Perspective Plan

VISION - 2025

IIVR

I NS

TE O TU TI

F VEGETA

BL

E
RE

RC H SE A

Hkkd`vuqi ICAR

INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

INDIAN

Perspective Plan

VISION - 2025

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE RESEARCH
(Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Post Bag No. 1, P.O. - Jakhani (Shahanshahpur) Varanasi – 221 305, U.P., India Phone : 91-542-2635236, 37, 47, Fax: 91-5443-229007 E-mail : mathura.rai@gmail.com website : www.iivr.org.in

IIVR

I NS

TE O TU TI

F VEGETA

BL

E
RE

RC H SE A

Hkkd`vuqi ICAR

INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

INDIAN

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE RESEARCH
(Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Post Bag No. 1, P.O. - Jakhani (Shahanshahpur) Varanasi – 221 305, U.P., India Phone : 91-542-2635236, 37, 47, Fax: 91-5443-229007 E-mail : mathura.rai@gmail.com website : www.iivr.org.in

Published by Dr. Mathura Rai Director Compiled and edited Dr. Mathura Rai Dr. Jagdish Singh

Correct Citation IIVR - Perspective Plan Vision-2025 Indian Institute of Vegetable Research Varanasi

August, 2007

Printed at : Army Printing Press, 33 Nehru Road, Cantt Sadar, Lucknow-226 002, Tel : 0522-2481164

Contents
Page No. Foreword PREFACE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. PREAMBLE 1.1 Mission 1.2 Vision 2. MANDATE 3. GROWTH 3.1 Infrastructure 3.2 Budget 3.3 Manpower 4. SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS 5. IMPACT ASSESSMENT 5.1 Growth 5.2 Input-Output assessment 5.3 Gaps and Short comings 5.4 Lessons learnt, Suggestions and Options for Future 6 SCENARIO AND SWOT ANALYSES 6.1 National Scenario 6.2 SWOT analysis 6.3 Strength 6.4 Weakness 6.5 Opportunities 6.6 Threats 7 PERSPECTIVE 8 ISSUES AND STRATEGIES 8.1 New Initiatives 9 PROGRAMME AND PROJECTS ON TIME SCALE FOR FUND REQUIREMENTS 10 LINKAGE, COORDINATION AND EXECUTION ARRANGEMENTS 10.1 Linkages with National organizations 10.2 Linkages with International organizations 11 CRITICAL INPUTS 11.1 Funds 11.2 Human Resource Development 12 RISKS ANALYSIS BASED ON SWOT 13 PROJECT REVIEW, REPORTING AND EVALUATION ARRANGEMENTS 14 RESOURCE GENERATION 15 OUTPUT PROJECTIONS 16 UTILITY OF RESEARCH OUTCOME FOR TRADE INDUSTRIES, FARMERS AND END USERS 17 EXPORT POTENTIAL AND MARKETABILITY OF RESEARCH OUTPUT AND ITS IMPACT IN WTO REGIME 18 ANTICIPATED CONSTRAINTS 1 2 2 2 2 3 5 5 6 27 27 28 29 31 31 31 34 34 36 38 39 41 47 55 61 63 63 64 65 65 65 65 66 66 66 67 67 68

Foreword
Indian agriculture must continuously evolve to remain ever responsive to manage the change and to meet the growing and diversified needs of different stakeholders in the entire production to consumption chain. In order to capitalize on the opportunities and to convert weaknesses into opportunities, we at the ICAR attempted to visualize an alternate agricultural scenario from present to twenty years. Hence, in this endeavour, an in-depth analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) was undertaken to place our research and technology development efforts in perspective so that we succeed in our pursuit of doing better than the best. Accordingly, the researchable issues are identified, strategies drawn and programmes indicated to have commensurate projects and relevant activities coinciding with the launch of the 11th Five Year Plan. The Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR), Varanasi has laid emphasis on developing varieties with suitable horticultural traits, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, production technologies to improve the productivity and quality of vegetables, and to reduce the post-harvest losses. Accordingly, the research programmes have been suggested on a time scale in crop improvement, crop production, crop protection and transfer of technology. The major emphasis has been laid on genetic resource management, developing high yielding hybrids and varieties, molecular marker assisted breeding, development of transgenics, functional genomics of tomato for resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses, integrated nutrient management, organic farming, protected cultivation and integrated pest management including biological control. The national and international linkages have been proposed for effective exchange of scientific ideas and germplasm. It is expected that realizing the Vision embodied in this document would further ensure that IIVR, Varanasi continues to fulfill its mandate to make Indian agriculture locally, regionally and globally competitive. The efforts and valuable inputs provided by my colleagues at the Headquarters and by the Director and his team at the Institute for over an year to develop Vision 2025 deserve appreciation.

March, 2007

(MANGALA RAI) Secretary, Department of Agricultural Research & Education and Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi 110 001, India

Preface
In India, horticulture is on the threshold of a significant transformation from the traditional systems, low investment of capital and technology and poor post harvest management to more value addition activities and value added horticultural products. The ensuing developments as a result demand commitment for firm support to the horticultural sector. Vegetables, an essential component of our diet, have made significant contribution in providing food and nutritional security of the country. As a result of concerted efforts made in the research and development of vegetable crops in the post independence era, India has emerged as the second largest producer of vegetables after China, contributing to about 14 per cent to the world vegetable production. The credit of this significant achievement goes to our extensive research and development network. Technological innovations and development of hybrids have increased vegetable production tremendously. In addition, breeding varieties for higher yield, resistance to diseases and insect pest and availability of disease-free breeding materials are the major hallmarks in the vegetable research and development. High value crops are also high risk crops. Vegetables are highly prone to pest infestation, moisture stress, vagaries of weather and market fluctuation. Thus, conscious effort to encourage environment friendly vegetable farming systems is the need of hour. In addition, there is a need to reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides through eco-friendly farming practices. Ever since the establishment of WTO, the debate on trade liberalization and its impact on environment have gained momentum. It is expected that in the post-patent regime, activities of multinationals in the field of horticulture would increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to safeguard the interests of small and marginal farmers. The perspective plan document, VISION-2025 will provide a road map to the need based research towards sustainable growth of vegetable sector with an ultimate aim of contributing significantly to the nutritional security of the country through the development of technologies which are resource sustainable, economically viable and environmentally safe. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Mangala Rai, Secretary, DARE and Director General, ICAR for his inspiration, vision and guidance in the preparation of the Vision document. I am also grateful to Dr. H.P. Singh, DDG (Horticulture), ICAR for his keen interest, guidance and support to finalize this document. I thank Dr. S.N. Pandey and Dr. K.V. Ramana, ADG (Horticulture) and all the officers of the Horticulture Division, ICAR who made valuable contribution directly or indirectly during the development of this perspective plan. The inputs and suggestions from Dr. H.K. Jain, Chairman, RAC and the members of RAC is gratefully acknowledged.

Varanasi August, 2007

Mathura Rai Director, IIVR

Executive Summary
In the global endeavor for food and nutritional security, the vegetable crops and their nutritional value are of special significance. In addition, vegetables are usually higher in productivity, have shorter maturity cycle, high value and provide a valuable source of income, leading to improved livelihood. Thus, the growth in vegetable sector has played an important role in the country’s economic development and human health. The overall growth rate of 1.96% in area, 2.22% in productivity and 4.39% in total production has been achieved during the last five years. In view of increase in population, socio-economic inequity and fragmentation of land holdings, growing vegetables appears to be the best alternative for the farmers as the productivity of vegetables per unit area is 3-5 times higher than field crops. Vegetables can contribute largely to solve the food and nutritional problems of the country. Our demand of vegetables will be 170 million tonnes by 2025, whereas the expected production at the present growth rate would be about 160 million tonnes. The perspective plan for Indian Institute of Vegetable Research has been prepared based on the guidelines provided by the Council. The basic information consists of mandate, budget, manpower, salient research achievements, impact of the technology generated by the Institute and crop growth. The technologies generated on the mandate crops, i.e., tomato, brinjal, chilli, peas, okra, cabbage, melons, cucumber, bitter gourd and bottle gourd have also been presented, reflecting the achievements of the organization. The national scenario of vegetable crops in terms of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) has been critical1y analyzed. In this context, crop-wise scenario for various factors like natural, biological, sustainability, research, trade, processing, pricing, infrastructure, liberalization, involvement of public and private sectors have been reviewed. Tremendous yield potential of the vegetable crops, availability of diverse germplasm, short growing period, adequate market potential including export, scope for processing, high pricing, cheap manpower for raising the crop, OGL policy of the Government, social status for food habit and fast growth and interaction of public and private sectors are salient strengths of the vegetable R& D in India. However, the high cost of hybrid seeds, fluctuation in prices, inadequate processing units and storage facilities, poor infrastructure and marketing facilities are some of the weak links. Nevertheless, there is tremendous scope to increase productivity, generation of employment, support to the industry and export of the vegetables which will be a payoff to the farmers. The Perspective has been delineated considering the challenges and resources available and scenario of production and demand in future. In order to meet the target of vegetable production, various issues have been identified and research programme of various disciplines of vegetable crops and their production and utilization have been prepared. The entire research programme, including basic, applied and strategic research along with budget have also been presented.

1.

PREAMBLE

Vegetables including root and tuber crops occupy an important place in diversification of agriculture and have played pivotal role in food and nutritional security of ever growing population of our country. In India, more than 60 indigenous and exotic vegetables belonging to different groups, namely cucurbits, cole crops, solanaceous, root and leafy vegetables are grown in different agro-climatic conditions of the country. Among these, tomato, onion, brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, okra and peas are major vegetable crops grown in the country. Significant achievements have been made in increasing the vegetable production in the country; as a result India has emerged as second largest producer of vegetables being next only to China. The country has to go a long way to accelerate the vegetable production, considering the national and international demand. There is a need to achieve the target of 170 million tonnes by the end of 2025. About 30 lesser-known and underutilized vegetable crops require attention for research and development to promote their cultivation. To date, research emphasis has been concentrated on major vegetables like tomato, eggplant, chilli, okra, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, cauliflower, melons and peas. Under All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project, 347 varieties have been identified and recommended for release for cultivation in different agro-climatic zones in 22 major vegetables. A number of production and protection technologies have also been developed and recommended. Vegetables have great potential for export and so far there is no systematic research programme in the country to meet the global market standards. A well-planned research programme is required to address these issues and also the issues pertaining to protected cultivation to boost the export of vegetable crops. There are some issues in research which warrant adequate attention with special reference to the problems of diseases and pests. Developing resistant varieties and plant protection technology can minimize such problems. Further, resistance breeding programmes should be supplemented by the integrated pest management approach to reduce the application of chemicals and environmental pollution. Looking at the national scenario, vegetables have tremendous strength in terms of natural resources and biological assets especially genetic resources. A large number of wild taxa of indigenous vegetables are available in the different agro-ecological zones of the country and hardly some of them have been capitalized. Therefore, concerted efforts are required to exploit these resources with modern biotechnogical and genetic engineering applications. The strength of vegetable research and development in our country is the rich biodiversity, potential market, cheap labour and qualified scientific manpower. To strengthen the vegetable research in the country, the AICRP (VC) was started during 4th five-year plan. The project has been envisaged as a national network of multidisciplinary research on the improvement of major vegetable crops at eight main and 18 sub centres and 31 voluntary centres. The major task of AICRP was multilocational testing of the varieties developed by different research institutes and SAUs under AICRP (VC) network project located in different agro climatic zones to identify suitable varieties of different important crop for specific climatic zones, agro-techniques and techniques of pest and disease management. Rich germplasm of vegetables are the basic requirement of breeding programme, hence programmes were also undertaken on germplasm collection, maintenance and evaluation of important vegetable crops. Under the AICRP (VC), the major focus will be to test, evaluate, identify and recommend new technologies for the stakeholders which, include farmers, processors, seed traders and exporters. In the wake of liberalization of seed policy, large quantities of seeds of vegetables are being imported and marketed in the country. To a great extent it offers a threat due to the introduction of new diseases and insect pests in coming years. A strong quarantine as well as multi location testing of the seeds before commercial sale/distribution will be vital to the country. Notwithstanding the development of numerous technologies, there is a critical gap between experimental
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yield and national average which, needs to be minimized by a strong extension service, training and demonstration. Further; there is need of execution of a programme like frontline demonstrations in vegetable crops with the financial support of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture. Such approaches will help to reduce the yield gap between the farmers’ field and experimental field. Also there is a need of technology assessment, technology refinement and technology transfer. In the coming years, in view of the fragmentation of land and change of food habits and nutritional quality of the vegetables, research and development have to play a vital role in overall economic well being of the farmers of the country. However, this needs strong support from the Government to equip this dynamic sector with latest technology to meet the national and international challenges. The perspective plan for Indian Institute of Vegetable Research aims at the transformation of this sector into the most modern one to cater to the needs of the research, to solve the problems, and to create more avenues for employment generation and earn export revenue. 1.1 Mission The mission of Indian Institute of Vegetable Research is to contribute significantly to the nutritional security of India through the development of production technologies of vegetable crops, which are resource sustainable, economically viable and environmentally safe. 1.2 Vision The vision of the institute is to achieve the projected growth rate in vegetables by developing innovative technologies to fulfill the following objectives : L To increase the vegetable production and productivity on sustainable basis to meet the challenges of food & nutritional security. L To improve the soil health for increased productivity. L To reduce the cost of vegetable production for its sustainability and survival under global competition. L To cope up with the emerging challenges as a result of globalization.

2. MANDATE
L L L L L L

To undertake innovative, basic, strategic, anticipatory and applied research for developing technologies to enhance productivity of vegetable crops, their nutrient quality and post-harvest management. To provide scientific leadership in coordinated network research for solving location-specific problems of production and to monitor breeder seed production of released / notified varieties and parental lines. To act as a national repository of scientific information relevant to vegetable crops and as a centre for training for up-gradation of scientific manpower working on vegetable crops. To develop high yielding, good quality, disease and insect pest resistant varieties/hybrids of selected vegetable crops. To develop advanced production and protection technologies for selected vegetable varieties/hybrids. To undertake germplasm collection, maintenance and documentation in vegetable crops.

3. GROWTH
In order to sustain the growth of vegetable production and productivity in India, ICAR approved a separate research institute on vegetables namely, Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR) during the year 1999. Prior to this, vegetable research was started through establishment of AICRP on vegetables during 1971 at IARI, New Delhi with the responsibilities of coordinating and monitoring vegetable research programmes of the country. To give a fillip to the research and to meet the challenges, the status of AICRP on vegetable crops was elevated to the level of Project Directorate of Vegetable Research (PDVR) during 1986 and in 1992 the headquarter was shifted to Varanasi from IARI, New Delhi. After that the institute has grown
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from a small office in a rented house into a full fledged institute in a 150 acre campus at the outer periphery of the holy city, Varanasi. Location and Physiography The Institute is located at 82.52 0E longitude and 25-11 0N latitude and is situated approximately 20 kms from the Varanasi city towards southwest on Varanasi - Mohansarai - Adalpura Road.  It is also connected by Varanasi- DLW - Chunar Road. Rainfall is distributed over a period of more than 100 days with peak period between July-August and average precipitation of 1000 mm. Scattered showers occur during winter months.  In general, the temperatures range from 50C to 420C.  The coldest month is January while hotest months are May and June. 3.1 Infrastructure Laboratory Complex Within a short span of time, an excellent laboratory complex building and research infrastructure has been developed. This complex has 24 well-equipped laboratories for conducting researches on various disciplines of vegetable science, viz. Crop Improvement - PGR management, Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Molecular Breeding, Transgenics, Tissue Culture, Seed Technology, Crop Production Agronomy, Soil Science, Crop Physiology and Biochemistry, Post harvest Technology, Statistics, Economics and Extension, Crop Protection - Integrated Pest and Disease Management, Residue Analysis and Bio-Control. Library Library is currently subscribing 87 journals of national and international repute. CAB and AGRIS abstracts are available from 1970 onwards. Library has more than 1300 books and encyclopedia, rich collection of annual reports and newsletters of national and international research institutes to facilitate the researchers. Museum and Auditorium A museum has been established in the centre of the building so that visitors can have first hand information about the various developments of vegetable research. A magnificent auditorium to accommodate about 350 persons has been established. Gene Bank In the laboratory complex, a well-equipped gene bank has been established for medium term conservation of precious germplasm of vegetable crops. Vegetable Research Farm To execute the research projects of various disciplines, a research farm has been developed on 150 acres of land. The farm has three submersible tube wells, under ground irrigation systems, sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation and water harvesting facilities. The research farm has ideal approach road and adequate drainage facilities to undertake research activities. Greenhouses and polyhouses The institute has modern glass houses, polyhouses and net houses facilities to undertake different research programme under protected cultivation and to multiply precious materials. One of the glass house has been specifically designed for growing transgenic crops and screening of germplasm for biotic stress.

Green houses for protected cultivation

Polyhouses for off season cultivation

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Seed Processing Unit A well equipped seed processing unit has been established for high quality processing of seeds to supply to the farmers and producing agency.

ARIS Cell The institute’s ARIS Cell is working with 16 work stations and one server. All the computers of different divisions are connected to each other with Local Area Network on fiber optic backbone. Internet and e-mail connectivity has been provided to all the sections through V-SAT, broad band V-SAT installed by FRNET, New Delhi.

Seed processing unit

ARIS Cell Centre of Excellence for Training (CET) IIVR being the pioneer institute in research and development in vegetables in our country has been recognized as a centre of excellence for training on vegetable production technology by the Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, New Delhi. In addition to that, ICAR has recognized this institute as ‘Trainers Training Centre’ for vegetables. A well-furnished training hostel has been established at the Institute for the stay of participants during the training programme.

Agriculture Technology Information Centre (ATIC): A single window delivery system ATIC was established in the Institute during 2002 and a separate building has been constructed at the entrance of the Institute for the benefit of farmers and other stakeholders. The ATIC in IIVR is functioning with the following objectives: L To provide a single window delivery system for the products and services viz., quality vegetable seeds, production and protection technology. L To facilitate direct access for the vegetable growers and other stakeholders to institutional resources available in terms of training, demonstration, technology advice and technology product. L To provide mechanism for feed back from the users to the Institute. Agricultural Technology Information Centre (ATIC) AICRP on Vegetables – the largest Network in Vegetable Research The vegetable research in our country is well knitted through AICRP on Vegetable crops with largest network of 8 main, 18 sub and 31 voluntary centres. National Seed Project on vegetable crops A separate NSP on vegetables was approved and initiated by this organization in 1994. Under this programme for breeder seed production, ICAR has set up 4 units in ICAR Research Institutes and 10 units in the State Agricultural Universities. In the Divisional concept of the Council, such breeder seed production units dealing with vegetables (excluding potato) are being looked after by the Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi. Seed Multiplication Centre A new centre for seed production was proposed in the Xth Plan which has now been established in 250 acres of land at Sargatia. Government of U.P. has handed over its Horticulture farm at Sargatia in district Kushinagar to Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi specifically for seed production purpose.
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Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Another important step in the growth of this institute is the establishment of a KVK at Sargatia under the administrative control of IIVR. It is located at a distance of 90 km from Gorakhpur on Delhi-Guwahati highway (NH -28) in Kushinagar district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. 3.2 Budget (Rs. in lakhs)
Plan period VIIth Plan VIII Plan IXth Plan
th

Plan 167.94 868.74 IIVR- 1325.00 AICRP- 835.0 NSP- 430 IIVR- 1634.50 AICRP-1651.33 NSP-615.66

Non Plan IIVR- 442.00 AICRP- Nil NSP- Nil IIVR- 1143.93 AICRP- Nil NSP- Nil

Total 167.94 868.74 1767.0 835.0 430.0 2778.43 1651.33 615.66

Xth Plan

3.3 Manpower A. Sanctioned Plan Period VIIIth Plan IXth Plan Xth Plan Scientific 30+1 53+1 Technical 29 (-3)* 26 Administration 16 (-1)* 15 Supporting 17 (-1)* 16

*Posts surrendered during the plan

B. In Position (Xth Plan) Staff Position (Category-wise) in Xth Plan Research Management Position Scientific Administrative Technical Supporting Sanctioned 1 53 15 26 16 Filled 1 27 15 25 16 Vacant 0 26 0 1 0

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4. SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS Crop Improvement
Genetic Resources To meet the breeding objectives, efforts have been made to augment indigenous germplasm through exploration and exotic lines through introduction in different vegetable crops. A total of about 6000 germplasm lines of different vegetable crops have been augmented, which are being utilized in crop improvement. Molecular markers for genetic purity testing of tomato hybrids Out of 394 primers used for screening of NTH-1 hybrid and its parents (DVRT-1, Flora Dade), 375 primers produced amplicons, of which only six primers (1.6%) showed polymorphism. Data of these 6 primers were analyzed to distinguish the primer that produced bands specific to the male parent. The primer OPB 16 was found to be useful in determining the purity of the hybrid NTH-1 which primer generated a male specific OPB161193 marker. Genetic purity testing of brinjal hybrids A total of 300 primers (10 mer) were used for screening polymorphism. Six primers were found useful in determining the seed purity of three hybrids. For hybrid Kashi Sandesh male specific primer, OPE-2 2000 was found most suitable for hybrid purity testing. For Kashi Komal, the male specific primer OPJ-12 1000 was found most suitable. For VR-3 the primer OPU-19 1700 was found most suitable male specific marker. Genetic purity testing of hybrids in chilli Two commercial F1 hybrids, viz., CCH-2 (A1 x Pusa Jwala) and CCH-3 (KA-2 x RPBC-473) and their corresponding parents were analyzed for hybrid purity testing. A total of 200 random primers were used for screening polymorphism in parents. Four primers were found useful in determining the seed purity of two hybrids. For hybrid CCH-2, OPZ-6700 was found most Male specific marker in chilli hybrid CCH-2 suitable marker for hybrid purity testing . For hybrid CCH-3, two male-specific bands with primers (OPS-1 and OPQ-18) were found out of which OPS-1 400 was found most suitable for hybrid purity testing.
Variability in fruits of vegetables

Male specific RAPD marker for tomato hybrid purity testing

Male specific marker for brinjal hybrid Kashi Sandesh

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Female sex associated RAPD marker in pointed gourd Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an important cucurbitaceous vegetable having dioecious flowering habit. Plants bearing either male or female flower were investigated for the genotypic differntiation between male and female plants using RAPD technique. One RAPD marker (OPC07564) consistently appeared only in the female plants, suggesting thereby the female sex-associated RAPD marker. Cytoplasmic-male sterility (cms) in chilli Based on fertility reaction of test cross progenies derived from CCA-4261 cms line and inbred lines, more than 150 chilli and sweet pepper inbreds have been grouped into restorer (Rf gene) and maintainer (rf gene) lines. The results revealed less frequent distribution of maintainer gene (rf) in small-fruited chilli inbreds and restorer gene (Rf) in comparatively large fruited sweet pepper inbreds. This result was further confirmed by the fact that testcross progenies Inbred restorer and maintainer used for derived from cms and 100 RILs families (derived from chilli x sweet testing validity of Rf gene associated RAPD markers pepper), only two RILs had rf gene. The two previously known RAPD markers (OPW19800 and OPP131400) associated with Rf gene was tested in 47 newly identified restorer and maintainer inbred plants of chilli and sweet pepper and it was found that both the markers had narrow origin and distribution. Elite materials Gynoecism in bitter gourd Rare occurrence of complete gynoecism has been observed in bitter gourd germplasm. For the first time, inheritance of gynoecism was examined in a gynoecious line (Gy263B). The complete expression of femaleness (gynoecism) in Gy263B line Gynoecious bittergourd was found to be under the control of single recessive gene. (gy-1). Parthenocarpic pointed gourd For the first time, a parthenocarpic clone of pointed gourd was identified and multiplied through cuttings. These parthenocarpic fruits have better nutritional value and consumer preference. Pepper leaf Curl Virus resistance in Chilli (Capsicum species)
Parthenocarpic Three hundred and seven genotypes belonging to four cultivated and one wild pointed gourd species of Capsicum were screened against pepper leaf curl virus (PepLCV) causing devastating leaf curl disease of chilli (Capsicum annuum). Subsequently, selfed progenies of eight progenies of eight symptom-less and highly resistant lines were challenged by viruliferous white fly under glasshouse conditions, out of which only three genotypes, viz. GKC-29, BS-35 and EC-497636 showed no symptom. Using scion and root stalk of susceptible genotype (Pusa Jawala,), these three putative symptom-less genotypes were further challenged by grafting and alternate grafting. When subjected to PCR amplification with degenerate

Female sex associated RAPD marker in pointed gourd

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primers designed to detect geminivirus like PepLCV, the these symptom- less genotypes did not show any amplification, suggesting that the resistant reaction in three identified symptom- less resistant sources was because of the absence of viral genome. Identification of Dwarf genotype in Okra Okra line no. 315 is identified with short internodal length (0.4 to 0.7 cm), dwarf plant type (12-15 cm) and bushy nature (2-3 effective branches). Plant bears 10-15 fruits per plant having 7-9 ridges. It can be utilized in breeding programme for developing dwarf variety and short internodal length. Pumpkin with high carotene The line SA 90 has been developed for high carotene content through inbreeding. It is vigorous in vine growth, bears 1.6 fruits plant with fruit weight of 4.0-5.15 kg. The polar and equatorial circumference of fruit is 72 cm and 85.5 cm, respectively. The colour of fruit is dark yellow fresh. It has 3-4 month storage capacity at ambient room temperature.
High carotenoid pumpkin BS-35 scion on susceptible Pusa Jawala

Dwarf okra

Downey mildew resistant snapmelon Genotypes of Cucumis melo var. momordica (snapmelon) were evaluated under epiphytic field condition during summer. Out of these, genotypes, B-184 and B-159 were observed highly resistant. The coefficient of infection value was 0 and 1.2 for B-159 and B-184, respectively. B-159 and B-184 is easily crossable with muskmelon, can be utilized for development of resistant hybrid and variety. Jointless tomato The line F 6050 (INGR No. 06036) has been registered as a ‘Jointless’ peduncle mutant line of tomato. It can be used as a morphological marker in the improvement programme. The plant bears round fruits (fruit size index-1.007) with an average weight of 60 g and plant height of 47.6 cm. High lycopene Tomato The line F 6068 (INGR No. 06037) of tomato has been registered as a source of high lycopene content in tomato. The fruits of this line are slightly flattish round (fruit size index - 0.98); fruit weight ranges form 50-60 g with 4-5 locules, it can be used in breeding programme for developing varieties/hybrids with higher level of lycopene content in tomato. High carotenoid tomato The line F 6061has been proposed as a source of ‘high total carotenoids’ in tomato. The fruits of this line are round (fruit size index- 1.09), weigh 40 to 50 g on an average plant height of 52.2 cm. It can be used a source for breeding varieties/ hybrids for enhanced carotenoid content in tomato.
High carotenoid Tomato High lycopene tomato Jointless tomato

B-159 : Downy mildew resistant genotype

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ToLCV resitant tomato The line H-88-78-4 has been proposed for its high level of resistance against tomato leaf curl disease. The plants show highly resistant reaction against ToLCV disease. Average fruit weight ranges from 60-70 g and the plants are of determinate type. Development of RILs Brinjal: The development of Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from cultivated species S. melongena x S. incanum were initiated and progressed up to F7 generation. Now the RILs are stable and are being characterized for various agri horti traits. Chilli: The RILs (F8 generation) have been developed in pepper using chilli (LCA235) and sweet pepper (California Wonder) parents. Tomato: The F2 populations have been developed using TLCV resistant line (H88-1) and susceptible line (Punjab Chhuhara). RILs are also being developed for early blight and high lycopene content. These RILs will serve as a good base material for QTL mapping and gene cloning. Development of transgenic lines of brinjal and tomato using Cry 1Ac gene Brinjal Gene transfer was attempted through Agrobacterium tumefaciens in cv. VR Baigan-9 (IVBL-9) using Cry 1Ac gene. More than 80 putative transgenic plants were regenerated. In the PCR analysis the amplification of 0.7 kb band for npt II and 0.9 kb for cry 1 AC showed the presence of inserted gene. Southern analysis revealed the 1 kb band with single blot hybridization in most of the transformants. The presence of Stages of transformation in brinjal Cry 1 Ac toxin protein in plant was confirmed. Insect bioassay was also done using neonate larvae (Leucinodes orbanolis) of brinjal shoot and fruit borer. Segregation analysis was done for positive plants and single copy transgenic plants were advanced up to T-2 stage for further evaluation Tomato Gene transfer was atempted through Agrobacterium tumefaciens in cv. H-86 using Cry 1Ac gene. The inserted gene was detected by npt II gene and cry 1 Ac gene, specific primer, which show the 700 bp for npt II and 900 bp for cry 1 Ac gene. After PCR analysis, the positive plants were subjected to Southern blot hybridization, ELISA followed by insect bioassay and segregation analysis. Single copy transgenic plants were advanced up to T-2 stage for further evaluation.
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ToLCV resistant tomato

Variability in brinjal RILs

Variability in Chilli RILs

Stages of transformation in tomato

Varieties Developed
Efforts were made to evolve high yielding varieties/hybrids with better quality fruits, resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. The institute has developed 41 varieties/hybrids, which includes 5 of tomato, 4 of brinjal, 10 of okra, 6 of pea, 4 of cow pea, 2 each of bottle gourd, chilli, radish and ash gourd, 1 each of cauliflower, muskmelon, pumpkin, bitter gourd and French bean. Tomato DVRT-1 (Kashi Amrit) This is a determinate variety derived from inter-specific cross L. esculentum (cv. Sel. 7) x L. hirsutum f. glabratum (acc. B6013’) through backcross pedigree method. Fruits are round, attractive red and fleshy with an average weight of 108 g. Suitable for cultivation during ToLCV infested period; average yield 620 q/ha. H-86 (Kashi Vishesh) This variety is resistant to ToLCV and has been developed using L. hirsutum f glabratum B’6013’ x Sel 7 as donor parent following backcross pedigree selection method. Plants are determinate, dark green, fruits red, spherical, size medium to large, average fruit weight 80 g, first harvest at 70-75 days after transplanting; yield 400-450 q/ha. Kashi Hemant (IIVR Sel-1) This has been developed through pedigree selection from a cross Sel-18 x Flora Dade. The plants are determinate, fruits attractive red and round, fruit weight varies from 80 to 85 g; yield 400-420 q/ha. Kashi Sharad (IIVR Sel-2) This was developed through pedigree selection from a cross MTH-6 x Kalyani Eunish. Plants are indeterminate; leaves broad, fruits attractive red, slightly oval, firm, thick pericarp; longer shelf life, fruit weight 90 to 95 g; yield 400500 q/ha. Kashi Anupam (DVRT-2) This was developed by hybridization between L. esculentum cv. ‘Sel-7’ and L. hirsutum f. glabratum ‘B6013’, following backcross-pedigree selection. Plants are determinate, fruits large, flatish round (slightly indented at blossom end of fruit), attractive red with 5-6 locules; medium maturity (75-80 days after transplanting); yield 500-600 q/ha.

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Brinjal Kashi Taru (IVBL-9) Plants of this variety are tall and erect, height 120-130 cm, leaves and stem dark green, first flowering starts 45-50 days after transplanting. Fruits are long, purple, length 31 cm and diameter 5 cm. Picking starts at 75-80 days after transplanting, average yield 700-750 q/ha. Kashi Prakash (IVBR-1) Plants of this variety are semi upright, stems and leaves are green. Fruits are attractive with light green spots, calyx spiny, average weight 190 g. Picking starts at 80-82 after transplanting, average yield 650-700 q/ha. Hybrid Kashi Sandesh (VRBHR-1) This is a hybrid having semi-upright (height 71.0 cm) plant habit with green stems and purplish green leaves. Flowers appear at 45 days after transplanting. Fruits are purple, medium size, round shape, fruit length 12.4 cm, diameter 10.2 cm and weight 225.3 g. The picking starts at 76 days after transplanting. Average yield 780 q/ha. Kashi Komal (IVBHL-54) Semi upright plant growth habit, height 90-100 cm, with light green stem and leaves; first flowering at 35-40 days after transplanting. Fruits are light purple, long, soft texture, average length 13 cm and diameter 3 cm. First picking starts at 65-70 days after transplanting. Average yield 800 q/ha. Chilli Kashi Anmol (KA-2) This is an improved population, derived from two cycles of simple recurrent selection from a Sri Lankan introduction. Plants are determinate, dwarf (60-70 cm) with nodal pigmentation on stem and bear green attractive pendant fruits. First picking starts at 55 days after transplanting; average yield 200 q/ha. This variety is moderately resistant to anthracnose, die back and Cerscopora leaf spot under field condtions. Hybrid Kashi Surkh (CCH-2) This is an F1 hybrid of a cross between cms line (CCA 4261) and inbred derived from Pusa Jwala. Plants are semi determinate (1-1.2 m), erect and nodal pigmentation on stem. Fruits are light green, straight, length 11-12 cm, suitable for green as well as red fruit production. First harvest starts after 55 days of transplanting. Green fruit yield is 240 q/ha, whereas, red fruit yield is about 140 q/ha. This is tolerant to thrips, mites and viruses.
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French Bean Kashi Param (IVFB-1) This variety has been developed through pure line selection. Plants are determinate (70 cm long) and leaves are dark green. Pod is fleshy, length 14.7cm, round, dark green, pod yield 120-140 q/ha. Cowpea Kashi Shyamal (IVRCP-1) Plants are dwarf and bushy, height 70-75 cm, branches 3-4 per plant, early flowering (40 days after sowing), first harvesting after 48 days after sowing, proudces 35-40 pods per plant. Pod yield 70-80 q/ha, tolerant to golden mosaic virus. Kashi Gauri (VRCP-2) This is a bush type, dwarf, photo insensitive and early variety suitable for sowing in spring summer and rainy seasons. Flowering starts in 35-38 days and pods are ready for harvest in 45-48 days after sowing. Pods are 25-30 cm long, light green, soft, fleshy and free from parchment layer, resistant to golden mosaic virus, Psedocercospora cruenta and average green pod yield 100-120 q/ha. Kashi Unnati (VRCP-3) It is a photo-insensitive, dwarf and bushy type (40-45 cm height) early variety suitable for sowing in spring-summer and rainy seasons. It flowers in 30-35 days and pods are ready for harvest in 40-45 days. It produces 40-45 pods per plant with average pod length of 30-35 cm. The average pod yield is about 125-150 q ha-1 and it is resistant to Golden mosaic virus and Pseudocercospora cruenta diseases. Kashi Kanchan (VRCP-4) It is bush type and dwarf (50-60 cm height), photo-insensitive and early variety suitable for sowing in spring-summer and rainy seasons. It flowers in 40-45 days and pods are ready for harvest in 50-55 days. It produces 40-45 pods per plant. The pods are dark green, tender, pulpy with less fibre and free from parchment layer. The variety is resistant to Golden Mosaic Virus and Pseudocercospora cruenta and produces about 150-200 q ha-1 green pods. Okra Kashi Mohini (VRO-3) Plants are tall, height 110-140 cm, flowers at 4th-5th node during summer and 5 -7 node during rainy season after 39-41 days of sowing, fruits five ridges, 11.3-12.6 cm long at marketable stage, suitable for summer and rainy season cultivation; gives yield of 130 -150 q/ha. It is resistant to YVMV under field conditions.
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Kashi Mangali (VRO-4) This variety has been developed through pure line selection. Plants are tall, height 120-125 cm, flowers at 4th to 5th node after 40-42 days after sowing, fruits five ridges, light green; yield 130 -150 q/ha. This is resistant to YVMV and OLCV under field conditions. Kashi Vibhuti (VRO-5) This is a variety with dwarf growth habit, plant height 60-70 cm during rainy and 45-50 cm during summer season. It bears 2-3 branches with short inter-nodal length. Flowering starts on 4th to 5th node after 38-40 days after sowing. A plant bears 18-22 fruits of 8-10 cm length at marketable stage; yield 170-180 q/ha. This is resistant to YVMV and OLCV. Kashi Pragati (VRO-6) Plants are tall, height 130-175 cm, with 1-2 effective branches. First flower appears after 36-38 days after sowing on 4th node during rainy season and 3rd node during summer season. Fruits are 8-10 cm in length at marketable stage, 23-25 per plant and yield 180-190 q/ha during rainy and 130-140 q/ha during summer season. This is resistant to YVMV and OLCV. Kashi Satdhari (IIVR-10) Plant height is 130-150 cm with 2-3 effective branches, flowering at 42 days after sowing at 3rd to 4th node. Plant bears 18-25 fruits with seven ridges, length 13-15 cm at marketable stage and yield 110-140 q/ha,resistant to YVMV under field conditions.

Kashi Lila (IIVR-11) This variety has medium plant height (110-130 cm), flowering starts at 30-34 days after sowing. This is suitable for cultivation during rainy and summer season as early crop due to low temperature tolerance. Fruits have five ridges, green and 13-15 cm long. This is resistant to YVMV and gives yield of 150-170 q/ha. Hybrids Shitla Uphar (DVR-1) Plants are medium tall, height 110-130 cm, flowering starts at 38-40 days after sowing at 4th-5th node. Fruits are green, 11-13 cm long at marketable stage and yield 150-170 q/ha. This is resistant to yellow vein mosaic virus and OLCV. Shitla Jyoti (DVR-2) Plants are medium tall, height 110-150 cm, flowering starts at 30-40 days after sowing at 4th-5th node. Fruit are green, 12-14 cm long at marketable stage, yield 180200 q/ha. This is resistant to YVMV and OLCV.

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Kashi Bhairav (DVR-3) Plants are medium tall with 2-3 branches; fruits are dark green with 10-12 cm length at marketable stage, yield 200-220 q/ha. This is resistant to YVMV and OLCV under field conditions. Kashi Mahima (DVR-4) Plants are tall, height 130-170 cm, flowering starts at 36-40 days after sowing at 4 -5 node, fruits green with 12-14 cm of length at marketable stage and yield 200-220 q/ha. It has field resistance against YVMV and OLCV.
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Pea Kashi Nandini (VRP-5) This is an early maturing variety developed through pedigree selection from the cross P 1542 x VT-2-1. Plant height 47-51 cm, flowers appear at 32 days after sowing, bears 7-8 pods per plant. Pods are 8-9 cm long, attractive, length 8-9 cm, well filled with 8-9 seeds, shelling 47-48%, yield 110-120 q/ha. It is tolerant to leaf miner and pod borer. Kashi Udai (VRP-6) This is an early maturing variety developed through pedigree selection from the cross Arkel x FC-1. Plant height is 58-62 cm and 50% plants bear flowers at 35-37 days after sowing. Plants have dark green foliage and short internodes with 8-10 pods per plant. Pods are attractive, length 9-10 cm, filled with 8-9 bold seed, shelling percentage 48; yield 100-110 q/ha. Kashi Shakti (VRP-7) This is a medium maturing variety developed through pedigree selection from the cross Hara Bona x NDVP-8. Plant height is 90-98 cm and 50% plants bear flowers at 54-56 days after sowing. Plants have dark green foliage with 11-12 pods per plant. Pods are 10.0-10.5 cm long, attractive filled with 7.5-8.5 bold seeds shelling percentage 4849; yield 140-160 q/ha. Kashi Mukti (VRP-22) It is an early maturing powdery mildew resistant variety developed through pedigree selection from the cross No. 7 x PM-5. Plant height is 50-53 cm and 50% plants bear flowers at 35-36 days after sowing. Pods are 8.5-9 cm long, attractive filled with 8-9 bold soft textured seeds, shelling percentage 48-49, yield 110-120 q/ha. Kashi Kanak (VRP-2) It is an early maturing variety developed through selection. It has plant height 50-55 cm, foliage dark green, pod straight, light green, length 7-8 cm filled with bold seeds. First picking at 55-58 days after sowing, green pod yield 60-80 q/ha.

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Kashi Arati (VRP-3) This is a mid season variety, starts flowering at 45-50 days after sowing. Pods are green, bold grain, average yield 80-120 q/ha. Radish Kashi Sweta (IIVR-1) This has been developed through selection from radish cv. Chetki. It is suitable for early harvesting and matures at 30-35 days after sowing. Roots are 25-30 cm long, 3.3-4.0 cm in diameter, straight, tapering with pointed tip; yield 450-470 q/ha. Kashi Hans (IIVR-2) This has been developed through selection. It is suitable for September to February planting and harvesting can be done after 40-45 days of sowing. It can stand in the field up to 10-15 days after commercial maturity. This variety is moderately resistant to Alternaria blight. Leaves are soft and smooth like spinach. Roots are straight, tapering, length 30-35 cm diameter 3.5-4.2 cm, yield 430-450 q/ha. Ash gourd Kashi Dhawal (IVAG 502) This variety is derived from a local collection. The vine length is 7.5-8 m. Fruits are oblong, flesh white, thickness 8.5-8.7 cm, seed arrangement linear, average weight 11-12 kg, crop duration 120 days and yield 550-600 q/ha. Kashi Ujwal (IVAG 90) This variety is derived from a local collection. The vine length is 7.5-8 cm, fruits round with average weight of 10-12 kg. Fruit flesh is white with 7 cm thickness and seed arrangement is linear, crop duration 110-120 days, yield 55-60 t/ha. Cauliflower Kashi Kunwari (IVREC-2) This is a variety of early maturing group. It can tolerate high rainfall during its vegetative growth. Curds are semi-dome type, white compact, fine texture, weight 300-450 g, yield 300-350 q/ha. Pumpkin Kashi Harit (IVPK 226) This variety is derived from the cross between NDPK-24 x PKM through pedigree selection. Vines are short, leaves dark green with white spots. Fruits are green, spherical, weight 2.5-3.0 kg at green stage, yield of 300-350 q/ha in 65 days of crop duration.

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Muskmelon Kashi Madhu (IVMM-3) Plants have medium vine, leaves sparsely lobed, colour dark green; fruits are round, with open prominent green sutures, weight 650-725 g, half slip in nature, rind thin, smooth, pale yellow at maturity, flesh salomon orange (mango colour), thick, very juicy, T.S.S. 13-14% and seeds are loosely packed in the seed cavity. Post harvest life is better with good transportability, tolerant to powdery and downy mildew, medium maturity, yield 200-270 q/ha. Bottle gourd Kashi Bahar (VRH-1) This is a long fruited hybrid with green vine and vigorous growth, fruit straight, light green, length 30-32 cm, average weight 780-850 g and yield 500-550 q/ha. It is suitable for rainy and summer season cultivation. Kashi Ganga (DVBG-1) This is an early variety derived from the cross IC-92465 x DVBG-151. Fruits are light green, length 30 cm, diameter 7 cm, fruit weight 800-900 g and yield 480-550 q/ha. It is tolerant to anthracnose and suitable for rainy and summer season cultivation. Bitter gourd Kashi Urvasi (DVBTG-1) This variety has been derived from the cross IC-85650B x IC-44435A, having dark green and long fruits, mild projection, length 16-18 cm, fruit weight 90-110 g and yield 200-220 q/ha.

Crop Production
Suitable package of practices including optimum sowing time, seed rate, nursery management, transplanting, spacing, nutrient requirement, intercultural practices and weed management for realizing optimum potential of improved varieties/hybrids of different vegetable crops have been standardized. Integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) in tomato The application of nitrogen @ 120 kg/ha and 60 kg/ha each of phosphorus and potash along with pressmud 5 t/ha and root dipping treatment with Azotobacter before transplanting as well as foliar spray of Sulphur (Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate) @ 20 ppm at 30, 45 and 75 days after transplanting gave yield of 1645 q/ha in tomato hybrid Avinash2 as compared to 600 q/ha in control. Integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) in brinjal The application of nitrogen @ 120 kg/ha, phosphorus and potash each @ 60 kg/ha along with pressmud 5 t/ha and soil application of Azospirillum and Phosphate Solubilizing Micro-organism (PSM) @ 10 kg/ha each, foliar spray of 50 ppm zinc and 50 ppm boron at 30, 45 and 75 days after transplanting gave yield 976 q/ha in brinjal hybrid Kashi Sandesh, 912 q/ha in Pant Rituraj and 614 q/ha in Punjab Sadabahar.

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Spacing, training and pinching treatment in hybrid tomato In tomato hybrid ARTH-4, a spacing of 80 x 60 cm and training of plants in raised bed without pinching gave the maximum yield (612.71 q/ha). Foliar spray of micronutrients
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In brinjal, the foliar spray of Zn, Mo and B @ 50 ppm at three critical crop growth stages i.e. at active growth stage, at flowering and fruiting stage increased 12–39 % yield over control. In cauliflower cv. Snow Ball-16, the foliar application of Zn @ 50 ppm + Mo @ 25 ppm thrice at 10 days interval from 30 days after transplanting enhanced the yield and quality significantly over control. The quality of tomato fruits in terms of acidity and vitamin C significantly improved in tomato cv. H-86, DVRT-1, DVRT-2 and Sel-7 under organic farming. However, a decrease of 10–27% in yield was recorded as compared to control (recommended NPK). In broccoli, the application of FYM + Digested sludge (each @ 10 t/ha) and seedling inoculation with VAM significantly improved the fresh and dry weight of head and yield in broccoli over recommended dose of NPK. Significant increase in carotenoid content in broccoli was recorded with sole application of Digested Sludge (20 t/ha) or combined application of FYM + Digested sludge coupled with seedling inoculation in either PSM or VAM. Vitamin-C content significantly improved in broccoli by application of organic manures (either FYM or Digested sludge @ 20 t/ha each). In Chinese cabbage cv. Solan Band Sarson, the soil application of FYM and Digested sludge and seedling inoculation in either PSM or VAM gave head yield at par to control. Vitamin-C content in Chinese cabbage was 43.8 % higher in FYM treatment (20 t/ha) and 36.5 % higher in digested sludge (20 t/ha) as compared to control. In garden pea cv. Azad Pea-3, the combined application of organic manure and Rhizobium, significantly improved the nodulation. However, the plant weight and pod yield were recorded at par to control (recommended NPK). Organic manures and biofertilizers, independently or in combination improved the total carbohydrate (5.6%), vitamin-C (22.5%) and total carotenoids (11.8%) in pea. However, it did not affect the moisture, crude protein and insoluble dietary fiber content. In lettuce cv. Great Lake, the combined application of organic manure and biofertilizer, particularly seedling inoculation with Azotobactor resulted in yield at par to control (recommended NPK). A significant improvement in vitamin-C content (9.25%) was observed with FYM + digested sludge @ 10 t/ha each.

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Organic manures and quality of vegetables
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Azotobacter improves shelf life of tomato fruits The soil application of Azotobacter @ 15 kg/ha coupled with NPK @ 150:60:80 kg/ha influenced the pericarp thickness, shelf life and yield in tomato hybrids. The shelf life of tomato was enhanced by 3-5 days at
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ambient temperature. The soil application and seedling inoculation in Azotobacter before transplanting significantly prolonged the shelf life at least for 2 days depending upon variety than by lone soil application. The combined application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and Azotobacter was not as effective in enhancing the shelf life of tomato fruits. Nursery management in vegetable crops A technology has been standardized for nursery management, incorporating soil solarization, seed treatment and use of shade/agro nets. Soil solarization of nursery plots covered with transparent polyethylene sheets of 200 guage for about 5-6 weeks along with seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg or with captan or thiram @ 2.5-3 g/kg. Imidacloprid may also be used for seed treatment @ 2.5 g/kg seed. After seed germination and during the seedling growth, if temperature is high (> 30o C), then the beds are covered by green, green + black (50% or 60% shade) shade nets, about 1 meter above the ground with suitable support. This reduces the intensity of incoming radiation to the ground surface and saves the seedling mortality. Agro-nets are used for control of insects’ especially insect vectors, which spread viral diseases. Drip irrigation in tomato Drip irrigation was carried out in tomato to study the effect of spacing and drip irrigation intervals on vegetative growth, yield, water saving and water use efficiency (WUE). The maximum fruit yield of 114.93 t/ha in tomato cv. Tolstoi was recorded when plants were spaced at 60 x 40 cm and drip irrigation was scheduled at alternate day. The maximum WUE (51.19 to 52.17 q/ha cm) was recorded under 60 x 60 cm spacing. The maximum number of fruits (35.2), fruit weight (151.25 g), total fruit yield (3.99 kg) and marketable yield (792.95 q/ha) in tomato cv. DVRT-1 was recorded when drip irrigation was scheduled at 100% CPE. As far as irrigation scheduling and fertilizer frequency was concerned, the most remarkable effect on yield attributes of cv. DVRT-1 was noticed; when plants were drip irrigated at 100 % CPE and N (urea) was supplied in 8 or 10 split doses. The highest WUE (108 q/ha-cm) was recorded when drip irrigation was scheduled at 40% PE. Weed Management and Mulching To manage the weed infestation in kharif crop of okra, application of metalochlor @ 1.0 kg/ha has been found most effective and economical and gave maximum yield and C: B ratio (1:2.86). Metachlor is comparatively more effective than commonly used herbicides like pendimethalin and fluchloralin. In winter crop of tomato mulching with rice straw or sugarcane truss has been recommended to economize the irrigation and maximize the yield and profit under agro-climatic conditions of North Indian plains. Manual wedding should be followed by mulching after 35 days of transplanting.

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Antioxidant phytochemicals in cruciferous vegetables The antioxidant phytochemicals viz., vitamin C, β-carotene, lutein, αtocopherol, and total phenolics were estimated in fresh samples at the edible maturity stage in different genotypes of cruciferous vegetables using a reverse phase HPLC system. Maximum mean vitamin C (52.87 mg/ 100 g), β-carotene (0.811 mg/100 g), lutein (0.683 mg/100 g), α-tocopherol (0.473 mg/100 g) and phenol content (63.36 mg/100 g) was recorded in broccoli. Results indicate that the cruciferous vegetables are relatively abundant source of antioxidants and there is a substantial and significant variation, both within and between the subspecies for the antioxidant phytochemicals. Post harvest technology and value addition Osmotic drying of bitter gourd Bitter gourd slices were effectively blanched at 100°C for 1 and 1.5 min in 0.1% magnesium oxide solution followed by dipping into 1% sodium sulfite solution for 10 min. Minimum (4.32 g water /g d.m.) moisture content in bitter gourd slices was obtained after sodium chloride diffusion of 11.67% at 60°C for 90 min. The slices were completely dried after initial drying at 70°C. The moisture content was reduced from 92.5 – 45.2% after 3 hrs of drying at 70°C. The final stage of drying was completed after 4 hrs of drying at 60°C. Drying of okra Blanching of okra (0.5 cm thickness) was standardized with complete inactivation of catalase and peroxidase enzymes after hot water blanching for 1.5 minute followed by dipping into 0.2% potassium metabisulphite solution. Then the suitable drying condition was optimized with initial drying at 70oC for 2 hrs followed by drying at 60oC for 4 hrs with final moisture content of 2.5 – 3.0%.

Crop Protection
Disease Management Screening techniques standardized for identification of resistance source against major diseases For the identification of host plant resistance and development of disease resistant varieties, artificial screening technique with challenge inoculation was standardized against early blight, grey leaf spot, Sclerotinia rot, Phomopsis blight, Sclerotium collar rot and Fusarium wilt of solanaceous crops, anthracnose of chilli, black rot of cauliflower, Alternaria blight of cole crops, downy mildew, anthracnose and Didymella blight of cucurbits. Biological control
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Trichoderma virens, T. viride, T. harzianum, T. koningii and Aspergillus niger–V were identified as potential bioagents for management of different diseases of vegetable crops caused by species of Pythium, Macrophomina, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotium, Phytophthora, Fusarium, C. capsici and A. solani. As a result of soil solarization pathogenic fungi viz. Fusarium, Pythium, Phomopsis, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium decreased significantly.
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Soil solarization
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It reduces damping off, bacterial diseases and nematode infestation as well as weed population significantly. It increases antagonistic population of A. niger and seedling vigour in nursery beds.

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Integrated disease management (IDM) packages
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Integrated disease management packages incorporating soil solarization, summer ploughing, use of biocontrol agents and minimal use of fungicides, have been developed for controlling the diseases in tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, cabbage, cauliflower, pea & musk melon.

Integrated Pest Management Host Plant Resistance The germplasm of important vegetable crops were evaluated against major insects pests under field conditions to find out the relative level of resistance/ tolerance for further utilization by breeders in biotic stress resistance breeding programme. Biological control Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) Basic research has been conducted on important parameter like virulency, UV protection, storability and productivity ratio of NPV. The virulency of different SI NPV in terms of LD50 was found to be 2.86 x 103, 2.60 x 102 and 2.51 x 102 for Varanasi, Bangalore (PDBC) and Cuddalore cultures on second instar larvae of S. litura. Thus on the basis of LD50, Cuddalore culture of Healthy and NPV infected SINPV was found to be most virulent (LD50 - 2.51 x 102). The local strain H. armigera larva 3 collected from Varanasi region was comparatively less virulent (2.86 x 10 ). One hour exposure of Ha NPV solution to natural sun light caused 55-90% reduction in virulency, increased POB density reduced the adverse effect of UV. Activated charcoal is a better protactant over metalic aluminium. Stability of POBs at 5.0-6.5 pH level was maximum. Egg parasitoid (Trichogramma spp.) Ideal feed and egg density was standardized for maximum Corcyra egg production for economic rearing of Trichogramma spp. Sorghum-wheat brangroundnut based feed media provided better nutritional and physical condition for mass multiplication of Corcyra larvae with maximum egg yield. Superiority of this feed was noted in terms of larval weight, adult female emergence, adult weight and fecundity. Addition of 25% yeast (w/w) with sorghum based feed increased the overall adult emergence, female emergence and productivity Trichogramma rearing ratio. In higher egg density upto 600 per 100 g feed there was increase in facility adult emergence. Persistent toxicity of dry film residues of insecticides to Trichogramma indicated neem formulation to be safer after 48 hours of application. Except endosulfan other insecticides were toxic to Trichogramma adults when exposed for 96 hours after filming. Imidacloprid was most persistent.
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Predator (Chrysoperla carnea) Irrespective of prey, Chrysoperla carnea showed positive correlation between average consumption/day and larval duration, pupal duration, % emergence, longevity and fecundity. On the other hand, % pupation showed negative correlation with rate of consumption. Higher fecundity on Corcyra eggs than aphid was found to be prominent.
Chrysoperla predating on aphid Management of Okra fruit borer L June first week sowing was most ideal to avoid the damage of shoot and fruit borer in rainy season. L Seed treatment with imidacloprid @ 3 g/kg protects the crop from jassid damage upto 50 days of sowing (rainy and summer season). L For controlling fruit borer, 3 sprays of neem formulation @ 2.5 ml/lit + endosulfan in half of the recommended dose in the post-flowering period at 49, 61 and 73 days after sowing was most effective and safer combination (rainy season). L Regular monitoring of red spider mite should be done in summer season and foliar spary of dicofol @ 2.5 ml/liter may be initiated from initial NPV infected H. armigera on notice of the pest, further spraying should be continued with alternate okra fruit application of wettable sulphur (0.2%) at 10 days interval. L In case of sporadic incidence of Helicoverpa armigera on tender pods, foliar spray of Ha NPV @ 300 LE/ha during late afternoon is recommended.

Management of Brinjal shoot and fruit borer L Selection of oblong/ small fruited cluster bearing varieties/hybrids. L Nursery bed should be protected with muslin cloth to avoid the initial attack of insect. Spray the seedlings with any systemic insecticide at the day of transplanting in the nursery bed. L Install plastic funnel trap baited with sex pheromone of brinjal shoot and fruit borer @ 100/ha at the spacing of 10m x 10m at 15-20 days after transplanting. The pheromone septa should be changed at 30 days inter val. Clipping and destruction of infested shoots along with larvae at weekly interval. L Sanitation through removal of freshly damaged fruits during each harvest. L Need based foliar spray of NSKE (4%). Management of Cucurbit fruit fly

Sex pheromone trap of brinjal shoot and fruit borer

The cryptic nature of fruit fly damage, need is to develop an integrated approach for adult management, as once the egg laying takes place the damage starts which cannot be prevented further. This technology helps to supress further population build up of the insect. Besides, it is an economic tactic with no probability of insecticide residue in/on the fruits.

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Deep summer ploughing should be done to expose the dormant pupae in the field. Follow crop rotation incorporating non-cucurbiticious crops. Install mineral water trap, baited with cuelure saturated (ethanol:cuelure: carbaryl = 8:1:2) wood blocks@ 25 traps/ha prior to flower initiation Initiate molassess (10%) based bait spray along with carbaryl (2%) in selected plants in 250 spots/ha. This operation should be repeated at 4 days interval during the fruiting period. Sanitation should be maintained in the field through removal and destruction of infested fruits immediately after initial infestation.

Management of Tomato fruit borer
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Low cost fruit fly trap

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Plant African marigold as trap crop on two sides of 14 rows of tomato. Planting of trap crop should be adjusted in such a manner that tomato flowering coincides with tight bud stage of marigold. Marigold attracts both fruit borer and leaf miner adults for egg laying. Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70 WS @ 3g/kg . Pre-transplanting application of imidacloprid (0.003%) in nursery protects the newly planted crop from whitefly infestation. Further, this treatment can be NPV infected fruit borer larvae repeated according to the need within 30 DAT. Installation of H.armigera pheromone traps @ 4/ha to detect initial attack of pest. From the initial attack release T. brassiliensis @ 50,000 parasitised eggs/ha. Further, Ha NPV should be sprayed @300 LE/ ha, 10 days after the release of Trichogramma. In case of determinate tomato operation for H.armigera management should be continued if more than 50% of the fruits turns red. For leaf miner control, remove the old infested leaves prior to NSKE(4%) spray. If the infestation persists, this process may be repeated after 10 days. Selection of relatively dark colour cultivars suffers less from DBM damage. Chinese cabbage was identified to be more preferred by the DBM for egglaying and may be used as an ideal trap crop. Sowing coriander as border crop in 5 m x 5 m plots and need based application of entomopathogenic fungus (Verticillium lecanae) formulation @ 500 g/ha at 10 days interval reduce aphid infestation. Bt formulation should be sprayed on cabbage @ 500 g/ha at 35 and 50 days after planting for management of diamondback moth. In case of unavailability of Bt formulation, neem seed kernel extract (4%) along with sticker @ 0.5 ml/lit at 35, 45 and 55 days after planting is ideal to control DBM.

Management for DBM damage in Cabbage/Cauliflower
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4.1 Salient Achievements Under AICRP (VC) The research work on vegetable crops in the country was streamlined and strengthened with the start of All-India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project in 1970-71, through its research network spread allover the State Agricultural Universities and Institutes of Indian Council of Agricultural Research. AICRP has made significant contribution towards increasing vegetable production of the country by developing 347 varieties in 22 vegetable crops which have been identified for cultivation in different climatic zones. Out of these, 219 high yielding open pollinated, 40 resistant to diseases and 88 are hybrids. Similarly 236 production technologies, 95 disease and 57 insect pest management recommendations have been made for different agro-climatic zones of the country based on multilocational trials conducted under All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project (AICRP). Varieties / hybrids evolved under AICRP (Vegetables) Crop Tomato Brinjal Chilli Garden Pea Cowpea French Bean Dolichos Okra Onion Garlic Cauliflower Cabbage Carrot Muskmelon Water melon Bitter gourd Pumpkin Cucumber Ridge gourd Bottle gourd Sponge gourd Ashgourd Total OP Varieties 36 46 16 24 8 7 2 17 7 14 1 3 8 4 4 6 3 3 4 4 2 219
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Hybrid/Synthetic 23 25 10 6 5 7 1 2 1 2 3 3 88

Resistant 8 7 9 13 3 40

Total 67 77 26 33 8 7 2 19 17 7 19 8 4 13 5 6 6 6 3 7 4 2 347

Technologies Developed by AICRP (VC) (1975-2006) Sr. No. 1 2 3 Technologies Production Technologies Disease Management Technologies Insect Pest Management Technologies Grand Total Total numbers of technologies developed 236 95 57 388

Open pollinated varieties identified through AICRP (VC) Crop Tomato : Name of variety S-12, Pusa Ruby, HS-101, SL-120, Sweet-72, T-1, Pusa Early Dwarf, Sioux, Sel-152, Punjab Chhuhara, KS-2, AC-238, CO-3, Punjab Kesari, La Bonita, Pant T-3, Arka Vikas, ArkaSaurabh, Sel-7, Sel-1-6-4, Sel-32, DT-10, BT-12, KS-17, BT-116-3-2, NDT-3, KS-118, DVRT-2, BT-20-2-1, NDT-9, NDTS2001-3, Mani Laima, IIVR Sel-1, IIVR Sel-2, BT-136, VLT-32 Pusa Purple Long, Pusa Purple Cluster, S-16, Pusa Kranti, PB-129-5,Pant Samrat, Arka Sheel, Azad Kranti, PB -91-2, ARU-1, T-3, PH-4, KT-4, ARU2C, K-202-9, Aruna, H-7, NDB-25, H-8, BB-26, Punjab Barsati, Sel-4, DBSR-31, KS-224, DBR-8, DBSR-44, AB-1, PLR-1, BB-26, BB-13, JB64-1-2, KS-331, JB-15, CHBR-1, DBSR-91, JB-64-12, Green Long, Punjab Sadabahar, NDB-28-2, DBL-21, KS-235, ABSR-2, HABR-4, IVBR-1, HABL-1 G-4, G-5, K-2, J-218, LCA-235, Muslawadi, Sel-1 , LCA-206, AKC-86// 39, BC-14-2, RHRC-Cluster Erect, PMR-57/88-K, LCA-334, ASC-200002, KA-2 (Kashi Anmol) Bonneville, GC-141, GL-195, Arkel, Early December, IP-3, P-88, PM-2, Lincon, VL-3,VL-7, Ageta-6, VL-6, PH-1, NDVP-8, NDVP-10, VL-8, VRP2, NDVP-12,VRP-3, Organ Sugar Podded, VRP-5, CHP-2 L-1552, Sel-61-B, Sel-263, Sel-2-1, IIHR-6, NDCP-13, IVCP-1, IVCP-3 VL-Boni-1, Arka Komal, UPF-191, IIHR-909, CH-812, CH-819, IVFB-1 Deepaliwal, CHDB-1 Punjab Selection, Pusa Red, Pusa Ratnar, S-131, N-257-9-1, N-2-4-1, Line102, Arka Kalyan, Arka Niketan, Agri Found Dark Red ,VL-3, Agri Found Light Red, Punjab Red Round, PBR-5, L-28, HOS-1 G-41, G-1,G-50,G-282,VLG-7, DARL-52, G-323

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Cauliflower Cabbage Carrot Muskmelon Watermelon Bitter gourd Pumpkin Cucumber Ridge gourd Bottle gourd Sponge gourd Ash gourd

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Early Kunwari, 327-14-8-3,351-4-1, Improved Japanese, EC-12012, Pusa Snowball K-1114-S-1, Line 6-1-2-1, 235-S, KT-25, IVREC-2. Sel-8 Sel-5, Pusa Meghali, SKAUC-50 Pusa Sarbati, Hara Madhu, Pusa Madhuras, Arka Rajhans, Arka Jeet, Durgpura Madhu, NDM-15, IVMM-3 Durgapura Meetha, Sugar Baby, Arka Manik, MHW-6. Priya, RHRBG-4-1, KBG-16, PBIG-1 CM-14, Pusa Vishwas, Arka Chandan, Arka Suryamukhi, CM-350, NDPK24 CHC-2, CH-20, PCUC-28 CHRG-1, PRG-7, IIHR-7 Pusa Naveen, PBOG-61, NDBG-104, NDBG-132 Sel-99, CHSG-1, JSGL-55, KSG-14 IVAG-14, PAG-72

Hybrids identified through AICRP Crop Tomato : Name of hybrids ARTH-4, MTH-6, ARTH-3, Pusa Hybrid-2, NA-501, DTH-4, KT-4, NA601, MH-2, BSS-20, Avinash-2, HOE-303, Sun-496, BSS-20, DTH-8, CHTH-1, ARTH-128, KTH-2, JKTH-3055, KTH-1, Nun-7730, TH--01462 Arka Kusumkar, Arka Navneet, Kat-4, Pusa Hybrid-6, Pusa Hybrid-5, ARBH201, NDBH-1, ABH-1, MHB-10, MHB-39, NDBH-6, ABH-2, Phule Hybrid2, Pusa Hybrid-9, Phule Hybrid-2, ARBH-541, PBH-6, JBH-1, BH-1, BH2,VRBHR-1, IVBHL-54, ARBH-786, VNR-51 HOE-888, ARCH-236, Sungro-86-235, ARCH-228, CCH-2, CCH-3 (Kashi Eraly), Arka Harita, Arka Meghna KT-1, Lario, DARL-202, KTCPH-3 DVR-1, DVR-2, DVR-3, DVR-4, HBH-142, SOH-152 Pusa Hybrid-1, DCH-541, SYCFH-202, Summer King, PCUCH-3, SYCFH-203, Synthetic-1, Early Synthetic Shri Ganesh Gol, Nath-401, BSS-32, Nath-501, Quisto, KGMR-1, Pusa Synthetic Hybrid-1 Hybrid M-3, MHY-5 Arka Jyoti Pusa Hybrid-2, NBGH-167 PCUCH-1, Hybrid No.-1 PBOG-2, PBOG-1, NDBH-4
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Disease resistant varieties identified through AICRP Crop Tomato Brinjal Okra Disease Bacterial wilt TYLCV Bacterial wilt Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Powdery mildew Name of varieties BWR-5, FMH-1, FMH-2, BT-10, BRH-2, LE-415 H-24, H-86 BB-7, BWR-12, SM-6-7, SM-6-6, BB-44, CHES-309, BB-64 P-7, PK, Sel-10 (Arka Anamika), Sel-4 (Arka Abhay), HRB-55, HRB-9-2, VRO-3, VRO-4, VRO-5, VRO-6, NDO-10, HRB-1074, IIVR-11 PRS-4, JP-4, JP- 83, NDVP-4, DPP-68, KS-245, NDVP-250, DPP-9411

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Muskmelon Downey mildew DMDR-1,DMDR-1,DMDR-2 4.2 Significant achievements under NSP on vegetables Under NSP, ICAR is guiding, coordinating and promoting seed technology research and breeder seed production in its Institutes and State Agricultural Universities. In addition to the responsibility of production of nucleus and breeder seed of varieties and parental lines of hybrid, research on various aspects of seed technology are being conducted. A separate NSP on vegetables was approved and initiated by IIVR, Varanasi in 1994. ICAR has set up 4 units at ICAR Research Institutes and 10 units in the State Agricultural Universities for breeder seed production. In the Divisional concept of the Council, such 14 breeder seed production units dealing with vegetables (excluding potato) are being looked after by Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi. Vegetable breeder seed produced during the period from 1997-98 to 2005-06 Year 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Indent (kg) 71603 43874 46647 55799 37843 38666 41556 27072 15831 Production (kg) 71303 47974 51103 60020 45102 54701 47470 40451 24682

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5.
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IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Ever since the establishment of All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project and Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, there has been a steady progress in the increase of area, production and productivity of vegetables in the country. The production of vegetables has increased from 30 million tonnes to 113.5 million tonnes. The research work on vegetable crops commensurate with the management of genetic resources under coordinated programmes. A large number of germplasm lines in tomato, brinjal, chillies, okra, pea, cowpea, muskmelon, watermelon, bitter gourd, bottle gourd and pointed gourd have been developed. These lines are being used by vegetable breeders in the development of new varieties of vegetable crops. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources has shown great interest in the collection, maintenance, documentation and conservation of germplasm of vegetable crops. In sustaining vegetable production, more than 358 varieties have been identified and most of them have been released and notified at National level based on multi locational testing under All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project and these varieties have shown great impact on the farmer's field for the increase of productivity. Considering the problems of diseases, some promising disease resistant varieties like bacterial wilt resistant and root knot nematode in tomato, yellow vein mosaic resistant variety in okra, bacterial wilt resistant variety in brinjal and powdery mildew resistance in pea have been developed and recommended for cultivation under disease prone areas. These varieties have made sustainable impact in the production of tomato, brinjal, okra and peas in many parts of the country. A large number of hybrid varieties have been identified in tomato, brinjal, pepper, chilli and cabbage by public and private sectors which are occupying a large area in the country. Due to high productivity of hybrids, there has been a great increase in the production and productivity of vegetables. Simultaneously this has increased socioeconomic status of the farmers. There are some vegetable crops like radish, cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, onion, etc. which are grown round the year. This is because of development of varieties suited to different agro-climatic conditions. This has shown a great impact on the economy of vegetable growers and increased the social status of the consumers and economic dimension of farmers. Several weedicides have been identified which can be used for the control of the weeds in brinjal, chillies, okra, peas, onion, etc. These weedicides have shown good impact for the control of weeds in vegetable fields. This has solved the problem of non-availability of labour in vegetable cultivation and helped in sustainable management of resources. In several vegetable crops, production technologies, i.e. spacing, date of sowing, fertilization, etc. have been standardized. Over the years many farmers depending on the indigenous technology of the vegetable production have shifted to newer production technology. In nursery management, there has been a great problem of damping off and the recommendation of biocontrol agents, fungicides and solarization have facilitated in raising the healthy seedlings of tomato, brinjal, chillies, cauliflower, cabbage and onion, etc. Vegetables are highly susceptible to a number of diseases and severity of some of the very serious diseases like leaf curl, early blight and late blight in tomato, phomopsis in brinjal, die-back in chillies, black rot in cauliflower, powdery mildew in pea can be reduced with the application of fungicide and
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5.1 Growth (Crop Commodity, Discipline, Area)

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certain biocontrol agents. Trichoderma spp. have identified and found highly efficient in controlling various soil borne diseases in vigetable crops. These are now commercially available. Several recommendations have been made for the control of insect pests of major vegetable crops. In tomato fruit borer, in brinjal shoot and fruit borer, in okra jassids, in chillies thrips, in cabbage diamondback moth and in cucurbits fruitfly can be controlled effectively by chemicals as well as integrated pest management technology. In order to economize the application of insecticides, some biocontrol agents such as Trichogramma, Chrysoperla and NPV have been identified and found very effective for the control of insect pests in tomato, brinjal, cabbage, etc. These bio agents are now available commercially. Such recommendations have helped to increase the quality of vegetables without affecting the environment and residual effects. This organization has been producing adequate quantity of breeder seed of promising varieties of vegetables which have been released / notified. The breeder seeds have been supplied to different State Governments which have made a great impact in the increase of foundation and certified seed. Due to this process, the potentiality of vegetable varieties has been maintained to a great extent and vegetable production has increased. The technology on vegetable production has shown a commendable impact on the socio-economic security, social equity and maintaining ecological balance. While assessing the input and output ratio, it is gratifying to highlight that the vegetables are highly remunerative. The ratio of input and output in most of the cases is very high. Even with less input, the output produced by the farmers is generally much more than cereal and field crops. The crops like tomato, brinjal, chillies, capsicum, cauliflower, cabbage and peas exhibit high input output ratio. Vegetable improvement programme was launched long back which resulted in several useful recommendations and improved varieties for different zones. These developed technologies were disseminated for adoption. But still there is a big gap in average yield of vegetables between on farm and coordinated trials. In case of cabbage, yield of coordinated trial was 36000 kg/ha but on farm yield was only 14380 kg/ha. Similarly, in cauliflower yield of coordinated trial was 26600 kg/ha and of tomato was 30000 kg/ha but on farm yield was 15850 kg/ha. Average yield of pumpkin, squash and gourd was higher in coordinated trials than on farmers' field. In cucumber, coordinated yield was 13600 kg/ha but on farm yield was only 6480 kg/ha. Brinjal showed much gap in coordinated trials yield, i.e. 28000 kg/ ha and on farm yield (10460 kg/ha). More than three fold gap was observed in green chillies and peppers in coordinated trials yield (7500 kg/ha) and on farm yield (2020 kg/ha). Similar trend was found in onion coordinated yield (34000 kg/ha) and on farm yield (11320 kg/ha). Garlic yield variation was remarkable in coordinated trials (13500 kg/ha) and on farm yield (5230 kg/ha). In bean (green) nearly six times more yield was recorded in coordinated trial 11500 kg/ha and on farm yield (2520 kg/ha). Continuous efforts of AICVIP during the last 30 years have proved the beneficial impact on prevailing traditional farmers' practices. Yield potential was tested by farmers through adoption of new improved technology was much higher. Thus, on the yield front of vegetables, new innovations were found to be remunerative. The development of 347 improved varieties, agronomical recommendations in different vegetable crops, standard techniques for chemical control of important diseases and control measures against important pests of vegetable crops have strengthened the AICRP activities. This indicates that the technology developed in vegetables through this organization is highly rewarding and remunerative to the farmers.
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5.2 Input-output Assessment
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Item wise assessment indicating where we have failed and why
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The organization established in 1971 had mandate only of coordination. There was no in-house intensive research programme in AICVIP which was the major impediment in the organization. A total number of 358 high yielding varieties of more than 22 vegetable crops have been developed. Out of these varieties some varieties have a great potential on the farmers' field and there has been a great demand of quality seeds of these varieties. The breeder seeds are not adequately multiplied to foundation and certified seeds. This has resulted into non-availability of the quality seeds of improved varieties in sufficient quantity. The technologies generated in vegetable crops have been disseminated to the farmers' field but some farmers are still unaware about the major technologies generated in various disciplines of vegetable production. Due to such limitations, farmers have to depend on their traditional wisdom and technology. With the globalization of agriculture and economic liberalization, there is a vast scope for export of vegetables. Many countries of Middle-East and Europe intend to import vegetables from India. So far research programme on export oriented vegetable production technology have not been generated and endeavors to generate information on the requirement of different importing countries have not been made. Generally, the vegetables are grown after vegetables as a result vegetables are susceptible to a number of insect pests and diseases and productivity has gone down. Technologies like cereal-based vegetable cropping system have not been developed till today. This requires a fresh look on the vegetable cropping system. There is unorganized marketing sector in vegetables which lead to a great fluctuation in the price in the market and in the peak period the prices go down to the level that the vegetable production does not become economical to the farmers. The cooperative system of marketing is not functional except at a few places. The country does not have adequate facilities for processing of vegetables, particularly the process of tomato, onion, garlic, peas, etc. as a result, the crops during peak period are not being utilized, properly by processors and thus the rates become very less which has detracted the cultivation of vegetables in many areas. Technology for growing of vegetables under abiotic stress conditions like raising of crop under high temperature, low temperature, salinity and alkalinity have not been developed. The country has a wide range of ecosystem and eco-diversity from extreme high to low temperature, from normal soil to alkaline and saline soil, from extreme drought to extreme water logged condition and efforts have not been made to generate viable technology for such adverse conditions.

5.3 Gaps and Shortcomings Although much has been done for the betterment of vegetable seed scenario of the country, still more needs to be done to provide it a sound footing based on realistic demands for achieving self sufficiency in good quality vegetable seeds. In this direction following points may be considered. Database There is an urgent need to have a fresh estimate of area under vegetables. To achieve the objective, a thorough survey programme should be started at national level by involving State Departments of Agriculture/ Horticulture, SAUs, ICAR institutes and NGOs so that the total vegetable area could be worked out at
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Block/Tehsil/Taluka, District, Commissionary, State and National level for an effective planning on realistic footing. Assessment of Actual Seed Requirement Once the crop wise figures of area under vegetables become available, the total seed requirement can easily be assessed. Based on this, the requirement for different categories of seed i.e. breeder, foundation and certified can also be worked out. It will help in advance planning of different seed production programmes so that good quality seeds in desired quantity may be made available at appropriate time and place and the quantity of seed import to fulfill the shortfalls may also be slashed down in the interest of national economy. Development of Storage Facilities Since the seeds are the backbone of vegetable cultivation in the country, they should be given top priority. There is need to develop sufficient storage facilities to take care of left over seed stocks in the years of plenty and to act as buffer in the years of scarcity. Under ambient conditions, the seeds can not be stored for long and may deteriorate losing their viability. Development of Organized Private Sector In the present day situation there is predominance of seed traders apart from private seed companies, which are unregistered and hence there is no record of the seed traded through them. It acts as a loop hole in working out the total national demand and supply of vegetable seeds. Although there is seed act to keep an eye on the seed trade in the market and ensure the seed quality under its net, these unregistered traders dealing directly with the growers escape this net and thus form a handsome chunk of unorganized seed trade with no quality checks. There is an urgent need to bring such type of seed trade also under the organized sector umbrella so that actual demand and supply figures of quality vegetable seeds at national level may become more authentic. The other major technological gap in vegetable farming are as follows : i) Lack of knowledge about the recently released varieties of different crops and their package of practices. ii) Lack of necessary skill to practice the modern agriculture practices including organic farming. iii) Lack of knowledge and skill in the post-harvest management practices, including storage of vegetables grown in the area. iv) Low utilization of modern inputs like fertilizer, seed and pesticides etc. due to lack of awareness, low motivation etc. v) Poor utilization of farm roughages for preparation of compost etc. vi) Non-adoption of recommended soil and water conservation practices leading to soil erosion, depletion of soil fertility and poor crop stand. vii) Poor adoption of complementary and supplementary enterprises and agro-based cottage industries. viii) Non-exploitation of the potentiality growing off-season vegetables including vegetable seeds. ix) Non -existence of farmers, self-help / farmers interest group leading to poor post-harvest management including marketing. x) Poor / low seed replacement rate resulting in use of low yielding varieties / plants. xi) Poor management of rainwater leading to loss of top soil, non -availability of water at critical stages in plant growth.

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5.4 Lessons Learnt, Suggestions and Options for Future M A great deal of information has been generated on germplasm management, development of varieties, production and protection technology. Not much facility has been created in the discipline of germplasm conservation as a result we are loosing our very valuable natural resources and biodiversity. Similarly, we have developed a large number of varieties which are high yielding but only few varieties have been developed which are resistant to biotic and abiotic stress. We have not been able to develop varieties resistant to important pests and diseases for example in brinjal, Phomopsis and fruit and shoot borer; in capsicum viral diseases; in chillies die-back; in cucurbit downy mildew; in onion purple blotch, stemphyllium and in cowpea mosaic virus. Institution village linkage programme has been extremely weak and so vegetable production technologies have not been transferred adequately to the farmers. It is suggested that extension programme for transfer of vegetable production technology should be enriched and sensitized. Many farmers are still adopting old technology which are out-dated and have less profitability than the newer technology. This is because of some traditional wisdom of vegetable growers that older technology may be more viable. This requires training of the farmers as well as demonstration of newer technology to such farmers in order to convince them for adoption of better technology. Our manpower resources in vegetable research and extension are weak. The number of manpower trained for research, teaching and extension are limited. Also, as vegetable production requires some specific and trained personnel; such people are not available to take stock of the situation. This requires an intensive agricultural human resource development programme by offering advanced education and training. Also there is an option to visit the countries where vegetable technologies are much advanced than this country. We lack necessary technology for small and resource-poor farmers. Similarly there is no technology for saline and alkaline soil, cold deserts and for coastal area, etc. Success of any programme depends upon its transfer and impact assessment. While developing technology, certain obstacles are observed and that gives the lesson. This can be sustained by human resource development programme and generating more resources for research.

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SCENARIO AND SWOT ANALYSIS

6.1 National Scenario The national scenario of the vegetable production has witnessed considerable growth during the recent past. During the year 2005-06, India has produced 113.7 million tones of vegetable from 7.2 million ha of land. The vegetable production of our country was very low i.e. less than 20 million tonnes during 1947 at the time of independence. The production of vegetables till 1961-65 was about 23.45 million tonnes, which increased to 28.36 million tonnes in 1967-71 and to 39.99 million tonnes in 1986. During 1991-1992 the total production was 58.543 million tonnes from 5.593 million ha of land, productivity being 10.5 t/ha. Thus in the last one decade country's vegetable production has increased more than 35 million tones and gross vegetable productivity of the country multiplied one and half times. Presently India's share is 14.4% of total world production of vegetables and occupies second position next to China. In the country, Tamil Nadu has the credit to bag the highest productivity i.e. 27.5 tonnes/ha followed by Kerala (22.0 tonnes/ha) and Uttar Pradesh (19.5 tonnes/ha). Productivity of some of the states like Delhi, Rajasthan and all the states comprising north-eastern hill region, except Tripura are less than 10 tonnes per hectare. In these states, there is an urgent need to recast the vegetable production strategy so that vegetable production may get impetus.
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India is endowed with tremendous natural wealth and eco-diversity. We have a good fertile land having all kinds of soils, i.e. sandy, sandy loam and clay. However, some areas are having saline, alkaline and water logged soil. A large area in the country is rainfed and diara land where there is a scope to promote the vegetable production. There is tremendous diversity in the climatic conditions and based on different climatic conditions, vegetable growing area has been classified into eight zones. Biologically and ecologically, the country is richly endowed and thus all kinds of vegetables from tropical to temperate can be grown which facilitates the excellence in vegetable research. Tremendous diversity of natural flora of a number of vegetables are available in the country. The extent of diversity is immense in crops like eggplant, chillies, cauliflower, muskmelon, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pointed gourd; amaranths, radish, onion, etc. The mountainous area, eastern region and tribal areas are the important regions of genetic diversity in a number of vegetable crops. Still many wild, semi-wild, land races and old varieties are being grown under natural conditions in several parts of the country especially in tribal belts which has tremendous potential for their collection, maintenance, utilization and conservation. Conservation of threatened species requires special attention. Lot of bio-agents as natural parasites and predators are available in the country which can be used for bio-control of harmful insect pests and diseases. Many plants available in the country can be used for the bio-control of pests and diseases in order to maintain ecological balance and protecting the environment. In sustaining the tempo of agriculture production, diversification is being given high priority and horticultural crops specially vegetables are an important component of this diversification. It has tremendous potential having 5 to 8 times more yield increase than cereals and millets. Vegetables can be used for value addition and thus the value of a number of vegetable crops can be raised. Tomato, chillies, onion, garlic, peas, carrot, etc. have the scope for value addition. For this, there is a need to establish processing industries in different parts of the country for producing tomato paste, onion powder and peas (canning and dehydration), etc. This will regulate and optimize the prices of vegetables during peak period especially in the winter in north India. This kind of proposition will maintain the balance between production and consumption system. The country does not have adequate modern facilities for marketing of vegetables and thus the marketing system is weak. There is no co-operative system for marketing, which is a potential medium for taking up the vegetable industry economically. Transportation system in many cases, packaging of vegetables and storage facilities are meager. At several places the market is very distantly located and farmers are not able to take their vegetables to the market. The biggest problem in vegetable marketing is the middlemen who are the highest beneficiary at the cost of the farmer's labour, input and effort. In the peak period when production to demand ratio is high and prices are less, and there is a need of controlled atmosphere storage facility. In the wake of liberalization of Open General License (OGL) policy, the seeds of a large number of hybrids of capsicum, cabbage, tomato and cauliflower have been introduced from different countries. Along with these seeds, there is a risk of a large number of diseases and insect pests being introduced in the country. In many cases there is no definite control measure of these biotic stresses as a result they are causing a great problem. This scenario requires a separate research programme for the control of such organisms. During the recent past, a large number of entrepreneurial units have been established specially in southern part of the country. Out of these, many organizations have infrastructural facilities for research dealing with mainly hybrid vegetables. This requires a close tie-up between public sector and private sector. The private sector has potential for large scale multiplication of hybrid seeds at commercial level. The public
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sectors are lacking in such facilities and in view of this there is a scope of mutual complementary and holistic approach. Several countries are interested to import the vegetables from India and Middle East countries and European countries are having great potential. However, we do not have infrastructure facilities for research on this line and also we do not have the scientific research information and backup for the farmers who are interested for such production. Maharashtra and some part of Punjab are producing vegetable for export. However, they need research back up, infrastructure facilities, transportation facilities and packing etc. to facilitate the export of quality vegetables. Due to carcinogenic nature of several chemicals, many countries are interested in the vegetable produced without using chemical. It has been learnt that some farmers of Maharashtra are already producing vegetable under organic farming conditions. Although many farmers in the country are taking up this venture, the definite technology of growing of vegetables without chemical is not available. In this regard, there is scope for research on tomato, capsicum, okra, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli etc. to be grown under organic farming conditions. Along with food security, nutritional security is also being considered vital as micronutrient malnutrition caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin A and iron is quite prevalent in the third world. In this context the crops like tomato, carrot and pumpkin for higher Beta carotene can be taken for the study. Similarly leafy vegetables have high iron, thus they are helpful in improving the condition of anaemic people. Vegetables are the most important component of food considering food security as well as nutritional security. Seeds are the most important input in vegetable production. The quality seed of vegetable is of prime need of farmers. The total breeder seeds produced in the country are less than required by different states. Further, the maintenance of varieties and production of certified and foundation seeds are also a weak link in vegetable production. There is a great demand of hybrid seeds in the country especially of tomato, brinjal, capsicum, chillies, muskmelon, watermelon, cucumber, bitter gourd, bottle gourd etc. In many cases the cost of hybrid seeds is very high which is beyond the capacity of farmers to purchase and sometimes hybrid seeds are not available. During the recent past, the problem of pollution, i.e. air pollution, soil pollution etc. have increased tremendously. Further, the costs of chemicals have also gone up. Many chemicals show very high degree of residual effect which is causing health hazard to consumers. There are no proper facilities in the country to analyze the level of residual toxicity. Considering this problem, bio control agents have been brought in use to control several insect pest & diseases. The technology for control of few pest and diseases are perfect, however, they are not being used commercially at large scale. The IPM in vegetable production has tremendous scope at commercial scale. In the country many vegetables are nowadays being grown round the year. Such vegetables are radish, cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, chillies etc. This is due to the development of varieties suitable to various environmental conditions. However, in many crops the growing period is very limited. This is due to nonavailability of technology. Off season vegetable production is very economical which requires the specific technology to be generated in different conditions. The research programmes are required to be undertaken by different organization for extreme environment conditions like drought, cold, heat, etc. Vegetable can be grown under protected cultivation in off season for increase in per unit production. The cultivated area is shrinking every year as a result we have to think for capitalizing the vertical area rather than the horizontal ones. The protected cultivation is possible under glass or poly-house, net house etc. There is a scope of raising nursery of Solanaceous vegetable and Cole crops under controlled condition
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considering the problem of damping off in rainy and summer season. Country needs lot of such infrastructure and such structures will help in producing vegetable for export also. Vegetable requires frequent irrigation and without frequent irrigation or ensuring the complete irrigation facilities the crop can not be grown. Generally crops are irrigated by open furrow system which requires very large quantity of water. During the recent past drip irrigation system has been designed which is highly economical for irrigation and fertigation of vegetable crops. Government is providing subsidy also on this system. Still this system is not adopted by the farmers in many states except Maharastra and Gujarat. Vegetable production has increased considerably due to advent of newer sustainable technology. While assessing the transfer of technology from lab to land, it is evident that only a limited number of research findings have been percolated to the farmer's field. Many technologies are still waiting for its transfer and adoption by the farmers. Agricultural officers and farmers are required to be trained to promote the transfer of technology activities. In this context, human resource development is of vital significance. There are certain social aspects which are associated with the vegetable production. The vegetable production since ages in many part of the country has been in the hand of only in some class of people. Such kind of social discrimination has detracted the vegetable production in the country. However, this kind of apprehension is drifting day by day and many other class of people are also undertaking the venture of vegetable cultivation. There are more than 30 vegetable crops which are although being grown in one or the other parts of the country; the research work has been totally neglected. There is no proper collection of germplasm lines, very little or no work on varietal development and other production and protection technologies. Such crops required to have a fresh look on their popularization and development of technologies. Vegetable production in India has gained new heights as a result of which we are now sometimes facing a problem of glut in many vegetables. In response to this situation, the policy emphasis is gradually shifting from the supply side to the demand side. India has a share in world primary vegetable export to the tune of 3.25% and processed vegetables about 0.2% only. This constitute about 0.9% of total vegetable production in the country. Now time has come to realize/capitalize India's strength in terms of exporting fresh and processed vegetable products in globally liberalized economy of the world by overcoming the weaknesses in the domestic vegetable sector by taking full advantage of the strengths of the sector. Here is a brief analysis of strength, weakness, opportunity and threats to the Indian vegetable sector which will help in taking corrective measures for its improvement.

6.2 SWOT Analysis 6.2.1 Strength Diverse agro-climatic conditions India is endowed with tremendous natural wealth and eco-diversity. It has a wide range of fertile land from sandy, sandy loam, loamy and clay. There is tremendous diversity in the climatic conditions and based on different climatic conditions, vegetable growing area has been classified into eight zones. Biologically and ecologically, the country is richly endowed and thus all kinds of vegetables from tropical to temperate can be grown which give us strength in producing vegetables as per the demand in International market. There are more than 60 potential vegetables which are nicely grown in varied climatic conditions from sea shore to snowline. Most of the vegetables are photo-thermo insensitive and day neutral can be grown throughout the year and fit into several cropping systems. Vegetables require generally short growing season. Most of the vegetables can nicely be accommodated with different inter-cropping system in the country. In the country
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many vegetables are nowadays being grown round the year. This is due to the development of varieties suitable to various environmental conditions. This gives strength to seize the immense export opportunities apart from fulfilling domestic needs. Majority of vegetables are available round the year either in one part or the other part of the country. Thus an entrepreneur can find the fresh raw material for running vegetable based processing industries will be available for most part of the year. Existence of biodiversity in vegetables Tremendous diversity of natural flora of a number of vegetables are available in the country. The extent of diversity is immense in crops like eggplant, chillies, cauliflower, muskmelon, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pointed gourd, amaranths, radish, onion, etc. The mountainous area, eastern region and tribal areas are the important regions of genetic diversity in a number of vegetable crops. Still many wild, semi-wild, land races and old varieties are being grown under natural conditions in several parts of the country especially in tribal belts which has tremendous potential for their collection, maintenance, utilization and conservation. Lot of bio-agents as natural parasites and predators are available in the country which can be used for bio-control of harmful insect pests and diseases. Many plants available in the country can be used for the bio-control of pests and diseases in order to maintain ecological balance and protecting the environments. R&D Infrastructure and support We have one of the best research facilities/infrastructure in the world on vegetables. Besides we also have a team of well-trained and dedicated scientists who can be used effectively for the betterment of vegetable sector. The effort of scientists has led to tremendous progress in vegetable production. Compared to the production figures of 1947-48 (less than 17 million tones) the increase in production had been more than 5 folds. Some of the important scientific achievements during last six decades include (i) Development of 347 high yielding varieties in 22 vegetable crops which have been identified for cultivation in different climatic zones. (ii) IPM for the management of important insects pests of vegetables, (iii) Development technologies for producing quality seed material for all the vegetables, (iv) Development of region-wise package of practices for each and every vegetable (vi) Development of plant protection measures for important diseases, and (vii) Identification of important genes and development of transgenic. Technology This organization has developed tremendous capabilities, infrastructure facilities, manpower, research and seed production programme and interface activities. At present the country is fully equipped with efficient vegetable production technologies. We have about 347 vegetable varieties suitable for growing under various agro-climatic zones. Besides 236 production technologies, 95 disease and 57 insect pest management technologies are also in place. Majority of area of vegetable production in the country is free from major insects and pests especially quarantine pests. This puts us in an advantageous position vis-à-vis other countries. We have a number of cultivars in different vegetables which are suitable for processing. Apart from released cultivars, a number of advanced hybrids are in pipeline, which will be released very soon for commercial cultivation in the country. Requisite storage technology for storing fresh as well as processing grade vegetables has also been developed; this has enhanced availability of raw material to the vegetable processing industries. As far as techniques for vegetable processing is concerned home scale processing and preservation of different vegetables by sun drying, salting and pickling are practiced in India since ancient times. The types of vegetable processing and methods adopted for processing vary from region to region. The prominent processed items are canned and dehydrated vegetables. Others like pickling and fermentation are also very common for processing of vegetables. More recently produces like frozen vegetables, vegetable curries in restorable
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pouches, canned mushrooms and mushroom produces have been taken up for manufacture by the industry. The vegetable industry in India is highly decentralized. A large number of units are in the cottage/home scale and small-scale sector, having small capacities up to 250 tones per annum and big companies in the sector have large capacities in the range of 30 tonnes per hour. Since liberalization and withdrawal of excise duty on fruit and vegetable products there has been significant rise in the growth rate of industry. Recently, a number of multinationals in collaboration with Indian firms have set up modern facilities for vegetable processing in different parts of India.
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In a country like India where marginal and small farmers share the maximum percentage of peasantry, vegetable farming is most suitable to them. Vegetable farming is most economical, it gives maximum return per unit area and in totality, vegetable produces 5 to 8 times more return than the cereals. There are more than 60 potential vegetables which are nicely grown in varied climatic conditions from sea shore to snowline. Most of the vegetables are photo-thermo insensitive and day neutral can be grown throughout the year and fit into several cropping systems. Vegetables require generally short growing season. Most of the vegetables can nicely be accommodated with different inter-cropping system. Hybrid technology which has been proved as an effective tool in enhancing the production of several crops has taken lead in vegetable crops. Cultivation of vegetable is highly remunerative which helps in improving the socio- economic status of the growers. Further, this offers more employment opportunity to the vegetable producers and processors. Vegetables like okra, capsicum, bitter gourd, etc. have strong export potential and fetch an attractive foreign exchange. There are several vegetables like tomato, chillies, pea, etc. are having strong processing traits and attract good attention of industries. Vegetables are rich in genetic wealth which has resulted in development of several potential disease and pest resistant varieties, requiring minimum expenditure of chemicals. During the recent past several private companies have been established. Some of these have generated infrastructure for vegetable research. There is a close linkage between public sector, private sector, NGOs and Farmers' Associations. Weaknesses

6.2.2

Lack of vegetable varieties suitable for processing Although in India a large number of vegetable varieties have been developed, which are high yielding and disease resistant, but there is still scope for improvement. We lack varieties with high dormancy, which can be exported without rottage/sprouting during transportation. We also need varieties which can be stored in cold stores during summer without compromising on processing attribute of the vegetables. There is a need to develop designer vegetables keeping in view the requirement of the client countries and the industry. Lack of efficient supply chain of seed Seeds are the most important input in vegetable production as the quality of seed determines the efficiency of use of other inputs by plants. Thus quality seed of vegetable is of prime need of farmers. The total breeder seeds produced in the country are less than required. Further, the maintenance of varieties and production of certified and foundation seeds are also a weak link in vegetable production. There is a great demand of hybrid seeds in the country especially of tomato, brinjal, capsicum, chillies, muskmelon, watermelon, cucumber, bitter gourd, bottle gourd etc.

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Lack of Infrastructure Infrastructure of various kinds like roads, power supply, processing, communication, storage etc., play significant role in affecting cost and price. Infrastructure development takes place generally through public investment which has been showing declining trend in agriculture sector in our country for almost two decades . As the supply price is affected by transport cost, statutory charges, market handling charges, processing cost etc; the infrastructure and provisions associated with these items play important role in determining competitiveness of domestic vegetable sector. For example, transportation from Delhi and Punjab to ports in Gujarat and Maharashtra by road is costlier than that by oceanic freight from any part of the world to Indian port. Besides, vegetables are generally perishable or semi perishable commodity, which requires cold stores for its storage at ports, which at the moment are lacking. Huge post-harvest losses There is great loss of vegetables owing to their perishable nature and due to lack of proper storage and processing facilities. Considering post-harvest scenario statistically, more than 20-30 % of the vegetables are lost in the transit after harvesting. Although country is producing 113.5 million tones of; vegetable, there is a scarcity in the storage facilities under controlled condition as well as proper packing, grading, transportation facility. In case such facilities are generated, we could save 15-20% of vegetable. Generally the post-harvest technologies followed by farmers are indigenous and traditional in nature which is not acceptable Lack of proper policies and regulations Although we have seed certification agencies at state level but still there is no seed certification agency at national level which can certify seed for export purposes. It is pre-requisite of some of the importing countries like Sri Lanka to have certification by national agencies for seed. Weak Vegetable processing Industry Processing facilities are inadequate to maintain the pace with heavy turn over in the market in the main season. For absorbing the excess production of vegetables either exports of vegetables or its processing is required. But capacity of vegetables processing is inadequate due to many reasons. The industry is in a nascent stage, which requires all support from Govt. to come to the proper stage. Fragmented and small land holding: Vegetable cultivation is cost oriented as well as labour intensive. When there is lack of resources and labour, the cultivation becomes difficult. In India majority of the vegetable cultivation is on small farm which is one of the major hurdles in the path of mechanization of vegetable cultivation in the country. With the globalization of the economy under WTO regime, the country has to compete with other countries of the world for vegetable trade. Due to specialization and mechanization of vegetables cultivation in other parts of the world, vegetables production is cheaper in those countries and it will be very difficult for India to compete with them unless we bring down the cost of cultivation.
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Some vegetables are highly sensitive to diseases and insect pests. Further, continuous vegetable cultivation in absence of crop rotation with cereals and other field crops aggravates incidence of pest and disease and gives low return. This demands lot of input for the control of disease and pest. Resistant varieties in all crops and diseases are not available.

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Exorbitant charges of hybrid seed has deprived the farmers to harvest full potential of the hybrid varieties. Spurious seeds supplied by some of the agencies ultimately affect the production and quality. The traders and intermediaries in the marketing system take away major share of profits thereby depriving the vegetable growers from the full value of the produce. There is stiff competition in the international market from other vegetable producing industries. The present system of grading and marketing does not meet the requirement of the international market. Non-availability of reliable data base on vegetable production statistics. Opportunities

6.2.3

6.2.3.1. Internal With increase in population as well as income the demand for vegetables are increasing in the country. According to an estimate India's population is projected to rise to 1.3 billion by 2020 with the share of the population living in urban areas rising from 26 percent to 35 percent of the total population. The gap in demand and supply of by the year 2020, in the country will be about 25 million tons even with the assumption of modest rate of growth rate in the economy. In such scenario vegetables, which are nutritionally superior and capable of producing high amount of food per unit area and time has a great potential in modern agriculture to meet the growing food demand. Liberalization and globalization of Indian economy, setting up of a new world trade order, fast pace of urbanization and enhanced purchasing power of the people has given ample thrust to go for more and more processed food products. Changed life style in cities with better education and awareness, the barriers of taste, dishes and food products and eating habits is on its way out. At present only 2.0% of the fruits and vegetables are processed in different forms in the country as against 70% in Brazil, 60 - 70% in USA, 83% in Malaysia, 78% in Philippines and 80% in Saudi Arabia. Out of the entire agricultural produce of India only 1% is converted into value added products. Present level of processing in organized sector may disappoint many, but since liberalization and withdrawal of excise duty on fruit and vegetable products, there is a significant rise in the growth rate of industry. 6.2.3.2. External At present, world wide 27.8 million tones of vegetables are being imported out of which Asia accounts for 22.3% i. e. 6.2 million tones and South Asia accounts for 2.53% of the total import in the world. In the world, USA is the leading importer of vegetables which accounts for about 14.48% of world primary vegetables import. USA is followed by Germany (10.59%), UK (6.84%), and Canada (6.48%). In Asia, Japan tops the list followed by Hong Kong, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh and Singapore etc. During recent past, (1990-2004) import of vegetables in the world has increased by about 5.2% while export of vegetables from India has grown by about 7.23% of compound growth rate during the same period. This scenario calls for concerted efforts to capture global market by producing international quality vegetables and processed products. Moreover, demand for processed product is increasing faster than the fresh vegetables for consumption. Most of the increase in demand in processed products is from Asian region. The demand for processed vegetables is rising in many Asian countries which provide opportunities for country like India to capture fast expanding market in the World in general and Asia in particular. The opportunities are enormous and there is urgent need to provide technology support to realize this goal. Industrialists have to come up with a plan and determination, so that capacity for processing may be enhanced to capture fast expanding internal as well as external markets.

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Similar opportunities are available in the export of vegetables seed to at least neighboring Asian countries where some of Indian varieties are in cultivation around and are having similar agro-climatic conditions. At present, European countries meet major portion of their seed requirement. Collaboration with national/state agencies, farmers groups, private companies and export houses can give impetus in capturing the world seed market. However, there are several issues, which need to be addressed on priority. Seed certification at national level is one such area. In India, APEDA has identified traditional vegetables including okra, bitter gourd, chilli, onion, potato and non- traditional vegetables like asparagus, celery, sweet pepper, sweet corn, baby corn, green peas, French bean, cucumber, gherkins and cherry tomato having good export potential. Cultivation of new vegetable like gherkin, baby corn, sweet corn, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, zukini, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, asparagus, celery and parsley is on the rising trends and provide better returns. The vegetables being exported include okra, tomato, baby corn, cucumber, gherkins, chillies, French bean, capsicum, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, onion and potato. Processed vegetables are also being exported to some countries
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In our country where varied climatic conditions exists offer best scope to select the suitable niches according to nature of crop. The existing agro climatic conditions can be capitalized for vegetable production. India is considered one of the richest germplasm reservoirs of vegetables which offer good scope for tapping the potential of germplasm. There are ample opportunities to strengthen the linkages among different national and international activities engaged with the improvement of vegetable crops. Expansion of rural industries based on the local produce may add to the value of the produce and generate additional income and employment. A large segment of farming community can be brought under the vegetable industry. India can earn good foreign exchange by exporting vegetables. So far the major share is of onion for export. There is scope to increase the export of many other vegetables also.

6.2.4 Threats Decreasing size of farms With increase in population the land requirements for housing and other development work, agricultural land holdings are getting smaller and smaller in the country which may affect availability of land adversely for vegetable cultivation and mechanization of the agriculture. Indiscriminate use of chemicals Indiscriminate use of chemicals (pesticides & fertilizers) by farmers affects the quality of the produce which may adversely affect export prospects. Stresses on account of global climatic changes, scarcity and quality of water, emergence of new pests and diseases would manifest directly or indirectly the prospect of vegetable sector in the country. Therefore, concerted effects are needed to develop integrated management practices on use of fertilizers (IPNS) and disease/pest management (IPM) on high priority and it should be disseminated to the growers without any delay. Trade policies of other countries In the present era of globalized economy all countries are linked with each other. The world market is becoming highly competitive and trade regulations are becoming stringent. Thus the prospects of any industry
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in future will not only be inflicted by the changes in rules and regulations of its own country but also by the action of other country. There is international competition in export of vegetables especially in South East Asian countries. Therefore, to be nationally comfortable and globally competitive in terms of quality and cost of produce, we have to keep watch on the activity of other competitive nations and will have to quickly adjust to the emerging trends in vegetable sector.
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Unless the prices of hybrid are sustained, there shall be poor supply of superior seeds to the farmers which may impose threat to production. There is great threat of genetic erosion of indigenous germplasm including locals and land races as they are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars/hybrids. With the liberalization of policy of import of new varieties/hybrids, there are chances of outbreak of some new diseases and insect pests if proper quarantine measures are not implemented. Entry of corporate sector in Agribusiness activities.

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7.

PERSPECTIVE

The current production of vegetables is more than 100 million tonnes which is substantially less than the requirement of the rapidly growing population. During the recent past, efforts have been made to increase the vegetable production. The future strategy will be to increase the vegetable production and productivity. In view of this, the country has to go a long way to increase the vegetable production. Emphasis on proper data base On the basis of area, production, ratio of consumption to production system, various targets are decided. The total area and production of vegetable crops are known only approximately but there are a number of vegetable crops of which the area and production are still obscure. These are especially the minor vegetables. It is imperative that such information is collected by National Horticultural Board and State Departments of Horticulture. There are certain areas especially the tribal areas which are not surveyed for accounting the total areas in many cases. Further the area and production of vegetable produced in backyard is not considered and it will be imperative to have such statistical information and increase the production in such areas. Germplasm conservation and utilization The country is endowed with rich bio and eco-diversity. Indian Gene Centre rich in enormous diversity of potential economic value is being threatened due to change in environment, land use pattern and with improved cultivation practices. NBPGR is making concerted effort to collect and conserve various kinds of genetic diversity of vegetable crops. Several explorations have been made, however, there will be further explorations to collect the germplasm lines for the use of breeders. The crops in which exploration will be made are pointed gourd, minor cucurbits, chilles, some minor beans and some bulb crops, etc. The most important aspect is the conservation of germplasm lines and for this medium term gene bank facilities will be established at IIVR. The long term storage facility initiated by NBPGR will be used for the conservation of base collection of vegetables. This organization will have a close interface with NBPGR in all aspects of germplasm. There are number of vegetables which are although grown in the country but considered as unutilized. Emphasis is required to establish a proper gene bank of such crops and strengthen research programme on such crops. Also such crops require support for its popularization. Role of hybrid and improved open pollinated vegetable varieties Hybrid varieties are well known for increasing vegetable production due to its high yield potential, earliness, quality and resistance attributes. Hybrid varieties in India is of recent origin whereas in many developed countries hybrids were largely grown much earlier. Tomato, eggplant, pepper, cucumber muskmelon, watermelon, cabbage, cauliflower, carrot, etc. arc important crops in which hybrids are largely available and farmers are adapting such varieties to a considerable extent. Presently, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradcsh, U.P., M.P are leading producers of hybrid tomato. The entire cabbage production in Southern parts of Maharashtra and West Bengal is under F1 hybrids. However, it is estimated that presently only about 10% area of vegetable is under the hybrids of which tomato covers 36%, cabbage 30%, brinjal 18%, okra 7%, melons and gourds each of 5%, cauliflower 2% and chilli 1%. It is expected that in coming 5 years period there will be more than 25% area and after ten years hybrids will occupy more than 50% area, which will substantially contribute in enhancing the vegetable production of the country. During the recent past, tremendous progress has been made to develop hybrid varieties in a number of vegetable crops. However, the hybrids are susceptible to several diseases and pests. Hybrids resistant to multiple diseases and pests will be developed in tomato, brinjal, chillies, capsicum, okra, muskmelon, watermelon, cucumber, bitter gourd,
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carrot, radish, etc. In order to produce hybrid seeds economically, economic hybrid seed production technology should be developed. This programme requires training of the farmers' at large scale. Unless the farmers are trained to produce the hybrid seeds, hybrids developed by public sector will not be viable. Also scope for the revolving funds for large scale multiplication of hybrid seeds should be worked out. Further the hybrids require an effective, viable and innovative production technology which will be generated in all the major vegetable crops. Increasing the area under improved open pollinated varieties Vegetable production is still dominated by the locally available genotypes or inferior landraces. It is estimated that under eggplant approximately 32.2% area, cauliflower 46.71%, chilli 60%, gourds 77.56%, melons 70%, okra 14.62% and under tomato 18.49% area are under unidentified local varieties. Here great scope exists to replace the local cultivars with the improved high yielding and disease resistant varieties. Abiotic stress tolerance in vegetable crops Vegetables are highly susceptible to abiotic stresses like extreme high and low temperature, excessive moisture, salinity, alkalinity, environmental pollution, drought, etc. Area of such stresses is increasing day by day due to a number of ecological factors. In order to generate technology to produce vegetables under such conditions, tremendous techno-infrastructure facilities are required. The research data on various aspects of abiotic stresses will be required to be generated. A sustainable technology for growing vegetable under riverbed condition and under rain-fed condition will be viable proposition. There is a need of upgradation of technology for off season river-bed cultivation. To make use of problematic soils like saline soil, alkali soil and waste land, suitable crop varieties and production technology suited to such conditions are required. In coming years, such programmes will be executed by this organization as well as other organizations. The area covered by water-logging is very large in the country especially the rice-belt area where vegetables are not cultivated. There is a possibility to search the technology which may ensure the vegetable production under excess moisture tract of the country on the pattern of south-east Asia like rice-based vegetable cropping system has to be explored. The rainfed regions of the country are mainly occupied by cereal, millet and some leguminous crops. There are some vegetables which have the potentiality to be grown in rainfed areas and efforts have to be made to produce the vegetables in such areas also. Similarly the efforts will be made to generate technologies for coastal area, cold deserts, Antarctica, etc. Emphasis on minor vegetables A large number of minor vegetables are grown in different parts of the country. These minor vegetables are having great scope in export and are fetching very high price in multistar hotels and other tourist restaurants. In Himachal Pradesh, cultivation of asparagus and broccoli is increasing very fast. Like asparagus and broccoli, there are a number of other minor vegetables such as Fava bean, runner bean, winged bean, lima bean, velvet bean, chive, leak, welsh onion, Brussels sprout, chinese cabbage, Momordica cochinchinensis, Momordica dioica, Coccinia indica, Melothria heterophylla, curry leaf, drumstick, agathi, water leaf, Indian spinach, parsnip, celery, lettuce, artichoke, sweet corn, baby corn etc. Looking to the importance of these crops, it is desired that there should be well chalked out long term plan so that commercial cultivation of these minor vegetables can be popularized. Vegetable based cropping system The vegetable-based cropping system with vegetable after vegetable invites lot of biotic stresses and reducing the productivity of the crop. Also there are certain unhealthy allelopathic effects which detract the
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vegetable production. Thus, information on cropping system in vegetables associating cereals, millets and other field crops will be generated. In order to have a sustainable vegetable production technology and to maintain soil health, maintenance of adequate quantity of organic carbon, micro- organism, micro-flora, etc. in the soil are important. This requires continuous green manuring and use of organic manure in the soil. In totality, a comprehensive research programme taking all aspects of integrated nutrient management will be undertaken. Small and marginal fanners can even cultivate vegetables year round. Vegetables in crop rotation can give a cropping intensity of 400 per cent. In North India, two crops each of radish, turnip, beet root, cauliflower, knol khol and potato being short and medium duration can possibly be grown in rabi. Intercropping of vegetables in long durations widely and initially slow growing field crops as sugarcane, maize, rai is possible. Suppression in yield of sugarcane is only 10 per cent when intercropped with brilljal, chilli, okra, onion and potato. For a sustainable agriculture intercropping or relay cropping of vegetables as filler crop in a normal cropping is quite remunerative for the small and marginal farmers. Crop diversification Most of the vegetables are short duration and are suitable for growing in mixed, inter, relay and companion cropping. Besides, these have high nutritional value, high caloric energy per unit of water, land area and time. Therefore, crop diversification from cereals to vegetable crops is the need of the day and vegetable based cropping system can provide higher returns per unit of land, water and time. This technology needs to be promoted. Further, promotion of diversification among vegetables, especially for that of under utilized and exotic vegetables, rich in nutrient, for domestic as well as export markets should be addressed. Some of these vegetables like sweet corn, baby corn, moringa, leek, bunching onion, Welsh onion, broccoli, brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kakrol, Kartoli, Ivy gourd, Sweet gourd, faba bean, summer bean, lima bean, winged bean, sword bean, velvet bean, etc should be given importance. Emphasis on Organic Farming To produce vegetable without application of chemicals is the demand of the time. Such vegetables have a great demand for export. Over the past ten years, the international trade in organic foods has shown an annual growth of about 20 per cent. India can be a bigger beneficiary of this boom by entering into organic horticulture world market. The research on organic farming without using chemical will be undertaken on tomato, capsicum, cucumber, okra, peas, cucurbits, etc. Since there is a vast scope for export of vegetables, research programme on export of vegetables will be considered on all the vegetables where there is scope for the export. Emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) The integrated pest management (IPM) technology has been considered an environmental friendly technology which has been generated against some pests only. Further, IPM technology will be generated against some pests for which the technology has not been generated and will be required. In vegetables more than 40% quantitative and qualitative losses is caused due to pest attacks. As a result, growers face heavy loss due to decrease in yield and further degradation of quality and marketability of the product. It is estimated that vegetables cover less than 3% of the total cropped area of the country but share approximately 17.16% of total insecticides consumption. The persistency of toxic chemicals in consumable parts limits the choice of pesticides and makes vegetable pest management more sensitive and challenging. Residual toxicity is very important factor for export, shipment from the country is rejected because of residual toxicity above a minimum residue level (MRL). To reduce the residue level and save the ecosystem from hazardous chemicals of pesticides, it is imperative to adopt IPM.
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In recent past, throughout the world efforts have been made to control the vegetable pest by use of natural enemies, parasite predators besides host specific insect viruses and other entomo-pathogenic microorganisms and to a considerable extent success has been achieved. In tomato, fruit borer can be successfully controlled by use of Trichogramma and HaNPV (Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus). Okra shoot and fruit borer can be checked by Trichogramma brassiliensis. Diamondback moth of cabbage can be controlled successfully by Bacillus thuringiensis. No doubt IPM technology has emerged an effective and ecofriendly approach to combat the pest problem in vegetable crops. But farmer's ignorance about this approach and apprehension that natural enemies do not totally suppress the pest population and low populations of pest is enough to cause heavy loss. Further lack of availability of these bio-agents and their multiplication is another problem in adoption. To make the IPM technology more popular among the growers, an intensive effort on research and extension is needed. IIVR has already made positive efforts in this direction. Protected cultivation of vegetables With the shrinking of land resource, option for growing vegetables under protected conditions has high potential. A large number of computerized programmes and research data for raising different vegetables under greenhouse plastic-house, etc. will be generated. Raising of large number of nursery under greenhouse condition will bring breakthrough considering the problem of damping off in rainy season and summer for early production of crops. Protected cultivation will be promoted with computerization, fertigation and other modern facilities will increase the quality of vegetables for export. A network programme will be undertaken in this regard. The private sectors, NGOs and farmers will be sensitized to establish vast facilities of greenhouse, plastic house, net house, etc for protected cultivation of vegetables. The crops associated with protected cultivation are tomato, capsicum, some cucurbits, cole crops, etc., which have high potential for export also. There are a number of opportunities in various agroclimatic zones in India for the commercial protected vegetable production. In temperate areas, vegetable growers can increase their income by raising early crops in protected structures mainly in low cost greenhouses. Raising of vegetable nursery in protected structures has many fold benefits such as easy management, early nursery, protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. There is rapidly increasing awareness for good nutrition and quality vegetables free from chemicals. The potential of protected vegetable production to meet this demand should not go over looked. Protected conditions provide many fold advantages over open field vegetable production. Protected vegetable production is boon to cold desert region of the country where this technology helped commercial cultivation of several vegetables and production during frozen winters hitherto considered impossible. There are several avenues where protected vegetable production could be of economic importance. Farmers having very small holdings can plan commercial vegetable production. It implies in tribal areas too. Increased productivity under protected conditions favours its early adoption in India. Hi-tech vegetable production To bridge the vast gap between actual and potential productivity, there is urgent need to adopt following hi-tech efficient vegetable cultivation, which will not only increase productivity but enhance quality production at low cost thereby ensuring better returns to farmers:
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Hi-tech nursery raising for production of healthy seedling. Efficient use of water and nutrient through drip/sprinkler irrigation and fertigation. Raised bed cultivation and use of organic/degradable biomass for mulching. This will economize irrigation water, retain moisture, stabilize soil temperature, minimize weed infestation and provide higher quality produce. Promotion of precision farming for maximizing input use efficiency to get higher produce.
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Post-harvest management of vegetable crops Owing to lack of production planning and climatic factors, gluts occur frequently leading to distress sale, poor prices to growers and wastage. According to recent estimates, about 30 per cent losses are encountered during post-harvest handling of vegetables. Technologies are not available or are insufficient, farm store facilities and long term storage facilities including commercial cold storage facilities are inadequate. Moreover, there are very few vegetable based processing industries located in the production areas and even the existing industries arc located in town and cities, which are far away from the production centres. Low cost technologies for post-harvest handling and packaging for domestic and export markets have not been adequately developed. Well equipped transport facilities specifically suited to vegetables are lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop all these facilities to reduce post-harvest losses. Research on packaging material, grading, transportation, post-harvest losses and processing will be undertaken. Research information will be generated on processing of some vegetables varieties suitable for paste and juice making in tomato, dehydration in onion and garlic and canning in okra and peas, etc. The country requires to establish processing units in vegetable belts where there is scope for high production of vegetables. This will regulate the prices of the vegetables and make the crop more remunerative to the farmers. Further, this will generate lot of employment opportunity in vegetable growing tracts. Research on post-harvest should also probe into screening of vegetable varieties and hybrids for prolonged shelf life and processing character, standardization of different storage systems including controlled atmosphere system for different vegetable crops, improvement of packaging and transportation system suited to Indian conditions; harnessing solar energy for drying as well as storage, utilization of wastes for the development of economically viable products and initiating post-harvest research specific for improving export potential. Government interventions through policy directions are needed, which may include, input subsidies for establishment of cool chain, processing into value-added products, pricing policies, import/export tariffs and facilities for marketing. Promoting establishment of processing units in production centres based on cluster village concept to process excess produce for armed forces, export, etc. Export oriented vegetable farming In addition to meeting the local demand, vegetables are now being considered as one of the most potential commodities for export. The Agricultural and Processed Food Product Export Development Authority (APEDA) has identified traditional vegetables like onion, potato, bitter gourd and chilli; and non traditional vegetables like asparagus, celery, sweet pepper, paprika, sweet corn, baby corn, green peas, French bean, cherry tomato and gherkin having good export potential. Onion accounts for 70 per cent of total foreign exchange earning among fresh vegetables. Among other vegetables, 60 per cent share goes to okra, 20 per cent to green chilli and 20 per cent bitter gourd, French bean, capsicum and other mixed vegetables. Among the traditional category of vegetables, onion, okra, bitter gourd, green chillies etc. meet the requirement of Indian expatriates in S.E. Asia and Gulf countries and to some extent in the U.K. The non traditional items including vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, capsicum etc. go to E.C. countries, where growing conditions are not ideal during November to March. Canned vegetables and dehydrated ones form a small proportion of the export trade. Tomato products especially of puree and paste have great demand in vegetable export. According to LTC market study, export of dried and dehydrated vegetables has increased considerably. The products covered are vegetables that are dried either whole, sliced broken or in powder form and are dried artificially by hot air or freeze dried not as sun or field dried. Export competitiveness in dehydrated vegetables depends on the ability of products to supply high quality products to imports under increasingly stringent requirements. India's varied agroclimatic conditions are major asset in terms of natural resources, which can be utilized in accelerating the vegetable production.
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Quality seed production
L

L L

Strengthening of the seed producing agencies for better quality seed production and supply is the need of the hour. There is a need to streamline this programme so that farmers can get quality seeds of vegetables and the concept of specialized vegetable seed villages should be advocated. Vegetable seed production villages should be established in each state for promoting the vegetable seed production programme. With the introduction of more and more improved varieties and hybrids in the cultivation, it is imperatve to increase the seed replacement rate for sustained productivty of quality produce and increasing profitability through export of vegetable seeds.

Human resource development There is need to develop specialised human resource through trainings arranged nationally/internationally for knowledge empowerment of scientists. Also, the training programmes are required on various aspects of vegetable production and protection technologies, vegetable seed production, vegetable post-harvest management and processing to enhance efficiency and knowledge for the members of co-operatives, government officials and farmers, especially women. Transfer of technology Although commendable progress has been made on research front and a number of technologies are developed, poor adoption of such technologies has always been a major handicap in increasing productivity. Therefore, promotion of developed technologies through various mechanisms is key to harness available technologies and ensuring increased productivity and profitability to farmers. Likewise pro-active government policies for development of infrastructure and law enforcement, which support execution of such promotional activities, are equally pertinent to achieve higher productivity. Front line demonstrations Large scale Front Line Demonstrations (FLD's) and distribution of minikit trials for hybrids/improved varieties and newly introduced potential vegetable crops should be encouraged in selected village clusters identified for specific vegetable crops. Further, to popularise this technology among vegetable growers, vegetable field day/farmers’ fairs to be organised during crop growing seasons.

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8.

ISSUES AND STRATEGIES

Crop Improvement Issue: PGR management Strategy: L In collaboration with NBPGR, survey, exploration, cataloguing, use, maintenance and conservation of germplasm. L Special emphasis on the exploration of germplasm of minor vegetables from the tribal belt. Issue: Development of improved lines, populations and hybrids of prioritized crops for high yield, horticultural and quality traits including export quality. StrategyL To generate breeding material and selection of lines/varieties having high yield and quality attributes. L Emphasis will be laid on the development of high TSS and high acidity lines in tomato to fulfill the needs of processing industry. L For development of breeding materials, emphasis will be given to 10 major vegetable crops viz., Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli, Okra, Bitter gourd, Cucumber, Muskmelon, Pumpkin, Bottle gourd and Pea. Issue: Development of varieties / hybrids with multiple resistance in prioritized crops to biotic/ abiotic stresses. Strategy: L For hybrid development, the institute will concentrate on 5 important crops, i.e., tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra and bitter gourd and in the next 5 years, five more crops, viz., cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, water melon and bottle gourd will be included. L Work will be initiated on identification of different races and strains of important pathogens. L Understanding mechanism and nature of resistance, L Identification of sources of resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses. L Transfer of genes for resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses using biotechnological and conventional approaches. Issue: Development of cms lines and cms based hybrids. Strategy: L Development of cms based hybrids in chilli, cabbage, radish and cauliflower. L Diversification of male sterile cytoplasm in chilli. Issue: Generation of pre-breeding lines. Strategy L In tomato, brinjal, chilli, cucumber, muskmelon and okra, interspecific hybridization will be attempted to transfer the nobel genes from wild taxa to cultivated species to develop pre-breeding lines. L Embryo rescue and somatic hybridization techniques will also be utilized for this purpose.
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Issue: Molecular marker assisted breeding in vegetable crops. Strategy: L Identification of suitable molecular markers and their use for development of vegetable varieties/hybrids with multiple disease resistance in tomato, brinjal, chillies, okra, cucumber, bitter gourd and muskmelon. L RILs/ NILs will be developed in tomato, brinjal, chilli, muskmelon and okra for important traits for mapping / tagging of genes and QTLs which will serve as a base for marker assisted breeding. Issue: Micro propagation and induction of somaclonal variations through tissue culture of elite materials in important vegetable crops Strategy: L Rapid multiplication of elite seedless pointed gourd material will be done through micro propagation. L Somaclonal variations will be attempted in important vegetable crops. Issue: Development of transgenic in vegetable crops Strategy: L Transgenic lines will be developed in tomato, brinjal and cauliflower using Bt crystal protein gene for resistance to Lepidopteran insects. L Pyramiding of the Bt gene will be attempted in tomato and brinjal for higher and effective resistance using three different combinations of Bt genes. L Apart from this, transgenic lines will be developed in tomato for high lycopene and delayed ripening. Issue: Functional genomics of tomato for biotic and abiotic stress resistance Strategy: L Functional analyses of the genes involved in biotic and abiotic stresses. L Isolation and cloning of the genes and studies on their expression in tomato plants. Crop Production Issue: Development of integrated nutrient management (INM) in selected vegetable crops and demonstration of improved technologies Strategy: L To standardize the integrated technology for the use of biofertilizers, bio-organic wastes along with other chemical fertilizers. L The technologies already developed for IPNM, raised beds, mulching, nursery management will be demonstrated in the form of frontline demonstration on the farmers' field. Issue: Studies on substrate dynamics Strategy: L The substrate dynamics of the soil will be studied by involving multi-disciplines, viz. soil science, agronomy, micro-biology and plant pathology.
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Issue: Development of organic and biodynamic farming protocols Strategy:
L L L

To standardize the organic farming modules and biodynamic farming protocols for important vegetables for residue free product for export purposes. Use of vermi compost, bio and botanical fungicides, green manure, etc. in a composite module will be developed. Quality analysis of organic produce.

Issue: Improving water and nutrient use efficiency Strategy:
L

Use of mulches, drip and sprinkler irrigation, as well as drip fertigation technology for maximizing the input use efficiency in important vegetable crops.

Issue: Precision farming Strategy:
L

Refinement of agro-techniques to minimize cost of production and increase profitability.

Issue: Nursery and seedling management in vegetable crops Strategy:
L

To develop protocols for healthy nursery through soil solarization, bio control agents and seed treatment.

Issue: Standardization of vegetable-based cropping system. Strategy:
L

To conduct trials on vegetable based cropping systems for crop diversification, sustainable soil health and better economic return.

Issue: Technology for protected cultivation during off season Strategy:
L L

To identify varieties suited to controlled conditions. Development of technology for growing vegetables under controlled conditions.

Issue: Production of quality transplants in vegetables Strategy:
L L L L

To standardize the potting media including vermiculite, perlite, peat moss etc. Selection of suitable potting plugs for raising the nursery. Raising the nursery under protected structures including polyhouse, walking tunnel, shading nets, nethouse etc. Standardization of grafting techniques in solanaceous and cucurbitaceous crops
49

Issue: Resource conservation techniques in vegetable crops Strategy:
L L

Standardization of planting methods in narrow and wide raised beds in solanaceous and cole crops. Use of organic and plastic mulches in solanaceous and cole crops.

Issue: Nutrient dynamics and rhizosphere engineering in vegetable crops Strategy:
L L

Manipulating and engineering rhizosphere for optimization of nutrient supply and improvement of plantsoil-water relationship. Development of reliable module to predict dynamics of rhizosphere microbial population and their beneficial interactions.

Issue: Canopy management in solanaceous vegetables Strategy:
L L

Screening of genotypes in tomato, brinjal and chilli for their ideal source and sink relationship. To identify the canopy with better photosynthetic assimilation and biomass partitioning.

Issue: Standardization of drip fertigation scheduling in chilli, brinjal, cowpea and okra. Strategy:
L L

Installation and layout of drip irrigation system as per schedule. Application of irrigation and fertilizer scheduling and imposing water stress at various growth stages.

Issue: Long term fertilizer use in important vegetable crops Strategy:
L L

Characterization of nutrient balance sheet of the soil. Quantity/intensity for major nutrients in soil under long term fertilization experiments. To study the effect of LTFE on quantitative and qualitative parameters. To study the economics of vegetables produced under LFTE.

Issue: Development of sustainable and economic production technology of underutilized vegetable crops. Strategy:
L

To conduct agronomical trials for the development of sustainable and economic production technology of underutilized vegetable crops at different AICRP centres.

Issue: Post-harvest processing of vegetables for value addition Strategy:
L

To develop technology for canning, osmo-air drying, aseptic processing and packaging, de-hydro freezing in vegetables.
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L

Technology for pilot scale cooling, drying, packaging and storage of vegetables.

Issue: Drying and packaging of vegetables Strategy:
L L L

To standardize drying / osmo air drying process. To identify suitable packaging material of dried / osmo air dried vegetables. Storage studies of dried / osmo air dried vegetables for acceptable quality of rehydrated vegetables.

Issue: To study and evaluate the important nutrient contents (vitamins, minerals, pigments, etc.) and antioxidants phytochemicals (having therapeutic properties) Strategy
L L

To standardize the HPLC estimation procedures of various phyto-chemicals and measurement of their antioxidant activity (ORAC) for estimation of such nutraceuticals in vegetable germplasm. In the first instance, collaboration will be sought from CSIR institutes (CFTRI, CIMAP) and ICMR institutes (NIN).

Issue: Quality seed production to meet the seed demand Strategy:
L

To produce quality breeder seed as per national indent and TL seeds for local farmers.

Issue: To develop molecular marker based techniques for seed purity testing of varieties / hybrids Strategy:
L L

Fingerprinting of all released varieties by using molecular based techniques viz., RAPD, AFLP and Micro satellite markers. Development / identification of suitable molecular markers for testing the purity of hybrid seeds.

Issue: To develop suitable technology for enhancing the storage life of the seeds Strategy
L

To perform basic studies related to various aspects of quality seed production including seed storability, ageing, dormancy and germination and to standardize the drying, desiccation, packaging, dehumidification and storage modules for enhancing the storage life of the seeds

Issue: Establishing and encouraging 'seed villages' Strategy:
L

To meet the demand of the quality seed "Seed villages" must be encouraged on the compact area, participatory and scientist-farmer-scientist approach for demand based and quality proven seed production and distribution.

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Crop Protection Issue: Development of efficient disease prediction system and forecasting methods Strategy:
L

To develop models for efficient disease prediction system and forecasting of important diseases of vegetable crops based on long-term weather parameter data.

Issue: Development of diagnostics for virus detection Strategy:
L

To standardize anti-sera and DNA probe based virus detection technology for identification of viral diseases at early stage.

Issue: Development of methodologies for biological control of pathogens. Strategy:
L

To identify important fungal and viral agents for efficient biological control of pathogens and mass scale production of already identified bioagents, i.e., Trichoderma.

Issue: Development of residue-free integrated disease management technology against important vegetable diseases. Strategy:
L

Development of technology to minimize use of chemical fungicides and pesticides through IDM against important vegetable diseases.

Issue: Race identification in important pathogens through molecular markers. Strategy:
L

Variation in strains / races of pathogens will be studied using molecular markers like RAPD and AFLP techniques.

Issue: Seed mycoflora of vegetable crops and its management. Strategy:
L L L

Isolation and identification of associated mycoflora of tomato, brinjal, chilli and pea seed. In vitro bioassay of different seed dressing fungicides, bioagents, PGPR for its potentiality against dominant seed pathogen. To study the compatibility of fungicides, bioagents for seed treatment and its impact on seed germination and seedling vigour. To study the storability of treated seeds without loss of germination and vigour.

Issue: Microorganisms for disease management and growth promotion in vegetable crops Strategy:
L

Isolation of different microorganisms from rhizosphere of vegetable crops.
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L L

Selection of isolates efficient for disease suppression and growth promotion. Development of consortium of PGPR for vegetable crops. In vitro evaluation of consortia for compatibility.

Issue: Management of Wilt disease of vegetable crops. Strategy: L Isolation, purification of culture and pathogenicity test of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Characterizations of pathogen based on cultural, morphological, physiological, vegetative compatibility grouping and host differential. L Molecular characterization of Fusarium infecting tomato. Collection and screening of antagonists against the tomato wilt pathogen. Issue: Prevention and Management of Mycotoxin contamination in commercially important Agricultural commodities. Strategy: L Isolation of fungus and production of mycotoxin in culture filtrate. L Detection of aflatoxin in intact and powder (spices) of red chilli. Detection of ochratoxin and other dominant mycotoxin in red chilli. L Quantification of aflatoxin and ochratoxin in the sample. L Management of aflatoxin in chilli through optimum harvesting time, moisture, temperature, storage and packaging condition. Issue: Management of Alternaria blight in vegetable crops. Strategy: L Isolation, collection, purification and maintenance of Alternaria isolates of cauliflower/cabbage and tomato. L Characterization of pathogen based on cultural, pathogenic, morphological, host differential and molecular basis. L Collection and screening of antagonists against the pathogen. L Evaluation of fungicides, bioagents, botanicals, integrated practices for management of Alternaria blight in cauliflower and tomato. Issue Fruit fly management in Bitter gourd and other cucurbits Strategy: L Lure efficiency for attract-annihilate method and its use for monitoring/ mass trapping. L To standardize technique for efficient utilization of lures in fruitfly management. L To standardize integrated behavioural management technique. Issue: IPM of insect pests of brinjal and okra Strategy: L To standardize the IPM technique with integration of cultural, behavioural and biological methods. L To standardize seed treating chemicals and botanicals for enhanced efficacy against sucking pests.
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Issue: IPM of insect pests of tomato and cabbage Strategy:
L L

Standardization of trap/trap crop for tomato whitefly and DBM in cabbage. Evaluation of microbials for management of DBM and tomato borer.

Issue : To standardize and popularize the IPM technology for better efficacy to manage insect pests of vegetable crops. Strategy:
L

To refine and validate IPM technology through village level demonstrations to popularize and economise the technology.

Issue: Development of techniques for mass production and release of biocontrol agents viz., Trichogramma and Chrysoperla. Strategy:
L

To develop efficient technology for mass production and release of Trichogramma and Chrysoperla through use of Kairomones.

Issue: Monitoring for evolution of new biotypes and natural enemies of major insect pests of vegetable crops Strategy:
L

To perform DNA fingerprinting of major pests to study the evolution of new biotypes.

Issue: Development and evaluation of botanicals against important pests. Strategy:
L

To develop extraction procedure for active ingredent of botanicals having insecticidal property.

Issue: Behavioural management of important vegetable pests. Strategy:
L

To standardize technology based on pheromones, para-pheromones, lures and repllents for management of important pests through IPM.

Issue: Standardization of management techniques for conservation of indigenous natural enemies having potential as classical biocontrol agents. Strategy:
L

To standardize technology for conservation of indigenous natural bio-agents having bio-control potential against important pests of vegetable crops for effective bio-control measures.

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Issue: Monitoring the pesticide residue in important vegetable crops. Strategy:
L

To standardize technology for estimation of important pesticides and to promote IPM technology for minimizing residue levels of pesticides.

Issue: Host plant resistance and management of thrips mite complex in chilli. Strategy:
L L L

To develop suitable procedure and parameters for screening chill cultivars against thrips-mite complex. Histopathological studies for thrips-mite damaged cells for differentiation from virus infected plants. Extraction of botanicals with acaricidal property for formulation and field evaluation against the thripsmite complex in chilli.

Issue: Impact assessment Strategy:
L L L L

To work out economics of vegetable production. To develop adoption index for the improved technologies. To estimate resource-use efficiency in vegetable production at farm level. To assess the impact of improved vegetable production technologies at farm level

Issue: Transfer of technology Strategy:
L L

Arrangement will be made for training, demonstration, Kisan Mela, exhibition and other extension activities in order to disseminate the vegetable production and protection technologies on the farmers field. Demonstration / Dissemination of vegetable varieties/technologies developed by IIVR .

8.1 New Initiatives In future, vegetable production will be influenced by decreasing natural resources of land, water, and nutrients due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. This calls for judicious management of natural resources and evolving cost efficient technologies which can push up vegetable productivity at a lesser cost, rather than expanding the area. The new technologies should be economically viable, resource sustainable and environment friendly. The major emphasis in vegetable research will be on the following aspects: Molecular markers for hybrid purity testing An important aspect of vegetable hybrid breeding is to test the genetic purity of hybrid seeds. In hybrid seed lots there is possibility of mixed selfed seeds of female parent either due to the emasculation error or due to the seldom breakdown of the genetic emasculation tools like male sterility. Conventionally, genetic purity test is performed by grow out test, which is time consuming. Hence, there is need to examine the possible use of molecular markers (especially those which are easy, fast and reliable) to test the genetic purity of hybrid seed lots more efficiently. Considering all these in view there is urgent need to formulate programmes to
55

increase the hybrid breeding efficiency using new molecular tools with following objectives:
L L L

To investigate the relationship between RAPD marker heterozygosity and hybrid performance in tomato, chilli, cucumber and muskmelon. To test the validity of already identified molecular markers linked with disease resistance gene in tomato and to utilise them in the development of parental lines for hybrids. To examine the feasible use of RAPD markers in testing the genetic purity of hybrid seeds.

Biotechnological aspects including Proteomics and Genomics The focus of genetic research will now be shifted from high-throughput sequencing to elucidation of gene function. This will be addressed by analyzing the interactions between gene expression, protein content and activity, metabolite levels, and plant development. Functional genomics involves the application of tools of whole genome expression analysis (transcriptome, proteome and metabolome) coupled to bioinformatics techniques, for analyzing and presenting data in readily accessible formats. This genome-wide approach is also an extremely powerful tool for studying the overall biological impact of changes in expression of individual genes, such as in transgenic or mutant plants. Functional genomics also goes further to examine the interrelationships and interactions between thousands of genes to determine the spatial and temporal expression of certain traits, sets of genes that are specifically responsible for such expression, and the conditions influencing the gene expression patterns. This information equips scientists to create varieties with precise combinations of useful traits. Furthermore, rapid improvements in innovations, such as microarray technology is enabling scientists to generate information on thousands of genes and expressed sequences (so-called "expressed sequence tags" (ESTs) in their search for a trait, as opposed to the conventional approach of looking at just a few specific "candidate genes." Knowledge of the function of all plant genes, in conjunction with further development of tools will aid in tailoring the genomes to the benefit of mankind. New regulatory elements may be identified by comparing the regulatory sequences of genes of the same class. Third, the kinetics of changes in gene expression, combined with expression profiles of mutants for known regulatory genes, should allow the study of expression networks. For instance, to obtain novel insights into gene function and the regulatory control of biological processes that are associated with stress responses to drought, salinity or freezing, cDNA micro arrays offer a high-throughput approach to obtaining comprehensive gene expression profiles. Catalogues of expressed genes will enable global analysis of all genes expressed under different conditions, in different organs, or in different individuals. Thus emphasis will be on complex traits, particularly those that are difficult to improve using conventional breeding strategies. Gene pyramiding for biotic and abiotic stresses Gene pyramiding through conventional strategies (involving conventional phenotype-based selection) is time consuming and laborious. The recent developments in plant biotechnology including molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) offer a choice of options for targeted pyramiding of biotic stress resistance genes in the genetic background of elite varieties of major crops. MAS involving the use of PCR based molecular markers helps in targeted selection of segregating/backcross progenies possessing resistance gene(s) and shortening of the breeding cycle significantly. The Ty-1 and Ty-2 genes conferring resistance to different isolates of TYLCV have been mapped on chr.6 and chr.11, respectively, and the molecular markers flanking these resistance genes have been identified. TYLCV resistance originating from L. chilense accession LA1969, L. pimpinellifolium INRA, L. cheesmanii and L. chilense accessions LA 1932 and LA 1938 have been mapped to chromosome 6. The TYLCV resistance gene, Ty-2, in H24 was located on chromosome 11, and was found to be flanked by the molecular markers TG36 and TG393. The Ty-2 gene is the foundation for
56

geminivirus resistance of many lines in India as well as those currently being utilized at AVRDC, Taiwan. The gene is effective against some geminiviruses, but not all. Recent studies indicated that FLA456, FLA505 and FLA458 have resistance genes that can complement Ty-2. It is likely that these genes are effective against monopartite viruses which are different from the bipartite viruses. FLA456, developed at the University of Florida, USA, has resistance gene derived from L. chilense LA2779 and Tyking. This line has proved effective against geminiviruses in Central America, East Africa and South East Asia. The two resistance genes, Ty-1 and Ty-2, seemed to complement each other. Ty52, a tomato inbred line homozygous for Ty-1 showed lesser infection by TYLCV-SL than H24, while H24 seemed to demonstrate greater tolerance to TYLCV-Ban3 compared to Ty52. Thus there is urgent need to aim at introgression of diverse TYLCV resistance genes with the help of molecular markers into elite tomato lines developed by the NARS. Water management including micro-irrigation, fertigation In India around 88 per cent water is being used in agricultural sector, covering 81.8 m ha land under irrigation. Due to water demand in industrial as well as in domestic sectors, there is an increasing pressure on availability of water for agricultural sectors. The use of conventional irrigation methods not only result in considerable loss of water but also are responsible for widespread salinity, waterlogging, leaching of nutrient from rhizosphere and decline of water table. The aim of irrigation scheduling in vegetables should be to maintain a continuous high soil moisture level in effective root zone. Over the years due to over exploitation of ground water, the water table has been declining in many part of the country. Considering its scarcity in future, the planning and management of this resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of utmost urgency. Research efforts should be intensified for standardization and popularization of Sprrinkler irrigation. Sprinklers are best suited to sandy soils with high infiltration rates although they are adaptable to most soils. Sprinklers are not suitable for soils which easily form a crust. Micro-irrigation may also be an effective tool serving the purpose, as this system considerably saves water, besides enhancing quality and yield of the produce. Pesticide residue management in vegetables L Prioritization of vegetable pests on the basis of intensive use of insecticides for development of nonchemical management strategy. L Research on fine tuning of existing IPM technologies for greater efficacy and ease of adoption. L Special emphasis must be given on integration of biocontrol agents. Research should be directed on economic production and effective release/application technology. L Provision of Government policy support for production and marketing of ecofriendly components. L Extensive and intensive programme to create awareness among the farmers for pros and cons about pesticide uses in vegetable. L Strengthening of pest and pesticide residue resistance monitoring system. L Revival of insecticide licensing policy to enhance the use of safe, ecofriendly and less persistent insecticides in production of vegetable crops. L Development and promotion of biocontrol based pest management package in protected cultivation. Priorities and new thrusts Crop Improvement L Survey, exploration, cataloguing, use, maintenance and conservation of germplasm. Special emphasis on the exploration of germplasm of minor vegetables from the tribal belt.
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L L

L L L L

L L

L L

To generate breeding material and selection of lines, varieties and development of hybrids having high yield and quality attributes. Identification of different races and strains of important pathogen. Identification of sources of resistance to major diseases and pests, understanding of mechanism and nature of resistance. Transfer of genes for resistance to diseases and pests. Biotechnological approaches will be utilized to develop biotic stress resistance. Development of cms based hybrids in chilli, cabbage, radish and cauliflower. Improvement of chilli for high oleoresin content. Development of NIL and RIL populations in tomato, brinjal, chilli, cucumber and okra for molecular mapping. Identification of suitable markers and tagging of important genes and utilization of these molecular markers for development of vegetable varieties/hybrids with multiple disease resistance in tomato, brinjal, chillies, okra, cucumber, bitter gourd and muskmelon. Tagging of important genes for map based cloning of agriculturally important genes in tomato, brinjal, cowpea and cauliflower Standardization of protocols for genetic transformation, regeneration of plants from tissue, anther and protoplast cells and further evaluation of the transgenic plant under glass house conditions and confirmation of introgression of desired genes in tomato, brinjal and cauliflower. Functional analyses of the genes involved in biotic and abiotic stresses. Isolation and cloning of the genes and studies on their expression in tomato plants. Use of gene pyramiding technique for development of biotic stress resistance in tomato. To standardize the integrated technology for the use of bio-fertilizers, bio-organic wastes along with other chemical fertilizers. To standardize the organic farming modules and biodynamic farming protocols for important vegetables like brinjal, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, tomato, okra, cabbage and cowpea for residue free product for export purposes. To standardize the drip and sprinkler irrigation, as well as drip fertigation technology for minimizing the water, fertilizer and other inputs in vegetable production. To conduct trials on important vegetable crops viz., tomato, brinjal, chillies, okra and cucurbits to standardize the precision farming in vegetables. To conduct trials on vegetable based cropping systems for crop diversification, sustainable soil health and better economic return. Improvement of under-utilized vegetable crops for yield and quality Standardization of technology for off-season production of vegetables under controlled conditions. To conduct agronomical trials for the development of sustainable and economic production technology of underutilized vegetable crops. To standardize vegetable preservation techniques, low cost drying methods, minimally processed vegetables and value addition for vegetable crops for efficient post-harvest management of vegetable crops.

Crop Production
L L

L L L L L L L

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L

To standardize the HPLC/GLC and GCMS estimation procedures of various phyto-chemicals and standardization of procedures for measurement of their antioxidant activity (ORAC) for estimation of such compounds in vegetable germplasm. Identification of genotypes having high antioxidant activity. To standardize efficient disease prediction system and forecasting methods of important diseases of vegetable crops. Collection, isolation, purification, identification and maintenance of biological control agents of important pathogens of vegetable crop and standardization of economically viable technology for mass multiplication of the bio-agents. To develop new bio-pesticides (including botanicals) and standardize its efficacy against diseases of vegetable crops and their effective utilization. To develop gene constructs for engineering transgenic resistance against viruses of vegetable crops. To standardize anti-sera and DNA probe based virus detection technology for management of viral diseases. To identify important fungal and viral agents for efficient biological control of pathogens. Development of technology to minimize use of chemical fungicides and pesticides through IDM and IPM against important vegetable pests and diseases. Regular monitoring for evolution of virulent/new races of pathogens infecting vegetable crops and their molecular characterization. To standardize technology for conservation of indigenous natural bio-agents having biocontrol potential against important pests of vegetable crops for effective biocontrol measures. To develop efficient technology for mass production and release of Trichogramma and Chrysoperla To standardize technology for behavioural and cultural management of important vegetable pests through sex pheromone and suitable management practices to be utilized for IPM. To perform DNA fingerprinting of major pests to study the evolution of new biotypes. To standardize technology for estimation of pesticides residues and to promote IPM technology for minimizing residue levels of pesticides. Identification of source of resistance to important pests and their utilization for the development of tolerant varieties and their use in integrated pest management programme. To produce quality breeder seed as per national indent and TL seeds for local farmers. To standardize the isolation distance, planting ratios, presence of diseased and off type seeds in the seed samples etc. Development of certain field and seed standards with special reference to hybrids, GMO's and transgenics. To develop molecular markers (AFLP, RAPD & micro satellites etc.) based techniques for fingerprinting of all released varieties including hybrids and also use of the marker based technique for seed purity assessments. To standardize the drying, desication, packaging, dehumidification and storage modules for enhancing the storage life of the seeds.

Crop Protection
L L

L L L L L L L L L L L L

Seed Production & Seed Technology
L L L L

L

59

L L

To perform basic studies related to various aspects of quality seed production including seed storability, ageing, dormancy and germination. To meet the demand of the quality seed, "Seed villages" will be encouraged on the compact area, participatory and scientist-farmer approach for demand based and quality proven seed production and distribution. To organise training, demonstration, Kisan Mela, exhibition and other extension activities in order to disseminate the vegetable production and protection technology on the farmers field. To train Government and non-Government officers, ICAR staff on vegetable production, hybrid seed production, integrated disease and pest management programme, etc.

Transfer of technology
L L

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9.

PROGRAMME AND PROJECTS ON TIME SCALE FOR FUND REQUIREMENTS
Duration 2007-2012 2012-2017 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2017-2025 -------------------------------------

Sub project/Activity Duration Crop Improvement PGR management Development of OP varieties for high yield, agronomic traits, nutritional and export quality. Development of hybrids for high yield, agronomic traits, nutritional and export quality. Development of varieties / hybrids with multiple resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Development of cms lines and cms based hybrids. Inter-specific hybridization for transferring novel genes from wild taxa to cultivated species Molecular marker assisted breeding in vegetable crops Micro propagation of elite materials in important vegetable crops Development of transgenics in vegetable crops Functional genomics of tomato for biotic and abiotic stress resistance Crop Production Development of integrated nutrient management (INM) in selected vegetable crops and demonstration of improved technologies Studies on substrate dynamics Development of organic and biodynamic farming protocols Improving water and nutrient use efficiency. Standardization of precision farming Nursery and seedling management in vegetable crops Standardization system of vegetable-based for cropping protected

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Standardization of technology cultivation during off season

Development of sustainable and economic production technology of underutilized vegetable crops

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Development of post-harvest technologies in vegetable crops.

management

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To study and evaluate the important nutrient contents (vitamins, minerals, pigments, etc.) and antioxidants phytochemicals (having therapeutic properties). Quality seed production to meet the seed demand. To develop molecular markers based techniques for seed purity testing of varieties / hybrids. To develop suitable technology for enhancing the storage life of the seeds. Establishing and encouraging ‘seed villages’. Crop Protection Development of efficient disease prediction system and forecasting methods. Development of diagnostics for virus detection. Development of methodologies for biological control of pathogens. Development of residue free integrated disease management technology against important vegetable diseases. Race identification in important pathogens through molecular markers. To standardize and popularize the IPM technology for better efficacy to manage insect pests of vegetable crops. Development techniques for mass production and application of biocontrol agents viz., Trichogramma, Chrysoperla and microbials. Monitoring for evolution of new biotypes and natural enemies of major insect pests of vegetable crops. Development and evaluation of botanicals against important pests. Behavioural management of important vegetable pests Standardization of management techniques for conservation of indigenous natural enemies having potential as classical biocontrol agents. Monitoring the pesticide residue in important vegetable crops.

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10. LINKAGES, COORDINATION AND EXECUTION ARRANGEMENTS
In the context of current technological development scenario, national and international coordination assumes high significance and priority. Vegetables are grown throughout the world and there are number of National and International Institutions actively engaged in the various disciplines of vegetable research and development. Indeed, it is the sweat and toil of the research scientists and planners which have brought quantum jump in production and productivity of vegetables. In the recent past, it was realized that the establishment of efficient network with several international organizations like CPRO-DLO, IPGRI Rome and other CGIAR Institutes like CIAI (Colombia), ICARDA (Syria), DFID, UK, AVRDC, Taiwan, Cornell University, USA, could very well augment the germplasm resources for gearing up the breeding programme as well as it can enhance our human resources for efficiently managing the research programme. Over the years, the establishment of other networks in South Asia (SAVERNET), Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam region (CLLVNET) and in South Africa (COVERDS) has shown that this cooperative partnership was very much effective in several aspects: first, the collaborative research agreement among NARS, AVRDC and the donor has resulted the enhancement of national research capability and institutional strengthening through training and meeting and infrastructure development, second, it has fostered a spirit of cooperation among the scientists and the research in the region by working on common goals and concerns. The networks have focused attention on vegetable and vegetable production and consumption of improved varieties and information derived on nutrition and health benefits. The institute is conducting trials in several villages with the financial assistance from DFID, UK in collaboration with AVRDC, Taiwan for IPM technology utilizing pheromone traps for management of shoot and fruit borer in brinjal and bait trap for fruitfly in bittergourd. In view of the above, the various programmes which are being carried out at this Institute are well knitted and have efficient network system. Other programmes which are to be carried out in coming years and their linkages with national and international agencies are focused in the following tables. 10.1 Linkages with National organizations for research and development. Sl. Programme No. 1 i. ii. iii. iv. 2 i. ii. iii. iv. AICRP-VC Collection, evaluation, conservation and documentation of germplasm Agronomic recommendations Disease and pest management National Seed Project Breeder Seed Production/Seed Production : Seed Technology Research Promotion of Hybrid Research Hybrid Seed Production : : : ICAR Institutes, SAUs, SFCI, NSC YSPUH&F, Coimbatore IIHR, Katrain, Kanpur, Pantnagar, Faizabad, other ICAR Institutes and SAUs Private sector, NSC, SFCI, UPTDC : : : NBPGR and SAUs ICAR Institutes and SAUs ICAR Institutes, PAU, HAU ICAR Institutes and SAUs Institution

Physiology, Biochemistry and processing :

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3 i.

Network Programmes (Research) Development of hybrids in vegetable crops : CSAUA&T, Kanpur, CCSHAU Hissar, PAU, Ludhiana, IARI, New Delhi, IIHR, Bangalore, UAS, Dharwad, MPKV Rahuri, TNAU Coimbatore, BCKV, Kalyani GAU, Anand, OUA&T, Bhubaneswar, Vishwa Bharati, Shantiniketan, RK Mission, Ranchi, ICAR Complex for NEH Region, Shillong IIHR, Bngalore ; IARI, Katrain ; ICAR Res. Complex for NEH Region, Barapani ; CCSHAU, Hisar ; SKUA&T, Srinagar and KAU, Vellanikkara NRC, Groundnut, Junagadh, DRR, Hyderabad, DMR, IARI, NRC, Sorghum, Hyderabad, IISR, Calicut, RARS, Lam, Guntur IARI, New Delhi, UAS, Dharwad

ii.

IPM in Brinjal for management of shoot and fruit borer

:

iii.

Improvement of underutilized vegetable crops

:

iv.

Prevention and management of mycotoxin contamination in commercially important agricultural commodities Project on wilt of crops with special reference to cultural, morphological, molecular characterization and pathogenic variability of isolates in India Management of Alternaria blight in vegetable crops Development of chilli hybrids for oleoresin (paprika) production Development of transgenics Fruit and shoot born resistant eggplant

:

v.

:

vi. vii. viii ix

: :

IIHR, Bangalore, CHES, Hirehalli, Karnatka, IARI, New Delhi IISR, Calicut, UAS Dharwad, RARS, Lam IIHR, Bangalore, NRCPB, New Delhi

:

TNAU, Coimbatore, UAS, Dharwad

10.2 Linkages with International Organizations
Sr. No. Programme 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. 11 12 13 Genetic Resources and Germplasm Conservation/Crop Improvement Preparation of probe for virus identification Molecular Biology Techniques Protoplast culture Identification of Plant pathogenic fungi Pheromone technology in IPM Integrated management of vegetable pests Pesticide residues Predator and parasite identification Integrated Nutrient Management Poly-house and Green house technology Computer simulation and crop forecasting techniques Fruit and shoot borer resistance in eggplants Institution IPGRI Rome, AVRDC Taiwan, IITA Ibadan AVRDC Taiwan, INRA France Cornell University, USA University of Nottingham, UK IMI London NRI London NCSU USA, RSES London USDA Internatonal Institute of Entomology, London Rothamsted Experiment Station, UK HRI Littlehampton, UK. CABO Netherlands ABSP-II Cornell University, USA

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11. CRITICAL INPUTS
11.1 Funds All the research programmes will be funded by ICAR Plan Funds, DBT and international sources like DFID, UK and ABSP II from Cornell University, USA and All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project which is being operated under SAUs (75 per cent budget will be provided from ICAR while rest 25% budget will be given by the concerned state). Efforts will also be made to generate funds through sale of farm produce and breeder seed. A programme will also be planned to generate income from internal resources through sale of seeds and commercially viable technologies besides providing consultancy in field of vegetable production and protection. 11.2 Human Resource Development and Planning Human resource development will be essential for capacity building as well as to provide flow of trained manpower for future research. Capacity building through training of the existing manpower in the emerging areas of molecular breeding, transgenic, functional genomics etc will be persued. The availability of trained manpower with academic excellence will be very crucial. It is thus proposed that the institute should have policies and necessary budgetary provisions for engagement of researchers like SRF's, RA's and Post Doctoral fellows besides trained technical staff. The institute should have MOU's with Universities situated in the adjoining areas for Ph. D. work. Sufficient budgetary provision for training of scientists in international laboratories of expertise should be made.

12. RISK ANALYSIS BASED ON SWOT
Vegetables are important component of agriculture for nutritional security and rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Since food and nutritional security are of our prime concerns, special efforts on intensification of vegetable research are necessary. New improved abiotic resistant varieties are prerequisite for enhancing the vegetable production. For augmenting the breeding programme utilization of potential germplasm is indispensable. In the recent past, with the advent of hybrids, vegetable industries of the world are diverting their high attention on this aspect and similar efforts are required in this country also especially to tackle the severity of insect pests and diseases in hybrids. Recently, biotechnology has emerged as an effective tool in solving the several problems which were not possible by conventional methods. Use of molecular markers for gene tagging, transfer of useful genes from wild taxa, development of biotic stress resistant varieties and in vitro methods of multiplication are some of the potential research areas where much attention is needed. Accordingly, much emphasis has been given while setting of programmes on a time scale. As the few varieties/ hybrids are emerging, there is an urgent need to give new production and protection technologies to exploit their full potential. In this connection, due importance has been given for producing the vegetables under protected conditions. Besides these, to minimize the use of chemicals in protection programme to safeguard the human health and environment, major emphasis has been given for biological approaches for the control of vegetable diseases and insect pests. A few aspects responding to various risk factors are as under:
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The evolution of new potential varieties and their large-scale adoption has unfortunately led to the erosion of traditional genotypes of vegetables at a very fast rate. Therefore, the need of the hour is to conserve the local and landraces.

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Presently, our hybrid seed industry is in the hands of a few private agencies, particularly multinational concerns. Hence, there is a great risk of introduction of new diseases and insect pests with seeds and planting material. To minimize this risk our country's quarantine system should be strengthened. Vegetable farming is labour expensive and input intensive. So to reduce the price of vegetables in the market, appropriate cost effective technologies are needed. Competition for the export in the International market is likely to pose threat to the Indian products unless the quality and prices are kept at the competitive levels.

13. PROJECT REVIEW, REPORTING AND EVALUATION ARRANGEMENTS
The project proposals will be formulated based on priority areas in Horticulture Mission, and areas identified in the Plan document, Perspective plan and Quinquennial Review Team (QRT) Report and as endorsed by the RAC. Initially the projects will be formulated and critically examined in each respective division. Then the Research Coordination and Management Unit of the institute will scrutinize the research proposals. The progress of the various programmes will be reported through periodic reports, which will be reviewed by SRC twice in a year. The progress of the work done by the institute as a whole will be reviewed by the QRT of the institute appointed by ICAR every five years.

14. RESOURCE GENERATION
The testing charges for hybrids and new molecules under AICRP (VC), the revenue obtained from the sale of breeder and other seeds, sale of fresh farm produce and trainings organized at the institute level constitute the major sources for resource generation. The institutional charges received under different ad hoc projects/externally funded projects sponsored by different agencies like DBT; DST; UPCAR; DFID, UK & ABSP-II of Cornell University, USA also add to the recource generaton.
Revenue Generation (Target and achievements of last five years) 2002-03 13.00 13.73 2003-04 22.00 13.93 2004-05 45.00 21.76 2005-06 40.00 37.91 2006-07 50.00 Target Achieved Target Achieved Target Achieved Target Achieved Target Achieved

15. OUTPUT PROJECTIONS
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The execution of various programmes outlined in this document will result into the increase of food security and nutritional security of the country. Since vegetables have tremendous economic potential, this will increase the social status of the farmers and consumers of the country. Also this will regulate the demand and supply of vegetables as a result the vegetables will be made available at reasonable price even to people having low economic status. With the implementation of various research programmes in the discipline of crop improvement, crop production and crop protection, seed technology, post-harvest technology, etc., several new scientific information will be generated for the students and researchers for undertaking research programmes in future. The vegetable production will be sustainable with the proper management of natural resources like germplasm, water, nutrients, etc. This is totally based on the efforts to generate technology with respect to germplasm conservation, economical irrigation, fertilizers and other inputs. This will enable upgradation of the natural resources and provide sound base for sustainable vegetable cultivation in the country.
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L

Implementation of these programmes will generate lot of new technologies which will be more productive and remunerative to the farmers, the scope of adoptability of such technologies will increase. This will sensitize the extension activities.

16. UTILITY OF RESEARCH OUTCOME FOR TRADE INDUSTRIES, FARMERS AND END USERS
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With the development of newer technologies like varieties/hybrids suited to off-season and other production technologies of growing of vegetables other than in the main season wil1 enable the production of vegetables in the lean period which is most economical and remunerative. This kind of endeavour will generate employment in the farming community. Vegetables play an important role in diversification of agriculture. Supplementation of vegetables in commercial farming will make the farming diversified which will be more remunerative and offer income and in this way this will increase the status of the vegetable growers. The increase in the production of vegetables suited to processing like tomato, onion, garlic, peas, some root crops, etc. will enable to set up industrial unit in different vegetable growing belts. The increased production of vegetables will provide support to the related processing industries which will also be a source of additional employment generation in rural areas. The major programme of this document is to take stock of diseases and insect pests afflicting vegetables in India. In this context, several technologies like disease and insect pest resistant varieties and hybrids, their chemical control methods and integrated disease and pest management technologies will be developed. Such technologies will reduce the cost of production and consumption of chemicals and will make the vegetable production more economical. Further such endeavors will protect the environment as well as reduce the residual effects of chemicals causing health hazards by consuming the vegetables. This will make the vegetable production more vibrant, sustainable, economical and profitable.

17. EXPORT POTENTIAL AND MARKETABILITY OF RESEARCH OUTPUT AND ITS IMPACT IN WTO REGIME
India is a signatory to the final Act of the Negotiations which created the WTO agreement on agriculture, which came into force on 1st January, 2005. With the acceptance of TWO-AOA, we are bound to adopt quality control measures like HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points) as well as SPS (Sanitary and Phytosanitary). Organically grown vegetables are fetching premium price in International markets particularly in USA, Japan and European countries. However, the "Basic Standards of International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) need to be met for export. In India a large number of farmers are small and marginal farmers with high percentage of illiteracy. Farmers have limited access to the market information and intelligence, lack of market infrastructure, inadequate storage and transport facilities with weak farm extension services which has lead to limited scope for Indian farmers to compete in the free global market. L By developing technologies for residue free horticultural produce especially for exports, there will be tremendous scope to grow vegetables for export purpose and this will generate additional income as well as foreign exchange. Various states like Maharashtra, Gujarat and Punjab have tremendous potential for producing vegetables for export purposes and in th1s case the farmers are looking for new technologies. On the basis of organic farming technology, the potential of export will be further enhanced as most of the developed countries are looking forward for the vegetable produced without application of chemicals. L Implementation of these programmes will generate lot of new technologies which will be more productive and remunerative to the farmers, the scope of adoptability of such technologies will increase. This will sensitize the extension activities.
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18. ANTICIPATED CONSTRAINTS
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Many of the research and extension programme will need fine coordination between agencies from state, central and NGO's. Differences in organizational structure and modus operandi leading to lack of coordinated action can be constraint in smooth operation of such programme. Lack of trained Manpower: Research programmes cannot be expanded unless sufficient manpower is provided. Lack of trained manpower can be constraint in expanding the research activities in new frontier areas of research. Government Policy Support: Lack of market intelligence is another important constraint. In India there is no price control on horticultural produce like vegetables. It depends largely on supply and demand. The main losers in the process are farmers. Problems like crop failure due to natural calamities and very low prices for horticultural produce due to glut in the market, which are recurring in our country on a yearly regular basis, are not adequately addressed by the State and Central Governments through comprehensive minimum support price and Crop insurance scheme.

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE RESEARCH
(Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Post Bag No. 1, P.O. - Jakhani (Shahanshahpur) Varanasi – 221 305, U.P., India Phone : 91-542-2635236, 37, 47, Fax: 91-5443-229007 E-mail : mathura.rai@gmail.com website : www.iivr.org.in

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