. MECH) NAIK(T.E.TECHNICAL PAPER PRESENTATION
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
RIZVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
PRESENTED BY AMEY S. RAJESH RAUT(T.E.
and skilled labor. These make excellent visual aids for communicating ideas with co-workers or customers. though this should change in the near future. These dramatic time savings allow manufacturers to bring products to market faster. angle.Previous means of producing a prototype took man-hours. Rapid Prototyping is an additive manufacturing process that generates a model of an object directly from a CAD model by building it in layers. Limitations aside. Part volume is generally limited to 0. The "three dimensional printers" allow designers to quickly create tangible prototypes of their designs. As an answer to this need. depending on the RP machine. rapid prototyping is a remarkable technology that is revolutionizing the manufacturing process.
. and layered manufacturing. rapid prototyping was born. As opposed to software methods which give illusion of 3D volumes on a 2D screen that can cause problems through view. RP has also been referred to as solid free-form manufacturing.125 cubic meters or less. This may seem slow. Of course. computer automated manufacturing. many tools. Rapid Prototyping can be defined as a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data. rapid prototyping is not perfect. depth and transparency. rather than just two-dimensional pictures. Most prototypes require from three to seventy-two hours to build. but it is much faster than the weeks or months required to make a prototype by traditional means such as machining. depending on the size and complexity of the object. This typically was not a speedy process and costs of the skilled labor were not cheap. Metal prototypes are difficult to make.
1 Rapid prototyping helps separate conjoined twins 3.2 2.
RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNIQUES
2.4 2.1 2.
CASE STUDIES 3.
2. Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM). Electron Beam Melting (EBM).2 Flight 4. CONCLUSION REFERENCES Landing Gear Prepared for
. 5.2 PRINCIPLE PROCESS
2. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM).1 1.3
Steriolithiography (SLS). Selective Laser Sinterin (SLM).
It is now easy to perform iterative testing: build a prototype. there is great uncertainty as to whether a new design will actually do what is desired. The primary use of rapid prototyping is to quickly make prototypes for communication and testing purposes. test theories and confirm performance prior to starting production of a new product. New designs often have unexpected problems. In contrast. combining layers of paper. Therefore people thought of developing a process that would directly give the physical prototype from CAD model. This manufacturing process is very time consuming including stages like planning. wax. most
. Such an approach would be far too time-consuming using traditional prototyping techniques.
1. or plastic to create a solid object. build and test. redesign. INTRODUCTION
In many fields.1. assembly & also high cost of this process limits the number of design alternatives. A prototype is often used as part of the product design process to allow engineers and designers the ability to explore design alternatives. but it is easy using RP. test it. In other words they wanted 3D objects representation just like laser prints on 2D sheets. machining. this process is termed as “RAPID PROTOTYPING”. etc.1 PRINCIPLE
Rapid prototyping is an "additive" process. This prototype may be a scaled version made up of alternative material or may be full scaled product made up of actual material.
Create a CAD model of the design Convert the CAD model to STL format Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers Construct the model one layer atop another Clean and finish the model
CAD Model Creation: First. drilling. 2. the model may require finishing work such as cleaning. but at the cost of bigger file size. they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. Depending on the rapid prototyping system and user requirements.
1. etc.) are "subtractive" processes that remove material from a solid block. Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation. all employ the same basic five-step process. the STL (stereolithography. layer thickness. To establish consistency. Because STL files use planar elements. therefore. the object to be built is modeled using a
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software package. this process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. painting or curing in oven.stl format is universal. Since the .
. it is subjected to postprocessing treatment for removing support material that was used to support overhang features during fabrication. The second step. is to convert the CAD file into STL format. RP’s additive nature allows it to create objects with complicated internal features that cannot be manufactured by other means.
Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a number
of different algorithms to represent solid objects. Large. Rapid prototyping software receives data in this format and creates a complete set of instructions for fabrication on rapid prototyping machine such as tool path. processing speed. Upon completion of a three-dimensional model. 3. The object is designed in any solid modeling software (CAD) and the data is converted into a standard format widely known as standard triangularisation language (STL).2
Although several rapid prototyping techniques exist. The steps are: 1. Rapid prototyping machine then manufactures the object using layer manufacturing method. complicated files require more time to pre-process and build. the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles.machining processes (milling. grinding. 4. 5. This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. etc. so the designer must balance accuracy with manageablility to produce a useful STL file.
. location and orientation of the model. 4.7 mm thick. In addition. Most machines are fairly autonomous. Part building 3. Build orientation is important for several reasons. needing little human intervention. sealing. 2.
2. Material used 2. Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. or powdered metal. TECHNIQUES
There are several technologies available for model preparation based on the principle of ‘growing’ or ‘additive machining’. depending on the build technique. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). thereby shortening build time. Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use. Each RP machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary pre-processing software. paper. First. prototypes are usually weaker and less accurate in the z (vertical) direction than in the x-y plane. properties of rapid prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to another. Support technologies There are popular RP processes today. For example.
Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). Stereolithography (SLA). and most allow the user to adjust the size. and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability. 3. internal cavities. The major difference among these technologies is in three aspects: 1. Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM). viz 1. a pre-processing program
prepares the STL file to be built. This involves
removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports. The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0.01 mm to 0.Slice the STL File: In the third step. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs. part orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model. Using one of several techniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers. Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction reduces the number of layers.
Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual
construction of the part. and thin-walled sections. Several programs are available. The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build. Sanding.
2. stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution. a heated roller applies pressure
. Afterwards. Supports are broken off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing. a feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform. solidifying the model’s cross section while leaving excess areas liquid.2. the solid part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid. A sweeper re-coats the solidified layer with liquid. As shown in the figure below. The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when exposed to ultraviolet light. and the laser traces the second layer atop the first. The model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. This process is repeated until the prototype is complete.2 Laminated Object Manufacturing
In this technique. A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer. layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype.1
Patented in 1986. Next. The original material consists of paper laminated with heat-activated glue and rolled up on spools. where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer.
and the laser cuts the second layer. A focused laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper and then cross-hatches the excess area (the negative space in the prototype). This process is repeated as needed to build the part. filaments heated thermoplastic are
. After the first layer is cut. Parts are built upon a platform which sits just below the surface in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. the excess material provides excellent support for overhangs and thin-walled sections.3 Selective Laser Sintering
Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis at the University of Texas. uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials. sintering it together. such as nylon. selective laser sintering was patented in 1989.
2.4 Fused Deposition Modeling
of In this technique. A laser traces the pattern of the first layer. into a solid object. This process continues until the part is complete. Excess powder in each layer helps to support the part during the build.
2. Because the models are made of paper. making it easier to remove during post-processing. shown. and metal. elastomer.to bond the paper to the base. During the build. The platform is lowered by the height of the next layer and powder is reapplied. which will have a wood-like texture. The roller bonds the second layer to the first. Cross-hatching breaks up the extra material. The platform rises to slightly below the previous height. the platform lowers out of the way and fresh material is advanced. they must be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage. The technique.
non-metals. so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens.
. After the platform lowers.1 RAPID PROTOTYPING HELPS SEPARATE CONJOINED TWINS. the parts are fully solid. EBM does require a vacuum.5 Electron Beam Melting (EBM)
Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a type of rapid prototyping for metal parts. The technology manufactures parts by melting metal powder layer per layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum.CASE STUDIES 3. ceramics. Electron Beam Melting is also referred to as Electron Beam Machining. void-free.
3. It is often classified as a rapid manufacturing method. the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the first. and composites. the controlled extrusion head deposits very thin beads of material onto the build platform to form the first layer. High speed electrons .5-8 times the speed of light are bombarded on the surface of the work material generating enough heat to melt the surface of the part and cause the material to locally vaporize. fastened to the part either with a second. weaker material or with a perforated junction. Supports are built along the way.extruded from a tip that moves in the x-y plane. The platform is maintained at a lower temperature. and extremely strong. meaning that the work piece is limited in size to the vacuum used. The surface finish on the part is much better than that of other manufacturing processes.
2. Like a baker decorating a cake. EBM can be used on metals. Unlike some metal sintering techniques.
4 pounds at birth and. The most complex part of the operation would be to sort out these veins and reroute each girl’s blood supply. The surgical team was headed by Dr. normal in size and structure and separated by a membrane. Biomedical Modeling is one of a handful of companies worldwide whose sole business is fabricating rapid prototypes for medical use. In the case of the two Marias. in fact.except for being joined at the head. couldn’t be arranged in the CT system so that a single scan of their heads could be made. But this case presented some challenges that made the use of stereolithography problematic if not impossible.Maria Teresa and Maria de Jesus Quiej-Alvarez were 4. three sets of scan data were collected at different angles and BMI had to register and combine them into a single threedimensional model. Instead. Complicating the task was the fact that the two girls. The arteries that carried oxygenated blood to their brains were also separate. because it delivers crisp models with good definition. most often stereolithography. were healthy in every way -. InterPro. A volunteer team of neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Mattel Children Hospital successfully separated them in a 22-hour-long operation. the maze of blood vessels would have required support structures that would have been next to impossible to remove. The UCLA physicians supplied BMI with a series of computed tomography (CT) scans of the two girls. say the doctors. have separate and complete brains. a rapid prototyping service provider operates Objet Tempo rapid prototyping system. builds parts by selectively jetting tiny
. And this is where rapid prototyping played an essential role. So the team contacted Biomedical Modeling Inc. Without rapid prototyping. Henry Kawamoto. x-rays showed that the girls did. while connected. BMI has used various rapid prototyping technologies. despite their small size. This meant that the surgeons would not have to cut through any brain tissue. physical models would help sort out the maze of interconnected blood vessels. but the veins that drained the blood were interwoven and fed into each other’s circulatory systems. the operation would have been much more difficult. For the neurosurgeons. With a stereolithography model.
and the prognosis for both is excellent.
The doctors used the model of the intersection of the two skulls to help plan how they would reroute the necessary blood vessels.droplets of acrylate photopolymer and then curing the drops. "No matter how good our 3D graphics are. layer by layer. Unlike stereolithography. both girls are doing well. one of each girl’s skull and one of the conjoined junction. Dr Kawamoto says.
. which uses the primary building material for supports that must be cut or sanded away. The operation took about 22 hours to complete. there is nothing like holding a model in your hands". Once a part is
complete. Today. this gel-like support material can be wiped off or removed by water jet. with light. the Tempo employs a second photopolymer for supports that never fully harden. InterPro built three parts.
uses sophisticated tools for design. In preparation for the test flight of the new Superjet 100 regional aircraft. analysis and testing. Messier-Dowty. The mock-ups let us see exactly what the hoses and harnesses will do. Retracting and extending on every flight. “We know from past experience that a fullsize. Marianna Lakerdas.”
. the range of motion for these assemblies presents unique design challenges that are further complicated by the punishment that landing gear endures. which is why they are the primary focus of design validation and testing. To minimize aircraft downtime and ensure reliability of the gear. full . binding and pinching that can contribute to system failure. Chris Brookfield. “Seeing actual. the dressings are subject to chaffing. brake and electrical systems in the landing gear—are critical components. the world leader in landing gear systems. stated. Dressings—the hydraulic. electrical and hydraulic assemblies. To make the 4.3. which is manufactured by Sukhoi Civil Aircraft of Russia. they are unsuitable for emulating the dynamic motion of the hoses and electrical harnesses.87 meter (16-foot) -high physical mock-up. stated.2
Landing Gear Prepared for Flight
Aircraft landing gear is an extremely complex system comprised of mechanical. which makes it one of the most maintenance intensive parts on an aircraft. As the gear folds and unfolds from the aircraft’s fuselage. Messier-Dowty Toronto validated the performance of the main landing gear with both digital and physical mock-ups. Although Messier-Dowty uses digital mock-ups for analysis of stresses. physical mock-up with all the dressings is an invaluable tool. principal designer. That is why Messier-Dowty employs physical mockups to evaluate the dressings.scale parts puts everything in perspective.” Mock-ups also help the engineering team confirm clearances between mechanical and electrical components. motion and kinematics. senior designer for systems installation. Messier-Dowty turned to RedEye for Rapid Prototyping with its Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process.
cost & time to market are important factors of a manufacturer to remain competitive. With the exception a few off-the-shelf hardware items.RedEye in less than one month. most had to be sectioned. As these technologies emerge as one of the best time compression technologies.
4. main fitting. The part list included the landing gear’s piston. delivered 29 landing gear components. The accuracy of the FDM parts was 0. Polycarbonate is dimensionally and mechanically stable over time. In all. the entire mock-up was made with FDM He also included parts from the aircraft. more & more business is taking advantages of speed at which product design generated by computers can be held.6 x 1905 mm (18 x 24 x 75 inch).2 x 609. Since RP can substantially reduce the product development cycle time. Jeff Hanson of RedEye said. “Because of the size of the components. Mounting the FDM mock-up on the test rigs allowed the design team to detect problems and make changes well before testing started. RP is rapid development area. such as the rear spar and bay doors. This ensured that Messier-Dowty would have a functional mock-up for the duration of the design review”. tested & compared. with the largest measuring 457. We used polycarbonate. because of its strength and durability. Capacities & potential of RP technologies have attached a wide range of industries to invest in these technologies.CONCLUSION
.25 mm (. and our model shop had to join them. in order to perform on-site retraction tests. It is expected that greater effort is needed in research & development of these technologies so that they will be widely used in production oriented manufacturing industries. viewed. linkages and trunnion. quality. Rapid Prototyping system offers the opportunities to make products faster & usually at blower cost rather than using conventional methods.010 inch). studied. we processed 58 individual pieces to make the 29component landing gear.
Reference books 1. DICKENS
WEB SITES http:/www. RAPID PROTOTYPING AMITABHA GHOSH
2. RESEARCH & DEVELPOMENT IN RAPID PROTOTYPING P.com http:/www.com/twins.redeyerpm.wikipedia. www.biomodel. M.com http:/www.html