (Products meeting high quality standards) · User based approach (quality to meet user's requirements) · Manufacturing-based approach · Value-based approach. In the context of Information Systems, Quality pertains to: · Performance of the system, · Quality and Quantity of the Document Store, · Quality of Information Products judged in terms of defined norms or criteria, · User satisfaction in terms of value for money spent (cost-benefit) and value for information content (cost-effectiveness). Therefore, the Quality Management Strategies should integrate these

Although the demarcating line between the terms ‘Quality Control’ and ‘Quality Assessment’ is very narrow, some scientists attempted to draw a line of distinction between these terms. Tannock (1992) states that quality control “Consists merely of the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality, usually interpreted to mean conformance to the required specifications.” QUALITY ASSURANCE

Carley and Waldron (1984) defines quality assurance as “planned, deliberate actions or activities instigated and carried out with the intent and purpose of maintaining and improving the quality of learning for participants.”
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Application of total quality management in the academic library

105

While the above definition provided a general understanding of the concept, it does not explain the unique nature of quality assurance. According to Frazer (1992), “a university which takes quality assurance seriously emerges as a self-critical community of students, teachers, support staff and senior managers each contributing to and striving for continued improvement.” The observation of various definitions of quality assurance as expressed in the literature of higher education reveals that Quality Assurance is a continuing, active and integrative process for maintaining and improving quality rather than simply a system of evaluation and checking for errors. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

QUALITY STANDARDS

Within quality management, a variety of quality management standards, evaluation forms and schemes for self-appraisal have evolved. These standards are practice-oriented tools whose basic function is to create and sustain confidence in a customer-supplier relationship and provide a systematic approach to quality management. The ISO 9000 series of standards is widely used as the most recent international standards for quality management. In the LIS Sector, the Common Communication Format (CCF) evolved as the bibliographic format. MANAGING QUALITY IN AN ACADEMIC LIBRARY

Total Quality Management takes an integrative approach for assuring quality in an organisation. The four basic principles explain the nature of Total Quality Management. · Delight the customer. What service would delight the customer ? What are the requirements of the customer ? · Management by fact. Knowing the current quality standards of the product is the first step in the process of improvement. Knowledge of facts at all levels is an essential aspect of continuous improvement. · People-based Management. Systems, standards and technology themselves will not provide quality. People must understand what to do, how to do and must be ready to review the progress of their own work, for continuous improvement of quality. · TQM is aimed at continuous improvement.

In a service organization like an academic library the customer satisfaction means fulfilling expectations. Librarians must find out what readers want and concentrate upon providing it. Designing an appropriate service means asking · Who are the customers? · What do they want? · What can the organization provide? In a library there are basically two types of customer: those who are in a hurry and those who want to kill time. An academic library has to identify these and serve them accordingly. MANAGING CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS

The expectations that the customers bring to a library have a critical effect upon their perceptions of quality. It is better to acquire a reputation for one or two factors which are important to customers and to concentrate upon developing those.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

106

S. Thanuskodi

Service delivery is like a theoretical performance. If customers are to gain maximum benefit from a service, they must know how to use it. So, properly planned user education is a must for an academic library. Support systems should reflect customers’ priorities. It is important to find out which services can be automated without losing the personal touch. Getting feedback from the user is important to ascertain the quality of service. Regular users of an academic library can be given a questionnaire to get feedback from them for improving service. The circulation desk staff are the front line staff who play a critical role is an academic library because they represent the library; first deal with inquiries/crises; manage the reader interface. Public services staff must be carefully-appointed and be given periodic training to keep up-to-date. All academic library staff must receive training, including skill training; on the job guidance; retraining. Well-trained staff are the competitive weapon for better quality service in an academic library. Teamwork plays a vital role in giving better quality service. People have to develop a culture and commitment towards quality service in an academic library. (Siraj Nissa Begum, 2003) ISO 9000 Series Steps towards TQM in Academic Library ISO 9000 has an internationally accepted certificate that accredits an organization for its quality management systems and procedures. ISO 9004-2:1992 has guidelines for services and was issued by ISO to establish and implement a quality system within a service organization such as an educational institution.(Siraj Nissa Begum, 2003) CONCLUSION

demanding quality service for their monies worth. There is therefore the need for library managers to re-examine their traditional role and adopt an entirely new culture which would satisfy the everincreasing demand for improved and quality service to the clientele. REFERENCES

1.

Carley, R. & Waldron, M.W. Quality assurance and continuing education. Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education, 1984; 10(1): 53-67. Frazer, M. Quality Assurance and Higher Education. In. A.Craft (Ed.), Quality assurance in Higher Education : Proceedings of an International Conference, Hong Kong, 1991; 9-25. Garvin, D.A. Managing Quality : The Strategic and Competitive edge. New York : Freepress, 1988. Harvey L & Green D. Defining ‘Quality’ In: Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 1993; 18(1): 9-34. Nunan, T. & Calvert, J. Report of the project to Investigate Quality and Standards in Distance Education, 1995. Peter Brophy (1993) Quality Management : a University approach. Aslib Information, 1993; 21(6): 246-248. Tannock, J.D.T. A new approach to quality assurance for Higher Education. Higher Education Quarterly, 1992; 46(1): 108-123. Oakland, John S., Peter Morris. TQM : a Pictorial Guide for Managers. Oxford : ButterworthHeinemann, 1997. Trchan, Para. “Implementation of ISO 9000 in Industrial Libraries: a Case Study.” University News. June, 2000.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. Ramamoorthy G, Chinnaian S and Ramprasath,R "TQM in College Library during Digital Era. National Seminar on Strategic Information Management in the Digital Era 26th and 27th March 2009, Annamalai University, 2009. 11. Siraj Nissa Begum, S., “Total Quality Management in the Academic Library.” Library Philosophy and Practice, 2003; 5(2).

In today’s competitive age, Total Quality Management is primary requirement of any service providing organization. Students are now

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 107 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

Information seeking pattern at ICFAI business school library, Bangalore: A user study

Khaisar Muneebulla Khan* Pradeep Hegde** ABSTRACT States the importance of library and information service on the basis of information needs of the users. User study and information seeking behaviour is defined, ICFAI Business School, Bangalore (IBSB) Library and Information Center (LIC) services are mentioned. Analyses the purpose of visit to the library, adequacy of library collection, methodology adopted by the users to locate the required information, online databases which they used frequently, users’ satisfaction with the library services and working hours of the library, and the obstacles while seeking their required information in the LIC at IBS Bangalore campus. Finally highlights the findings and suggestions and concludes urging to improve the library and information services in the LIC under study.

INTRODUCTION

The structural components of any library consist of books, staff, and the readers. The basic objective of any library and information centre is to provide optimum library and information service to its users and the user satisfaction. Libraries and information centers are the repositories of books as well as depositories of information and knowledge. It is needless to emphasis that information is indispensable for any human activity aiming at social progress. Therefore, any library and information services should be based on the information needs of the users.
Author’s Affiliations: *Reader, Department of Library and Information Science, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore-574199. E-mail: khaisarmk@yahoo.com, **Sr. Lib. Asst., ICFAI Business School, Bangalore. E-mail: pradeepvenoor@yahoo.com Reprints Requests: Khaisar Muneebulla Khan, Reader, Department of Library and Information Science, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore-574199. E-mail: khaisarmk@yahoo.com
(Received on 17.07.09, accepted on 3.08.09) © Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

In order to determine the information needs or users’ requirements, it is needed to conduct systematically the user studies and information seeking pattern. User study is the one, which mainly focuses on ‘users’ to measure their information needs, their use behavior and use pattern. User study is the means for systematic examinations of the system and services provided by LIC. The user study is directly linked with the effectiveness of library and information services as they aim at satisfaction of users’ needs. It implies a willingness to relate product or system design to the perceived needs of those for whom the product or system design is intended. This urges to conduct information seeking behavior studies so as to collect, organize and disseminate what is needed or required by the users. Information seeking behavior is concerned with who needs and what kind of information and for what purposes. It is also concerned how information is found, evaluated and used. According to Wilson “Information seeking behavior is those activities a person may engage in when identifying his or her own needs for information searching for such information in any

108

Khaisar Muneebulla Khan, Pradeep Hegde

way and using or transferring that information”1. However, in the words of Girja Kumar “Information seeking behavior is mainly concerned with who needs what kind of information for what reason; how information is found, evaluated and used”2. Hence, Information seeking behavior and user studies form the basis for building library collection and planning services in any library and information centers. ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOLS

· Library webOPAC and central webOPAC facility. · Barcode-based computerized circulation system. · Dspace based digital library facility. · Online Journal Database search facility. · Network based CD-ROM search facility · Interlibrary loan and document delivery services. · Reference service and General assistance facility. · Xeroxing facility. · User education program – Orientation program. Besides the above services, the library also provides SDI and CAS services to users. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

IBS offers high-quality programs in different areas of management to a wide cross-section of students, executives and professionals across India. It was established in the year 1995 and within the short span of time IBS has grown impressively. ICFAI has already achieved widespread recognition from industry, academic circles, and professional bodies. IBS has also been consistently ranked among the top B-Schools in the country in the annual B-School surveys conducted by independent research agencies. The IBS Bangalore campus is a leading name in Management education in the region. The twoyear full-time program at the campus is designed to expose the students to concepts, policies and techniques for the effective and efficient management of global organizations. There are 540 students in the first year and 460 in the final year, totaling 1000 students perusing their Management studies. IBS LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES

The objective of this study is to explore information seeking behavior of users of ICFAI Business School, Bangalore and they are: 1. To find out the awareness and use of library resources by the students; 2. To find out the type of information sources used by the students; 3. To ascertain users opinion regarding usefulness and adequacy of information sources and services; 4. To identify the methods that the readers of the library adopt to locate the required information sources; 5. To identify the problems faced by the users in using the library; and 6. To help the administrator of the library in preparing an enrichment program for better use of the library.

All the IBS campuses have well established libraries and information centers. They are well equipped with latest collection and information resources on business and management related subjects. Professionally qualified and experienced library professionals manage them. The IBS Bangalore campus library and information centers provide the following services. They are:

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Information seeking pattern at ICFAI business school library, Bangalore: A user study

109

METHODOLOGY

This study used questionnaire-based survey method and supplemented by informal discussion with the users. A sample of 324(60%) students from the first year and 276 (60%) from the second

year was selected for distributing questionnaire. 422 students were responded to the questionnaire which comes to 70%. The collected data were analyzed, classified, and tabulated by employing statistical methods. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Table 1: Purpose of Visit to the Library
S.No. 1 2 3 4 Purpose of Library Visit Borrow Books Consult Periodicals Consult Reference Documents Reading News Papers No. of respondents 304 232 253 320 Percentage 72.04% 54.97% 59.95% 75.82%

Purpose of Visit to the Library The study indicates that 72.04% of the users visit the library to borrow books, 75.82% visit the library to browse newspapers and 68.9% of the users visit to refer project reports as indicated in table 1. Adequacy of Library Collection An important function of B-School library is to cater the information needs of users. The users need highly specialized and advanced material on subject of their specialization which consists of variety of information sources like books, periodicals, reports, e-resources and reference

sources like encyclopedias, dictionaries etc. It was therefore considered appropriate to know whether the existing collection of IBS, Bangalore library is adequate enough to meet the information requirements of its reader in their academic, research and development work. The details furnished in table 2 shows that the opinion expressed by the majority of students (55.92%) is that the collection of books was adequate to meet their information needs; whereas 37.44% of the students have the opinion that the periodical collection was only partially adequate. Hence the

Table 2: Adequacy of Library Collection
S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type of Source Text Books Periodicals Annual Reports Study Materials Online Databases Newspapers Adequate 236 (55.92%) 107 (25.35%) 128 (30.33%) 101 (23.93%) 253 (59.95%) 326 (77.25%) Partial Adequate 110 (26.06%) 158 (37.44%) 190 (45.02%) 176 (41.70%) 126 (29.85%) 74 (17.53%) Inadequate 76 (18%) 98 (23.22%) 74 (17.53%) 126 (29.85%) 30 (7.10%) 15 (3.55%) Not Responded 59 (13.98%) 30 (7.10%) 19 (4.50%) 13 (3.08%) 7 (1.65%)

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

110

Khaisar Muneebulla Khan, Pradeep Hegde

periodical collection calls the attention of authorities. Similarly the collection of annual reports and study materials were also only partially adequate to fulfill the needs of the users. The number of newspapers and also the reference documents were reported to be adequate by the majority of respondents. Methods used needed documents in locating the

The information needs may vary among users depending upon their nature of work. The study of users approach to locate needed documents/ information helps to improve the information services. Table 3 attempts to identify the methods used by the users in locating the needed documents. It shows that the students locate needed documents by seeking assistance from library staff (67.77%), by consulting Web-Opac

Table 3: Methods Used in Locating the Information
S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Methods Assistance of Library Staff Consulting WEB-OPAC Guidance of teachers Help of Friends Self No. of respondents 286 215 51 151 177 Percentage 67.77% 50.94% 12.08% 35.78% 41.94%

(50.94%) and their own (41.94%). The above analysis reveals that the assistance of library staff and Web-Opac were the primary means to locate the needed documents. Though the respondents

have other approaches such as help from friends, teachers were not found to be popular among them. Online Databases Most Used by the Users

Table 4: Online Databases Most Used by the Users

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Information seeking pattern at ICFAI business school library, Bangalore: A user study

111

The users were asked to indicate the online databases that they are using frequently to get the required information. Table 4 shows that 77.96% of the users were using EBSCO host database and 68.95% were preferring Emerald, while 65.87% of the users were using Cygnus database to get the right information. Users’ Satisfaction with Library Services

harness fully the resources of the library. To this end, the library invites the reader, guides him and provides with literature in a satisfactory manner. Effective library services make a library more functional to deliver the right information at the right time in the right manner to the right user. The modern libraries require to use modern technologies to provide information services. As evident from the table 5, the majority of students were of the opinion that circulation, general assistance and reference services were satisfactory to meet their needs. The majority of respondents found that current awareness service and reprographic services were not completely

The prime objective of collection, storage, and organization of information in the library is to facilitate the academic community to exploit and

Table 5: Users’ Satisfaction with the Library Services

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

112

Khaisar Muneebulla Khan, Pradeep Hegde

satisfactory. The significant number of respondents was replied that the online database search facility in library is not satisfactory. Hence, it is suggested that the library should have more computer terminals within the library premises with internet connectivity.

Users’ Satisfaction with the Working Hours of the Library

IBS B library is kept open for 13 hours per day that is from 8am to 9pm.The respondents were asked to give their opinion on the satisfaction or

Table 6: Users’ Satisfaction with the Working Hours of the Library

otherwise of the existing working hours. Table 6 below shows that 58.05% of respondents indicated that they were completely satisfied with the present timings. However, a significant percentage i.e. 36.01% of the respondents were not satisfied with the present working hours of

the Library. Problems in Seeking Information

It is clear from the data furnished in table 7 Table 7: Problems Faced by the Users

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Information seeking pattern at ICFAI business school library, Bangalore: A user study

113

that the large number of respondents expressed that scattering of information in many sources (55.92%) and incomplete information/material (28.19%) were the major hindrance while seeking Table 8: Need of User

information. Unfortunately, significant percentage of respondents that is 27.96% stated that, they do not have the knowledge of using Education Programs

Web-Opac facility. Need of User Education Programs Table 8 demonstrates that the most of the respondents (72.03%) clearly stated to have proper user education program to know about the sources and services available in the library. FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

information needs of the users under study. The study clearly shows that 67.77% of respondents were locating their required information with the assistance of library staff and 50.94% by consulting Web-opac. The study further reveals that 77.96% of users prefer EBSCO host database and 68.95% depend on Emerald database for their required information and that the circulation service, reference service and general assistance service are being provided very satisfactory. However, the online database search facility in library and reprographic services are not satisfactory. Regarding working hours of the library, 58.05% of the respondents like to extend the present library timings. However, the majority that is 55.92% of the respondents finds the scattering of information in different sources and 50.95% of users indicated that information is too vast as the obstacle or difficulty in seeking their required information. Surprisingly 27.94% of respondents have stated that they don’t know to make use of Web-opac facility. Though the library provides orientation program periodically, it is interesting to note that 72.03% of the respondents are of the opinion that the library should conduct proper orientation programs and further help and assist readers to improve their skills in searching the documents/ information.

The study ‘Information seeking behavior of users of ICFAI Business School, Bangalore has revealed that the majority i.e., 72.04% of the users visit library to borrow books and 75.82% to browse newspapers. Regarding the adequacy of library collection, 55.92% of respondents feel that the textbook collection is adequate, 26.06% as partial adequate and 18% as inadequate. Significant percentages of the users have suggested for library to build up the reference collection. The majority of users (59.95%) responded that the Online Journal databases are adequate. Further, it is interesting to note that most of the users prefer both printed as well as non-printed sources of information. Hence, it is suggested that the LIC should stock more text books, periodicals collection and reference collection. Besides, the library must build up E-resources to satisfy the
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

114

Khaisar Muneebulla Khan, Pradeep Hegde

Therefore, it is suggested that the LIC should have more computer terminals within the library to make use of the online database search facility and also the library have to conduct user education program, library orientation and information literacy programs more frequently. The users must be also provided with extensive and intensive SDI and CAS services both in anticipation and on demand to satisfy the information needs of ICFAI Business School library users.

REFERENCES

1. 2. 3.

Wilson, T. D. On user studies and information needs. Journal of Documentation, 1981; 37(1): 3-4. Girja Kumar and Krishan Kumar. Philosophy of user education. New Delhi: Vikas, 1983; 228-229. Khan, Khaisar Muneebulla and Mallaiah T. Y. Use of internet by research scholars in Mangalore university library: a study. International Library Movement, 2007; 12(4): 206-221. Kumbar S. S. and Mallaiah T. Y. Changing pattern of user expectations regarding the library catalogue as an information retrieval tool: a case study of Mangalore university, Annals of Library and Information Studies, 2008; 55(1): 7-16. Kerins, G., Madden, R., & Fulton, C. Information seeking and students studying for professional careers: the cases of engineering and law students in Ireland. Information Research, 10, no.1 (2004), paper 208, available at http://InformationR.net/ ir/10-1/paper208.html. Accessed on 2 December 2008. Wilson, T. D. Human information behavior. Information Science Research, 2000; 3(2): 49-55. Steinerova J and Susol J. Users information behaviour – A gender perspective. Information Research, 2007; 12(3. Prasad H. N. Information seeking behaviour of physical scientists and social scientists: a report. Annals of Library Science and Documentation, 1998; 45(2): 41-48. Abels E. Information seekers perspective of libraries and librarians. Advances in Librarianship, 2004; 28: 151-170.

4.

CONCLUSION

Using information is a key issue in the information age. The real challenge of our time is not producing information or storing information, but getting people to use information and its accessibility. The successful operation of any library depends to a large extent on the choice of library collections, its services and the user satisfaction. The choice of the collection should meet the needs and requirements of the end users. Consequently, librarians must be aware about how the users seek information. Therefore, whatever that is selected, stored and maintained must be used to the maximum and made accessible to the users. The IBS Bangalore Library and Information Center though strives to serve its readers in the best ways possible however need to take the above suggestions seriously in view of the findings. The library should actively participate in the library consortia and networking to give optimum library and information services and satisfy the ever increasing and complex needs of their readers in this cutting edge of competitive 21st century.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

10. Boyd A. Multi channel information seeking: a fuzzy conceptual model. Aslib Proceedings, 2004; 52(2): 81-88.

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 115 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

Tella, Adeyinka* Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi**

ABSTRACT Information communication technologies (ICTs) offer great promise for eradicating poverty, developing our communities and integrating them into the global economy, not merely of products and services but also of knowledge. In all sorts of ways, integrating different types of media increase the speed of communication while lowering its cost. It facilitates dialogue, bridging the enormous divide in information and access to healthcare between rural and urban communities. ICT can bring our poorest schools and communities into the growth orbit of our rural areas. With all these advantages and benefits of ICT, this paper presents discussions on the future of ICT in developing world. Issues considered in the paper include: the future of ICT in the developing world: connectivity, use, and affordability; plans for connectivity: Government, Business; connectivity in rural areas-trends; rural Dwellers and Connectivity by 2030; constraints to connectivity in developing world; good practices; and practical tips to improve connectivity in the developing world. Keywords: ICTs, Connectivity, Rural Dwellers, Poverty Eradication, Global Economy, Developing Countries, Developing World. INTRODUCTION education in development. It offers us increasingly powerful capacities. We need to embrace these capacities in a way that involves all our people. ICT can enable people to make a better living for themselves, but it is also opens domain for political participation, channels of communication, and a ways for people to better understand each other. If we manage our computerization efforts intelligently, and keep foremost the humane and political goals which motivated us to computerize in the first place, we will find our communities strengthened rather than weakened, united rather than divided by it. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to offer vast advantages to users. ICT could bring broad and in-depth information to those who have been hitherto denied such knowledge and thus

All over the developing world, ICT is no longer just an option. It is a necessary component of

Author’s Affiliations: *Lecturer 1, Faculty of Communication and Information Science, Department of Library and Information Science, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria, ** Librarian, Michael Adekunle

Ajasin University Library, Akungba, Ondo State, Nigeria Reprints Requests: Tella, Adeyinka
Lecturer 1, Faculty of Communication and Information Science, Department of Library and Information Science, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria, E-mail: tella.a@unilorin.edu.ng.
(Received on 28.07.09, accepted on 25.08.09) © Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

116

Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi

opportunities for social and economic mobility. It is believe that the new technologies offer great promise for eradicating poverty, developing our communities and integrating them into the global economy, not merely of products and services but also of knowledge. In all sorts of ways, by integrating different types of media, increasing the speed of communication while lowering its cost, by facilitating dialogue, by bridging the enormous divide in information and access to healthcare between rural and urban communities, ICT can bring our poorest schools and thus our poorest communities into the growth orbit of our rural areas. With all these advantages and benefits of ICT, this paper presents discussions on the future of ICT in developing world. Other issues the paper considers include: the future of ICT in the developing world: connectivity, use, and affordability; plans for connectivity: Government, Business; trends of connectivity in rural areas; rural dwellers and connectivity by 2030; constraints to connectivity in developing world; good practices; and practical tips to improve connectivity in the developing world.

medical instruments – anything that is IP-enabled. This sub-heading will discuss issues of connectivity, use and whether or not ICT is affordable in the developing world today and fast forward to the future. Affordability- In term of ICT affordability in Africa, Internet access costs for example are high. Other situation reflects the following: – – Telecoms costs up to half of an ISPs operating costs International leased line tariffs can be up to 10 times higher than rates available from alternative satellite providers, broadband connections up to 100 times North American/ European tariffs High tariffs for leased lines discourage ISPs from establishing multiple links - restricted national peering and few regional links between neighboring countries, only from Senegal to Gambia, Mali, Cameroon, & links from South Africa to 3 neighbours Local call tariffs average $2.5/hr, in 10 countries charges are more than $4/hr and some are $6/hr The trend of affordability particularly on GSM local call charges are increasing, although some countries have adopted given discount for IP calls (Abi, Heeks and Whalley, 2008; Jensen, 2000).

AFRICA CONTINUES TO LAG BEHIND OTHER REGIONS IN OVERALL ACCESS TO ICT’S, PERTICULARITY IN RURAL AND REMOTE AREAS (ITU, 2007)

Developing countries are entering a new era of communications that will be characterized by “hyper-connectivity.” In this era, millions of people and billions of things will be connected to an intelligent, secure and pervasive mobile broadband network. Hyper-connectivity goes well beyond cell phones, PDAs and laptops being connected to a network and extends to hundreds of devices such as cars, home appliances and

Africa is the fastest-growing mobile market in the world, having leaped from 16 million mobile subscribers in 2000 to 198 million in 2006. This strong growth is expected to continue, with a projected 278 million subscribers in 2007. However, this growth has taken place mainly in urban areas. Despite high growth rates in mobile access, Africa continues to lag other regions in overall access to ICTs, particularly in rural and remote areas (ITU, 2007).

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

117

PLANS FOR CONNECTIVITY

Business

The world’s developing nations need to regard information and communication technology (ICT) as the key driver for economic growth. ICT can make a real difference to the speed of development, but only if public and private sector co-operate: “More attention needs to be paid to the role ICT can play in raising social and economic standards in the developing world….If the develop world’s governments and technology firms continue to work apart, then only slow progress will be made….Partnering public and private sector on compelling ICT initiatives in developing nations can have more of a powerfull impact on the socio-economic structure of a country than having vendor and governments doing it alone” (Barton, 2006). A large number of governments and aid organizations are taking positive steps to bridge the digital divide. However, initiatives from business are being put in place, because business driven activities have great potential as part of development plans and strategies. The emerging economies need to develop their own digital industries that can catalyse the growth of business, government, health and education infrastructures. Some initiatives are now being taken by some municipalities to establish public Internet services, telecentres and the rest as part of the plan to increase connectivity in the developing world where most of the rural areas are situated. From observation, most of the rural areas in the world are found in the continent of Africa and Asia. In the light of this, these two continents will be mostly referred to in this paper.

For example, at NITDA in Nigeria (Cottrell and Canessa, 2003), satellite connection is offered to serve the Capital’s main offices, as well as Mobile Internet Units (MIU). This is part of a development project on computer-mediated education for school teachers and students in rural and urban marginalized communities (Cottrell and Canessa, 2003). To overcome insufficient or non existing basic telecommunication services in the region, computer networks powered by solar panels or renewable energy are also growing, since there is a large demand to communicate and improve healthcare and sustainable development. Detail about the connectivity in different developing countries across the world particularly in Africa and Asia are discussed here. In South Africa, there are three regulatory social initiatives that have contributed to the increase in connectivity and extended participation by new players. They are: imposition of license obligations, establishing a convergence regulator, creating a specialist universal service agency, rolling out telecentres, issuing licenses in under-serviced areas, establishing phone shops and other telecom related projects and programs (Barendse, 2004). Imposing license obligations is one of the first major initiatives undertaken by the South African government as a means of increasing access to ICT infrastructures. The license conditions were intended to oblige the operators to expand the telecom network according to specified parameters. In the South Africa instance obligations were placed on both the mobile operators and the incumbent fixed operator. The tasks of auditing the targets (annually) as well as administering the associated penalties were given to the newly created regulatory authority.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

118

Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi

A second major initiative undertaken by the South African government was the setting up of a converged regulator as a means of ensuring economic, social and technical regulation. The Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA) was established to regulate the telecom and broadcasting industry. ICASA was established to merge the previously independent broadcasting and telecom authorities and to regulate the sector (including content) as a technology converged sector. In terms of its mandate, ICASA grants licenses in the telecom and broadcasting industries and sets the terms and conditions of every license granted (Types of licenses includes frequency license, telecom services licenses and broadcasting licenses) (Barendse, 2004). In terms of its scope, ICASA makes rules and regulations that governs the two sectors as well as monitors the activities of licenses to enforce compliance with these rules. ICASA fulfills its functions through regulations and other means. ICASA regulates the telecom and broadcasting industries in the public interest. Key functions include the following: make regulations and policies that govern broadcasting and telecom; issue licenses to providers of telecom services and broadcasters; monitor the environment and enforce compliance with rules, regulations and policies; hear and decide on disputes and complaints brought by industry or members of the public against licensees; plan, control and manage the frequency spectrum and protect consumers from unfair business practiced, poor quality services and harmful or inferior products. Other responsibilities include: promote the attainment of universal service and access by putting requirements in operators license to roll out services in under serviced area; ensure that licensees contribute to the Universal Service Fund; ensure that the relevant and broadcasting services are extended to all citizens; promote and encourage the ownership and control of telecom and broadcasting services by people from historically disadvantaged groups. The third major initiative undertaken by the

South African government was the setting up of a specialist agency with the task of facilitating the achievement of affordable universal service. The Universal Service Agency (USA) was established as a statuary body by the [Telecommunications Act, 1996] and launched in May 1997. In terms of the Act, the agency was set up to promote the goal of universal service; encourage, facilitate and offer guidance in respect of any scheme to provide universal access or universal service; foster the adoption and use of new methods of attaining universal access/service; and stimulate public awareness of the benefits of telecom services. Other tasks included in the Act were monitoring the progress of universal service; advising the Minister; and implementing projects that stimulate public awareness of the benefits of telecom services to under-serviced areas. It was also expected to manage a newly established Universal Service Fund. In Uganda (Farrell, 2007) summarizes the current and recent ICT initiatives and projects to increase connectivity to include: 1. Providing donated computers to schools plus capacity-building support to recipient local partners. • Organisation(s)/funding sources: World Computer Exchange in partnership with local organisations. Geographic scope and time frame: National

2. The Village Phone Project provides micro loans to eight local businesses to enable establishing a community phone service and testing of additional technologies. • • • Organisation(s)/funding sources: Grameen Foundation in partnership with MTN Uganda Geographic scope and time frame: Started in 2003 in selected communities; ongoing. Contact:

3. I-Network Uganda is a national network of individuals and organisations that act as a platform for sharing knowledge and
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

119

information on applying ICTs. One of its programmes, DistrictNet, focuses on providing public information using ICTs. • Organisation(s)/funding sources: ICT4D practitioners including IICD project partners; policy makers such as ministries; students and teachers; NGOs; rural communities Geographic scope and time frame: National; over 700 registered members from the public, private, and civil society sectors. Begun in 2002 and it still ongoing. •

secondary schools, and including the approval of a curriculum for ICT training for secondary schools. Organisation(s)/funding sources: The ministry has allocated some funds for these initiatives and is discussing provision of additional support with various donors. Geographic scope and time frame: National; 2006-2007. Contact: ICT Co-ordinator, Ministry of Education and Spor

• •

4. The spread of mobile phones and FM radio stations has enabled the development of an interactive public discussion forum in local languages on topics such as politics, health issues, agriculture, education, gender issues, and the environment. • • Organisation(s)/funding sources: Over 100 FM radio stations Geographic scope and time frame: National and still ongoing.

7. The Reflect ICT resource centre has been equipped with computers (Internet connected), printers, digital camera and video, generator, UPS, public address system, WorldSpace radio, and solar-operated radios, along with other office equipment including a photocopier. The aim is to facilitate access to agricultural, health, and commercial information based on needs that the community identified. • • Organisation(s)/funding sources: DIFD, and community contributions. Geographic scope and time frame: The project is located in Bukuuku sub-county in Kabarole district, western Uganda. Contact: http://217.206.205.24/Initiatives/ ict/home.htm

5. Uconnect is a non-profit NGO that aims to advance public education by using ICT to improve the quality and efficiency of communications. Activities focus on providing computer connectivity and training for schools and recently on providing ICT training to officials of 22 mostly rural districts. • Organisation(s)/funding sources: More than 225 schools have benefited to date and 22 district offices have been connected to the Internet. Multi-sponsors are involved such as telecom, hardware, learning software, transportation, and Internet provider companies. Geographic scope and time frame: National; began in the late 1990s and continues to thrive.

8. ICT maintenance facilities for rural Uganda have been established at five technical colleges. An ICT maintenance facility was set up at each college to provide technical support and to introduce a new course called ICT Installation and Maintenance to train technicians. • Organisation(s)/funding sources: The Uganda Institute of Information and Communications Technology, established by Uganda Communications Commission, manage the project with the support of the International Institute for Communication and Development.

6. The Uganda Ministry of Education and Sports is taking several initiatives over the next year as part of its policy implementation agenda. Examples include providing equipment and training to selected schools, providing Microsoft software to government-aided
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

120

Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi

Geographic scope and time frame: The five UTCs are located in or near upcountry towns and are geographically well distributed throughout the country. Launched in 2005; and still ongoing. The British Council has launched a project to link schools in Uganda to other schools in Africa and the UK. The project code-named Connecting Classrooms with the aim to coordinating ICT, science, vocational skills, global citizenship, and cultural science in the schools. Organisation(s)/funding sources: The British Council Geographic scope and time frame: Limited number of schools; 2006-2007. In Zambia, Macha a rural place in Southern Province of Zambia is set to improve the provision of Internet service to the community. The project which started in 2004 is run by the Macha Mission Hospital and the Malaria Institute at Macha (MIAM). This has added a new life to many people around the area. In the initial stage it began with the involvement of the Bishops of the church, chief Macha, the community members, and the government officials. The project coordinator Gertjan Stam says local people were trained and empowered in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs); a process that took one year to be completed. Local communities were trained in the basic use of the computers and website designing. The study and testing of solutions took two years to be completed. Connectivity in Macha is now operational as there are two VSAT connections, diverse routing, LAN and distributed WLAN with 75 users. The project has 100 computers and is growing rapidly, with two network servers, content filtering (spam), proxy, firewall, virus scanning, FTP, file sharing, network printing, web server (10 websites and growing), content management (Blogging), network and system management,

9.

• •

traffic prioritisation, and a SQL database. To most people in this area, connectivity is not a strange word as they also have a community centre, computer workshop, trained IT experts in hardware, network maintenance, web design, and application programming (Sinkondyobwe, 2006). The connectivity has enabled the hospital to applying e-health which is trickling down to the rural community in accessing good health care. It is now easier for the mission hospital to communicate with other hospitals throughout the world for data collection, information exchange, and network management. The connectivity has provided further support for ICT implementations in other rural areas such as the Kaleni Mission Hospital and Mukinge Mission Hospital in North-western province of Zambia. In Asia, Lao PDR, a current project has begun with wiring some four or five schools. In Cambodia, the introduction of computers in a rural school is being helped through solar energyrun panels in order to reach an area without electricity. Many schools have received donated computers, often which are not functioning properly. In Viet Nam, the World Computers Exchange and SIEMENS have introduced a project that will equip many schools with second hand computers, while in the Solomon Islands and other Pacific Islands, the main concern is to connect with e-mail and the Internet and to install telecommunications. Bangladesh has also announced that it has acquired 10,000 computers to equip schools, many of which are girls’ schools. An indicative example of ICT penetration in these countries is from Viet Nam, where statistics from studies reveal that only 2.59% of lower secondary school students and 11.52% of upper secondary school students are trained in ICT. Clearly, these countries still have a long way to go in terms of ICT accessibility and connectivity (UNECO, 2003). In Malaysia, MEWC and its predecessor Ministry, the MECM, have embarked on numerous initiatives aimed at fulfilling the national objective of ensuring equitable provision of affordable ICT
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

121

services over ubiquitous national infrastructure as set out by the CMA. Conscious that the USP programme run by the MCMC is targeted firstly at expanding access to basic telecommunications services, MEWC efforts have focused instead on expanding access to the Internet, particularly in underserved areas. Earlier efforts of the MECM tackled the basic problem of making PCs affordable. Programmes such as the Gerakan Desa Wawasan project launched in 1996, which provided village authorities with PCs, the PC ownership campaign in October 1999, which allowed citizens with children over 10 years of age to use their retirement contributions to purchase PCs, and complementary governmentindustry projects have helped to raise PC penetration rates. Connectivity to the Internet in rural areas was also addressed through initiatives that include the Ministry’s Rural Internet Centres programme and its own Universal Service Provision programme. Launched on 3 April 2000, the Rural Internet Centres programme (RIC) was one of the earliest rural Internet initiatives launched in Malaysia. The programme was developed as a holistic approach to establishing Internet access in rural areas by addressing infrastructure needs, capacity building as well as content development. Under the RIC programme, private sector operators funded by the government provide computer equipment and Internet connectivity while the site, security and electricity are provided by local post offices. Training is also provided to the RIC supervisor and its users as part of the package. A local committee of volunteers is also tasked with the development of a local website that would showcase community products and services as well as provide content relevant to the local community. In the first phase of the project RICs were deployed in post offices in semi-rural areas that were within reach of a TM Net DSL or ISDN enabled exchange. To date, 42 Rural Internet Centres (RIC) throughout the country have been equipped with five to six PCs connected to the Internet via ADSL or ISDN. Statistics compiled in July 2004 indicate that more than 53’000 users use RIC services while more
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

than 35’000 users have undergone training under one of the RIC training programmes since its implementation (ITU, 2004). Furthermore, a range of technologies has been employed to extend ICT services to rural and remote areas in the country. The challenges of both deploying backhaul connectivity from rural and remote sites and expanding the last mile network over a scattered population have required operators to rely on different network configurations involving a combination of technologies. Uppal (2007) points out that it seems to be accepted wisdom that Asian nations and their major cities must be connected to the Internet and other ICTs. But it is sometimes difficult to understand why ICTs are also important for people living in rural areas. Rural dwellers are among the world’s poorest people (IFAD 2001), with less access to health services, education, and clean drinking water than anyone else. Explaining the issue of connectivity In India, Uppal made reference to PAN which began a partnership with the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) in 1997. The goal was to examine the impact of ICTs in fostering sustainable agriculture and rural development. Using a makeshift modem-and-radio set-up with a solar power back-up, five village knowledge centres (VKCs) were established in the rural areas of Pondicherry, where one out of five people live below the poverty line. The VKCs are essentially community telecentres, but combined with the proper physical and human infrastructure, they become the main channel for obtaining relevant and timely information. They provide people in rural areas with appropriate knowledge about livelihood, health and social well-being, and economic opportunities. The main impetus for developing the VKCs was to research whether ICT could be a beneficial tool for social and economic development of rural communities. MSSRF succeeded in demonstrating these benefits, particularly due to the high level of community involvement (in the community where each VKC is located, it must provide volunteer staff and

122

Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi

guarantee equal access to all, irrespective of their social and economic situation). Uppal emphasized that in 5 years more than 50 000 information-shop users in a dozen communities in Pondicherry have gained access to a new wireless Internet connection. The demand for local, relevant information was relentless. People wanted to know more about government financial schemes for the poor, health care, nutrition, sanitation, employment, food prices, education, and the costs and availability of agricultural inputs such as seeds, fertilizer, and pesticides. Women, in particular, were interested in the fluctuating price of grain as female agricultural workers are partly paid in grain. With additional funding from the Canadian International Development Agency, a second phase of the project began in 2001. The goal was to enhance connectivity and assess the potential sustainability of the ICTs. Some VKCs were upgraded to test new technologies with broader bandwidth enabling such new applications as video conferencing. Other VKCs were also established, providing relevant information in the local language, Tamil. As some villagers are illiterate, information such as weather reports was downloaded as RealAudio files and played over speakers in front of the VKCs (Uppal, 2007).. Other key example of government and international plan/initiatives for connectivity are: • • • • • • • • Connectivity Africa & IDRC Acacia CATIA – UK DfID IFC/World Bank ICT investment programme, small ICT fund DotForce – Enablis ICT fund Microsoft – Schools, Telecentres Open Society Foundation Institute (OSI) /Soros

Tunisia • • • UNIDO /GEF rural ICTs & renewable energy in Zambia & Malawi NEPAD Intell Digital transformation, Intell’s World Ahead Programme initiatives in Middle East.

CONNECTIVITY IN RURAL AREASTRENDS According to Kawasumi (2000) more than 2.5 billion people – over 40% of the planet’s population – live in rural and remote areas of developing countries. Egan (1996) distinguish “rural” from “remote” subscribers; the latter refers to those whose access to the telephone network is difficult due to physical “remoteness” caused by either extreme distance or terrain. According to Kawasumi (2000) rural and remote areas (or just “rural”) areas exhibit one or more of the following characteristics: • scarcity of absence of public facilities such as reliable electricity supply, water, access roads and regular transport; scarcity of technical personnel difficult topographical conditions, e.g. lakes, rivers, hills, mountains or desserts which render the construction of telecommunications networks very costly severe climatic conditions that make critical demands on the equipment low level of economic activity mainly based on agriculture, fishing, handicrafts, etc.; low per capita income underdeveloped social infrastructure(health, education, etc): low population density; very high calling rates per exchange line,
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

• •

• • • • • •

IICD – Netherlands/ Ghana, Uganda, Tanzania, Mali Italian E-govt programme – Nigeria, Mozam,

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

123

reflecting the scarcity of telephone service and the fact that large numbers of people rely on a single exchange line. Kawasumi concludes that these characteristics make it difficult to provide public tele communications services of acceptable quality by traditional means at affordable prices, while also achieving commercial viability for the service provider. Mishra et al., (2005) emphasized that the rural connectivity landscape in developing countries presents a contrast to urban telecommunications in the developed world. They point out that three aspects are noteworthy. First, any networking technology needs to be affordable. Lowering cost at the expense of reliability (e.g., no backup equipment, intermittent connectivity) and sharing of end-user devices (e.g., Grameen phone, kiosks) may be an acceptable trade-off. Second, coverage is more important than capacity. Urban settings are capacity limited. Service providers must place multiple base stations in a small area to cater to large volume of traffic. In contrast, rural settings are coverage limited. Service providers would like a single base station to cover as large a geographical area (i.e., as many users) as possible. Finally, demand is difficult to forecast. There is no real measure of demand in rural areas. However a few trends point towards a latent demand and a willingness to invest in telecommunications. For example, rural spending in China has risen threefold from 1990 to 2002 while the percentage spent on telecommunications and transportation (on an absolute level) has risen from 1% of overall spending to 6% of overall spending. A similar trend is visible in Bangladesh where rural residents devote 7% of their income to telecommunications (Mishra et al., 2005). Connectivity in some Southern regions of Sub Saharan Africa countries for example is in an early stage. In particular, sub-Saharan Africa has yet to make the kind of progress in science, technology and economy that has already been achieved in the more dynamic areas of growth (TWAS, 1999).
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

However, from 1999 till date some developments have taken place. The limited bandwidth of the few available telecommunication lines in countries that are joining the Internet cause line congestion and make access exceedingly slow, often beyond the limit of usability. Considering the fact that about 70-80% of the people in Africa and other developing world live in rural areas, there is need to know what the connectivity in the areas is like and what are the trends. For instance in a report by ITU provided in daily telegraph the number of mobile phone users in the world soared to over 3.3 billion by the end of 2007, equivalent to a penetration rate of 49 percent (The Daily Telegraph, 2008). Africa showed the strongest gains over the past two years and more than two thirds of all mobile subscribers were from developing countries by the end of 2007. This is ‘a positive trend that suggests that developing countries are catching up.” Mobile subscription growth stood at 39 percent annually in Africa between 2005-2007, and 28 percent in Asia over the same period. India and China added 154 million and 143 million new subscribers respectively. The global annual average growth rate stood at 22 percent, the ITU said. Mobile phones are eclipsing traditional fixed lines and in Africa they account for nearly 90 percent of all telephone subscribers. While developing countries have made great strides in mobile growth, a significant ‘digital divide’ remains for Internet use and particularly the availability of broadband connections. In Asia, some countries such as China, Thailand, Japan, Malaysia, The Philippines, and India, connectivity and ICT penetration is growing, but not yet to the level of the more advanced countries. In Thailand, only 22.5% of secondary schools and 1.19% of the primary schools are connected to the Internet; while the ratio of PCs per school at the secondary level is 24, and at the primary level it is only 2. Out of 358,781 primary school teachers, 71,442 have been trained and out of 125,983 secondary school teachers, 25,000: in short, only around 21% of the

124

Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi

teachers have received training to date (UNESCO, 2003). In the Philippines, 81% of the schools have no access to the Internet. The integration of ICT use in the curriculum and in teaching/learning, experiences also vary. While there have been efforts to integrate the use of ICT in the teaching of certain subjects (as in the case of Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines), efforts are isolated and have not yet reached systematic nationwide proportions. Generally, teachers are using ICT mostly for word processing, for presentations and for spreadsheets. It is also usually introduced as one component or as a class period within a subject area, rather than becoming actually infused within lessons. In the Philippines, a report pointed out that currently, ICT is not integrated at all into textbooks. In India, ICT is usually taught as a separate subject, with ICT education currently being introduced through a multi-layered approach. First, ICT is integrated in textbooks for computer subjects such as Introduction to Computer Science, Informatics Practices, and ICT Systems. Similarly, ICT is used in face-to-face learning, but is not yet integrated into textbooks of specific subjects. In Thailand, ICT is used for many purposes, such as for word processing, to write and present students’ work; using a spreadsheet to enter data collected in investigations, creating charts and interpreting the results; creating databases as part of investigations; using hypermedia to write, lay out and present work for publication on the Internet; and using the Internet and CD-ROMs in research and investigation. But to what extent and how widespread these functions are practiced is another issue. The 2008 mobile phone penetration and Internet report and statistics testify to the fact that there is growth trend in connectivity around the world particularly in developing countries where most of the rural dwellers reside. Paul Budde Communication (2008) report provides an insight and analysis into the trends and developments taking place in the mobile communications sector. The report offers a wealth of information on the

worldwide development of the mobile sector. Information at a regional level is also provided for the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific. The report includes analyses, statistics, forecasts and trends. It provides a comprehensive insight into the progress of mobile and examines some the issues and opportunities. The report reveals that in 2008 GSM technologies account for around 85% of the world’s digital mobile phones, the equivalent of over 2.6 billion users. This market share is expected to grow even more due to increasing mobile penetration in the developing markets. Fig 1 shows the Internet users as percent of total global Internet users by region. The figure reveals that Asian as at 2008 has the highest number of users while Africa has the third last highest number. This is a great development considering the fact that most of the rural areas in the world where majority of people Fig. 1

Source: Internet World Stat 2008 are living under the poverty line are situated in these two continents. Similarly, figure 2 provides additional information in support of the fact that connectivity is really growing in these two continents. The figure reveals that Africa is the second highest region with Internet usage growth rate of 1, 000%, while Asia is fourth with 300% Internet growth rate in 2008. Moreover, table 1 which is on world Internet
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

125

FIG. 2

Fig. 3: Internet World Stats (2008) Note: An estimated Internet user is 1, 463,632,361 for Q2, 2008

Source: Internet World Stat 2008 users and population statistics for the year 2008 reveals that usage growth rate in Africa between 2000-2008 is now 1, o31.2 % after that of the middle East which is 1, 176.8%. Though the percentage penetration in Africa is very small 5.3% (Fig. 4) however; by the year 2050 there is the likelihood that this increase in geometric rate. Fig. 3 which shows the Internet users in the world by geographic region reveal that Asian has the highest number of users estimated at 578.5% of the total world Internet users 1, 463, 632,361 with Africa rated as the 5th best with 51.1% of the same total world Internet users above the Middle East and Oceania. The data also testify to the fact the connectivity in these two regions is really growing and that people actually having increase access, if not; the number of users will not continue to be on the increase. Aside of the above, other interesting facts to know about Africa in particular is the subscribers number and mobile phone penetration rates. Africa Telcom News (2008) released a free report called the African Mobile Factbook that gives all of the major numbers on subscribers, penetration rates, profitability and growth potential for every African carrier and country. The book revealed the underlisted:
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

Source: Internet World Stat 2008 Fig. 4: Source- Internet World Stats (2008) Note: Penetration rates are based on a world population of 6,676, 120,288 for mid year 2008 and 1,463,632,361 estimated Internet users.

• •

Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt are the fastest growing markets Africa has become the fastest growing mobile

126

Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi

Table 1: World Internet Users and Population Statistics

Source: Internet Word Statistics 2008 market in the world with mobile penetration in the region ranging from 100% to 30% • Pre-paid subscriptions account for nearly 95 • •

percent of total mobile subscriptions in the region Most of the mobile operators are home-grown. In 2005, the continent’s seven largest investors controlled 53% of the African mobile market Across most of Africa, SMS is likely to be the only non-voice value-added service to gain mass market popularity in the immediate future East Africans pay taxes of between 25% and 30% on mobile phone services, compared with an average of 17% across Africa African states with less than 600,000 subscribers and includes Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Comoros (Union of the), Djibouti, Equitorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gambia (The), Lesotho, Liberia, Mayotte, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Somalia, Swaziland and Rwanda.

Fig. 5: Africa- Mobile Subscribers and Penetration (2002-2012)

Sources: African Telecom News Figure 5 shows the subscriber number and penetration rates. This indicates that at the end of 2007 there were 280.7 million mobile phone subscribers in Africa, representing a penetration rate of 30.4%. The chart below shows the historical numbers up until 2007, with projected growth and penetration rates through 2012 (African Telecom News, 2008).

By pointing out more interesting facts, African Telecom News look at the major African markets to show case the huge growth potential for areas that are already very profitable. As can be seen Nigeria, Kenya and Egypt have the greatest growth potential.

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

127

RURAL DWELLERS AND CONNECTIVITY BY 2030

2007). Multiple growth is still expected by the year 2030.

As earlier mentioned more than 2.5 billion people over 40% of the planet’s population; live in rural and remote areas of developing countries. Of the small fraction that has any access to telecommunications, radio broadcast and voice telephony have traditionally been the main services provided. Today, a wide variety of new services such as e-mail, e-commerce, teleeducation, tele-health/tele-medicine, among others, has made access to interactive multimedia services as important for rural and remote communities as voice connectivity alone. Since each district or community requires a different mix of voice text, image, video and audio communications to best meet its needs. What will the connectivity be like for these rural dwellers by 2030? what connectivity services and bandwidth services are expected to be seen in these countries by 2030. For those who care about gaps, the technology gap will grow. Many individuals and organizations in developing countries will operate on a hierarchy of wants, while the underserved world will operate on a hierarchy of more basic needs. ICT products will be sold as “lifestyle” choices. In Malaysia for example a country with multiple industry players, the future growth of Malaysia’s ICT network is predicted to take a number of different directions over the next few years. Nevertheless, given the abundance of backbone infrastructure all players in the market are expected to focus largely on expanding and upgrading their network at the local level, with a view towards accommodating the delivery of high-speed Internet services (ITU, 2004). Africa is the fastest-growing mobile market in the world, having leaped from 16 million mobile subscribers in 2000 to 198 million in 2006. This strong growth is expected to continue, with a projected 278 million subscribers in 2007 (ITU,
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

CONSTRAINTS

It is not an understatement to say that connectivity in the developing world is improving. However, this improvement is being inhibited by some constraints. Such constraints will be the subject of discussion under this sub-heading. Some of the constraints that will be discussed include but not limited to: Rural teledensity in developing countries is still very low. Scarcity of communications infrastructure in such areas is exacerbated as a result of limited electricity, few fixed-line telephones, and low income levels (Sinha, 2005). That being the case, half of the world’s population (3 billion people) lives in rural areas, with substantial overlap between rural dwelling and poverty (Coyle, 2005). Examining country data reveals a global digital divide (Bridges.org 2001, Rice and Katz 2003) and indicates that the emerging knowledge-based economy will reinforce the gap between rich and poor nations, and increase income and spatial inequalities within countries (Baliamoune 2002). This growing level of inequity necessitates a communication tool and subsequent ownership and payment model that acknowledge this challenge and seek to overcome it (Samaan, 2003). However, not all ICTs can be leveraged equally by the “have-nots” (Baliamoune 2002). The speed with which the connectivity can be implemented will depend on available resources and access to electricity and ICT infrastructure. Predictably, implementation will proceed more slowly in rural areas. The lack of infrastructure and supply of reliable electricity seriously constrains the adoption of ICT in rural areas. Further, the cost of

128

Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi

bandwidth is a universal constraint to Internet use. Comparatively few people have the skills to make good use of ICTs. Even people who receive such training are often unable to use their skills because of the lack of access to infrastructure. The inadequacy of resources is a serious constraint that may hinder the planned introduction of universal access. Implementation of many of the initiative will depend significantly on donor support. Currently, there is limited available relevant and linguistically appropriate content. Sustainability is another constraint. People have seen so many projects failed because they could not be sustained beyond the pilot phase.

in the rural areas, etc.

PRACTICAL TIPS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS FOR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT

GOOD PRACTICES

Let it be enhancing the future ICT connectivity in the developing world is sine-qua-non to sustainable global development. To achieve this, governments and other stakeholders need to design and implement effective ICT strategies, the new technologies and services may help to reduce the gap for some disadvantaged or marginalized people. Whatever strategies put in place, there is need to focus on capabilities for using ICTs in ways relevant to development priorities. The developing nations should consider putting the following in place: • Wireless access systems such as FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) and VSAT are effective means of establishing infrastructure in rural areas since they are less costly and easier for installation over the wired systems; IP(Internet Protocol) based network is more economical and flexible than circuit switched network; Routers. These may be designed to deliver wide range of traffic types more efficiently than traditional wired and cellular telephony network; Shared use concept is useful for making ICT terminals and facilities at Multipurpose Community Tele-centers available at affordable cost for rural users; The financing scheme and/or special funding mechanism for the start-up of the rural and remote area services may be useful for the accelerated improvement of the rural and remote accessibility; Collaboration for promotion of rural projects among multi-actors such as Governments, UN
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

According to BEEP project (Best e-Europe practice), a good practices is the “the use of a method, tool, technology, etc. which is generally regarded as practices which are good for learning, i.e. practices which either environment, or (and more importantly) provide useful learning experiences which are likely to stimulate creativity, ingenuity and self reflexivity on the part of the user (BEEP.Org, 2003). The good practices in the sense of the subject of this paper, centers on the various initiatives that have been put in place in the developing worlds to improve ICT connectivity. Most of these have been discussed in the earlier section of this paper. They include the establishment of telecentres, community Internet/cybercafé, community library/reading centre and others practices aimed at learning periods, including: school and higher education, adult training (job seekers or professional world); practices aiming to change the professional world in term of arrangement of working hours, staff management and network inside or outside companies; practices aimed at personal life, familiarization with home computing, Internet use

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

129

Agencies, PTOs and NGOs etc. should be encouraged. • Participation of women and the youth for the promotion of information access for rural community should also be encouraged. Improve Infrastructure on a global basis using an affordable, maintainable structure Explore building accessible electronic and information technology features for services offered by Internet Service Providers Recognition of the right to access information regardless of disability, economic situation or geographic location. Raise Awareness of Accessibility Issues throughout the world with outreach and education. Encourage organizations working for the validation, management, and distribution of speech, text, and terminology resources and tools, and to promote their use within the global telematics RTD (research and technological development) community.

enlightens and sensitizes people to the critical problems of others and creates new job opportunities for the emerging new economies. Furthermore, IDRC (2008) points out that special attention needs to be given to providing the least-developed countries, especially in subSaharan Africa, and the rural areas of lowerincome countries with the financial resources, physical infrastructure, and knowledge base to achieve sustainable-development goals. IDRC explained further that innovative knowledgebased development strategies based on new models of governance and market development are being formulated. When ICT strategies and policies are in place, a limited investment in human and technological capabilities can have an enduring, catalytic effect on development concerns, including poverty, gender inequalities, and the environment. Special attention also needs to be given to modifying the technologies and applications to support these priorities. IDRC (2008) also suggests that significant barriers will need to be overcome if the population in the least-developed countries is to realize the full benefits of ICTs by 2050. As new ICTs are developed, the need to put ICT strategies in place will become even more pressing. Although there is a risk that further diffusion and use of ICTs will exclude some people, coherent ICT strategies need to be developed to unleash the unrealized potential of these revolutionary technologies for the future prosperity of developing countries.

• •

In countries where favorable forms of deregulation are incipient, it is recommended that governments make every effort to develop more access to health, education and government services by means of public access points in the information infrastructure at low or no cost, with clearly defined rules. The rapid rise and evolving compatibility of cellular and other mobile communications gives governments and companies extraordinary opportunity to encourage the development of wireless devices with full Internet access in order to provide immediate enhanced access to the Net for mobile users. Tenders and auctions for promoting wireless devices should be considered urgent. So should be the development of content designed for access through these devices and oriented to education and training or their support and continuation in the workplace. Accessibility rises only in the context of a political and cultural evolution, which promotes respect among people,
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

CONCLUSION

Going by the trends of connectivity in term of services and initiatives being put in place, it is assumed that the future of ICT connectivity in the rural areas of developing world looks promising. If developing world can consider putting in place some of the tips above, and borrowed other initiatives from the developed world and at the

130

Tella, Adeyinka, Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi Oluyemisi

same time if the governments of the developing world can co-operate with the technology company in their individual country; all things be equal, these will take them to places. Not this alone, it will also guarantee their sustainable development by the year 2050.

9.

Coyle, D. Africa: The impact of mobile phones. Vodafone Policy Paper Series, Number 2, March 2005. Vodafone Group, 2005; 3-9.

10. Egan, B.L. (1996). Improving rural telecommunications infrastructure. TV Rural Studies. Rural Telecommunication Workshop. OTA Fellowship Conference Oct, 28. Columbia University. 11. Farrell, G. (2007).ICT in Education in Uganda: Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: Uganda Country Report. 12. Jensen, M. (2000). African Internet connectivity. African Internet access costs. Available: http:// www3.sn.apc.org/africa/afirmain.htm#six [accessed 12 December 2008]. 13. IDRC (2008). Chapter 6. ICT’s for sustainable development. Available: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ ev-1-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html [accessed 15 August 2008]. 14. IFAD, (2001). Rural poverty report 2001-The challenge of ending rural poverty. Available: http:/ /www.ifad.org/poverty/index.htm [accessed 12 December 2008]. 15. Internet World Statistics (2008). Global Internet usage growth rate by region. Available:http:// www.data360.org [accessed 20 December 2008]. 16. Internet World Statistics (2008). World Internet users and population. Available: http:// www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm [accessed 03 January 2009]. 17. ITU(2004). International Telecommunication Union and Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity and Promotion. Symposium on Building Digital Bridges. Busan, Republic of Korea 10-11 September. Document: BDB/09. 18. ITU (2007). Paper on Village Connectivity, “Measuring Village ICT in Sub-Saharan Africa. 19. Kawasum, Y.(2000). New Technologies and Solutions for Rural Accessibility. Available:http:// webworld.unesco.org/infoethics2000/ documents/paper_kawasum i.rtf [accessed 12 August 2008]. 20. Mishara, S.M; Hwang, J; Filippine, D; Maozzani, R; Subramanian, L. & Du, T. (nd*). Economic analysis of networking technologies for rural telecommunications infrastructure. TVA Rural Studies, Columbia Universities. 21. Paul Budde Communication (2008). 2008 global telecommunications statistics, trends, analysis and overview.
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

REFERENCES

1.

Abi, J; Heeks, R; & Whalley, J. The impact of mobile telephony on developing country microenterprise: A Nigerian Case Study. Information technologies and International Development, 2008; 4 (4): 47-65. Africa Telecom News. 2007 African mobile phone statistics. African Mobile factbook 2007. Available: http:// www.africantelecomsnews.com/ [accessed 12 December 2008]. Baliamoune, M. N. (2002). The New Economy and Developing Countries – Assessing the Role of ICT Diffusion: Discussion Paper No. 2002/77. United Nations University, WIDER (World Institute for Development Economics Research). Available at: http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/dps/ dps2002/dp2002-77.pdf, [Accessed 23 June 2008]. Barendse, A. Innovative regulation and policy initiatives at increasing ICT connectivity in South Africa. Telematics and Informatics, 2004; 21(1), 49-66. Barton, A.(2006). Make ICT the key drivers of developing economies: Intell. ICT Economics, Global, The Government and Technology Submit, Dubai. Available: http:// www.developingtelecoms.com/content/views/ 566/59 [Accessed 23 June 2008]. BEEP.org (2004). Glossary. Available: http:// www.beep.eu.org/Content/ GlossaryVS.htm#GoodPractice. [Accessed 23 June 2008]. Bridges.org. Spanning the Digital Divide: Understanding tand tackling the Issues. Survey report, Bridges.org, Washington, DC, May 2001. Cottrell, R.L. & Canessa, E. (2003). Internet Performance to Africa. Round Table on Developing Countries Access to Scientific Knowledge, the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

The future of ICT in developing world: Forecasts on sustainable solutions for global development

131

22. Paul Budde Communication (2008). Summary of 2008 Africa-telecoms, mobile and broadband in Southern region and India Ocean Island. Available: http://www.budde.com.au/ buddereports/4634/2008_Africa__Telecoms_Mobile_and_Broadband_in_Western_ Region.aspx?r=51 [accessed 03 January 2009]. 23. Paul Budde Communication (2008). Global mobile communications statistics, trends, and forecasts. Available: http://www.researchandmarkets.com/ reports/591013# [accessed 12 December 2008]. 24. Rice, R., & Katz, J. (2003). Comparing Internet and Mobile Phone Usage: Digital Divides of Usage, Adoption, and Dropouts. Telecommunications Policy, 27, 8-9, Sept.-Oct. 2003, 25. Samaan, M. (2003). The Effect of Income Inequality on Mobile Phone Penetration. Boston College: Honors Theses – Department of Economics. Available at: http://dissertations.bc.edu/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=ashonors. [Accessed 23 June 2008]. 26. Sinha, C. Effect of Mobile Telephony on Empowering Rural Communities in Developing Countries. International Research Foundation for

Development (IRFD) Conference on Digital Divide, Global Development and the Information Society November 14-16; 2005. 27. Sinkondyobwe, W. (2007). Challenges of rural connectivity in Zambia. iConnecT Online. Available: http://www.iconnect-online.org [accessed 12 December 2008]. 28. Telecommunications Act, Republic of South African, 1996. 29. The Daily Telegraph (2008: May, 25). Half of world’s population has a mobile. Available: http:/ /www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/ [Accessed 23 June 2008]. 30. TWAS publication: Profiles of Institutions for Scientific Exchange and Training in the South, 1999; 597-63. 31. UNESCO. Trends in Asia and the Pacific ICT in Education. JFIT, 2003. 32. Uppal, M.(2007). Connecting people changing lives in Asia- Chapter 2 of Rural Access: Demonstrating the value of ICTs. Available: http://www.idrc.ca/ IMAGES/ICT4D/PanAsia/PAN/chap1.html [accessed 15 August 2008].

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

132

Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.
The Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. is a Medical and Scientific publishing group has been formed to deliver service with the highest quality, honesty and integrity. We continue to work to maintain a matchless level of professionalism, combined with uncompromising client service. The Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. strives to exceed your expectations. The Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. is a newly formed medical and scientific publishing company publishing twelve peer-reviewed indexed medical and scientific journals that provides the latest information about best clinical practices and new research initiatives. The RFPPL publishing is a newly formed medical and scientific publishing company based in Delhi. Revised Rates for 2011 Agency Discount: 10%
List of Publications
Title Freequency Rate (Rs.): India Rate ($):ROW

Indian Journal of Ancient Medicine and Yoga
Indian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pediatrics

Indian Journal of Dental Education Indian Journal of Emergency Pediatrics Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology Indian Journal of Forensic Odontology Indian Journal of Library and Information Science Indian Journal of Mechanical Engineering (New) Indian Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (New) Indian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing (New Indian Journal of Surgical Nursing (New International Journal of Neurology & Neurosurgery Journal of Aeronautic Dentistry Journal of Social Welfare and Management New Indian Journal of Surgery (New) Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Journal

4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

6500 4500 3500 5500 9500 3500 6500 3500 6500 950 950 5000 2000 5000 9500 6500

200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

Order to

Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. 41/48, DSIDC, Pocket-II, Mayur Vihar, Phase-I P.O. Box No. 9108, Delhi - 110 091 (India) Tel: 91-11-65270068, 48042168, Fax: 91-11-48042168 E-mail: redflowerppl@gmail.com, redflowerppl@vsnl.net Website: www.rfppl.com

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 133 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

A study of job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamil Nadu

S. Nattar ABSTRACT In the present study, an attempt has been made to examine the job satisfaction of college library professionals and a few remedial measures. A total of 140 library professionals from 20 colleges have been taken as the sample for the present study. The data were collected by structured questionnaire, which had components of job satisfaction of college library professionals. Some of the important findings are that majority of the respondents are male staff, majority of the respondents are in the age group of 30 to 40 years, majority of the respondents are PG degree holders, most of the respondents are the library assistants and most of the respondents have 1-5 years work experiences. Keywords: Job satisfaction, Classification, Library professional, Kolmogrov - Smirnov (K.S) test, primary data, null hypothesis. INTRODUCTION and non-professional college librarians (Librarian, Asst. Librarian and Library Assistant) in Virudhunagar District of Tamilnadu.

Job satisfaction is a positively related to the degree to which various motivational factors are present in a job situation. It provides strong evidence that such points of reference for evaluation may be provided by one’s social groups and general social environment. Library is a place where peace should prevail. In modern days, library is a way to enrich a people’s knowledge. People stabilize their role with the help of libraries, because it provides worthy messages and valuable information. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the job satisfaction of professional

METHODOLOGY

In order to examine the job satisfaction of college library professionals the researche has applied the stratified random sampling technique. Through this technique the researcher has taken up the responses of 140 respondents of college library professionals in Tamilnadu.

Author’s Affiliations: Librarian, Central Library, Sri S. Ramasamy Naidu Memorial College, Sattur - 626203, T.N. Reprints Requests: Dr. S. Nattar, Librarian, Central Library, Sri S. Ramasamy Naidu Memorial College, Sattur 626203, T.N. (Received on 25.8.09, Accepted on 18.9.09)
© Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the major objectives:

134

S. Nattar

a. To trace the personal factor of library professionals b. To stress the factors influencing the job satisfaction c. To justify the personal factors influencing the library professionals d. To analyse the socio-economic variables of the library professionals

has use the 140 respondents of college library professional in Tamilnadu.

DATA COLLECTION

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

1. This study covers job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamilnadu. 2. This study concentrate the area of job satisfaction job.

The primary data were collected with the help of an interview schedule. The respondents were selected from various strata of colleges. The State is divided into 3 strata. The respondents were selected from each stratum according to the staff strength available in the colleges. The opinion regarding the respondents is given as the first part. It consists of 10 statements such as satisfaction with job factors.

HYPOTHESIS

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The following null hypothesis is framed, to find out whether there is any satisfaction with the job factors.

Job satisfaction is an individual feeling which could caused by a variety of factors. It is a general attitude towards work by an individual worker. This research study expresses the job satisfaction of the college library professionals in Tamilnadu.

SATISFACTION WITH JOB FACTORS

METHODOLOGY

The researcher has taken the following components of job factors such as: Sex-Wise Classification

In order to examine the jobsatisfaction of college library professionals the reaearcher has been apply the strafied random sampling technique. Through this technique the researcher

The sex- wise classification of the staffs has been analysed in table 1.

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study of job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamil Nadu

135

Table 1: Sex -wise Classification of the Respondents

Source: Primary Data. Table 1 explicates that 72.86 percent of the staff are male and 27.14 per cent of the staffs are females. Anyhow, it is concluded from the table that majority of the respondents are male staffs.

Age-Wise Classification The age of the respondents is explicated in Table 2.

Table 2: Age-wise Classification of the Respondents

Source: Primary Data Table 2 exhibits that 30 per cent of the respondents are in the age group of below 30 years, 40 per cent of the respondents are in the age group of 30-40, 14.29 per cent of the respondents are in the age group of 40-50 and

the rest of them are in the age group of above 50 years. From the above data, it is concluded that the majority of the respondents are in the age group of 30 to 40 years. Educational Qualification of the Respondents

Table 3: Educational Qualification of the Respondents

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

136

S. Nattar

Source: Primary Data Table 3 portrays the educational qualification of the respondents. Out of 140 respondents, 34.28 per cent of them are the U.G degree holders in library science; 63 per cent have PG degree; 7.86

per cent have M.Phil degree and rest of them are others. It is inferred from the table, that the majority of the respondents are PG degree holders. Nature of Works

Table 4: Nature of works

Source: Primary Data Table 4 explains that out of 140 respondents, nearly 17.14 per cent are librarians; 22.86 per cent are assistant librarians; and the rest of them are

library assistants. Most of the respondents are library assistants. Working Experience of the Respondents

Table 5: Work Experience of the Respondents

Source: Primary Data Table 5 explains that, out of 140 respondents nearly 17.86 per cent of them less than a year;

57.14 per cent of them 1-5 years; 16.43 per cent of them 5-10 years and the rest of them have above 10 years experience. Most of the respondents have work experience of 1-5 years.

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study of job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamil Nadu

137

Salary per month Table 6: Salary per Month

Source: Primary Data Table 6 explains that out of 140 respondents, nearly 22.14 per cent are earning below 3000 rupees; 49.29 per cent are earning 3000-5000 rupees; 20 per cent are earning 5000-10000 rupees

and the rest of them are earning above 10000 rupees. Most of the respondents are earning 30005000 rupees. Staffs with regard to Facilities Available

Table 7: Staffs with regard to Facilities Available

Source: Primary Data. Table 7 portrays that, P.F facilities available in the job are more dominating than any other facilities. It is followed by leave facilities, good water facility, latrine bathroom and so on. Most of the respondents are regard to available the P.F facilities.

OPINION REGARDING SATISFACTION WITH JOB FACTORS

Opinions regarding the satisfaction of many job factors like committees and activities, Fair amount for the work, relationship with co-

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

138

S. Nattar

workers, Paper works, peaceful job, Adequately trained to perform the job duties, online resources necessary for the job, Promotion, participation in professional development trained courses and atmosphere are analysed. All the opinions

regarding all these factors should be considered. In order to know how these factors influence satisfaction, the Kolmogrov - Smirnov (K.S) test has been applied.

Table 8: Satisfaction with job factors

Source: Primary Data. As per the survey made, a majority of the sample respondents expressed that they are Satisfied with job factor. Out of 140 respondents, 39 respondents expressed ‘no opinion’ on promotion, 28 respondents expressed that they participate in professional development trained courses, 24 on paper works, 21 on adequately trained to perform the job duties, 20 on fair amount for the work, 19 on relationship with coworkers and so on.

Analytical Framework

In this test, the cumulative observed proportion was calculated based on observed number. In each case, the observed properties were calculated by dividing the responses work the total number of students. For all gradations, the same method of calculation is followed. Because of observed proportion, cumulative proportion was calculated. Cumulative expected proportion is calculated because of expected proportion. Since there are five gradations, each

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study of job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamil Nadu

139

gradation (that is, 0.20) is assigned as expected proportion because of observed proportion and the cumulative expected proportion is calculated. Regarding gradation, the difference between cumulative observed proportion and cumulative expected proportion are calculated. The largest difference will be taken as calculated value.

Opinion about Interested to participate in the Library activities & Committees

The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents on many opportunities to get involved in library committees and activities. Table 9 elucidates the opinion that there are many opportunities to get involved in library committees and activities

Table 9: Interested to participate in the Library activities & Committees

Calculate Value = 0.52 Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.28) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given to many opportunities to get involved in library committees and activities

Fair amount for the work

The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents on digitalization of the readers in Library. Table 10 elucidates the data on the opinion of the respondents regarding the statements on fair amount for the work.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

140

S. Nattar

Table 10: Fair amount for the work

Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.20) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given to the digitalization.

Relationship with Co-workers

The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents on watching media programs by the readers in Libraries. Table 10.4 elucidates the opinion of the respondents regarding the statements relationship with co-workers.

Table 11: Relationship with Co-workers

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study of job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamil Nadu

141

Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.38) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given to have relationship with co-workers.

Paper works

The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents on attending group discussion by the readers in Libraries. Table 12 elucidates the data on the opinion of the respondents regarding the statements on attending group discussion.

Table 12: Paper works

Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.20) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given to paper works.

Love of Books

The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents to love of books. Table 10.6 elucidates the opinion of the respondents regarding the statements love of books. Table 13: Love of Books

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

142

S. Nattar

Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.35) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given to love of books.

Adequately trained to perform the job duties The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents to the opinion on timely utilization of books. Table 10.7 elucidates the opinion of the respondents regarding the statement the innovative facilities on adequately trained persons to perform the job duties.

Table 14: Adequately trained to perform the job duties

Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.20) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given by the on adequately trained to perform the job duties.

Online resources necessary for the job

The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents on library working hours. Table 10.8 elucidates the opinion of the respondents regarding the statement online resources necessary for the job. Table 15: On line resources necessary for the job

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study of job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamil Nadu

143

Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.44) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given to on line resources necessary for the job .

Participation in professional development courses

The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents on library working hours. Table 10.9 elucidates the opinion of the respondents regarding the statement Participation in professional development courses.

Table 16: Participation in professional development courses

Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.44) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given to Participation in professional development courses.

Atmosphere

The null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the importance of rating given by the respondents on library working hours. Table 10.10 elucidates the opinion of the respondents regarding the statement on atmosphere.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

144

S. Nattar

Table 17: Atmosphere

Table Value at 95 per cent Confidence level = 1.36 / √100 = 0.136 As the calculated value (0.23) is greater than the table value (0.136), the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference in the importance of ratings given to atmosphere.

concluded that there is a significant difference in the importance of rating given to all the job factors.

SUGGESTIONS

FINDINGS

1. Necessary steps should be taken to attract more female staffs. 2. Regarding the age group of respondents, concentration should be given more to inter link all the age groups. 3. Necessary steps should be taken to neutralize three groups towards a good piece of work. 4. Regarding the availability of facilities it has to be found out the opt solution for family pension.

1. Majority of the respondents are male staff. 2. Majority of the respondents are in the age group of 30 to 40 years. 3. Majority of the respondents are PG degree holders. 4. Most of the respondents are the library assistants. 5. Most of the respondents have work 1-5 years experience. 6. Most of the respondents are earning 30005000 rupees per month. 7. Through KS test, the null hypothesis of all the job factors is rejected. Hence, it could be

CONCLUSION

Job satisfaction is considered a sensitive one in many aspects, but it is highly useful to every
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study of job satisfaction of college library professionals in Tamil Nadu

145

institution. Normally it is very difficult to define. This is varying from person to person, time to time, place to place and the institution to institution. All institutions are interested in utilizing these thoughts effectively and efficiently for achieving the goals of the institutions. Therefore, it is highly necessary that these institutions should make proper care to satisfy the professionals. Through this analysis of the study, the researcher has observed many of the problems in each component. The necessary activities are very much needed to improve the job satisfaction of the library professionals; because libraries are play, a significant role and it reflect the heart of the knowledge. This study would help the future researchers to pursue research in the area of job satisfaction of the library professionals.

REFERENCE

1. 2.

Anand Kumar Sinha, Job Satisfaction. Commonwealth Publisher, New Delhi, 1998. Anderson Durston and Poole, Thesis and Assignment Writing, Wiley Eastern Limited, NewDelhi, 1970. Encyclopedia of Professional Management, Groliest International Publishers, Danbury. Gupta. C.B. Human Resource Management. Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, 1997. Hoppock, R, Job Satisfaction, Harper, New York, 1935. Singh, Amar and Sharma, T.R, Manual for Job Satisfaction Scale, National Psychological Corporation, Agra, 1986. Srikantaiah, Kanti.T. Knowledge Management for the Information Professional, ESS ESS Publication, New Delhi, 2008 Vaughan, Liwen. Statistical Techniques for the Information Professional, ESS ESS Publication, New Delhi, 2008.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

146

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT We pleased to inform that we have started a new branch of Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd at Nagpur, Maharashtra. All of our local and nearby customers may also contact about any kind of information regarding of our all publications and also may send their orders directly to this office. The complete address of our branch office Mr. Arunkumar Gujar C/O Khalatkar, Plot No 218 Hanuman Nagar Nagpur- 440009 Maharshtra Mob: 9326529638,9850314828 E-mail: arunkumar_gujar@rediffmail.com

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 147 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

Blogs and blogging in libraries

Mohd. Aqil* Mohd. Asad Siddique** ABSTRACT Weblogs or blogs has got a great potential in the present web world. It is a very effective synchronous tool for sharing and communicating the information. Libraries in the 21st century can not ignore the potential of this great tool to communicate ideas, opinions, resources and news. Blogging could be an efficient and effective alternative for information and knowledge transfer, resulting in a more productive workforce in libraries. Blog culture may affect every aspect and services of Library phenomenon from collection development to reference services; Current awareness services, as a marketing tool of Library services, as Library Newsletter, as a communication channel among the Library staff as well as among the user community. Keywords: Blogs, Blogging, Web 2.0, Social Networking, Libraries, Librarians

WHAT IS BLOG?

Since its inception so many people tried to define the blog. We still do not have most authoritative and the most inclusive definition of blogs. The reason is how a single definition could be inclusive enough to define the blog written by a subject expert on law and a blog written by

Author’s Affiliations: *Web Librarian, E-Service & Web Portal Department, E-mail: aquilsiddique@yahoo.com, ** Web Librarian, E-Service & Web Portal Department, Deanship of E-Transactions & Comunication, Building No.31, 1st Floor Office - 1077, P.O. Box 2454, King Soud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, E-mail: asadsiddique92@gmail.com. Reprints Requests: Mohd. Aqil, Web Librarian, E-Service & Web Portal Department, Deanship of E-Transactions & Comunication, Building No.31, 1st Floor Office - 1077, P.O. Box 2454, King Soud University, Riyadh - 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, E-mail: aquilsiddique@yahoo.com.
(Received on 30.08.09, accepted on 14.02.10) © Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

teenage girl about her personal life. Many people think blog as a diary or journal but this also ignores institutional and professional blogs. Blogs is simply a technology, a medium which does not define the content goes into it.1 The term blogs / weblogs are defined to be web sites that present a reverse chronological ordering of posts. Posts are defined to be relatively short chunks of content, anywhere between a few sentences to a few paragraphs. Blog entries can contain news items, photographs, information, and links of interest based on the subject coverage. Personal blogs are often used as a means to share opinions and editorials covering events of interest to the writer. Subject-specific blogs can focus on a single topic, or on broader discipline divisions in which issues of interest to those working in that area are posted.2 A Weblog is defined by Blood (2002) as “a format: a Web page with new entries placed at the top, updated frequently.”3 “A blog (short for web log) is a user-generated

148

Mohd. Aqil, Mohd. Asad Siddique

website where entries are made in journal style and displayed in a reverse chronological order. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic. Blogs also provide readers with the option to leave comments, which makes it possible to start a discussion around a blog post.”4 A BRIEF HISTORY OF BLOGS Like with the start of many things, early bloggers did not have a name for what they were doing. While it took some time for the genre and the name to develop, blogging has been around since the beginning of the internet. Dave Winer, creator of Scripting News and current Harvard weblog editor, writes that the first weblog was the first Web site created by Tim Berners-Lee, http:/ /info.cern.ch/, while he worked at CERN. Berners-Lee used the site to point to Web sites when they first appeared. Rebecca Blood suggests the “What’s New?” site from Mosaic, which ran from June 1993 until June 1996, laid the foundation for what blogs would become. The site provided links to the newest and most interesting Web sites out there, and was updated a few times a week (Blood 2002).5 On the other hand popular use of the term Weblog as we know it today came from Jorn Barger of the weblog Robot Wisdom (robotwisdom.com) in December 1997. The short form, “blog,” was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in 1999. Open Diary launched in October 1998, soon growing to thousands of online diaries. Brad Fitzpatrick, a well known blogger started Live Journal in March 1999. Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan (Pyra Labs) launched blogger.com in August 1999 (purchased by Google in February 2003). Some blogs were an important news source during the December 2004 Tsunami such as Medecins Sans Frontieres, which used SMS text messaging to report from affected areas in Sri

Lanka and Southern India. In the United Kingdom, The Guardian newspaper launched a redesign in September 2005, which included a daily digest of blogs on page2. Also in June 2006, BBC News launched a weblog for its editors, following other news companies. In 2007, Tim O’Reilly proposed a Blogger’s Code of Conduct.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOGS Some common characteristics and features of the blogs could be listed here as under: • Frequently updated: Usually blogs updated very frequently by its user community. • Dated entries: All entries are dated and usually also have a time stamp. • Archives: Listings of past blog entries are usually organized by date, although some software also lets readers browse by category. • Reverse-chronological Postings: Postings are arranged in reverse chronological order. • Categories: Archiving blog posts under certain categories makes it easier to retrieve them at a later date. • TrackBacks: These are messages sent from one server to another, letting a blogger know when someone else has referenced one of their blog posts. • Often theme or topic oriented: Most often blogs are topic or theme oriented. • Search functionality: Many blogers today let readers search their archives for specific terms; this functionality is built into most blog software. • Permalinks: Links that let others link directly to each post. • Many allow comments: Users may comment to specific blog posts. • Sense of community: Since so many people from the same area or from different areas are

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Blogs and blogging in libraries

149

sharing & posting their ideas through the weblogs, so it is surely create a sense of community among the members or the user community. • It seems a website, but for non-techies: It seems a website for non technical users, doesn’t know the programming languages etc. • It is very easy to create, update: As so many blogging software available, it is very easy to create manage and update a blog. • Very interactive, can embed cool stuff: Blogs is a very interactive tool for sharing ideas and opinion on a particular issue, so it creates new ideas, knowledge and healthy environment to learn. HOW TO BLOG IN LIBRARIES? In order to fulfill the basic ethics of the Library, Librarians may develop a proper guidelines or policy for blogging purpose. The policy should strictly adhere with the interest of the organization as well as with its user community. It must also ensure that blog must well reflect on the objectives and purpose of a particular Library serving a particular user community. It should also offer the guidance to blogers on what is and is not appropriate to putting on the blog.7 A general blogging policy by Charlene Li which can also been adopted and implemented in libraries with necessary modifications is given here as under: • Make it clear that the views expressed in the blog are yours alone and do not necessarily represent the views of your employer. • Respect the company’s confidentiality and proprietary information. • Ask your manager if you have any questions about what is appropriate to include in your blog. • Be respectful to the company, employees, customers, partners, and competitors. • Understand when the company asks that

topics not to be discussed for confidentiality or legal compliance reasons. • Ensure that your blogging activity does not interfere with your work commitments.8 WHAT CAN LIBRARIES DO WITH WEBLOGS? Library Weblogs can be building blocks for communicating news, information, events and propagating the library services to its user community. Libraries are using the blogs to share the information, to get the feedback from the user community, for communication among the Library staff, as a reference service tool etc. Blogs can also be used to encourage and appreciate the work of Library staff by the supervisor or the director of the library. Blogs have many implications for libraries. Library managers need to be aware of what they can do to promote the library and its services (Clyde, 2004). Some of the implications of the blogs vis-à-vis libraries and information centers can be discussed under the following points: BLOG AS COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT TOOL Blogs may be considered a tool for the collection development in Libraries. Though as a source of Library’s core collection, the authenticity of the contents of the blog is still questionable, specially the content which is posted by the anonymous and non experienced users of the subject, but many are nonetheless integral productions in a body of knowledge, and the absence of them in a library collection could soon become unimaginable thing. This will, of course, greatly complicated collection development processes, and the librarian will need to exercise a great deal of expertise when adding a blog to a collection (or, perhaps, an automated blog-collection development system), or may be in the future

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

150

Mohd. Aqil, Mohd. Asad Siddique

Libraries a team of experts consisting Library patrons and Library staff will be assigned to take care of the authenticity, reliability, usefulness of the content.9 BLOGS AS A SUBJECT GUIDE Subject blogs which offers news and information on a single subject are particularly useful for academic liaison librarians, Medical Librarian, Law Librarians, Corporate Librarians and special librarians who focus on a specific subject. However they can be use in any library with the need and the staff to run blogs on several different subjects. Nanyang Technological University Library10 is a model for the use of subject blogs in academic libraries. The Library offers several blogs on various subjects ranging from Engineering to Humanities, Science, Arts, Languages, Business studies etc. REFERENCE SERVICES The reference team of any library must regularly communicate all sorts of items, schedules, shift reports, breakdowns, changes to information resources, and other items of day-to-day library life. Again, e-mail and face-to-face discussion is often the communication vehicle of choice. However, e-mails in an already overflowing inbox can often be overlooked, and it’s difficult to keep everyone up to speed when meetings and faceto-face encounters do not always involve the whole team. A reference blog is one alternative that could possibly help this situation. A blog, like others previously discussed, can be quickly setup with permissions granted for all members of the reference team to post to and comment. Postings, given simple subject headings and concise topic headings, will be automatically filed in the online archive, browsable by subject or date, and keyword searchable at the stroke of a hand. A

blog was created for the staff of the University of Alberta Libraries’ Knowledge Common, and has become a welcome tool for both training and communication amongst its members.11 CAS & SDI SERVICES The very purpose of the current awareness services is to make a user aware about the new items and resources of his/her interests acquired by the library. Here blogs may play a vital role to provide this kind of services. Library may put the information on its blog regarding the new arrivals and new titles added in the Library collection. Also library may post list of the recently published items by various publishers in a particular area of subjects. This is going to very helpful for the users as it is going to update user community about their area of interest and at the same time it will save lots of time of the user community. For example Drexel University library physics blog is offering current awareness service about the new items added in the Library collection.12 LIBRARY EVENTS AND NEWS The information regarding the library events and news may be communicated by the Library via its weblogs to its user community. For example if a library is going to conduct a conference, seminar, meeting or an exhibition. Not only the dates of the events could be shared but also archives of the past meetings and events could also be organized and accessed through the blog, which is again going to be very helpful for further reference that what is been decided and discussed during the last event, meeting conference etc. A good example of this kind of service could be the blog of University of British Columbia (UBC) Library’s Reference and instruction committee.13

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Blogs and blogging in libraries

151

ANNOUNCEMENT OF NEW SERVICES Librarians can post the information about the new services; library is going to start in near future via its blog. In this way library may seek the opinion of the Library community about the new service through its blog. How the user community of the Library is going to be more benefited. What are the improvements are required in a particular library services etc. kind of the opinion Library can achieve through the blog more effectively and efficiently. IMPORTANCE IN CIRCULATION The blog could be a very important tool for activities like sending reminders, notification about the due dates, informing the users about the items returned, posting the updates on the circulation policies etc. Circulation section can post list of the over due items possessed by the user community, Library may also post the notification about the items returned and already reserved by other users. Reminders might be sent to a group of library users though the library weblogs. LIBRARY USER FEEDBACK As blogs are interactive and synchronous tool of communication and information sharing, it could be used as an effective tool for getting the feedback from the user community. User’s may give their feedback about the various library services, their satisfaction level from the services, what are the measures should be taken in order to further improve a specific Library service. Users may also give their feedback about the library staff and their attitudes etc. Infact blog is an interactive tool and in the blogsphere users may comment on each and every comment posted on the blog unless restricted otherwise but one of the most important issue arises here and that is question of the privacy of the users. Most of the time users do
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

not want to disclose their identity but they do want to comment on a particular problem. Also usually users do not want to comment directly anything about the library staff. STAFF INFORMATION TOOL The weblog is also an effective channel for inter staff communication purpose. What are the problems faced by the staff in a particular span of time or during the daily working hours may be shared with other staff through the library weblogs. This kind of information could be very useful for the library staff for the future reference like for example during the start of the semester , mid semester or end of the semester what was the trend of user’s information demand in a particular subject area and how library staff had served the information need of the particular user community. This kind of things could be recorded and archived in the Library weblog for the future reference of the Library staff. Also this could be done through the internal blog only and which are made available only to people within the organization. The other user community should not have access to this type of blog; instead it should be used as a method of communication among the library staff only.14 USEFUL FOR NEW LIBRARY USERS The importance of weblog can not be denied for the new user community. The Library staff can put the video presentations on the weblog regarding the library orientation, what are the various kinds of services library offering, Library hours, information about the library staff etc. kind of the information could be shared through the library weblog for the newly enrolled users.

152

Mohd. Aqil, Mohd. Asad Siddique

NEW BOOKS, LINKS TO USEFUL WEBSITES, HIGHLIGHT SPECIFIC E-RESOURCES The library weblog could be used for sharing the information like weblink of useful websites in a particular subject area, information about the specific e-resources, open access journals, online journals and databases subscribed by the library. BOOK REVIEWS Book review is a measurement tool to judge the strength and weaknesses of a particular title. Library staff as well as user community can post a book review about a particular title on the library weblog. In this way overview of a specific title in the form of book reviews could be shared by so many users through the library weblog. This book reviews could be very useful for the user community to judge the relevancy of the book on a particular topic and in a particular area of subject / discipline. Library staff may post the information and book review on library blog about a particular title which are not used or remain unused from a long period and Librarian thinks that it is worthy to read for particular user community, so books reviews along with the access location like classification no. may be posted on the Library weblog for easy access. Also this can be helpful for acquisition department in the collection development process. BLOG AS A MARKETING TOOL OF LIBRARIES As Dr. S.R. Ranganathan said in his first law of Library Science “Books are for Use”; in the current phenomenon we can say all the resources and services of the libraries should be used by the Library users and for that purpose we must aware the library users about the availability of the various library resources and services. We must tell the importance of the library services and resources to its user community. Earlier traditional marketing tools like printed catalogues, Classification no. notice boards, leaflets, pamphlets

etc. were used to propagating the library services. Now Librarians and information managers can propagate the library services via Internet and other interactive tools like weblogs. Library Blogs can be used as an effective marketing and promotional tool for propagating the various library services among the user community especially the web based users. Weblogs are one of the fastest ways to reach its user community. Librarians may put the posts and presentations, video presentations on the weblog in order to promote the various library events and services. It may increase the library membership and in this way it will attract the new library users and it will increase the visits of the existing library users. It may also increase the usage of various library services and less used and underused library services like the less used collections of the library could be promoted by posting the review articles and features of it on the library weblogs. Through the weblogs librarians may also encourage the user’s participation in the various library activities and events organized by the library. Librarian may also post their monthly and annual library reports and monthly news letter of the library on its weblog to promote the library services and its achievements in the past and future plans as well. Also these activities will definitely going to enhance the leadership role of the Librarians and reputation of the libraries as a whole among the user community. AS A LIBRARY NEWSLETTER Libraries may use Blogs to publish its newsletter. The various blogging formats allows for timely publication and the ability to make updates easily. This also allows for comments from readers and easy navigation to archived stories. Publication costs are minimal (no color print costs!) and there is no limit to the length of the paper, allowing for more user’s participation. AS A LIBRARY CONSORTIUM A Library consortium could be described as a
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Blogs and blogging in libraries

153

group of Libraries who come together to fulfill a combined objective that usefully requires cooperation and the sharing of resources. A library Consortium formation can be local, regional, state, national and inter institutional level. The emerging web utilities with added features like blogs and blogging has revolutionized the concept of consortia. Libraries may share the information related to collection development, cataloguing, various services like reference service, interlibrary loan, through blogging in more efficiently. Users of the consortia organizations can see and comments on the activities of the member organizations. User may post their reference query on the blog which can be served by any member library. Member libraries can discuss their day to day problems related to the cataloguing, classification, circulation, Serial control, issues related to the collection development etc. through the blogs and share it among the other members too. LIBRARY DISCUSSION FORUMS Library weblogs could be a great place or a platform to discuss the various issues among the user community having the similar interests or those belong to the similar subject area; they could share their ideas and opinions and it is very helpful and effective for the research purpose. Also all their ideas and opinion are going to be archived on the library weblog which will be beneficial for the other future users having the similar area of interests. CONCLUSION Blogging could be an efficient and effective alternative for information and knowledge transfer, resulting in a more productive workforce in libraries. This is affecting every aspect and services of Library phenomenon from collection development to reference services; Current awareness services, as a marketing tool of Library services, as Library Newsletter, as a communication channel among the Library staff
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

as well as among the user community. Librarians can also assist the user community in creating and maintaining their own weblogs like students may post their assignments and project work on the blogs. This is sure that blogs are going to be integral part of the future libraries, but still there is lots to be done as blogs are getting popular day by day in the libraries of developed world but it is not so popular in the libraries of third world countries.
REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Farkas Meredith G. Social Software in Libraries. New Jersy; Information Today, 2007. Sauers, Michael P., Blogging and RSS: a librarian’s guide. New Jersy; Information Today, 2007. Joe Clark, Compatibility. http://fawny.org/issn/ compatibility/ (July 27, 2009). Wikipedia foundation. Blog. Wikipedia. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weblog (July 27, 2009). Rebecca Blood. Weblogs: A History and Perspective. Rebecca’s Pocket. http://www.rebeccablood.net/ essays/weblog_history.html (July 27, 2009). Wikipedia foundation. History of blogging timeline. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_blogging_timeline (July 27, 2009). Michael Stephens, Tame. www.tametheweb.com/ ttwblog/archives/000568.html (July 27, 2009). Forrester Research, Inc. Blogging policy examples by Charlene Li. Forrester Research, Inc. http:// blogs.forrester.com/groundswell/2004/11/ blogging_policy.html (July 27, 2009). Maness Jack M. Library 2.0 Theory: Web 2.0 and Its Implications for Libraries. Webology, 2006; 3 (2): http://webology.ir/2006/v3n2/a25.html#17#17. Nanyang Technological University. Subject library blogs. NTU Library. http://www.ntu.edu.sg/ library/collections/Pages/blogs.aspx (July 27, 2009) Reichardt Randy, Geoffrey Harder. Weblogs: their use and application in science and technology libraries. Science and technology libraries, 2005; 25 (3): 105-116. Drexel University libraries. Drexelphysics. http:// www.library.drexel.edu/blogs/drexelphysics/ ?p=206 (July 27, 2009). University of British Columbia. Blog of the UBC Library Reference and Instruction Committee. http:/ /blogs.ubc.ca/ubcric/ (July 27, 2009) Casey Micael E., Savastinuk Laura C. Library 2.0: a guide to participatory library service. New Jersy; Information Today, 2007

6.

7. 8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

154

Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.
The Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. is a Medical and Scientific publishing group has been formed to deliver service with the highest quality, honesty and integrity. We continue to work to maintain a matchless level of professionalism, combined with uncompromising client service. The Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. strives to exceed your expectations. The Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. is a newly formed medical and scientific publishing company publishing twelve peer-reviewed indexed medical and scientific journals that provides the latest information about best clinical practices and new research initiatives. The RFPPL publishing is a newly formed medical and scientific publishing company based in Delhi. Agency Discount: 10% List of Publications
Title Freequency Rate (Rs.): India Rate ($): ROW

Indian Journal of Ancient Medicine and Yoga
Indian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pediatrics

Indian Journal of Dental Education Indian Journal of Emergency Pediatrics Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology Indian Journal of Forensic Odontology Indian Journal of Library and Information Science Indian Journal of Mechanical Engineering (New) Indian Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (New) Indian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing (New) Indian Journal of Surgical Nursing (New) International Journal of Neurology & Neurosurgery Journal of Aeronautic Dentistry Journal of Social Welfare and Management New Indian Journal of Surgery (New) Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Journal

4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5000 3000 2000 4000 8000 2000 5000 2000 5000 2000 2000 5000 2000 5000 8000 5000

200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

Order to

Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. 41/48, DSIDC, Pocket-II, Mayur Vihar, Phase-I P.O. Box No. 9108, Delhi - 110 091 (India) Tel: 91-11-65270068, 48042168, Fax: 91-11-48042168 E-mail: redflowerppl@gmail.com, redflowerppl@vsnl.net Website: www.rfppl.com

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 155 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

Information and communication technology: A growth and current challenges in small scale inustries in Cuddalore District

S. Kavitha M. Nagarajan ABSTRACT In this paper we illustrate some research results concerning the attitude of small companies towards ICT based solutions .Small scale industries have a significant role in the growth of the Indian economy. But, the performance of small scale industries has declined in recent years. Through a literature study the factors are identified which influence the growth of small scale industries. On the basis of these factors personal interviews were conducted with 377 entrepreneurs of different small scale industries located in the Cuddalore District, TamilNadu, India. Through the interviews it was identified that infrastructure support from government, information technology, globalization, awareness of policy and programs of government and technology influence the growth of small scale industries. Given this context, information technology was seen as a significant factor which influences the growth of SSIs in Tamilnadu, India. Keywords: ICT, Small Scale Industries, Economy, Growth, INTRODUCTION and business partners; immediate customer feedback allows companies to react fast to changing customer demands and recognizing new market niches. This means that organizations that are able to exploit the potentials offered by ICT can handle innovative processes, such as Supply Chain Management, Customer Relationship Management, Knowledge Management, more effectively.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) offer enterprises a wide range of possibilities for improving their competitiveness: they provide mechanisms for getting access to new market opportunities and specialized information services such as distance consulting, continuous training, new advisory modes, etc.; organizations can exchange real-time information and build closer relationships with their customers, suppliers
Author’s Affiliations: Lecturer, Department of Library and Information Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, T.N. Reprints Requestes: S. Kavitha, Lecturer, Department of Library and Information Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, T.N. (Received on 20.01.10, accepted on 26.03.10)
© Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES

The development of small scale industries (SSI) has been one of the major planks of India’s economic development Small scale industries have a significant role in Indian economy in view of its contribution to production, employment and

156

S. Kavitha, M. Nagarajan

export.. However, since 1991 small scale industries in India find themselves in an intensely competitive environment due to globalization, domestic economic liberalization and dilution of sector specific protective measures . Due to the increased competitive force in the globalize market place it is important for a small business to know their customers, have open lines of communication, provide quality service and offer competitive price to maintain market share. Small scale industries play a vital role in the economic development of India, however the performances of such enterprise have declined in recent years. Through a study of literature it is observed that information technology is a significant factor which influences the growth of small scale industries. Information Technology can be used to create competitive opportunities for the organizations.

Industries.

HYPOTHESES

1. The small scale enterprises do not vary in their level of Realization of Relative advantage in utilizing the Information and Communication Technologies in their area of operation. 2. The small scale enterprises do not vary in their level of Realization of Relative advantage in utilizing the Information and Communication Technologies in the Nature of Business.

METHODOLOGY

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The present study focuses on the use of information and communication technologies in small scale industries The scope of the study is confined to the small scale industries in cuddalore district.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The present study aims in the utilization of information and communication technologies among the small scale Industries in Cuddalore district of TamilNadu. Research design is purely and simply the framework or plan for a study that guides the collection and analysis of the data. The research design indicates the methods of research i.e. the method of gathering information and the method of sampling. Besides this the level of Computer usage, level of Software application used in various business routines, level of Information and Communication technologies uses in various business transactions have been studied.

In order to pursue the study, the following objectives are framed. 1. To identify the Area wise distribution of Relative advantage in utilizing the Information and Communication Technologies in Small Scale Industries. 2. To identify the Nature of business of Relative advantage in utilizing the Information and Communication Technologies in Small Scale

DATA COLLECTION

An interview schedule method was adopted in measuring the variables and other relevant information required for this study. The Entrepreneurs have been identified by interviewing personnel in community agencies
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Information and communication technology: A growth and current challenges in small scale inustries in Cuddalore District 157

such as Chamber of Commerce, Small Scale Entrepreneurs Association, Referrals from other Business, Telephone Directory, Regional marketing section of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited and Computers and other Information and Communication Technologies sale agencies.

Advantage is more (4.15) in Backward area followed by developed (4.14) and among its components Rel.2 is seen high (4.30) in Backward. Rel.3 stands second (4.26). It could be seen from the ANOVA applied in Table-2 that the variations in the components of Relative advantage and the area of business are statistically identified as insignificant with respect to the respondent’s views in the influence of area in the impact of relating advantage in utilizing Telephone. It is clearly seen from the above discussion that the Relative advantage in utilizing Telephone is seen more in backward area and it may be due to the fact that ICT helps reduction of cost in various operation in business. Table 3: Area wise Distribution of Relative advantage in Utilizing the ICT’s in business

TOOLS USED

For the classification and presentation of data, Various statistical methods and techniques are used. They are as follows. 1. Frequency Distribution 2. Chi-square test and one way ANOVAs

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS

Table 1: Area wise Distribution of Relative advantage in Utilizing the ICT’s in business

Table 4: ANOVAs summary Result

Table 2: ANOVAs summary Result

Table 1 shows the Area wise distribution of relative advantage in utilizing the ICT’s (telephone) in business. It seen that the Relative
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

Table 3 shows the Area wise distribution of relative advantage in utilizing the ICT’s (Cellular) in business. It is seen that the relative advantage in the utilization is seen (1.54) high in most backward area. Among its components Rel.4 is seen more (1.71) in most backward area. Rel.1 and Rel.3 are seen in second and equal (1.57) in the same area.

158

S. Kavitha, M. Nagarajan

It could be seen from the ANOVA summary Table-4 that the variations in the components of Relative advantage and the Area of Business are statistically identified as significant with respect to the respondents views on the influence of area in the Relative advantage in utilizing Cellular. It is clearly seen from the above discussion that the Relative advantage in utilizing cellular is seen more in Most Backward area and it may be due to the fact that this ICT helps in providing timely information for Decision making. Table 5: Nature of business wise distribution of Relative advantage in utilizing the ICT’s(Telephone)

to the respondents views on the influence of Nature of business in the impact of Relative advantage in adopting Telephone. It is clearly seen from the above discussion that the Relative advantage in utilizing Telephone is high in Manufacturing. It may be due to the Telephone is much helpful in better communication with others Table 7: Nature of business wise distribution of Relative advantage in utilizing the ICT’s (Cellular)

Table 8: ANOVAs summary Result

Table 6: ANOVAs summary Result

Table5 shows the Nature of Business wise distribution of relative advantage in utilizing the ICT’s (Telephone) in business. The Relative advantage is found more (4.58) in Manufacturing among its components Rel.1 is found more and it is placed top (4.90) in Manufacturing. It could be seen from the ANOVA applied in Table-6 that the variation in the components of Relative advantage and the Nature of Business is statistically identified as significant with respect

Table7 shows the Nature of Business wise distribution of relative advantage in utilizing the ICT’s (Cellular) in business. Among all the Nature of Business Relative advantage is seen more (3.10) in Manufacturing. Among the components of Relative advantage Rel.3 is seen high and it is placed top (3.32) in Manufacturing. It could be seen from the ANOVA applied in Table-8 that the variations in the components of Relative advantage is significant and the Nature of Business is statistically identified as high significant with respect to the respondents views on the influence of Nature of Business in the
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Information and communication technology: A growth and current challenges in small scale inustries in Cuddalore District 159

impact of Relative advantage in utilizing Cellular. It is clearly from the above discussion that the Relative advantage is utilizing cellular more in Manufacturing. It is also seen that the Cellular increase the profitability of the business.

Manufacturing. It is also seen that the Cellular increase the profitability of the business.

REFERENCES

FINDING AND CONCLUSION

1.

Bala Subrahmanyam, M.H. Small-scale industries in India in the globalisation era: performance and prospects. Int. J. Management and Enterprise Development, 2005; 2(1): 122-139. Grandon,E.E. and Mykytyn, P.P. Theory- based instrumentation to measure the intention to use electronic commerce in small and medium sized business. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 2004; 44(3): 44-57. Levenburg, M.N. and Klein,H.A. Delivering customer services online: identifying best practices of medium-sized enterprises. Information Systems Journal, 2006; 16(2): 135-155. Neelamegam, R. Competition for the products small scale industrial units of Tamilnadu (India). Journal of Small Business Management, 1992. Ritches,B. and Brindley, C. ICT adoption by SMEs: implication for relationships and management. New Technology Work and Employment, 2005; 20(3). Vermeulen, P.A.M. Uncovering Barriers to Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Financial Services Firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 2005; 43(4): 432-452. Wongpinunwatana, N. Measuring the use of Information Technology of small and mediumsized enterprises. 11th Pacific-Asia conference on Information systems, 2007. Watanabe, C. and Tanbe,K. Sources of small and medium enterprises excellent business performance in service oriented industry. Journal of service research, 2005; 5(1): 23-26.

The findings on Area wise distribution of relative advantage in adopting the ICTs in SSIs reveal the following facts. It is clearly seen from the above discussion that the Relative advantage in utilizing Telephone is seen more in backward area and it may be due to the fact that ICT helps reduction of cost in various operation in business. It is clearly seen from the above discussion that the Relative advantage in utilizing cellular is seen more in Most Backward area and it may be due to the fact that this ICT helps in providing timely information for Decision making. The findings on Nature of business wise distribution of relative advantage in adopting the ICTs in SSIs reveal the following facts. It is clearly seen from the above discussion that the Relative advantage in utilizing Telephone is high in Manufacturing. It may be due to the Telephone is much helpful in better communication with others It is clearly from the above discussion that the Relative advantage is utilizing cellular more in

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

160

CALENDAR OF EVENTS
July 1, Ready for Web 3.0?: The how, what and why of the semantic web and why it matters to scholarly publishers Place: London, UK URL: http://www.alpsp.org/ngen_public/article.asp?id=228&did=47&aid=222003&st=&oaid=-1 July 1-2, 9th European Conference on Information Warfare and Security (ECIW) Place: Thessaloniki, Greece URL: http://academic-conferences.org/eciw/eciw2010/eciw10-home.htm July 1-2, ICIC Summer School 2010 for future Information Professionals Place: Vienna, Austria URL: http://www.haxel.com/icic/summerschool July 2-11, International Book Fair in Ecuador Place: Guayaquil, Ecuador URL: http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=es&sl=es&tl=en&u=http%3A//www.expolibro.com.ec/ index.html July 4-7, 2010 AJL 45th Annual Convention Place: Seattle, WA URL: http://www.jewishlibraries.org/ajlweb/conventions/convention2010.htm July 5, International Workshop on Web Engineering & Tourism (WEBTOUR) Place: Vienna, Austria URL: http://www.ec.tuwien.ac.at/webtour/ July 5-7, 9th International Baltic Conference on DB and IS, 2010 Place: Riga, Latvia URL: http://www.lumii.lv/dbis2010/page.php?page=news July 5-8, Fifth International Conference on Digital Information Management (ICDIM 2010) Place: Thunder Bay, ON URL: http://www.icdim.org/ July 6-8, Second International Conference on Networked Digital Technologies (NDT 2010) Place: Prague, Czech Republic URL: http://www.dirf.org/ndt2010/index.asp July 6-9, 5th International Conference on Open Repositories (OR 2010) Place: Madrid, Spain URL: http://or2010.fecyt.es/publico/Home/index.aspx Source: http://www.infotoday.com/calendar.shtml#Jul10
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 161 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

Characterstics and choice of librarianship as a career among librarians in OGUN state, Nigeria

Salaam M.O.* Owolabi K.A.** ABSTRACT The study examined characteristics and choice of librarianship as a career among librarians in Ogun State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select ninety librarians. Questionnaire was used as main instrument for gathering of data. The findings revealed that previous working experience in the libraries is the major reason for the choice of librarianship and also many picked career in the profession while working after secondary schools and friends and relatives were the major sources of information. Recommendations was basically that Library use should be introduced in all secondary schools in the country and the Registration Council of Nigerian Library Association need to engage in a massive campaign and the need to create awareness about librarianship as noble profession to the public.

INTRODUCTION Library is the nerve center of every academic institution in Nigeria. However, Libraries and Librarianship have evolved gradually overtime in Nigeria but they have not yet taken their proper place among the institutions and professions in the country. In order to express the importance of Libraries, Aguolu(1989)cited by Owolabi and Attama (2008) defined Libraries ‘’As collection of records of human culture in diverse formats and languages presented, organized and interpreted
Author’s Affiliations: *Nimbe Adedipe Library, University of Agriculture, ABEOKUTA, Ogun State, Nigeria, Email:Queensalaam51@yahoo.com, **Nimbe Adedipe Library, University of Agriculture, ABEOKUTA, Ogun State, Nigeria, E-mail: Yomiowolabi2000@yahoo.com Reprints Requests: Salaam M.O. Nimbe Adedipe Library, University of Agriculture, ABEOKUTA, Ogun State, Nigeria, E-mail:Queensalaam51@yahoo.com
(Received on 21.01.10, accepted on 26.03.10 ) © Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

to meet broad and varying need of individual for information this may be in different forms for the use of the users’’ In spite of the vast and diverse knowledge and information resources available in libraries, they still remain the least popular institution and the least sought profession in Nigeria (Okoro, 2009) Given the fact that strong academic background breeds career success, it is not difficult to understand why professional such as lawyers, doctors, engineers or accountants are traditionally held in high esteem because they all demand solid academic backgrounds. However, there are some professions that require advance training but never receive due respect in which Librarianship belong. Librarianship is a profession that is dedicated to serve the general public, to provide timely and accurate information at the same time contributing a great impact to the development of the society. However, the profession hardly share the glamour and respect of those other professions mentioned above. Contributing to this,

162

Salaam M.O., Owolabi K.A.

lgbinosa (2007) maintained that people particularly students do not like to pursue career in Librarianship because the public do not give the profession the prestige given to other professions. They forgot that Librarians are the silent heroes behind the uncountable successful stories of students, researchers, and medical doctors etc. LITERATURE REVIEW Nigerian youths are often faced with a lot of problems in the process of deciding a life career. In deed many adolescents do carry these problems into adulthood. Geshinde (1986) cited by Adeyemo(2003) maintained that there is a danger inherent in making wrong career choices, they highlighted the dangers to include adverse effect on physical health, wrong company of friends and job insecurity. Issa and Nwalo (2008) supported the position by saying that wrong choice of career can lead to frustration and low productivity. Wiljers and Mijers(1996) defined career as process of describing individual’s life time of learning and work. Ferry (2006) highlighted the factors that determine adolescent occupational choice which include life context, personal attitude and educational attainment. Tella (2007) identified various factors that can promote choice of career in Librarianship which include attractive salary, good condition of service and job security. Agumanu (1989) conducted a studied on factors that influenced the students in Imo State University Library School to pick career in librarianship. It was discovered that 80% of the respondents agreed that they picked the profession when they failed to secure admission into other professions such as law and engineering while 20% students admitted that they pick the profession due to the influence of Librarians in their family. In the same vein Alemna (1991) conducted a study on the characteristics of the post graduates of the University of Ghana library school. It was discovered that most of the student graduates picked career in Librarianship after

failing in other options; he also discovered that opportunity for intellectual development and ability to further education were the main reasons for choosing a career in the profession. This corroborated the finding of Nzotta(1982) on the reasons for choice of Librarianship among the post graduate students of University of Ibadan. In which he discovered that majority of the respondents (58%) admitted that they choose the profession because it gives room for intellectual development. In addition Issa and Nwalo(2008)in their studies on factors affecting the career choice of undergraduates in Nigeria library and information science schools, they discovered that 68.86% respondents claimed that they choose the profession because of their previous working experience in the Library, while 15.68% admitted that they opted for the profession in other to secure a good job. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • To identify the reasons for the choice of Librarianship as a profession • To identify the sources of information used in choosing the profession • To identify the level of satisfaction METHODOLOGY The study used a descriptive survey design and a questionnaire tagged characteristics and choice of Librarianship as a career (CCLC) was used for the collection of data for the study. Descriptive statistical techniques like table of frequency counts and percentages were employed in the analysis. The target population of the study was library personnel in eight selected libraries in Ogun State which include five (5) Academic libraries, one (1) Public library, one (1) Special library and the branch of the National library in the state. Purposive Sampling Technique (PST) was used
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Characterstics and choice of Librarianship as a career among librarians in OGUN State, Nigeria

163

to select 90 library personnel. The breakdown is as follows:

Table 2: Reason for the choice of librarianship

DISCSSION AND FINDINGS

Responding to a question on reasons for the choice of librarianship as a profession majority 33(37%) admitted that they picked the career in the profession because of their previous working experience in the libraries as shown in table 2. This supported the finding of Nwalo and Issa (2008) that previous working experiences in the libraries encourage many to choice career in the profession. Table 3: Time of choice

Table 1: Educational Attainment of the respondents

The above table examined the educational attainment of the respondents. The result showed that 53(58.9%) had Master in Library Science (MLS). The reason for may not be far from the presence of five academic institutions used for the study in which they placed emphasized on higher degrees.
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

The finding in table 3 revealed that 43(48%) developed interest in the profession when they were working in the library after their secondary schools. This contradicts the finding of Nzotta

164

Salaam M.O., Owolabi K.A.

(1982) that many people consider the profession during their first degrees courses in the universities. Table 4: Sources of information used in choosing the profession

secondary school students to come afresh to the profession. This supported Nwalo and Isaac (2008) that working experience in the libraries prompts many Librarians in choice of librarianship as a profession. Also those librarians that choose the profession when working in the libraries after secondary schools do this just to secure their jobs as well as promotion in that line. This is to show that the profession is for “work and study people” that there is no adequate information about the profession. CONCLUSION

The finding in table 4 revealed that friends and relatives were the major sources of information in choosing the profession. This is in agreement with the finding of Agumanu (1989) that family members were the sources of information to the students of Imo State University, Nigeria on the choice librarianship. Table 5: Level of satisfaction

The findings of the study showed that prior working in the libraries served as the major reason for the choice of librarianship among librarians in the state. In order words some started their career as Library Assistants and Library Officers they latter decided to toll the line of librarianship after their secondary schools education. On the other hands some librarians got to know about the profession through friends and relatives. It was also gathered that many of the respondents affirmed that they were satisfied with their choice of librarianship as a career. RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study. • Library use should be introduced in all secondary schools in the country. • There is a need for special salary and allowances for librarians • The Registration Council of Nigerian Library Association need to engage in a massive campaign and awareness about librarianship as a noble profession to the public. • There is a need for massive campaign and awareness about librarianship as a noble profession.
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Table 5 provides information on the level of satisfaction with the profession 61(68%) of the respondents admitted that they were highly satisfied. Sought to identify the level of satisfaction 61(68%) claimed that they were highly satisfied with the profession. IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY The finding of this study revealed that Librarianship has not been put in right place among other professions such as Law or Medicine. That many librarians choose the profession because of their working experience in the Library is not a good development for the profession this is to show that there is no proper awareness for

Characterstics and choice of Librarianship as a career among librarians in OGUN State, Nigeria

165

• There is a need for inclusion of librarianship during career talk for secondary school students.
REFERENCES 1. Adeyemo, D. A. Career Counseling for National Development in Education This Millennium: Innovations in Theory and Practice Edited by Bamisaye, O. A. Nwazubuike, I. A. & Okediran, A. Ibadan, 2003. Agunmanu, J. The choice of librarianship as a career in Nigeria. Third World Libraries, 1989; 1(2). Alemna, A. A. The characteristics of past postgraduates diploma students of the departments of library and archival studies, University of Ghana, Legion, 1981/ 82-1987/1988. African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science, 1991; 1 (1): 45-50. Buddy, J. M. The academic library: Its purpose and its operation. Engle wood, Colorado, 1998. Ferry, N. M. Factors influencing career choice of adolescents and young adults in rural Pennsylvania. Journal of Extension 44(3) 3R IB7:1-6 Accessed on Jan. 14, 2007 http://www.joe.org/ 2006june/rb75ht, 2006. Geshinde, S. A. Equipping students with career decision making skills. Nigerian Journal of Counseling and Development, 1986; 1(1): 23-26.

7.

Igbinosa, I. O. University of Benin students’ perception of library and information science profession. Nigerian Library Link, 2007; 5(1): 74-82. Issa, A. O. & Nwalo, K. I. N. Factors affecting the career choice of undergraduates in Nigerian library and Information Science schools. African Journal of Library , Archives and Information Science, 2008; 18(1): 23-31. Montoya, L. M. Vital technical services in academics libraries. Library Philosophy and Practice 2 (1). Spring: 1-15 Available: http://libr. Unl.edu:2000/ LPP/Montoya,htm, 1999.

8.

9.

2. 3.

10. Nzotta, B. C. Choice of librarianship as a career: The case of the post graduate class of 1978. Nigerian Journal of Library and Information Studies, 1982; 1(1): 1–11. 11. Okoro, C. C. Career choice of students of library Information Science in tertiary institutions in Imo State, Nigeria. The Information Technologist, 2009; 6(1): 53-59. 12. Tella, A. Ayeni S.O. & Poopola S.O. Work motivation, job satisfaction and organization commitment of library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria Library Philosophy and Practice, 2007. 13. Wijer, G. A. & Mijer, F. Career guidance in the knowledge society. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 1996; 24: 185-198.

4. 5.

6.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

166

Indian Journal of Library and Information Science Library Recommendation Form If you would like to recommend this journal to your library, simply complete the form below and return it to us. Please type or print the information clearly. We will forward a sample copy to your library, along with this recommendation card. Please send a sample copy to: Name of Librarian Library Address of Library Recommended by: Your Name/ Title Department Address Dear Librarian, I would like to recommend that the library subscribe to the Indian Journal of Library and Information Science. I believe the major future uses of the journal for our library would be: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. As useful information for members of my specialty. As an excellent research aid. As an invaluable student resource. I have a personal subscription and understand and appreciate the value an institutional subscription would mean to our staff. Other

Should the journal you’re reading right now be a part of your University or institution’s library? To have a free sample sent to your librarian, simply fill out and mail this today! Stock Manager Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. 41/48 DSIDC, Pocket-II, Mayur Vihar Phase-I P.O. Box No. 9108, Delhi-110 091 (India) Tel: 91-11-65270068, 43602186, Fax: 91-11-43602186 E-mail: redflowerppl@vsnl.net, redflowerppl@gmail.com, Website: www.rfppl.com

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

India Journal of Library and Information Science 167 Volume 4 Number 2, May-August 2010

A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus library, University of Madras

Kaliyaperumal. K* Rajasekar. V** Ashok Kumar. N*** ABSTRACT It is evident that many of the Libraries in developing nations like India yet to automate. And only minimum number of libraries are either fully or partially automated, and a countable number of libraries in the country are able to provide e-resources to their users. To maximize the eresources use in these libraries, the attitudes of the users are to be measured to maximize the usage. As such, this study made an attempt to measure the attitudes of e-resource users in an Indian Academic library like Madras University Library (Guindy Campus Library). This study employed interview schedule method among the 100 users of the library by employing judgment sampling method and the collected data has been edited, coded in the SPSS software for the analysis. By the use of statistical tools ranging from simple percentage method to multidimensional scaling, the analysed data has been presented and interpreted. The study find out the major difficulties experienced by the users of the e-resources along with their expectations to improve the browsing environment and speed of the network. It is also found out that many of the users are unaware of the e-resources access and use. Even among the users who are known to use eresources required training programmes for their effective and efficient use of e-resources. Keywords: E-Resources, Attitude Measurement, Multidimensional Scaling(MDS), Psychological distance measurement, Information seeking behavior.

INTRODUCTION There exist paradigm shift in the closing years of 20th century. This resulted in drastic changes in
Author’s Affiliations: *Deputy Librarian, Guindy Campus Library, University of Madras, Chennai – 600 025, E-mail: kkperumal3@gmail.com, **Assistant Univ. Librarian Gr – I, Anna University Library, Chennai – 600 025, E-mail: rajasekarv@annauniv.edu, ***Librarian, Alpha College of Engineering, Chennai – 602 107 Reprints Requests: Dr. Kaliyaperumal K, Deputy Librarian, Guindy Campus Library, University of Madras, Chennai – 600 025, E-mail: kkperumal3@gmail.com (Received on 17.07.09, accepted on 3.08.09)
© Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd.

all spheres of the society as well as Library and Information Centers. No doubt, the libraries in developed nations are able to quickly change their working nature and pattern of services to suit the changing environment. But, unfortunately most of the libraries in developing nations are unable to cope up with rapid changing technologies and modalities. The rapid changing technologies are so called digital initiatives as well as networking and computer applications. These technologies are able to provide seamless access to network resources and make the libraries not stand alone and put them in the arena of world wide network. And

168

Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar. N.

also drastically changes the content delivery from physical medium such as print to electronic medium or so called e-resources or e-documents. Though, the e-books or e-documents have lot of advantages but they pose several problems to the library professionals as well as to their clientele. The challenges posed by these resources are ever changing metadata standards, delivery formats as well as rapid changes in the hardware and software technologies. And thus, the libraries are required talented workforce to handle these new mediums. At this crucial juncture, there arise a question that is there any possibility of acquiring these new physical mediums by the libraries of developing nations such as India, Asian and African countries, when most of these libraries are not in a position to buy a single computer and lack of adequate man power and financial support? However, one cannot deny that some of the Indian libraries are able to automate their libraries into some extent and go for digitizing part of their resources and able to subscribe a few e-documents and e-Journals. On the focus of nature and need of the clientele of Indian Libraries, one can find out two groups of user community, like computer literate user group and computer illiterate user group. The computer literate clientele are able to access these resources with initial handicaps. But the computer illiterate users are finding so many difficulties to access the very current information delivered by new the physical mediums. This resulted into generation gap among the library users of Indian origin. In this context, this study made an attempt to find out difficulties what the clientele experienced in using these e-resources in a academic library setup like Madras University Library, Guindy campus, Chennai. It is to remember that few e-resources use studies have been conducted in Indian context, but how for they measure in-depth attitudes of the E-resources users is a unanswered question. Certainly, this study took hectic steps to focus on the attitudes of e-resources users and their expectations.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Few e-resources use studies that are highly related to this study are reviewed here under. Adams, Judith A and Bonk, Sharon C (1995)1They found out that University faculties are eager in using Electronic information resources and point out that the libraries should procure eresources to provide effective information services. Chu (1994) 2 examined age and gender differences among scholars using e-resources, and reported a negative correlation between age and e-resources use. The study also finds out that young researchers are more interested to use eresources. He also studied the faculty use of eresources in a University Library. Harter and Kim (1996)3 studied the impact of e-journals by scaling the extent to which e-journals are being cited in literature. This study concludes that e-journals play an important role in scholarly communication. Kaminer (1997) 4 identified relationships between internet usage with the use of dependent variables, computer usage, and length of time Internet resources used. He also concluded that long-time e-resources users are not necessarily those who are using a larger number of network services intensively. Zhang, Yin (2001) 5 discussed about how scholars use, cite the Internet-Based electronic resources. Neelam Thapa, et al. (2002)6 discussed basic concept of e-publishing and e-journals along with the advantages and issues of e-journals. He expected a standard to be established for rapid publishing. He concluded that e-publishing is rapidly growing due to the increased number of clientele worldwide. Rajesh Singh and Satyanarayana N.R (2002)7 identified how librarians promoting information products/services of library to the beneficiaries. They also concluded that marketing of information products is must for effective usage
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus library, University of Madras

169

of acquired information products. Pichard, Justin and Savoy, Jacques (2003) 8 proposed a general model for using hyperlinks based on probabilistic argumentation systems. This study is mainly focusing on information retrieval through hyperlinks using various hypertext retrieval techniques. Sangowusi, F.O (2003)9 carried out a study on the Impact of ICT among Nigerian Scientists In his study he discussed about the factors, problems that Lecturers are facing while accessing eresources, which is a ocean of scholarly publications. Vaughan, K.T.L (2003)10 examined the shortterm effects of online availability on the use of print journals. He compared reshelving of print journals with the introduction of online journals. The study concluded that there is a diminished use of print journals with the introduction of online journals. This study is also discusses the problems encountered in managing online resources. Among the several e-resource studies this particular study is made an attempt to find out awareness, use preference over the e-resources and difficulties experienced by them.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Initially, an attempt has been made to use transaction log analysis of e-resources use among the respondents. But the existing administrative setup and technical problems are not permitting us to go for transaction log analysis. As such, interview schedule method has been used among the respondents selected for the study by employing judgment sampling/purposive sampling method. In total 100 questionnaires have been administered among them. Thus, the collected data has been edited, coded and in the SPSS software for analysis. And with the use of various statistical tools ranging from simple percentage method to multivariate statistical applications, the analysed data has been presented and interpreted. The respondents are the research scholars who are pursuing their research in the fields of Physical and Biological sciences for the getting of PhD degree. PROFILE OF THE GUINDY CAMPUS LIBRARY (GCL) The University of Madras is the land mark in the history of the educational system of the Indian subcontinent, it has five campus and four libraries along with few Departmental Libraries in Chennai. The Main University Library (MUL) is situated at Chepauk campus and it is the important illuminarie in the filed of Library Information Science in the country, because the father of Indian Library Science Dr. S. R. Ranganthan was used this library as his lab and established many theories and principles of the discipline. Apart from this, many of the Indian Scholars, Politicians and Administrators were the users of the Library. For instance, the Mathematical Genius Ramanujam and Physics Scientist Sir.C.V. Raman were the users of this Library. The Guindy Campus is the Science Campus of

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To find out users preference towards physical mediums of information resources. 2. To identify user’s awareness of the availability of e-journals those are related to their field of interest. 3. To assess how best the researchers of the institution are able to access and retrieve the contents of their relevant e-journals. 4. To measure efficient and effective use of eresources. 5. To identify the barriers related to the access, retrieval and the usage of E-Journals.
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

170

Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar. N.

the University of Madras comprising of the Schools of Physical, Chemical, Life, Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. The Guindy Campus Library (GCL) mainly caters to the information needs of the Faculty, Research Scholars and Post Graduate Students of these Schools, besides being an Information hub to other academics. The Library begun its journey in a small room of the famous A.C.Tech (Alagappa Chettiar College of Technology) Guindy in the year 1947, later it was shifted to present building with 30000 sqft in 1972. It has the collection ranging from rare collection of Science journals of foreign languages like German, Russian dating 150 to 200 years back is much sought after by corporate organizations for their research work and valuable text and reference sources. It is automated and modernization programs with the establishment of an Online Information Zone, a Multimedia Lecture Hall and a Video Conferencing Suite funded by the UGC, under the “University with Potential for Excellence” scheme are at the full sewing. Electronic Information Services provided are in tune to the role played by the Library as an Information Centre. UGC-INFONET consortia eresources are available on-line to its users from 2004 onwards. AN OVERVIEW OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SERVICES The Library offer the electronic information services that are listed in the table.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Table 1: Age Group Scholars/Respondents

of

Research

Figure 1: Age Group of Research Scholar

Age wise distribution of the Respondents 120
20-30 31-40 41-50

88

51-60

The age wise distribution of the respondents is presented both in table no - 1 and figure no - 1. It is seen from the table that 88 percent of the respondents of the study belongs to the age group of 20 – 30 years. And none of the respondents more than 40 years are participated in the survey. The results reveal that most of the young people are perusing the research programs than that of the middle and old age peoples. Table 2: Frequency of Visit to the Library

The table no – 2 presents the frequency of visits of the respondents to the library. The table shows that 44 percent of the respondents are visiting the
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus library, University of Madras

171

library once in a week. Followed by this, 33 percent of the respondents are stated that they visit the library every day. It is known fact that, the library resource, services and conducive reading environment are attracting the users to visit regularly to the library. But it is to note that the science research scholars are necessarily to attend the labs as a part of their research activities. As such they attend the labs every day than that of the library. Table 3: Types are preferred to use of physical formats

does not cover many of the e-resources required for their research works and also due to physical strain in the use of e-resources. And it is also observed that during the administration of the Interview schedule, few of them are asked the question” what is mean by e-resources or ejournals and so on? And these scholars are eliminated from data collection. Since there is no use to get the data related to this research. Table 4: Awareness of e- resources

Figure 2: Types of physical formats are preferred to use

Figure 3: Awareness of E- Resources

100 80 60 40 20 0
Databases

85 58 34 14
Full text databases E-Journals E-books

65

58

5
Web resources Enewsletter Open sources

The table no - 3 and figure no - 2 present the data related to the respondents preferences to the physical formats of the resources. It is seen from the table 60 percent of the respondents prefer to use electronic formats than that of the print format that is the preference of 40 percent respondents of the study. The result shows that the research scholars are prefer to use the eformats because of the so called advantages such as seamless access and currency ness of the information and instant information transfer from information generators to the end users. But it is also to note that nearly 40 percent of the respondents still favored to use the print formats. The reasons for this are observed as the library
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

The data related to the awareness of e-resources are presented in the table no - 4 and figure no - 3. The table illustrates that majority of the respondents i.e. 85 percent aware of the e-journals because they are the resources quiet often used by research scholars rather than that of the other resources. Apart from this, 65 percent of the respondents are aware of the web resources, followed by this 58 percent of the respondents are aware of the open source documents that are available at free of cost. And it is interesting to

172

Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar. N.

note that the same percent of the respondents are stated that they aware of the e- books. Further, only few of them are aware of the database services available in the library. These results indicate that the library is not able to familiarize these e- services to the users. More over many of the database services are not able to provide seamless access to the right information that is required for the library users. Table 5: Preference to e-learning

attitude towards the different advantages of eresources. The data related to this is presented in the table no – 6 The result shows that the respondents are not in a mood to give answers/ opinion for the advantages of e- resources. As such, below 25 percent of the respondents are opined the advantages of the e- resources. Table 7: Time spend to E-Journals and E-Resources per day browse

Figure 4: Preference to e-learning

Figure 5: Time spend to browse E-Journals and E-Resources per day

100
Above 3 hours 34 12 25 29 0 10 20 30 40

50

3 hours 2 hours

0 Series1

Yes 91

No 9

1 hour

The table no – 5 and Figure no – 4 present the data related to the respondents preferences to elearning. This table indicates that the respondents overwhelmingly sought their preference over elearning (91 percent). Table 6: Advantages of E-Journals

The table no - 7 and figure no -5 present the data related to the respondents time spent for day to browse e-journals and e-resources. It is seen from the table that 34 percent of the respondents spent more than three hours per day to browse the e- journals. And more than 50 percent of the respondents spent one to two hours per day to browse the e-journals. Table 8: Total number articles accessed per day of scholarly

The study is also intent to identify the user

The table no - 8 present the number of scholarly articles accessed per day by the users. The table
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus library, University of Madras

173

shows that 1 to 10 articles are accessed by 60 percent of the respondents per day. And remaining percent of the respondents are accessing more than 10 scholarly articles per day. Table 9: Use access e-resources of search engines to

Table 11: Purpose of accessing e- resources

Table no - 9 states that the majority of the research scholars preferred to use both the search engines Google (49 percent) and Yahoo (36 percent). It shows that the regularly used search engines to access scholarly articles are Google and Yahoo. Table 10: Search mechanisms adopted

The table no – 11 states the 89 percent of the respondents are accessing e – resources for the purpose of the research, followed by article publication (28 percent) and Academic purposes (26 percent). The result indicates that the nature of the respondents work, i.e. research is the major purposes to access e-resources rather than that of the other purposes. Table 12: Preferences over document formats

The table no - 10 presents the search mechanisms employed by the research scholars. The table shows that most of them employed basic search mechanism (60 percent). It is interesting to note that none of them are known to use Boolean logic in the search process of the eresources.

Table no. 12 states that all most all the respondents (77 percent) prefer to use PDF format. The major reason for this is that the PDF format facilitates speedy access and retrieval of content by providing random access as well as graphical interface. And 10 percent prefer to use HTML, PPT and so on.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

174

Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar. N.

Table 13: Preference of the e –resources

over

the

age

The table no – 13 states the research scholar preference over the age of the e- resources. It is seen from the table that 69 percent of the respondents preferred to use the e- resources or e- articles published with in five years. The reason is that the quick obselence of information is the phenomena of the Science subjects. Table 14: Awareness about e- resources Intellectual Property Right (IPR)

The table no - 15 presents the availability of ejournals in the library as well as user preferences towards e- journals. It is seen from the table that most of the respondents are preferred to use Taylor and Francis e- journals(61 percent) followed by Springer Journals(57 percent and Institute of physics (52 percent). Since most of these groups of publishers are published journals in physical and biological sciences, the users are preferred to use because basically they are research scholars of these sciences. Table 16: Access to databases

It can be seen from the table no - 14, that majority of the respondents are aware (73 percent) some extent about the IPR. But only few of them are stated that they know completely the pros and cons of the IPR. Table 15: Types of e- journal accessed

The table no – 16 states the availability of the database services in the library along with their use. More than 60 percent of the users are preferred to use the data bases such as Scifinder, Biological Abstracts and j-Gate portals that are deals with the physical and biological sciences.

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus library, University of Madras

175

DIFFICULTIES EXPERIENCED BY THE RESPONDENTS TO ACCESS AND USE THE E-RESOURCES: EXPLANATION OF THE VARIABLES MDS (Multidimensional Scaling) Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) is a set of mathematical techniques that enable a researcher to uncover the “hidden structure” of data bases. Multidimensional Scaling, then, refers to a class of techniques. These techniques use Proximities among any kind of objects as input. Proximity is a number which indicates how similar or how different two objects are, or are perceived to be, or any measure of this kind. The chief output is a spatial representation, consisting of a geometric configuration of points, as on a map. Each point in the configuration corresponds to one of the objects. This configuration reflects the “hidden structure’ in the data, and often makes the data much easier to comprehend. By reflecting the data structure we mean that the larger the dissimilarity (or the smaller the similarity) between the two objects, as shown by their proximity value, the further apart they should be in the spatial map. We note that MDS is sometimes used indirectly to analyze data which are not proximities, by forming proximities as an intermediate step. A common procedure for obtaining proximities data is to ask people to directly judge the “psychological distance”) or closeness” of the stimulus objects. Although “similarity” and “dissimilarity” are most frequently used to elicit the proximity judgments, alternative words is relatedness, dependence, association, complementarities, substitutability, and so on. In order to discover rather than impose the dimensions, the attributes on which the stimuli are to be judged are usually not specified. Subjects can, however, be asked for specific kinds of similarity, for example, political similarity or cultural similarity of nations. The data collected to find out the difficulties experienced by users has been analysed with Multi Dimensional scaling. The results of the analysis have been presented in the on going paragraphs. The two way scale like
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

“Agree and Disagree” has been employed to elicit users’ opinions about the difficulties they encountered while using the e-resources. MDS is the appropriate tool to analyse their opinions, since to find out the proximity of agree and disagree. Thus it is a fruitful mapping technique of their agreement and disagreement with the difficulties. Table 17: Explanation of the Variables

Figure 6: Difficulties experienced by the respondents (Spatial Map)
Derived Stimulus Configuration Euclidean distance model
1.0 p8.2 p8.4 p8.5 p8.1 .5 p8.3 0.0 p8.8 -.5 p8.9 p8.6

Dimension 2

-1.0 p8.7 -1.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -.5 0.0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Dimension 1

176

Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar. N.

The MDS results are presented in the MDS figure no - 6 and Proximity matrix in (annexure– 1). It is seen from the MDS diagram that the following variables are plotted in the positive dimensions of the diagram.

MAJOR FINDINGS a. The majority of the young research scholars belongs to the age group of 20-30 years is the profound users of the e-resources. b. Most of the e-resource users are the regular visitors of the library. c. The majority of the users preferred to use e-resources than that of the printed sources. It is also to note that 40 percent of respondents still favour to use print formats. d. Among various e-resources, the majority of the users are aware of the e-journals, webresources, open sources and e-books. And only minimum numbers of users are aware of databases services. e. Majority of the users are not spending long time to browse e-journals and e-resources.

These variables are plotted in the positive dimensions of the diagram, this shows that most the respondents of the study are find these as a difficult aspect to access and use the e- resources in the library. The variable P8.6 is plotted in the positive dimension of the diagram. But the library provide the e-resource service at free of cost to its clientele. However, the respondents felt the higher costs of e-resource access and opined as positive. The remaining variables are plotted in the negative dimension of the diagram. The variables are listed as follows.

f.It is found out that the majority of the respondents are accessing 10-20 scholarly articles per day. g. The majority of the research scholars use Google and Yahoo search engines to access eresources. h. Most of the users of the e-resources are applying basic search techniques to access eresources and none of them are known to use Boolean logic in search process. i. Majority of the users are using e-resources for their research and academic purposes. j. Among different types of document formats most of the e-resources users are preferred to use PDF format. k. Since the respondents are research scholars of Physical and Biological Sciences they prefer to use the e-resources that are published within 5 years because quick obsolescence of information is the phenomena among these subjects. l. The majority of the users are not familiar with the pros and cons of the Intellectual Property Rights. m. Most of the users are preferred to use Taylor & Francis and Springer journals.
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

The formation of these variables in the negative side of the dimension indicates that the respondents opined that they are not felt any difficulties with these aspects, because these facilities are provided in the library.

A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus library, University of Madras

177

n. As for as databases access are concerned they prefer to use Scifinder, Biological Abstracts and J-Gate Portals. o. The following difficulties are felt by majority of the respondents to access and use of e-resources i. Unawareness of the access mechanisms and lack of adequate access points ii. Lack of conducive physical environment to browse iii. Lack of system speed and network capacity iv. Lack of time in accessing e-resources
4. 1.

REFERENCES

Adams, Judith A and Bonk, Sharon C. “Electronic Information Technologies and Resources: Use by University Faculty and Faculty Preferences for Related Library Services”, College and Research Libraries, 1995; 56 (2): 119-131. Ashcroft, L. Electronic journals: managing and educating for a changing culture in academic libraries. Online Information Review, 2001; 25(6): 378-388. Atilgan, D., Bayran, O. Perspectives on an evaluation of faculty use of the digital library at Ankara University, Turkey. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 2006; 32(1): 86-93. Bernard, H.Russell. Research methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, Ed.3, Sage Publications, London, 1994; 499-505.. Borg, Ingwer and Groenen, Patrick J. F. Modern Multidimensional Scaling: Theory and Applications, Springer, 2005; 611. Chu, H. “E-mail in Scientific communication”, In M.E Williams (Ed.), Proceedings of 15th National online meeting, Medford, NJ: Learned Information, 1994; 7786. Cox, Trevor F and Cox, Michael A. Multidimensional Scaling, Ed.2, Monographs on statistics and Applied Probability, CRC, 2001; 88: 309. Documentation, 59(6): 673-691. Harter, Stephen P and Kim, Hack Joon. “Electronic Journals and scholarly communication: A citation and reference study”, Information Research, 1996; 2(1).

2.

3.

v. Unawareness of the availability of the eresources related to their research. CONCLUSION This study finds out the overwhelming acceptance and preference to use e-resources especially e-journals, web-resources and open sources. The major reasons for the minimum use of Science Online and Science Direct journals is that only minimum number of science journals of these groups are subscribed through the consortia. It is important to note that for effective and efficient use of e-resources, the awareness must be created and the training programme must be initiated to train the users for speedy access to the information what they actually needed from the e-resources. It is also required to refurbish and restructure the existing browsing environment so as to attract more number of users. Further, to suggest that the network capacity and speed have to be enhanced substantially for speedy access. Though the library is subscribing a total number of 5010 full text e-journals the adequacy of the availability of the e-journals are not tested. It is observed that a quite number of research scholars are still unaware in utilizing the e-resources, because some of them asked a question to the researcher “What is mean by e-resource?”, when the researcher collect the data in the library.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

10. Kaminer, Noam. “Scholars and the use of the Internet”, Library and Information Science Research, 1997; 19(2): 329-345. 11. Mahe, Annaig. “Beyond usage: understanding the use of electronic journals on the basis of information activity analysis, Information research, http:// informationr.net/ir/9-4/paper186.html, 2004; (9). 12. Picard, Justin and Savoy, Jacques. “Enhancing retrieval with hyperlinks: a general model based on propositional argumentation systems”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 2003; 54(4): 347-355. 13. Sangowusi, F.O. “Problems of accessing scholarly publications by Nigerian scientists: a study of the University of Ibadan”, Journal of Information Science, 2003; 29(2): 127-134. 14. Sanville, T.J. “Use of electronic journals in OhioLINK’S electronic journal center”. In 67th IFLA Council and General Conference, http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla67/papers/118141e.pdf, 16-25 August 2001.

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

178

Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar. N.

15. Talja, S., Maula, H. Reasons for the use and non-use of ejournals and databases: a domain analytic study in 4 scholarly disciplines, 2003. 16. Tenopir, C King, et al. “Patterns of journal use by scientists through three evolutionary phases”, D-Lib Magazine, http://www.dlib.org/dlib/may03/king/ 05king.html, 2003; 9(5).,

b)

Non-Print

Awareness of e- resources (Please state your awareness of e-resources) • Databases • Full text databases • E-book • E-journals • E-news letter • Web resources • Open sources Advantages of E-Journals Please state the advantages of using ejournals • Available from desktop • Speed • Hyperlinks to references • Graphical presentation • On screen reading • All the above Time spend to browse E-Journals and EResources per day (please tick mark) • An hour • 2 hours • 3 hours • >3 hours Total number of scholarly articles accessed per day( Please state no. of articles accessed per day) • 1 - 10 articles • 11 – 20 • 21 – 30 • 31 and above Use of search engines to access e-resources (Please state the search engines that are frequently used by you for access the eIndian Jornal of Library and Information Science

17. University of Madras Home page : http:// www.unom.ac.in/Library%20Profile.html 18. Vaughan, K.T.L. “Changing use patterns of print journals in the digital Age: Impacts of electronic equivalents on print chemistry journal use”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 2003: 54(12): 1149-1152. 19. Zhang, Yin. “Scholarly use of internet-based electronic resources”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 2001; 52(8): 628-654.

Questionnaire User attitude measurement towards e- resources in Guindy Campus Library, University of Madras General Information about users 1. 2. 3. 4. : 5. 6. Designation : Institution : Name Sex Age : : :

Educational Status

Frequency of Visit to the Library (Please state your visit the Library) • Daily • Once in a week • Once in a month • Rarely Types of physical formats are preferred to use Which of the following do you prefer? (Please tick) a) Print

A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus library, University of Madras

179

resources on the net) • Through Yahoo • Through Google • Through Infoseek • AltaVista Search mechanisms adopted to search the eresources (Please state the mode of access to esources) • Basic search • Advanced search • Browsing table of contents or menu driven search • Boolean logic State your purpose of accessing e- resources

Awareness about e- resources Intellectual Property Right (IPR)

Types of e- journal group often accessed by you

Please state your Access to databases

Difficulties Experienced by you to Access and Use the e-resources (Please state your difficulties)

State your preferences over document formats • Doc format • PDF format • Others Preference over the age of the e – resources(Please state your preferences)

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

180

Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar. N.

Annexure-I: Multidimensional scaling (matrix) Raw (unscaled) Data for Subject 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 6 7 8 9 2 .000 6.481 6.928 9.644 9.644 6.164 9.539 9.000 9.849 7 .000 9.000 9.849 9.434 .000 7.483 7.616 .000 6.000 .000 .000 6.782 8.307 8.544 8.367 9.110 8.307 8.426 8 .000 7.141 7.000 8.367 7.416 6.856 7.550 9 .000 5.657 8.718 6.633 8.000 .000 8.485 7.348 7.616 10.630 10.247 3 4 5

RSQ values are the proportion of variance of the scaled data (disparities) in the partition (row, matrix, or entire data) which is accounted for by their corresponding distances. Stress values are Kruskal’s stress formula 1. For matrix Stress = .05743 Stimulus Coordinates Dimension Stimulus Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 .000 1.092 .000 1.382 1.103 .000 .000 2.954 2.016 1.382 .000 2.954 2.233 1.382 .194 1.092 2.016 2.016 3.590 3.580 2.954 2.670 1.382 2.447 2.233 2.662 2.016 1.103 1.103 1.382 2.954 2.233 1.382 1.434 1.382 7 .000
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

RSQ = .98007

Configuration derived in 2 dimensions

Stimulus Name P8.1 P8.2 P8.3 P8.4 P8.5 P8.6 P8.7 P8.8 P8.9

1

2

1.6880 .6021 .7646 .9275 .1379 .0624 -1.2525 .7805 -1.3088 .5945 2.0931 -.5223 -.3552 -1.4965 -.8347 -.3308 -.9323 -.6175

Optimally scaled data (disparities) for subject Young’s S-stress formula 1 is used. Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 .09354 .07079 .02276 .06470 .00609 .06293 .00177 .06229 .00064 S-stress Improvement

3

4

5

Iterations stopped because S-stress improvement is less than Stress and in distances squared .001000 (RSQ) correlation

9 6 6

8

9

A study on user attitude measurement towards use of e-resources in Guindy campus library, University of Madras

181

7 8 9

2.662 .000 2.954 1.382 .000 2.954 1.382 .303 .000

Multi Dimensional Scaling

Derived Stimulus Configuration Euclidean distance model
1.0 p8.2 p8.4 p8.5 p8.1 .5 p8.3 0.0 p8.8 -.5 p8.9 p8.6

Dimension 2

-1.0 p8.7 -1.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -.5 0.0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Dimension 1

Scatterplot of Linear Fit Euclidean distance model
4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

Distances

1.0 .5 0.0 0.0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

Disparities
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

182

Kaliyaperumal. K, Rajasekar. V, Ashok Kumar. N.

Scatterplot of Nonlinear Fit Euclidean distance model
4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

Distances

1.0 .5 0.0 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Observations

Transformation Scatterplot Euclidean distance model
4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

Distances

1.0 .5 0.0 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Observations
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

183

Instructions to authors

Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication
Indian Journal of Library and Information Science is committed to adapting the International Guidelines mentioned hereunder The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has produced and updated the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts (URM) Submitted to Biomedical Journals”. Publishers who would like to incorporate the URM into their review and publication process are encouraged to link to www.icmje.org and mention this in their Instructions to Authors section. The Council of Science Editors (CSE) has produced “Editorial Policy Statements” that cover the responsibilities and rights of editors of peerreviewed journals. Publishers who would like to incorporate these Statements into their review and publication process are encouraged to link to: http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/services/ draft_approved.cfm. INTRODUCTION The formal component of the scholarly communication system, that is to say the publication of an article in a peer reviewed learned journal, serves many purposes outside of simple communication. It is a building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is prima facie evidence for the quality and impact of the research work of its authors and by extension the institutions that support them. It supports, and is itself an example, of the scientific method. For all these reasons and more it is important to lay down standards of expected ethical behaviour by all parties involved in the act of publishing: the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer, the publisher and the society for society-owned or sponsored journals. These guidelines have been written with all these requirements in mind but especially
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

recognising that it is an important role of the publisher to support the huge efforts made by journal editors, and the often unsung volunteer work undertaken by peer reviewers, in maintaining the integrity of the scholarly record. Although ethical codes inevitably concentrate on the infractions that sometimes occur, it is a tribute to scholarly practice that the system works so well and that problems are comparatively rare. The publisher has a supporting, investing and nurturing role in the scholarly communication process but is also ultimately responsible for ensuring that best practice is followed in its publications. These guidelines are designed specifically for primary research journals, but may also be relevant for review and professional publications as well. Individual journals will often have more elaborate or more distinct ethical procedures, generally reflected in their instructions document, and many journals also accept and are in many cases founding participants with respect to discipline-specific standards or standard-setting bodies such as ICMJE, CONSORT, and the like (see references below). Elsevier, as the world’s leading journal publisher, takes its duties of guardianship over the scholarly record extremely seriously. Our journal programmes record “the minutes of science” and we recognise our responsibilities as the keeper of those “minutes” in all our policies, not least the ethical guidelines that we have here adopted. Elsevier is adopting these policies and procedures that support editors, reviewers and authors in performing their ethical duties under these guidelines. We are committed to ensuring that the potential for advertising, reprint or other commercial revenue has no impact or influence on editorial decisions. We will provide help in communications with other journals and/or publishers where this is useful to editors, and we

184

Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication

are working with other publishers and industry associations to set standards for best practices on ethical matters, errors and retractions. Finally, Elsevier is prepared to provide specialised legal review and counsel if necessary. DUTIES OF EDITORS Publication decisions The Editor of a learned journal is solely and independently responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published, often working in conjunction with the relevant society (for society-owned or sponsored journals). The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always underwrite such decisions. The Editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers (or society officers) in making this decision. Fair play An editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors. Confidentiality The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate. Disclosure and Conflicts of interest

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor’s own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Editors should recuse themselves (i.e. should ask a co-editor, associate editor or other member of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to the papers. Vigilance over published record An editor presented with convincing evidence that the substance or conclusions of a published paper are erroneous should coordinate with the publisher (and/society) to promote the prompt publication of a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other note, as may be relevant. Involvement investigations and cooperation in

An editor should take reasonably responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper, in conjunction with the publisher (or society). Such measures will generally include contacting the author of the manuscript or paper and giving due consideration of the respective complaint or claims made, but may also include further communications to the relevant institutions and research bodies. DUTIES OF REVIEWERS Contribution to Editorial Decisions Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial
Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication

185

communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper. Peer review is an essential component of formal scholarly communication, and lies at the heart of the scientific method. Elsevier shares the view of many that all scholars who wish to contribute to publications have an obligation to do a fair share of reviewing. Promptness Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process. Confidentiality Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorised by the editor. Standards of Objectivity Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments. Acknowledgement of Sources

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewer’s own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers. DUTIES OF AUTHORS Reporting standards Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable. Review and professional publication articles should also be accurate and objective, and editorial ‘opinion’ works should be clearly identified as such. Data Access and Retention

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors.Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor’s attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.
Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data (consistent with the ALPSP-STM Statement on Data and Databases), if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

186

Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication

Originality and Plagiarism The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, this has been appropriately cited or quoted. Plagiarism takes many forms, from ‘passing off’ another’s paper as the author’s own paper, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another’s paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical behaviour and is unacceptable. Multiple, Publication Redundant or Concurrent

third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the explicit written permission of the author of the work involved in these services. Authorship of the Paper Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication. Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript. Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication Version 1.0, October 2006. If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) have approved them. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal of primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical behaviour and is unacceptable. In general, an author should not submit for consideration in another journal a previously published paper. Publication of some kinds of articles (eg, clinical guidelines, translations) in more than one journal is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. The authors and editors of the journals concerned must agree to the secondary publication, which must reflect the same data and interpretation of the primary document. The primary reference must be cited in the secondary publication. Further detail on acceptable forms of secondary publication can be found at www.icmje.org. Acknowledgement of Sources Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication

187

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. Examples of potential conflicts of interest which should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/ registrations, and grants or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed at the earliest possible stage. Fundamental errors in published works When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the

journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If the editor or the publisher learn from a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the author to promptly retract or correct the paper or provide evidence to the editor of the correctness of the original paper. Further reading http://www.consort-statement.org/ (standards for randomized trials) http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/ (COPE—Committee on Publication Ethics) http://www.icmje.org/ (Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals) http://www.wame.org/ (World Association of Medical Editors) http://www.stm-assoc.org/ (The STM trade association— see the public documents section for “Preservation of the Objective Record of Science — An STM Guideline”)

Volume 4 Number 2, May - August 2010

188

Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication

DECLARATION FORM (Should be sent with original signatures by all authors alongwith one hard copy of the article) I hereby submit that the paper entitled “…………....................................................................” along with two photographs of mine. This paper is my original work and has neither been published anywhere else, electronically or in print, nor has been submitted elsewhere simultaneously for publication. I have agreed for this paper to be published in your renowned journal “Indian Journal of Library and Information Science”. I vouchsafe that the authorship of this article will not be contested by anyone whose names are not listed by me here. The article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity. We also agree to the authorship of the paper in the following sequence:
Author’s Names in Sequence Signatures of Authors

Mail to Red Flower Publication Pvt. Ltd. 41/48 DSIDC, Pocket-II, Mayur Vihar Phase-I P.O. Box No. 9108, Delhi-110 091 (India) Tel: 91-11-65270068, 48042168, Fax: 91-11-48042168 E-mail: redflowerppl@vsnl.net, redflowerppl@gmail.com Website: www.rfppl.com

Indian Jornal of Library and Information Science

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times