# APPROACH / METHOD For the approach, we are going to discuss the methods or steps that we use to solve the

problem according to the bridge structure with different element, whether beams or rods. The bridge structure is idealized in the X ± Y plane based on thirteen elements, numbering from I to XIII which are connected at eight nodes. There are some geometrical and material parameters are given: L = length for each element E = Young¶s Modulus for each element I = Second moment of inertia for each element A = Area for each element In this project, there are four different cases. The main difference between these four cases is the types of element, some of the elements are beams and some of the elements are rods. Differences between Rod and Beam For rod, it comprises of two-force members, connected by frictionless joints. Local and global coordinate systems are shown at below.
Y X

Y

X

In local coordinate (x¶), every node has one degree of freedom, while in global coordinate (x, y), every node has two degrees of freedom or two unknown. The nodal displacements, in the local coordinate system is, 

In global coordinate system,

The relationship between the local coordinate system and global coordinate system is where [L] is a rectangular matrix called transformation matrix,   , = cos , m = sin  Therefore, the local element stiffness matrix is   , 

The internal strain energy in an element, in local coordinate is  , since 

= = Since the internal strain energy in an element, in global coordinate is 

The global element stiffness matrix is               

= 

= 

   

  

each node has 2 unknown, so it is a 4×4 matrix

For beam, it is same as the rod, but it has slope or rotation at the node. Therefore, for every beam, it has three degree of freedom. Each node has 3 unknown. Local and global coordinate systems are shown at below.
q2 q2

q1 q1 q3

The nodal displacements, in the local coordinate system is 

In the global coordinate system is 

Note that q3 = q¶3 and q6 = q¶6

The relationship between the local coordinate system and global coordinate system is  ,   

where [L] is a rectangular 6×6 matrix called transformation matrix,           

,

= cos , m = sin

Therefore, each node has 3 unknown, so the local element stiffness matrix is a 6×6 matrix 

 

The formula for global element stiffness matrix is with the rod, which is 

Now, we will use all the equation above to solve all the cases.

STEPS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM There are several steps that we are undergoing to solve all the cases. 1. Find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for all the elements, [k]e 2. Find the global element stiffness matrix, [K] 3. Find the nodal displacement matrix, {q} 4. Find the total force matrix, {F} 5. Form the linear equation for the system, 

6. Form the reduced linear equation for the system by using elimination method 7. Using MATLAB programming software to solve for all the displacement and/or rotation

II. All the elements are beams. which are vertical displacement. there are all together 13 elementsand connected through 8 nodes. each node has 3 degree of freedom. IV.  Y X . III. therefore. ELEMENT CONNECTION TABLE Element I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 6 3 3 7 2 1 Node 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX Since element I.a) CASE I For CASE I. VIII and XI have the same element length which is equal to L and they are already in the global coordinate. horizontal displacement and rotation.

but they are not in the global coordinate. IX and XII have the same length which is equal to L also. They have same = 90°. Therefore.  Since element VI. they have the same element stiffness matrix. Y X X Y .

we can find the element stiffness matrix . in global coordinatefor element VI.  . [k]IX and [k]XII.The element stiffness matrix in local coordinate is      Since the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate is T Where [L] is the transpose of the transformation matrix and [L] is the transformation matrix          . [k]VI. IX and XII. where = cos 90° and m = sin 90° After we apply the formula.                     .

[L]. transpose of transformation matrix.   L L The length of element V or X is and = 135°.For element V and X. they have the equal length.                  . The or the transformation matrix. [L]Tand element stiffness matrix in local coordinate are the same as the above. but different length with the others element in the above.

For element VII and XIII. they have the equal length with the element V and X. but = 45°   L L The transformation matrix. which is equal to . [L]Tand element stiffness matrix in local coordinate are the same as the above. transpose of transformation matrix. we can find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for element V and X. [L]. [k]V and [k]X.               . . where = cos 135° and m = sin 135° After we apply the formula.    .

the global element stiffness matrix is a 24×24 matrix. [K]. In the structure. we can find the element stiffness matrix . from node 1 to node 8. where = cos 45° and m = sin 45° After we apply the formula. node by node. 13 elements are connected at 8 nodes.2.3««24  . where i = 1. we have to combine the entire element stiffness matrix to form the global element stiffness matrix. We will assume the value in the matrix with kij. [k]VII and [k]XIII.2.3««24 j = 1. each node has 3 degree of freedom. This means for the entire structure. in global coordinate for element VII and XIII.                            . there are all together 24 unknowns. Therefore. COMBINATION OF ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX After we calculate the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for all the 13 elements.

q19 and q22 are the horizontal displacement for each node. q5. . q17. q11. q7.    q1. q6. q16. q18. q12. q2. q10. q13. q14.NODAL DISPLACEMENT MATRIX Nodal displacement matrix will show horizontal displacement. q8. q3. q4. q20 and q23 are the vertical displacement for each node. q9. vertical displacement and rotation at all the nodes. q15. q21and q24 are the rotation for each node.

[K]{q}={F}. where the position of the force is different. For condition 1. We have to form the total force matrix. the total force matrix is    After we find [K]. {q} and {F}. vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at node 3 and in the negative Y direction. Therefore. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. before we can apply the formula of linear equation of the system. . {F}.TOTAL FORCE MATRIX There are 4 conditions for the vertical force applied at the structure.

then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. {q} and {F}. but the vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at node 2 and in the negative Y direction. basically it is same with the condition 1. Therefore.For condition 2. . the total force matrix is    After we find [K].

vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at the middle of element 1. we only consider the force that is applied at the node. where the value is half of the total applied force. F. {q} and {F}.For condition 3. Therefore. . but. which is between node 1 and node 2 and in negative Y direction. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. F/2 F F/2 Node 1 Node 2 Since the vertical force. Therefore. in finite element method. the total force matrix is    After we find [K]. is in the middle of the element. we have to divide the applied force into two equivalent force that is applied at the node.

-F. {q} and {F}. the vertical force of magnitude. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. F/2 F F/2 Node 2 Node 3 Therefore. the total force matrix is    After we find [K].For condition 4. . which is between node 2 and node 3. for condition 4. is applied at the middle of element II. The difference between these 2 conditions is. it is the same condition with the condition 3.

III and IV have 3 degree of freedom which are vertical displacement. For the other elements. they are already in the global coordinate. Besides. there are all together 13 elements connected through 8 nodes. In other words. the others element are rod. II. II. III and IV. III and IV are beams. ELEMENT CONNECTION TABLE Element I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 6 3 3 7 2 1 Node 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX Since element I. II. only element I. horizontal displacement and rotation. only have 2 degree of freedom which are vertical displacement and horizontal displacement. element I. therefore  Y X .b) CASE 2 For CASE II. which are beams and have the same element length which is equal to L.

they have the same element stiffness matrix. Y X X Y . Therefore. They have the same = 90°. IX and XII are the rods and have the same length which is equal to L also. but they are not in the global coordinate.  Since element VI.

             =   we can find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for element VI. I.   . =         . so they do not contain any moment in the element. we do not include the rotation at these node. where = cos 90° and m = sin 90° After we apply the formula. [k]VI. [L] is the transformation matrix and [k¶] is the element stiffness matrix in local coordinate. With that. Since the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate is Where [L]T is the transpose of the transformation matrix. Therefore.        . when we take into account node 2. [k]IX and [k]XII. IX and XII are the rods. node 3 and node 4. is equal to zero. second moment of inertia. IX and XII.Since element VI.

[L] is the transformation matrix and [k¶] is the element stiffness matrix in local coordinate   . Since the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate is T Where [L] is the transpose of the transformation matrix.   L L The length of element V or X is and = 135°. . I. Therefore. when we take into account node 3 and node 5. they are also rods and have the equal length. but different length with the others element in the above. where = cos 135° and m = sin 135° After we apply the formula. so they do not contain any moment in the element. we do not include the rotation at these node. and X are the rods.       . is equal to zero. With that. Since element V. second moment of inertia.For element V and X.

transpose of transformation matrix. =    =                     we can find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for element V and X. For element VII and XIII. they are also rods and have the equal length with the element V and X. [L]Tand element stiffness matrix in local coordinate are the same as element V and X. which is equal to . [L].  . but = 45°   L L The transformation matrix. [k]V and [k]X.

              =  = we can find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for element VII and XIII. where i = 1. [k]VII and [k]XIII. node by node.3««21 NODAL DISPLACEMENT MATRIX . Therefore. This means for the entire structure. the global element stiffness matrix is a 21×21 matrix.2. Besides. [K]. We will assume the value in the matrix with kij. we have to combine the entire element stiffness matrix to form the global element stiffness matrix. each node has 2 degree of freedom.2.3««21 j = 1. 9 rod elements are also connected at different nodes. In the structure.       . 4 beam elements are connected from node 1 to node 5. where = cos 45° and m = sin 45° After we apply the formula. from node 1 to node 8. each node has 3 degree of freedom. there are all together 21 unknowns.         COMBINATION OF ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX After we calculate the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for all the 13 elements.

q17. q19 and q21 are the vertical displacement for each node. q9. q8. q11. q3. q2. q4.Nodal displacement matrix will show horizontal displacement. vertical displacement and rotation at all the nodes. TOTAL FORCE MATRIX . q6. q13. q18 and q20 are the horizontal displacement for each node. q12 and q15 are rotation for node 1 to node 5.    q1. q16. q10. q14. q7. q5.

{F}. {q} and {F}. but the vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at node 2 and in the negative Y direction. .    After we find [K]. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. [K]{q}={F}. For condition 2.There are 4 conditions for the vertical force applied at the structure. vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at node 3 and in the negative Y direction. We have to form the total force matrix. before we can apply the formula of linear equation of the system. where the position of the force is different. For condition 1. basically it is same with the condition 1.

which is between node 1 and node 2 and in negative Y direction. vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at the middle of element 1.   After we find [K]. For condition 3. {q} and {F}. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. .

{q} and {F}. is applied at the middle of element II. in finite element method. the vertical force of magnitude. it is the same condition with the condition 3. The difference between these 2 conditions is. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. is in the middle of the element. for condition 4. the total force matrix is    After we find [K]. -F. F/2 F F/2 . we have to divide the applied force into two equivalent force that is applied at the node. where the value is half of the total applied force. but.F/2 F F/2 Node 1 Node 2 Since the vertical force. we only consider the force that is applied at the node. Therefore. For condition 4. which is between node 2 and node 3. Therefore. F.

there are all together 13 elements and connected through 8 nodes.Node 2 Node 3 Therefore. . which are vertical displacement and horizontal displacement. All the elements are rod. the total force matrix is    After we find [K]. {q} and {F}. therefore. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. c) CASE 3 For CASE 3. each node has 2 degree of freedom.

Y .ELEMENT CONNECTION TABLE Element I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 6 3 3 7 2 1 Node 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX Since element I. II. VIII and XI have the same element length which is equal to L and = 0. III. they have equal global element stiffness matrix. IV.

Since element VI. IV. they have the same element stiffness matrix. They have the same = 90°. [k]1. [k]XI and [k]VIII.The transformation matrix. [L]. [L]Tand element stiffness matrix. IX and XII are the rods and have the same length which is equal to L also. Therefore. [k]III. [k]II.              =   we can find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for element I. where = cos 0° and m = sin 0° After we apply the formula. XI and VIII. II. [k¶] in local coordinate are         . [k]IV. III. transpose of transformation matrix. =         Y . but they are not in the global coordinate.

when we take into account node 2. IX and XII are the rods.X X Y Since element VI. With that. so they do not contain any moment in the element. where = cos 90° and m = sin 90° After we apply the formula. second moment of inertia. we do not include the rotation at these node.   . Therefore.       =  . Since the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate is Where [L]T is the transpose of the transformation matrix.       . [L] is the transformation matrix and [k¶] is the element stiffness matrix in local coordinate. I. is equal to zero. node 3 and node 5.

[k]VI. but different length with the others element in the above. [k]IX and [k]XII. second moment of inertia. when we take into account node 3 and node 5.=  we can find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for element VI. and X are the rods. . is equal to zero. we do not include the rotation at these node. so they do not contain any moment in the element. I. With that.   L L The length of element V or X is and = 135°. Since element V.                 For element V and X. IX and XII. [L] is the transformation matrix and [k¶] is the element stiffness matrix in local coordinate   . Therefore. they are also rods and have the equal length. Since the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate is Where [L]T is the transpose of the transformation matrix.

they are also rods and have the equal length with the element V and X. For element VII and XIII. which is equal to .      . where = cos 135° and m = sin 135° After we apply the formula. [k]V and [k]X.                =  =         we can find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for element V and X. but = 45°   L .

The transformation matrix.              =   we can find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for element VII and XIII. [k]VII and [k]XIII. =         COMBINATION OF ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX .         . transpose of transformation matrix. where = cos 45° and m = sin 45° After we apply the formula. [L]. [L]Tand element stiffness matrix in local coordinate are the same as element V and X.

3««16 NODAL DISPLACEMENT MATRIX Nodal displacement matrix will show horizontal displacement and vertical displacement. there are all together 16 unknowns. [K].2. node by node. . We will assume the value in the matrix with kij.3««16 j = 1.After we calculate the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for all the 13 elements. we have to combine the entire element stiffness matrix to form the global element stiffness matrix. This means for the entire structure. Therefore. where i = 1. each node has 2 degree of freedom. the global element stiffness matrix is a 16×16 matrix. from node 1 to node 8. In the structure.2. all the elements are connected from node 1 to node 8.

q2. q14 and q16 are the vertical displacement for each node. q12. q5. q9. TOTAL FORCE MATRIX . q13 and q15 are the horizontal displacement for each node. q7. q10. q6. q8.   q1. q4. q3. q11.

then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. [K]{q}={F}. before we can apply the formula of linear equation of the system. {F}. .There are 4 conditions for the vertical force applied at the structure. where the position of the force is different. {q} and {F}. vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at node 3 and in the negative Y direction. We have to form the total force matrix.    After we find [K]. For condition 1.

but the vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at node 2 and in the negative Y direction. . basically it is same with the condition 1.For condition 2. {q} and {F}. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}.    After we find [K].

 Y X . III and IV have the same element length which is equal to L and they are already in the global coordinate. All the elements are beams. each node has 3 degree of freedom.d) CASE 4 In CASE 4. horizontal displacement and rotation. there are all together 4 elements and connected through 4 nodes. therefore. ELEMENT CONNECTION TABLE Element I II III IV 1 2 3 4 Node 2 3 4 5 ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX Since element I. II. which are vertical displacement.

from node 1 to node 5. there are all together 15 unknowns. 4 elements are connected at 5 nodes. we have to combine the entire element stiffness matrix to form the global element stiffness matrix. node by node.  COMBINATION OF ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX After we calculate the element stiffness matrix in global coordinate for all the 4 elements. We will assume the value in the matrix with kij. where i = 1.2. In the structure.3««15 .2. each node has 3 degree of freedom. the global element stiffness matrix is a 15×15 matrix. Therefore.3««15 j = 1. [K]. This means for the entire structure.

vertical displacement and rotation at all the nodes. q4. q2. q7. q6. q11 and q14 are the vertical displacement for each node. q3. . q8. q9. q12 andq15 are the rotation for each node.NODAL DISPLACEMENT MATRIX Nodal displacement matrix will show horizontal displacement.    q1. q10 and q13. q5. are the horizontal displacement for each node.

TOTAL FORCE MATRIX There are 4 conditions for the vertical force applied at the structure. {q} and {F}. For condition 1. where the position of the force is different. {F}. Therefore. We have to form the total force matrix. vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at node 3 and in the negative Y direction. . before we can apply the formula of linear equation of the system. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. the total force matrix is    After we find [K]. [K]{q}={F}.

the total force matrix is    After we find [K]. {q} and {F}. basically it is same with the condition 1.For condition 2. . then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. Therefore. but the vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at node 2 and in the negative Y direction.

F.For condition 3. is in the middle of the element. in finite element method. Therefore. where the value is half of the total applied force. we only consider the force that is applied at the node. vertical force of magnitude ±F is applied at the middle of element 1. {q} and {F}. the total force matrix is    After we find [K]. F/2 F F/2 Node 1 Node 2 Since the vertical force. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. Therefore. we have to divide the applied force into two equivalent force that is applied at the node. which is between node 1 and node 2 and in negative Y direction. . but.

it is the same condition with the condition 3. . F/2 F F/2 Node 2 Node 3 Therefore. is applied at the middle of element II. {q} and {F}. then we can apply them in the equation [K]{q}={F}. -F. the vertical force of magnitude. the total force matrix is    After we find [K].For condition 4. which is between node 2 and node 3. for condition 4. The difference between these 2 conditions is.