This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Nick Weingartner Robbie Lennox Yin Kim Patrick Wong Michael French
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between Facebook, a social networking site, and college students academic life. In addition, we explore students’ perception of Facebook use and Academic Life both personally and with their peers, as well as the relationship between the two in terms of age and class standing, and intensity of Facebook usage. We found that almost all students (N=57) had a Facebook account, which the majority used over 10 hours a week, including while studying. There was small negative correlation (r = -.113, p = .41) between Facebook use and GPA. However, we also found that students who log on to Facebook in class also have a higher GPA. In addition, third person effect was minimal, as we found the majority of respondents measured their usage the same as the peers. Class standing and age shared a positive trend with the amount of time reported studying, but showed no relationship with Facebook usage, which is uniform across all demographics.
Introduction: Since its launch in 2004, Facebook has not only become the dominating social network in terms of traffic and usage, but also in terms of social importance. With over 600 million users
as of January 2011 (Lee, 2011), Facebook has evolved to the point where members spend large amounts of time on the site, and regularly. This obviously has implication in many areas, but one that is of interest is within academic life, where Facebook usage has the potential to play either a positive or negative role. Facebook, as a social networking device, could positively affect student’s academic life, allowing them to easily meet with their peers to study and research, helping them achieve higher grades. However, Facebook also gives users the opportunity to lose themselves, wasting large amounts of time and distracting them from their studies. Past research found that in college, Facebook is important as a form of social capital. Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe found that 97% of users used Facebook between ten and thirty times a day, and claimed to have 150 to 200 friends. In regard to academic life, Marklein found that those who have a high amount of Facebook usage tend to have a lower GPA. This study, however, was extremely limited in its scope, and did not ask enough questions to provide enough information on the subject. Madge, Meek, Wellens and Holey found that Facebook was important in college integration. It found that online and offline relationships coexist, but develop differently. It also found that students use Facebook primarily for socialization, but also for learning and work related matters. Mazer looked at the learning environment created within Facebook, finding that students used better techniques to reduce uncertainty in academic problems via online. This, combined with the finding that students responded with high averages in response to a high level of disclosure with their teacher, argues there may be a positive correlation between Facebook usage and Academic Life. This paper describes in detail a survey-based study, examining the relationship between Facebook and Academic Life. It begins with a review of past studies examining aspects of both Facebook usage and its relationship to academics, and is followed by our research questions,
methodology, findings and conclusions.
Literature Review: In order to have a deeper knowledge of what Facebook use and its effect on students academically further examination of the question needed to be done. Various scholars were examined and researched in order to help guide the research question that our group was examining. Using these articles as research guides for our own research it made it possible to dig deeper into the research question and gain greater results from the data analysis. Five articles were reviewed, analyzed and critiqued that related to the research topic of Facebook and academic use. The first research article (Ellison, Steinfield, Lampe 2007) that was examined concerned the acquisition and implementation of social capital by the way of Facebook, and how it differs from off-line research. This article guided our research in multiple ways. The article looked into intensity of Facebook use and the positive effects it has with individual and social capital. While social capital does not relate to the research question being examined in our research, the effects Facebook can have on these individuals does. This helps examine the wide range of ways Facebook can be associated with people. In this article the researcher examined many concepts; the two important ones to note are social structure and intensity of Facebook usage. This research was conducted at the Michigan State University campus. A survey was conducted using a sample size of 800 people to gather the information needed. The sampling method was a random sample (with a low response rate). The findings in the research of Facebook and its implementation of social capital consisted of 97% of people were Facebook users and respondents reported to using Facebook between ten to thirty minutes a day. The respondents claimed that they had between 150 and 200 friends on Facebook. The researchers found that the respondents that posted things on Facebook were to people that they were connected to
outside of the Facebook website. The important factors to note in this research are the amount of people that were surveyed that actually used Facebook and the amount they used it. 97% of people using the website is a very strong number and shows the power of Facebook use of individuals, especially college students since the research was being conducted at Michigan State. A limitation of this research is that it is region specific which limits the research variety. It could be argued that the population density would change the amount of Facebook usage in a unclear population, and this cannot be disproven by this study. This research seems very reliable, and is backed up by heavy quantitative analysis. I believe it will prove useful to our study, allowing us to build on a solid base of research proving the importance of Facebook as a medium. Another research article (Marklein 2009) we looked at to further our research asked the research question, does Facebook lead to lower grades. This article was based on the theory that Facebook use will lead to lower GPA’s for students. This article directly relates to our research question and helps greatly in guiding our own research. The concepts used in this research consisted of amount of Facebook use and knowledge of impact on academia. The sampling method for this research was a convenience sampling method. A hypothesis that the researcher had in this article was that Facebook does have an impact on GPA of students. A survey was used to gather this research and consisted of 219 students at Ohio State University. There were many important findings that helped guide our own research but there were two very important ones. The research found that students that reported more Facebook use had lower GPA’s and a large amount of Facebook users believed that it had no impact. While these results show very important information, there are limitations to this research. The study is far too narrow for any real conclusions to be drawn from the research. Another research article (Madge, Meek, Wellens, Holey 2009) that was used to guide our research looked at a study on how pre-registration engagement with a university Facebook network affects student's post-registration social networks, how Facebook was then used by first
year undergraduate students for support and socialization purposes while at university, and whether there is any role for social networking tools to be used by university support services and academic departments to enhance the social and academic integration of students, from the student perspective. There were three important concepts used in this article which are preregistration use of Facebook, social integration into university life and use of educational applications. The article asked two important research questions. How does pre-registration participation in a university Facebook network influence students’ post-registration social networks and is role of social networking tools used by university support services and academic departments related to improvement in the social and academic integration of students? An online survey of first year Facebook users at a British university was conducted in order to explore how they used Facebook for social integration into university life. The sampling strategy involved a multi-modal approach: the online survey and project were publicized via the university Facebook network, halls of residence Facebook groups and the university’s weekly email bulletin to all staff and students and for academic purposes. In December 2007, the Facebook network for the university in this study listed 10,000 members, comprising current and past students, and staff. There were also many key findings in this research article that are important to note. This research suggests that online and offline worlds are clearly coexisting, but used in different ways for developing and sustaining different types of relationships. Facebook was used to keep in touch with old friends and to chart the university experience to them through the posting of photographs, group chat for virtual friends, and many others; it was used initially for planning social events, joining university groups and keeping up to date with what was happening socially with peers currently at the university; and, most significantly, it was used extensively to make social links with others at university, thus enriching their socialization process. While this research has many important findings there are also a few limitations. There is a caution about moving into a social networking space that students clearly feel is ‘theirs’ for social rather than
academic purposes. Making Facebook available to new students does not guarantee that every individual will actually become more socially connected. This research is very valuable because it is significant to know how pre-registration participation in a university Facebook network influence students’ post-registration social networks and roles that social networking tools used by university support services and academic departments play in for improving the social and academic integration of students. The research seems to be conducted well and thoughtful as online survey illustrated visions in the implied research questions. Perhaps one of the most relevant research articles (Mazer 2007) looked into was the one concerning the effect of teacher self-disclosure via Facebook on anticipated college student motivation, affective learning, and classroom climate. Scholars found that students who communicate via computer-mediated communication with other students use more direct uncertainty reduction strategies than students in face-to-face conversations. So, the use of computer-mediated communication in the instructional context could ultimately have a positive effect on the student-teacher relationship, which can lead to more positive student outcomes. Many different hypotheses were applied to this research problem. The first hypothesis is that participants who view the Facebook website of a teacher high in self- disclosure will anticipate higher levels of student state motivation than participants who view the Facebook website of a teacher low in self- disclosure. The second hypothesis is that participants who view the Facebook website of a teacher high in self- disclosure will anticipate higher levels of affective learning than participants who view the Facebook website of a teacher low in self-disclosure. There is a final hypothesis that participants who view the Facebook website of a teacher high in self- disclosure will anticipate a more positive classroom climate than participants who view the Facebook website of a teacher low in self-disclosure. The participants were 133 undergraduate students (125 first-year students, 5 sophomores, 3 juniors) enrolled in sections of the basic communication course at a large Midwestern university. The sampling method was a convenient sample. The participants represented various academic disciplines, as the course is required of
all students at the university. The sample consisted of 39 males and 94 females, with an average age of 18.76 years (ranging from 18 to 23 years). The racial/ethnic distribution of the sample consisted of 44.4% Caucasians, 3.1% African Americans, 2.3% Hispanics, and 1.2% Asian Pacific Islanders. Teacher self-disclosure on Facebook was manipulated in photographs, biographical information, and posts on ‘‘The Wall’’ across three experimental groups (high, medium, and low self-disclosures).The photographs in the high self-disclosure page featured a graduate teaching assistant in various social situations. She was seen with friends and family in public locations. Photographs in the medium disclosure condition were limited to the graduate teaching assistant with family at her home. The low self-disclosure page featured only a faceshot of the graduate teaching assistant. For the high self-disclosure condition, communication graduate teaching assistants were asked to post fictitious comments on the ‘‘The Wall’’ that highlighted social gatherings (e.g., dancing, weekend get-together) the confederate attended. In order to provide a large amount of self-disclosure in the high condition, no comments were made in either the medium or low self-disclosure web pages. On the high self-disclosure page, the confederate offered personal information about favorite books, movie quotes, and relationship status. She also indicated that she was a member of several campus groups such as ‘‘Cubs Fans’’ and ‘‘Will Farrell Lovers.’’ In the medium self-disclosure page, the confederate only disclosed favorite movies, books, and quotes. In the low self-disclosure condition, she only disclosed information about her position at the university. Participants who viewed the teacher’s Facebook site with high self-disclosure reported higher mean scores than participants who viewed the teacher’s Facebook page containing low self-disclosure. The findings reveal that the manipulation of teacher self-disclosure via Facebook was successful. All three hypotheses were supported by the results of the experiment, showing that self-disclosure of teacher’s Facebook pages improved learning among students. This is relevant to our research, because it possibly pertains to students who use Facebook in class, to keep in touch with classmates and professors, as well as complete school work on Facebook. Students who kept in touch with
open professors on Facebook did better in school than those who did not. This research seems to be valid because students are more trustworthy of teachers who are willing to share information about themselves, as well as stray out of the realm of professor vs. student. This research could be very useful in offering a way to improve grades as well as student-teacher communication.
Research Questions: Research problem definition: Our research examines the relationship of Facebook use and its relationship to users’ academic life.
(1) Is Facebook usage related to Penn State students' academic performance? (2) What is the perception that students have of their peers in regards to Academic Life? (3) What is the perception that students have of their peers in regards to Facebook use. (4) How does intensity of Facebook usage relate to the students' studying habit/engagement in their academic work? (5) Is the relationship between Facebook usage and Academic Life effected by age and class standing?
Methodology: To answer our research questions, we conducted survey research using an online questionnaire. Participants were asked to answer questionnaire items online, on a survey created through Qualtrics survey software. The sampling scheme for this survey research was a non-probability convenience sample. The sample for this survey consisted of roughly 60 PSU students. We distributed a weblink to the survey digitally -- both through e-mail and through Facebook, allowing us to achieve a diverse sample of heavy users and potential non-users. Of
the respondents, 47% were male and 53% were female. Data from the questionnaires were downloaded as a SPSS database. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The questionnaire used in our research focused on two areas: Facebook usage; and academic performance. The first part of the survey established demographics of the participant – age, gender, semester standing, major and courseload. The second part of the questionnaire asked participants to describe academic performance. The third part of the survey asked participants to provide information about Facebook usage. The construct of Academic life was measured using 9 questionnaire items that asked respondents to rate different aspects of study habits and the perceived study habits of peers. To identify a participant’s major, a 17 item scale listed different colleges within the Penn State system. Several scales were developed to measure important variables. Two related scales that are interesting to note, were 6 item scales that were developed to measure respondents study habits and perceived study habits of classmates. This part of the survey saw a number of respondents fail to submit any response. Upon further analysis of the results it was noted that participants that did not answer these questionnaire items also failed to submit answers on several other questions. No clear pattern was observed as to what questions were not answered. A 4 item scale was used to identify where respondents study. The 4 items were: home; library; public area or computer lab. The reliability of this scale was assessed using SPSS. The analysis of the 4 item scale found an alpha coefficient of -.030. This alpha coefficient indicated that the scale was not reliable. Further analysis indicated that if one item was deleted, there would still be no reliability in the scale.
The construct, Facebook use, was measured using 9 questionnaire items that asked respondents to rate different aspects of their use of Facebook. Example of items included: I use Facebook to make new friends. I use Facebook for business and networking purposes. The reliability of the scale measuring Facebook use was assessed using SPSS. The analysis of the
original set of 9 questionnaire items found an alpha coefficient of .63. This alpha coefficient indicated that the scale was reliable but reliability was marginal. The analysis indicated that if one item was deleted, the reliability would be increased. The bad item was: Facebook has no influence on my academic life, and study time. When this item was deleted, the alpha coefficient for the remaining 8 items was .74. Scale scores were created by adding together the responses for the 8 items. The resulting scale had a mean of 21.8 and a standard deviation of 5.2. Scale scores ranged from 8 to 37.
Findings: Demographics of the Sample In our study on Facebook use and academic performance, we surveyed male and female college students. The number of respondents in this study totaled 59, with 28 (47.5%) being male and 31 (52.5%) female. Of the respondents, 58 of 59 reported not being married. When asked their age, more than 50% of the students taking the survey were 21 years or older, with the lowest group (8.5%) reporting their age as 18. Students taking the survey that reported being seniors totaled 32.2%, being the greatest concentration. Only 5.1 of the respondents were graduate students. When asked to identify their major, the majority of students (23.7%) reported being enrolled in a communications major. Agricultural sciences had the lowest percentage of students (1.7%). The majority of students (45.8%) responded that they were taking between 15 and 17 credits, the lowest group (1.7%) reported to taking between 21-23 credits. Students provided their exact GPA, with the largest group (10.2%) reporting a 3.4.
Is Facebook usage related to Penn State students’ academic performance? In our study, 98.3% of students reported having a Facebook account. The largest percentage of respondents (13.6%) said they used Facebook for a total of twenty hours per week. The largest
percentage (15.3%) of students thought that their friends/peers spent a total of ten hours per week on Facebook. The greatest percentage of students (64.4%) said they typically logged on to Facebook at home. 31 out of 57 students said they always study at home. 55% of respondents said they log on to Facebook during class time. 86% of students surveyed said that they are on Facebook while they study. We found that there was a weak negative correlation (r = -.113, p = .41), between reported Facebook use and GPA.
Correlations How many hours do you believe you spend on Facebook a gpa2 gpa2 Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N How many hours do you believe you spend on Facebook a week? Do you ever go on Facebook while studying? Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). 56 -.106 .439 56 -.044 .749 56 59 -.323
Do you ever go on Facebook while studying? -.044 .749 56 -.323* .013 59 1
week? 1 -.106 .439 56 1
.013 59 59
What is the perception that students have of themselves and their peers in regards to Academic Life? In our research, we did not find evidence of the third person effect usual seen in Mass Media studies. Students reported that they believed their friends studied as much as they did, whether that was many hours or few. This accurately reflects student’s social circles -- if they study over 10 hours a week, they are likely to befriend others who do the same, and if they don’t study, they are likely to spend time with other people who don’t study.
How many hours do you believe you study weekly? * How many hours do you believe your friends/peers study weekly? Crosstabulation Count How many hours do you believe your friends/peers study weekly? 0-2 hours How 0-2 hours man y hour s do you 10+ hours belie ve you stud y wee kly? Total 2 10 17 13 6 9 57 0 0 1 1 0 5 7 2-4 hours 4-6 hours 6-8 hours 8-10 hours 0 1 1 0 0 2-4 hours 3 4 2 1 0 4-6 hours 0 6 4 3 3 6-8 hours 0 3 3 5 1 8-10 hours 0 0 1 4 1 10+ hours 0 1 0 3 0 Total 3 15 11 16 5
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 47.864a 44.651 17.970 57 df 25 25 1 sided) .004 .009 .000
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 47.864a 44.651 17.970 57 df 25 25 1 sided) .004 .009 .000
a. 36 cells (100.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .11.
What is the perception that students have of themselves and their peers in regards to Facebook use? The same trend is also evident in Facebook usage -- those who use Facebook heavily also believe their peers do the same, and those who use it lightly believe their friends do the same. This is once again evident of social circles. However, there was a slight trend in light users believing their peers use it slightly more than them, but it was not significant when compared to the original trend.
FacebookWeeklyRecode2 * FacebookPeersRecode Crosstabulation Count How many hours do you believe your friends/peers spend on Facebook a week? 0-2 How many hours do 0-2 3 2-4 2 4-6 3 6-8 1 8-10 2 10+ 0 Total 11
you believe you
0 0 0 0 0 3
1 1 0 0 0 4
2 3 0 0 0 8
0 1 4 0 0 6
0 2 3 5 0 12
1 1 2 2 19 25
4 8 9 7 19 58
spend on Facebook a 4-6 week? 6-8 8-10 10+ Total
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 82.715a 84.255 35.985 58 df 25 25 1 sided) .000 .000 .000
a. 35 cells (97.2%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .21.
How does the intensity of Facebook usage relate to the students’ studying habits/engagement in their academic work? We found a relationship between Facebook usage and study habits. We found that the majority of students surveyed preferred to study at home, this was also the location that most students chose to log on to Facebook. We found a slight negative correlation (r = -.113; p = .41) between Facebook usage and GPA. The findings show that when the amount of time spent on Facebook increases, GPA decreases. While we found this negative correlation between
Facebook usage and GPA, our findings show that people who “believe” they use Facebook the most also “believe” they study the most. The majority of people who believed they were on Facebook six hours a week also believed they studied between six to eight hours per week. This correlation is interesting because according to our hypothesis we expected the correlation between Facebook usage and study time to be a negative correlation. When looking into how willing people are to give up their Facebook account in order to improve their grades the majority of people are willing to get rid of their Facebook account to improve their GPA. 57.6% of people who filled out the survey very willing or somewhat willing to delete their Facebook account in return for better grades, while 43.4% were not as willing or not willing at all. Our findings show no correlations between a higher GPA with a tendency to log on to Facebook while in class. It appears from our findings that there is no direct correlation between hours studied and GPA. However Facebook usage may have had a weak negative effect on students’ GPA. ( r = -.113; p = .41) The GPA’s seem to be evenly spread out between the hours that people spend on Facebook per week.
gpa2 * FacebookWeeklyRecode3 Crosstabulation Count How many hours do you believe you study weekly? 0-2
GPA 0.1-2.00 2.1-3.00 3.1-4.00
2-4 1 1 9 11 0 0 3 3
4-6 0 1 7 8
6-8 0 1 8 9
8-10 0 3 4 7
10+ 0 5 13 18
Total 1 11 44 56
Do you ever go on Facebook during class? * gpa2 Crosstabulation Count gpa2 0.1-2.00 Do you ever go on Facebook during class? Yes No 0 1 2.1-3.00 7 4 3.1-4.00 24 19 Total 31 24
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 9.267a 8.735 .358 56 df 10 10 1 sided) .507 .557 .549
a. 13 cells (72.2%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
gpa2 * How many hours do you believe you study weekly? Crosstabulation Count
How many hours do you believe you study weekly? 0-2 hours
gpa2 0.1-2.00 2.1-3.00 3.1-4.00
2-4 hours 0 2 12 14
4-6 hours 1 2 7 10
6-8 hours 0 4 12 16
8-10 hours 0 0 5 5
10+ hours 0 1 6 7
Total 1 10 44 55
0 1 2 3
Is the relationship between Facebook usage and Academic life affected by age and class standing? We found no trend in the relationship between class standing and number of hours reported studying -- finding that seniors study as much as other level (r = -.030; p = .824). This trend is positive with regards to age and class standing.
What is your semester standing? * How many hours do you believe you study weekly? Crosstabulation Count How many hours do you believe you study weekly? 0-2 hours What is your semester standing? Freshman Sophomo re Junior Senior Graduate 0 2 0 5 6 0 4 4 0 4 2 2 0 1 0 3 4 0 16 19 2 1 0 2-4 hours 1 3 4-6 hours 2 1 6-8 hours 3 5 8-10 hours 3 1 10+ hours 0 0 Total 10 10
What is your semester standing? * How many hours do you believe you study weekly? Crosstabulation Count How many hours do you believe you study weekly? 0-2 hours What is your semester standing? Freshman Sophomo re Junior Senior Graduate Total 0 2 0 3 5 6 0 15 4 4 0 11 4 2 2 16 0 1 0 5 3 4 0 7 16 19 2 57 1 0 2-4 hours 1 3 4-6 hours 2 1 6-8 hours 3 5 8-10 hours 3 1 10+ hours 0 0 Total 10 10
How old are you? * How many hours do you believe you study weekly? Crosstabulation Count How many hours do you believe you study weekly? 0-2 hours How old are you? 18 19 20 21 22 and older Total 3 15 11 16 5 7 57 0 1 0 0 2 2-4 hours 0 3 4 4 4 4-6 hours 1 1 2 2 5 6-8 hours 3 3 3 4 3 8-10 hours 1 3 0 0 1 10+ hours 0 0 1 4 2 Total 5 11 10 14 17
In regard to the relationship between age and Facebook usage, it seems that regardless of age,
the majority of people either use Facebook heavily or very lightly (r = -.12; p = .367) This is also evident with class standing.
How old are you? * FacebookWeeklyRecode2 Crosstabulation Count How many hours do you believe you spend on Facebook a week? 0-2 How old are you? 18 19 20 21 22 and older Total 12 4 8 9 7 19 59 0 2 0 5 5 2-4 0 2 0 0 2 4-6 0 0 3 2 3 6-8 2 1 3 1 2 8-10 0 2 1 2 2 10+ 3 4 3 5 4 Total 5 11 10 15 18
Unexpected Findings Past research has found gender differences in Facebook use. Our research found no clear evidence that gender affects any area to the point of statistical significance -- whether it be amount of time they believe they studied or their willingness to give up Facebook for academics. This shows that Facebook usage seems uniform across gender lines.
We also found that is rare for students to use Facebook as a tool for studying. Only 6.8% reported that they use Facebook often to study or work on a project.
Also, only one person reported not having a Facebook account. This could be an effect of Facebook being a primary distribution channel, but since the survey was also distributed by email, it seems like that would be less of a factor. In addition, more females seem to have a higher GPA, both within their own population as well as the overall population.
gpa2 * What is your gender? Crosstabulation Count What is your gender? Male
gpa2 0.1-2.00 2.1-3.00 3.1-4.00
Female 1 6 20 27 0 5 24 29
Total 1 11 44 56
Conclusion: Overall there were many different things that this research helped us understand and draw conclusions too. The majority of people in our research claimed that they use or are logged onto Facebook while they are studying. While the highest number of people that believe they log onto Facebook also believe they study the most, there was a negative correlation found between Facebook use and GPA (r = -.113, p = .41). While this is a relatively small correlation between Facebook use and bad GPA, it is still noteworthy for our sample size. A deeper way to look into these results would be to have this done with a larger sampling group but this can indicate that even those that claim to study more, their GPA is hindered by the use of Facebook because they are also using that the most. While this may indicate an effect on GPA, the amount of Facebook use does not seem to make students study less often. The students that are on Facebook more often also study more, which could mean that their actual studying at the
time is being negatively affected rather than their studying time. Our research also showed that the majority of students did not believe they studied more often than their peers, which could show that they believe their peers are just as studious as themselves, this goes against the third person effect that we thought may exist. Both high Facebook users and low Facebook users claimed that their peers used Facebook equal to them -- a high Facebook user had peers that used Facebook more frequently and low Facebook users had peers that used Facebook less frequently. This also appears to go against the third person effect, when concerning Facebook use. Semester standing did seem to have an influence on study habits in a positive trend by seniors studying most and freshman studying least, but was not directly associated with a larger amount of Facebook use. After interpreting the findings it seemed to be that our research problem is significant. Even though there was not a large correlation between Facebook and GPA was found there were small conclusions that could be made. This is important to understand because the problem could get worse in the future and right now there seems to be now direct way of fixing it. With social networking site becoming more and more popular our youth will be exposed to them at a younger age which could make them more addicting. This could eventually lead to a even stronger indication of social networking usage and it lowering academic activity. This is also concerning because there seems to be no real benefits and very strong negative consequences. Unless these sites become popular to study on or become school oriented it would be difficult to believe they would help academic life as time goes on. There seems to be strong consistency with past research, especially with our second literature review. That research, researched almost the exact same thing that we looked at and we gained very similar results. Another similarity is that we found that gender did not seem to effect the amount people used Facebook. Although the strength of the results varies for all different types of research that is done, it feels as though we have reached the same conclusion. While past research has shown Facebook has an influence on academic life of students, and our findings lead to show
the same thing it creates concern for the education system and students. It is important we look for solutions to help slow this negative influence before it continues to grow and greatly effect a student’s education process.
Bibliography: Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of facebook “friends:” social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143–1168.
Lee, Aaron. (2011, January 14). Facebook reaches 600 million users. Retrieved from http://askaaronlee.com/facebook-600-million-users/
Madge, C, Meek, J, Wellens, J, & Hooley, T. (2009). Facebook, social integration and informal learning at university: 'It is more for socialisingand talking to friends about work than for actually doing work'. Learning, Media & Technology, 34(2), 141-155, 15p.
Marklein. M.B. (2009, Facebook use linked to less textbook time. Miami Times, pp. 12D.)
Mazer, Joseph P., Murphy, Richard E. and Simonds, Cheri J. ‘I’ll See You On “Facebook”: The Effects of Computer-Mediated Teacher Self-Disclosure on Student Motivation, Affective Learning, and Classroom Climate’. Communication Eduaction. January 2007, Vol. 56, No.1, pp 1-17.