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B. VAHIDI,1 E. ESMAEELI2

1

Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2

Received 13 January 2010; accepted 1 August 2010 ABSTRACT: Differential protection was already applied toward the end of the 19th century and was one of the

ﬁrst protection systems ever used. Faults are detected by comparison of the currents ﬂowing into and out of the protected plant item. As a result of the fast tripping with absolute selectivity, it is suited as main protection of all important items of plant. The article presents an approach to teaching relay laboratory using specially designed exercises that can be done using MATLAB-SIMULINK. This article presents a MATLAB-SIMULINK-based technology to simulate differential relay for determining behavior of it during transformer internal fault protection. The results show that this simulation method can work properly and this design can be used for power system simulation in MATLAB-SIMULINK. Evaluation of the simulation with more than 60 students is very positive in terms of their developing conﬁdence in and understanding of this kind of relay operation. ß 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com; DOI 10.1002/cae.20493 Keywords: MATLAB-SIMULINK; differential relay; protection

INTRODUCTION

Computer simulation plays an important role in engineering course teaching. Nowadays, a variety of software tools are available to simulate electrical circuits. While most of these tools are computationally very efﬁcient and reasonably user-friendly, they have a closed architecture where it is very difﬁcult or impossible to simulate component models. Further, most industrial-grade tools require substantial training before they can be used productively. A simulation package like PowerWorld Simulator has the power for serious engineering analysis and also it can be used to explain power system operations to nontechnical audiences. The simulator allows the user to visualize the system through the use of full-color animated oneline diagrams

Correspondence to B. Vahidi (vahidi@aut.ac.ir). ß 2010 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

although it has not protection component models. Power System Analysis toolbox (PSAT)—a freely available MATLAB implementation—is a MATLAB toolbox for electric power system analysis and control. PSAT includes power ﬂow, continuation power ﬂow, optimal power ﬂow, small signal stability analysis, and time domain simulation, although it has no protection component models either. Some commercial tools like ETAP and DIgSILENT have most of protection component models but require substantial training. A widespread environment for simulation of power engineering problems is MATLAB-SIMULINK. Many simulations of different aspects of a power system and engineering application using MATLAB_SIMULINK have been presented by different researchers [1À11]. Martin and Fernandez [1] used SIMULINK to model the overcurrent relay and fault circuit breaker. Zhang et al. used MATLAB-SIMULINK to test and model the protection devices for shipboard power systems [2]. Luo and Kezunovic [3] introduced SIMULINK for modeling digital relay. Zocholl and Mooney [4] used MATLAB

1

which requires that the operating current. the pick-up threshold of the protection is increased in proportion to the total current ﬂow where k is a compensation factor.5 or 1. The success rate of students in understanding the subject shows the ability of this method.18]. Deep et al. The harmonic-restrained differential relay compares the fundamental component of the operating current with a restraint signal consisting of the unfiltered restraint current plus the harmonics of the operating current. the harmonic-based methods are used for either restraining or blocking the relay from operation during initial current inrush. . requires critical attention from the standpoint of its protection. it is highly desirable to simulate the differential protection of a transformer. Implementation of differential protection is simpler in the case of protected objects that are not geographically spread out (transformers. Figure 2 Characteristic of a percentage differential relay. Using MATLAB for power systems simulation and analysis are described in Ref. Karagiannis et al. where the CTs are situated close together. However. one of them is differential protection of power transformers. this current sum must always be equal to zero (Kirchhoff’s current law) if the protected object is unfaulted (Fig. Chow and Cheung [5] introduced a MATLAB-based toolbox for power system dynamics and control engineering education and research. A power transformer. Therefore. Given that harmonic content of the short circuit currents is negligible. Application of MATLAB in ferroresonance modeling is introduced in Ref. This dividing line is called the characteristic of the differential relay. Larsson [12] described a power system library called ObjectStab for power system stability simulation. Internal faults are therefore detected by the appearance of a differential or operating current [14À16]. The effectiveness of the differential relay used for protecting transformers against faults is undisputed [17. The upper part is the operating region while the lower part is the restraining region.2 VAHIDI AND ESMAEELI simulation to compare with overcurrent relay testing. generators. being a vital and expensive piece of equipment in a power system. In this course fundamentals and different methods of protection are taught. MATLAB simulation is used by El Sayed and Eldin [6] for discrimination between inrush current and fault current.1 as an instructional tool to teach differential protection of power transformer to undergraduate students. the protection sensitivity is automatically matched to the prevailing short circuit conditions [14]. Kezunovic et al. The differential relay operation condition can be expressed as IOP > SLPi Â IRT þ k2 I2h þ k3 I3h þ Á Á Á ð4Þ Figure 1 Differential protection principle. the students of power system engineering should be familiar with differential protection of power transformers. busbars). be higher in order to cause operation of the differential relay IOP ¼ I1s ÀI2s IRT ¼ kðI1s þ I2s Þ ð1Þ ð2Þ PRINCIPLE OF DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION Differential protection calculates the sum of all currents ﬂowing into and out of the protected object. Other methods are employed by other researcher. the CTs may be connected to the protection device directly via control cables [14. The protection design for a transformer is the duty of power system engineers. [10] developed computer exercise by using MATLAB software. This method of instruction has enabled students to understand the techniques of this kind of protection (a power system together with relay are simulated and results are obtained from simulation). (stabilizing or bias current). A line divides the coordinate plane into two parts. Harmonicbased methods allow the differential relay to remain sensitive to fault currents while keeping the relay from operating due to magnetizing currents. Our course on power system protection is taken by students in 15 weeks (3 h per week). 1). as shown in Figure 2. to define the relay operation on a coordinate plane. Apart from magnetizing currents and capacitive charging currents. The authors of this article have been using MATLABSIMULINK 7. [7] used MATLAB for optimal relay operating times determination. [13] used visual LinProg in mathematical programming course to supplement the teaching. generally taken as 0. Percentage restraint differential protection employs the restraint current IRT. therefore. Thereby. The operation of a percentage-differential relay can be expressed by the following equation: IOP > SLPi Â IRT ð3Þ where SLPi is the slope of the ith characteristic of the differential relay. together with the operating current IOP. Typical characteristic of differential relays presents a small slope for low currents to allow sensitivity to light internal faults. IOP. In this case. [11] used MATLAB web server to facilitate the education of mathematical programming.15]. [8]. the major drawback of this technique stems from its potential for false tripping caused by the transient magnetizing inrush current. the slope of the characteristic is much higher. Lazaridis et al. [9]. For security against maloperation due to current transformer (CT) transformation errors. At higher currents.

these methods are out of scope of this educational article. .62 þ j0. The model takes into account the winding resistances and the leakage inductances as well as the magnetizing characteristics of the core.1 3. IRT is the unfiltered restraint current.MATLAB-SIMULINK-BASED SIMULATION 3 Table 1 Typical Amplitude of the Harmonics Amplitude (% of fundamental) 55 63 26.784 O.7 2. c phases.20] In Table 1 typical amplitudes of the harmonics are shown. which is modeled by a resistance simulating the core active losses and a saturable inductance. Vlow voltage (phase to phase) ¼ 33 kV. (4) Fourier: The Fourier block performs a Fourier analysis of the input signal over a running window of one cycle of the fundamental frequency of the signal. This block removes the zero-sequence component of the input current. k2. . Figure 3 Simulated circuit on MATLAB-SIMULINK [25]. In the present simulation for 800/10 A the CT burden is 1. 1/3*(Àu(1) þ 2*u(2) À u(3)). . A more recent set of techniques use only the second harmonic to identify inrush currents and the ﬁfth harmonic to avoid misoperations for transformer due to overexcitation [19. . (8) Relay: Described in the next section. respectively. The second-order harmonic of the asymmetrical magnetization is peculiar to the inrush. .1 4. I3h. Vhigh voltage (phase to phase) ¼ 132 kV. and 1/ 3*(Àu(1) À u(2) þ 2*u(3)) for a. compared with the fundamental (100%) [21].4 SIMULATED CIRCUIT The circuit that is simulated on MATLAB-SIMULINK is shown in Figure 3 and simulated circuit for differential relay is shown in Figure 4. . are constant coefficients. k3. Harmonic components in magnetizing inrush current DC Second harmonic Third harmonic Fourth harmonic Fifth harmonic Sixth harmonic Seventh harmonic where IOP is the fundamental component of the operating current. The math functions for these blocks are 1/ 3*(2*u(1) À u(2) À u(3)).26]: (4) CT relay: The CT relay consists of three saturable transformer block model. (2) Fcn block: The Fcn block applies the specified C language style expression to its input. (5) Three-phase transformer: Power and voltage of power transformer that is used in the present simulation is Pn ¼ 150 MVA.8 5. b. I2h. Descriptions of different parts of circuit are as follows [25. are higher harmonics of the operating current. . Many studies based on the use of wavelet and neural network analysis to characterize inrush currents aim to recognize the inrush current and to distinguish it from an internal fault current [22À24].

% I(8:10) ! k2*I2h (2nd harmonic) I(11:13) ! k3*I3h (3rd harmonic) inrush ¼ (I(8:10) þ I(11:13)). The voltage incidence angle and the residual ﬂux are main factors to determine the ﬁrst peak value of the inrush current and it mainly contains the fundamental frequency and second harmonic. which helps us in simulating power system protection equipment.and third-harmonic components (I(8:13)) to utilize in inrush current detection. Relay settings and command feedback are entered as I(14:16) and I(7). Therefore. Digital ﬁlters (Fourier blocks) extract the fundamental.4 VAHIDI AND ESMAEELI Figure 4 Simulated circuit for differential relay [25]. i ¼ 1. inrush ¼ max(I(8:10) þ I(11:13)). second-. % bias percent k2 ¼ k1. end if I(7) < 0. while i 3 if I(14) > 0. %I2s i_setting1 ¼ I(15). the fundamental or any harmonic component of the input signal. ibias ¼ sqrt(2)*abs(i2_m þ i1_m)/2. Both magnitudes decrease as the inrush current diminishes and we do not want the differential relay to declare a trip condition while energizing an unfaulted transformer. and ﬁfth-harmonic (overexcitation can introduce ﬁfth-harmonic level) quantities from the digital signals. break end if ibias(i) > i_setting1 if idiff(i) > (k1*ibias(i) þ i_setting1 þ inrush) % IOP SLPi IRT þ k2 I2h þ k3 I3h x ¼ 0. MATLAB scripts must be written in order to model the relays. Other inputs are second. (10) Embedded MATLAB function: MATLAB and SIMULINK presently do not have a toolbox. The Fourier block can be programmed to calculate the magnitude and phase of the DC component. % current setting i_setting2 ¼ i_setting1. % open the circuit breaker if there is a fault break . Zero sequence elimination and extraction of fundamental component are implemented by blocks (2) and (4) and are inputs of the Embedded Function block (I(1:6)). This decision block implements the characteristic of a percentage differential relay. x ¼ 1. function x ¼ fcn(I) i1_m ¼ I(1:3).5 % if there is a fault x ¼ 0.1 % energize the power transformer x ¼ 1. respectively. % k2*I2h þ k3*I3h idiff ¼ abs(i1_m À i2_m) À inrush. k1 ¼ I(16). %I1s i2_m ¼ I(4:6).

Figure 6 shows the A Phase to B Phase to ground fault condition on the high-voltage side of transformer under load condition. Figure 7 shows the A Phase to B Phase to ground fault condition on the high-voltage side of transformer during inrush current process (fault þ inrush current) under load condition. end %while if x ¼ 0 x ¼ 1. the transformer is energized at no-load condition and the result is shown in Figure 5. During energize period of transformer the differential relay should not operate.MATLAB-SIMULINK-BASED SIMULATION 5 else x ¼ 1. Fault Conditions In order to show the behavior of differential relay under different fault conditions and conﬁrm that the relay operate under fault condition a series of simulation is conducted and results are shown in Figures 6À9. For all these kinds of faults the relay should operate and remove the fault. Figure 5 Currents and voltages during inrush current condition. Results show that the designed differential relay is not operated under inrush current. end SIMULATION RESULTS Inrush Current In order to check the behavior of the relay under inrush current. . else x ¼ 0. % open the circuit breaker if there is an unbalanced situation break else x ¼ 1. % leave circuit in close circuit if there is a balanced situation end else if idiff(i) > (k1*ibias(i) þ i_setting1 þ (k1 À k2)*i_setting2) x ¼ 0. % leave circuit in close circuit if there is balanced situation end end i ¼ i þ 1.

Figure 7 Currents and voltages during A Phase to B Phase to ground fault condition þ inrush current.6 VAHIDI AND ESMAEELI Figure 6 Currents and voltages during A Phase to B Phase to ground fault condition. .

MATLAB-SIMULINK-BASED SIMULATION 7 Figure 8 Currents and voltages during A Phase to ground fault condition. . Figure 9 Currents and voltages during A Phase to B Phase to C Phase fault condition.

or to serve as useful preparatory exercises during the power system protection course.. it is very useful for educational purposes where the budget is limited. it can be concluded that the designed relay is working properly and can discriminate inrush from internal faults and it works on different fault condition.e. the rate of understanding increases. Students understanding chart. Figure 11 shows the understanding rate of students of each group in four successive tries. To assess the depth of learning of learners of this test. the instructor has the obligation to check learners whether they have attained the learning outcomes or not. The test is performed on four groups (i. Before using the simulator. It is good to mention that during each try. Same questions are asked of students after each try of using the simulator. The following questions are prepared for testing the students whether they gained all the concepts or not: (1) How is differential relay acting? (2) Explain the differences between voltage and current waveforms due to inrush current phenomena and fault phenomena. after the ﬁrst try. a question sheet is prepared. However. Figure 9 shows the A Phase to B Phase to C Phase fault condition on the high-voltage side of transformer under load condition. In a course. G3. G2. Figure 11 Number of students in each group who have understood the concept in successive four tries of using the simulator. The ﬁnal result is also shown for cumulative number of learning of students during four tries in Figure 12. Therefore. The undergraduate students can learn how to model and simulate the relay for power system protection studies.8 VAHIDI AND ESMAEELI Figure 10 Number of students who have understood the concept before using the simulator. To be noted is that before the ﬁrst try of using the simulator. the students may focus on the questions that they have not answered correctly. As it can be seen from this chart. G1. Figure 12 Figure 8 shows the A Phase to ground fault condition on the high-voltage side of transformer under load condition. From the above results. A student is said to understand the concept. working procedure with simulator is taught ﬁrst and the questions are based only on the machine itself. all the students have got the concepts by using the simulation utilities (at the end of each try the same questions are asked). the learning rate in all four groups is low. Several fault conditions are simulated and interruption of current shows that designed differential relay work properly. CONCLUSION The present article has outlined and illustrated a MATLABSIMULINK model to simulate power transformers digital differential protection. STUDENTS FEEDBACK Assessment of learning outcomes refers to speciﬁc processes through which learners demonstrate the attainment of learning outcomes. The designed relay is tested for high impedance fault and it works properly on this kind of internal fault. with different learners. After four tries. the understanding rate of students in each group is shown in Figure 10. The students are required to answer the questions after theoretical sessions are attained and before using the simulator. it may take more than four tries for educators to learn the subject to all the learners. The method considerably reduces the time and cost needed to teach power transformers differential protection. In a different test. . The students can get the idea from this article and design differential relays or other kind of relays for different simulation jobs. if he/she answers all the questions correctly. and G4) of students (15 students per group).

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