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# Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site

Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Dapped-Beam End (ACI 318-02 Appendix A)

Example Design of A Dapped-Beam End Using Strut and Tie Method per ACI 318-02 Appendix A

A dapped-beam end shown in Figure 1 is to be designed to transmit a factored vertical reaction force of 60 kips and a factored horizontal reaction force of 12 kips to the support. The vertical reaction is assumed to act 2 in. from the left end of the beam. The beam is 16 in. wide and made from 6 ksi concrete (normal density) and 60 ksi steel reinforcement.

4" x 4" x 5/8" angle 2052 k-in 16" 12 k 30"

Nu = 12 k

14" 60 k

V = 60 k u

2" 6"

4" 30" 36"

Figure 1 Define the D-Region and Calculate the Forces acting on the Boundary of the Region: The extension of the D-region is assumed to be one member depth plus the extended part, i.e. 30 + 6 = 36 in. The forces at the right end are a moment of 60(36-2) + 12(15-14) = 2052 kin., an axial tension force of 12 kips, and a shear force of 60 kips. Figure 1 shows the forces acting on the D-region. Determine the Bearing Plate Dimensions: Choose a 4 in. × 4 in. × 5/8 in. steel angle placed across the width of the beam at the support. The bearing plate area is Ac = 16(4 ) = 64 in., 2 and the bearing stress is Vu 60(1000 ) = = 938 psi. Since this is less than the bearing stress limit, i.e. 64 Ac

φ f cu = φ 0.85β n f c' = 0.75[0.85(0.80 )(6000)] = 3060 psi, the bearing size is adequate.

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http://www.cee.uiuc.edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbend/dbend.htm

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7 k 75 k V = 60 k u 0.6 48.htm nt Line B 19. Tie EF is assumed to be 18 in.5 -75 EF +60 4 #6 bars. Member Force (kips) Design the Tie: The area of reinforcement required for tie AD is As required = AB -82. Tie BC is located just far enough from the dap face to distribute the steel reinforcement and is assumed to be located 6 in.1 BE -19. CD.53 in.6 AD BC +68. negative compression.5 k C F 3" 2" 4" 6" 6" 18" 30" 36" 6" Figure 2 N AD 68. Similarly.5 k .44) = 1. 4° 12 7k Nu = 12 k 102 k 2" 60 k A 68.1 56 k E 64. a Result k 82 .edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbend/dbend. D 1° 53. the center of tie AD is dictated by d at midspan and is assumed to be 3 in.75(60) Page 2 of 5 .76 in. The location of strut BE centerline is dictated by the required compressive block height a at midspan and is assumed to be 3 in. 24" k 9 45.2 http://www. Node D is the meeting point of struts BD. Note that positive indicates tension. As = 4(0.cee. from tie BC. DE.7 = = 1. 8 136 k F' 76.Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Dapped-Beam End (ACI 318-02 Appendix A) Establish the Strut-and-Tie Model: The geometry of the assumed truss is given in Figure 2.4" Determine the Required Truss Forces by Statics: The required forces in all the members of the truss are given in the following table. from the dap face. and tie AD.2 Choose φ f y 0.5 kE' 3" 6° 46. from the bottom of the beam.uiuc.00° 4. from the top of the beam.7 +102 BD -56.5 CD -127 CF DE +76.

75[0.c.85β n f c )b 0.2 The area of reinforcement required for tie EF is As required = N EF 60 = = 1. The width for strut CD is CD = φ f cu b 2295(16 ) N 75(1000 ) = 2.53 in. for strut AB. for The required width for strut BE is BE = φ f cu b 2295(16 ) strut BE.27 in. http://www.75(60) N CF 76. use 3 #8.7 in. for strut CD. Choose a width of 3 in.uiuc. the tie reinforcement must engage an effective depth of concrete at least equal to N AD N AD 68.2 Check the Struts: The struts will be checked by computing the strut widths and then checking whether they fit in the space available. the steel is welded to the steel angle.46 in. Select a width of 3 in. Choose a width of 1 in. closed stirrups at 2 in.cee. As = 4(2 )(0.2 Try to φ f y 0. all the strut widths fit into the outline of the disturbed region. As shown in Figure 3.40 in.edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbend/dbend. ' φ f cu b φ(0. The required width AB is φ f cu b 2295(16 ) N 56. Select a width of 4 in.48 in. To satisfy the stress limit in nodes A and D.6(1000 ) = = 2..5 = = 1. for strut BD.53 in.. this solution is accepted. Figure 3 also summarizes the strut stress demands and limits (in brackets).60 in.75[0.2 Assume φ f y 0.31) = 2. The stresses in all struts are conservatively limited to φ f cu = 0. Thus.85β s f c' ) = 0. The required for strut BD is BD = φ f cu b 2295(16) N 127(1000 ) = 3. the required width for strut N AB 82.7(1000 ) = = = 1.htm Page 3 of 5 .20) = 1. o. Hence.33 in.75(60) that #8 bars are used for the midspan bottom reinforcement.80)(6000 )](16 ) This requirement is easily satisfied since the nodal zone available is 4 in. for strut DE.79 ) = 2.1(1000 ) = 1.04 in.85(0.2 The area of reinforcement required for tie CF is As required = N BC 102 = = 2.85(0.37 in.c. Design the Nodal Zones and Check the Anchorages: To anchor tie AD. o.75(60) use 4 #4 two-legged stirrups at 4 in.2 Try to φ f y 0.75(0. As = 4(2)(0. As = 3(0.25 in. required width for strut DE is DE = φ f cu b 2295(16) N 19.Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Dapped-Beam End (ACI 318-02 Appendix A) The area of reinforcement required for tie BC is As required = use 4 #5 two-legged. Select a width of 2 in.60 )(6000)] = 2295 psi.5(1000 ) = 0.

. Thus.79)(60) = 29.cee.5 + 3 = 6.0 in. which is ' 25 6000 8 25 f c assumed as anchor point.htm i ps i) 56 ps 17 95 2 (2 F F' Figure 3 Page 4 of 5 .44 ) = 0. The area required is 60 U bars placed above the #8 bars. Other Detailing Considerations: To improve crack control and ductility. but the available development length is only 25 6000 8 25 f c' about 6 – 2. The steel provided for tie CF is 3 #8. Summary of the Design: The reinforcement details for the dapped beam end designed using the strut-and-tie model according to Appendix A are shown in Figure 4. 31 76. The force that can be developed in 3 #8 bars is 6 .5 = 1.5 in. If the dapped end is treated as a corbel. the required area of such additional reinforcement would be 0.uiuc.5 kips.5(3)(0.8 kips.2 in. 2 distributed over two-thirds of the effective depth.2 http://www. which is less than the required tie CF force of 76. Provide l d = 24 in.A 1" B 1 (2 721 29 5 psi ps i) 3" C 1 (2 985 29 p 5 si ps i) D (2 A 3" 2" 15 6 29 1 ps 5p i s i) 1216 psi E (2295 psi) E' Provide 2 #4 U bars.2 Use 2 #6 provide horizontal U bars to anchor the force.80 in. a minimum amount of horizontal reinforcement parallel to and above tie AD will be provided.edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbend/dbend.5 (3)(0..28 in.5 As = 0. As = 2(2 )(0.66 in. beyond point D. The required development length for #8 bars is αβλ f y 1(1)(1)(60000 ) 8 ld = db = = 31.Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Dapped-Beam End (ACI 318-02 Appendix A) The required anchorage length for tie AD at the right end is αβλ f y 1(1)(1)(60000) 6 ld = db = = 23.20 ) = 0.

4 #4 two-legged closed stirrups at 2" stirrups at 4" 4" x 4" x 5/8" angle 16" 30" l d = 24 in 14" 3 #8 2 #6 U bars 2" 6" 4" 30" 36" Figure 4 Last Update: March 20. 2003 http://www.Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site Worked Design Examples Using Strut-and-Tie Method – Dapped-Beam End (ACI 318-02 Appendix A) 2 #4 framing bars 2 #4 U bars Framing bars 2 #6 4 #6 4 #5 two-legged.htm Page 5 of 5 .cee.edu/kuchma/strut_and_tie/STM/examples/dbend/dbend.uiuc.