RF & Microwave Engineering
Question Bank Chapter 1
1. Write equations and define the terms (One mark each): a) DC Resistance of a cylindrical conductor. b) Normalized R with respect to RDC in terms of frequency. c) Resistance in terms of length and skin depth. 2. Write short notes on (Five marks each):: a) RF behavior of passive components. b) Chip resistors, capacitors and inductors. c) High frequency resistors, capacitors and inductors. 3. Underline the word which makes the statement wrong (One mark each):: a) Skin depth rapidly decreases for decreasing frequency. b) A chip resistor is realized by depositing a ceramic film layer on a ceramic body. 4. Draw the figure with captions (One mark each): a) Equivalent circuit representation of a h-f resistor b) Equivalent circuit representation of a h-f capacitor c) Equivalent circuit representation of a h-f inductor d) Draw general configuration of a flat inductor 5. Worked out Ex:1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 6. Unsolved: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.10, 1.25
1. Write equations and define the terms (One mark each): a) Line parameters R, L, C and G for parallel-plate transmission line.(1) b) Coupled first-order differential equations for general transmission line.(1) c) Characteristic impedance for narrow strips [w/h <1], giving equations for terms involved, like eff.(2) d) Characteristic impedance for wide strips [w/h >1], giving equations for terms involved, like eff.(2) e) Given Z0 and r, write the equations for w/h when w/h 2.(2) f) Given Z0 and r, write the equations for w/h when w/h 2.(2) 2. Draw the figure with captions (One mark each): a) General form of circuit representation of two-wire transmission line. b) Voltage, current and impedance as a function of line length for a short circuit termination. c) Voltage, current and impedance as a function of line length for a open circuit termination. d) Generic transmission line circuit involving source and load terminations.
we should use substrate with low dielectric constant. the fringing fields become more prominent. f) Define the following in terms of different impedances: i) Source reflection coefficient. b) For parallel-plate lossless transmission line. f) Definition of characteristic impedance is based on +ve and –ve standing waves. ii) Input reflection coefficient and iii) Output reflection coefficient. then input impedance is equal to characteristic impedance regardless of line length. f) What do you know by ‘dispersion-free transmission’? g) Show that if the transmission line is matched.3. Underline the word which makes the statement wrong (One mark each): a) Outer conductor of coaxial cable is grounded to minimize conductor loss and field interference. e) Show that for all transmission line types. using equations. for the following conditions: i) Z G Z0 and ZL Z0. d) A Microstrip configuration that is primarily used for high impedance and high power application is parallel-plate line. defining the terms used. introduce transmission coefficient at the i) beginning of the line and ii) load end. if substrate thickness increases or conductor width increases. h) Is it possible to make input impedance equal to load impedance? If yes. 4. c) To achieve high board density of Microstrip components. Short questions (One mark each): a) Explain why Kirchhof’s Law cannot be directly applied for RF/MW frequencies. labeled diagram.
. How is it related with wave impedance for free space? c) Derive the equation for voltage reflection coefficient in terms of impedances. d) Describe reflection coefficient when the transmission line is i) open and ii) short. e) For a sourced and loaded transmission line. in terms of load impedance. i) Explain the concept of lamda-by-four transformer. then under what condition? Prove mathematically. derive equations for characteristic impedance. e) Normally mutual inductance is neglected with respect to self inductance. c) Define Effective Dielectric Constant used in design equations for Microstrip lines. Short questions (Two marks each): a) Derive the coupled first-order differential equations for general transmission line and find their solution by decoupling them. d) Derive the general equation for input impedance of terminated lossless line. ii) ZG = Z0 and ZL = Z0 and iii) ZG Z0 and ZL = Z0. What is the solution? b) Write the statement of i) Ampere’s Law and ii) Faraday’s Law. g) Write the input power equations for a sourced and loaded transmission line. 5. g) For a parallel-plate stripline. Mention the conventions used. Give all necessary equations. Draw necessary figure. b) The ground plane in Microstrip line helps to prevent excessive field leakage and thus reduce dielectric loss. Z0. giving its equation. phase velocity is independent of frequency. giving their equations in differential forms.
Worked out Ex:2. 2.5. c) For a sourced and loaded transmission line.22. Reflection coefficient on phasor form 1 b. Line length to obtain pure inductive / capacitive impedance behavior using open – circuit transmission line. 6. 2. Make the necessary changes in the equation. 2. f. Long questions (Four marks each): a) For a short-circuited transmission line. Derive the input power equation for a sourced and loaded transmission line when both ZG and ZL are not matching with Zo. Explain the capacitive and inductive behavior of the transmission line. d. Explain the capacitive and inductive behavior of the transmission line. derive the equations for V(d). 2. Standing Wave Ratio equation in terms of reflection coefficient at any distance d. 2. 2. b) For a short-circuited transmission line. ii) ZL = Z0 and iii) both ZG = 0 and Z0 = 0  9.33 
Chapter: 3 1. Pin.23.8. d) Show that the optimal power transfer requires conjugate complex matching of transmission line to generator impedance. Unsolved: 2. Derive the equations used.15. if both the source and load impedances are not matched to transmission line impedance.10. Normalized input impedance equation in terms of real and imaginary each parts of c. e. j) Derive the equation for impedance at any distance d from the load in terms of reflection coefficient at the same point.8. ZL and distance d.16. find the input power.11 10. 2. Write Equations And Define Terms a. Starting from basic equations of voltage and current. derive the input impedance Zin(d) for the terminated lossless transmission line in terms of Z0. 2.
. Line length to obtain pure inductive / capacitive impedance behavior using short – circuit transmission line. 7. when i) ZG = Z0.h) Derive the power delivered to the load for a lossy transmission line in terms of different reflection coefficients. g. I(d) and Zin(d) and show their plot as a function of line length (d/ ). 2. i) Define the terms i) Return Loss and ii) Insertion Loss and give their equations.  8.17. Parametric reflection coefficient equations for circles of normalized resistance and reactance used for Smith Chart. derive the equations for V(d). 2.3. Equations for normalized resistance and reactance in terms of real and imaginary parts of . 1.28. 2. 2. Define all terms involved.9. I(d) and Zin(d) and show their plot as a function of line length (d/ ).24.
Explain the mapping of constant reactance lines in z-plane into constant 3 reactance circles in Γ. 3. 3.2. Repeat Q9 for short circuit behavior.15.plane using the necessary equation and diagram. fupper = 500 MHz
7.14. derive the parametric equations 4 for a) normalized resistance b) normalized reactance Explain the mapping of constant resistance lines in z-plane into constant 3 resistance circles in Γ. Unsolved: 3. 3.3. 126.96.36.199 Consider C = 1. 3. Also explain it with respect to Smith Chart (Self-drawn). 2.6 14. Give 6 steps of finding input impedance of a transmission line with 2 characteristics impedance Zo. considering r = 0.11. L = 15 nH. 3. using Smith Chart.188.8.131.52.plane. 3.5.
4.4 3. flower = 500 MHz. Worked out Ex: 3.
8. 3 3 3 4 each
3. considering r = 0. Repeat Q10 for short circuit behavior. 3.
6. 3. 3. 1. Show the impedance response on roughly drawn Smith Chart for a 1) Series connection of R & C. 3. 1.4. Find the equation for length d2 of open circuit transmission line which has pure 3 capacitive impedance behavior. 3. 12. Find the equation for length d1 of open-circuit transmission line which has pure 3 inductive impedance behavior.16. using the necessary equation and diagram. Also explain it with respect to Smith Chart (Selfdrawn).
9. 2.0. load impedance ZL and length d. Starting from normalized ‘r’ and ‘x’ equations.0 2) Series connection of R & L. 3. 3.9.
Find the real and imaginary parts of zin in terms of real and imaginary parts of 2 reflection coefficient. Explain the mapping of normalized impedance in z-plane into normalized 3 impedance in Smith Chart using the necessary diagram.5 pF. 3.18