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Portfolio Assignment 1: §1.2-3 Name: Sean Fogerty

Problem 1.2.6: Let E = “The house is blue,” let F = “The house is 30 years old,” and G = “The house is ugly.” Translate the following statements into symbols. (1) If the house is 30 years old, then it is ugly. (2) If the house is blue, then it is ugly or it is 30 years old. (3) If the house is blue then it is ugly, or it is 30 years old. (4) The house is not ugly if and only if it is 30 years old. (5) The house is 30 years old if it is blue, and it is not ugly if it is 30 years old. (6) For the house to be ugly, it is necessary and suﬃcient that it be ugly and 30 years old. Solution (1) F → G (2) E → (G ∨ F ) (3) (E → G) ∨ F (4) ¬G ↔ F (5) (F → E) ∧ (F → ¬G) (6) G ↔ (G ∧ F )

Problem 1.2.15: Let P be a statement, let T A be a tautology, and let CO be a contradiction. (1) Show that P ∨ T A is a tautology. (2) Show that P ∧ CO is a contradiction. Solution (1) Since T A is a tautology, by construction it is always true. Similarly, since CO is a contradiction, it is always false. Thus, we can verify that for any statement P , P ∨ T A is a tautology using the truth table below. P T F TA P T T T F ∨ T T TA T T

(2) Since CO is a conradiction, by consruction it is always false. Similarily, since T A is a tautology, it is always true. Thus, we can verify that for any statement P , P ∧ CO is a contradiction using the truth table below. P T F CO F F P T F ∧ F F CO F F 1

then the food is lousy. (2) I will go home if it is after midnight. it must be Tuesday. then the meal won’t be quick. (2) – Inverse: If it’s not after midnight.8: State the inverse. Solution (1) – Inverse: If it’s not Tuesday.Problem 1. (3) – Inverse: Bad fences make bad neighbors. I don’t go home. (1) If it’s Tuesday. (3) Good fences make good neighbors. it must not be Tuesday. Problem 1. – Contraposive:Bad neighbors make bad fences. (3) sin(π/2) < 0 and tan(0) ≥ 0. – Converse: If the meal is quick.10: Negate each of the following statements (1) e5 > 0. it’s after midnight. (4) If y = 3 then y 2 = 7. (2) 3 < 5 or 7 ≥ 8. it must be Belgium. it must not be Belgium.3. (6) a − b = c iﬀ a = b + c Solution (1) e5 ≤ 0. – Converse: If I go home. and contrapositive of each of the following statements.3. – Converse: Good neighbrs make good fences. (2) 3 ≥ 5 and 7 < 8 (3) sin(π/2) ≥ 0 or tan(0) < 0 (4) y = 3 and y 2 = 7 (5) w − 3 > 0 and w2 + 9 ≤ 6w (6) (a = b + c and a − b = c) or (a = b + c and a − b = c) 2 . converse. – Contraposive: If the meal isn’t quick. then the food isn’t lousy. it’s not after midnight. (4) – Inverse: If the food isn’t lousy. (4) Lousy food is suﬃcient for a quick meal. – Converse: If it’s Belgium. – Contraposive: If I don’t go home. (5) w − 3 > 0 implies w2 + 9 > 6w. – Contrapositive: If it’s not Belgium.

(5) (P → Q) ∨ Q. (1) ¬(P → ¬Q). (2) A → (A ∧ B).Problem 1. (6) ¬(X → Y ) ∨ Y.3. Solution (1) ¬(P → ¬Q) ⇔ P ∧ Q (2) A → (A ∧ B) ⇔ A → B (3) (X ∧ Y ) → X ⇔ X ∨ ¬X (4) ¬(M ∨ L) ∧ L ⇔ M ∧ ¬M (5) (P → Q) ∨ Q ⇔ P → Q (6) ¬(X → Y ) ∨ Y ⇔ X ∨ Y 3 .12: Simplify the following statements (making use of any equivalences of statements given so far in the text or exercises). (4) ¬(M ∨ L) ∧ L. (3) (X ∧ Y ) → X.

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