A precast section 01 roadway for a new intef'change on Interstate 93 is shown being lowered from a gantry crane.

I this chapter we will introduce the conoept of the centroid of an area; In subsequent courses the relation

between the localion of the centroid and the behavio.r of the roadwa.y unc{er loading will be established.

DISTR BUTEO FORCES:

CENTROIDS AND CENTERS OF GRAVITY

5.1 lntroduc ion Areas and lines

5.2 Center of Gravity of a

Two-Dimensional Body

5.3 Centroids of Areas and Unes

5.4 First Moments or Areas and Lines

5.5 Composite Plates and Wires

5.6 Determlna on of Centroids by

Integration

5.7 Theorems of Pappus-Guldin s

5.B Distrlbu1ed Loads on Beams

5.9 Foroes on Submerged Surfaces Va urnes

5.10 Ganler of eravily 01 a ThreeDlmensjonal Body. Cen reid of a Volume

5. 1 Composite Bodies

5.12 Determination at Centroids of Volumes by Integration

Photo 5.1 The p aclsa bala CI 9 of the co pone ts 01 a mobile r'eq Ires an

I,J dersta dlng of centers of gravit)' a d can rolds. the main topics 01 is c"apler.

220

5.1. INTRODUCTION

AREAS AND LINES

5.2. CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL BODY t us first consid r a -n t horizont I plate (Fi . 5. I J. We (.'1 cli

the plate into n small len len s, Th "ordinates of he den

o

o

I.M!J: :r1l'=_T \to 1;.1.1'· Y \t ~ Ly An' Fig, 5.1 Cantar ot gcav[1)' of a plate,

Jf dClloted by :\'1 and Yl,those of the second element b '.\' :tnd Y'" :'II. The Iorcesescrted by the lU1:Il on tht' elem nts o plate will b . ilenObed, respCG'tive.ly. b, 6\' 1, AW£, .•.. ,~ 'W/j~ The e forces or 'l(ights are directed toward theoenter of th earth; however, for aI! ~!~rtieal purpo.sf',S tll@ .. can h .... ssumed to be pamUcl. Their sultant . ~lCl'efol'f' d singl'~ fon:; tn tl.· . same direction .. The magl1itude \' !lUllS roree is obtainecl by adding th magnitudes of :1111" el-mf>ntal wH!dlls:

JIH~ltain the coerdtnatcs X and fj of the point G where the resultant W should be applied, we write that the mom 11 of '" ahout the y I~ l' ;Wt"S are equal to the su mort he cnrre."pollding III(H nents of the &llIImliil weig~ls,

l:.Hy: }.;jJf ,1::

"IV = 1 & 1,;V: \'2' a' 2. + + .\",.. A l "

yW =!It 6\V1 + !l2: 6W2 + + y .. .6.\: II

(5.I)

If we CD\\' increase the number of elements into whtch rh plate is !l11t.icrluJld silllult<ln ·ou:.ly decrease the size of eachelement, we oolitJrl ill ~I limit th following expressions:

w=J dW

xW= f xdW

-w = I y d

(5.2)

TIICS(' equations define the \ rei~lt W and the coordinates x and 'J of d( ~'eil!er or gra1-ity cor. flat plate. Th . anweqnations can be dt'rirrd for a wire ling in the XII plane (Fig. ,1).2). V e note lhat Iht: (I'lllcr of gravity G of a wir is usuallv not located on the wire.

\\ /Y

o

tll!J ~ '1 '" - z- ew uv .. ; qW=!.y.61 Rg . .5 .. 2 Center of gravity 0 a wire.

5.2. Center 01 Gravity 01 a lWIl-olmens:: 2.21

222

Distributed Fo/W:5' Cenlrtlld$ and Centers of Gravfty

5 .. 3. CENTROIDS OF .AREAS AND LINES

I n the 1..:. 't: of a nat hornog neous plateof uniform thi(Jme.~ . the nitudell.\ of th wight 0 WJ elm eut ftllE' plule '.10 hF' f'Xp as

t.\ W = ytllA

wi ere -y sp ~<"in('weight (weigLL pe:r unit volume) of the mine

t = thickness of the plate

= area of the el· ment

Similarly,. we can xpreo:;~ Ihemo.gllitud \V of th weight ufthf't' plate as

W= 'YtA where A is the totalarea of the plate,

Ir .5. euslonl;;try In'llt~· are used.the specific vveight 'Y slmu expressed in Ib/~t!l, the thickness t in feet and the areas dA an square feet, We observe that 8 W and '(.ll will then be expr in- pounds, IrS I U II i ts ;,t fe> used, 'Y .. haul d be exprcsse I in N/m:l mete's, and the ar as aA and A msquura met _ rs, the weighls and W ,,,111 then be espresse I in aewtonr , f

Substitutin for 6,\ and Win theomenl aqnattons (5,1 dividing throughout b· vt, we olxain

:i.M'J: XA = Xl Ml of 1'2 M2 ~, " I XII AA

'i:.1{'C.: IjA = I]l - 1 + Y'l- h + . , . + ')" 4"

If we i ncr ase the number ofel men t into whi ,1 the area. A is dh and sirnulraneonsly decrease th 'i7N of each element, we obi the liudt

h se equations d . nn thecoordtnates i clJld Y (If the center or tty of a 110 ogencous pial . The polnr w1 J ue eoerdinatesare i 3 i~ ,- so known as the centroid G of the area A of I:h plate (Fig If the plat€' i. not homogeneous these equationscannot . determine the c nt.r of gravity of the pluie. they still define ever, the centroid of the area.

In the case of a homogeneous wire of unifonn cross ."1e(.UJ;, magnitude A\: urlhe weight or an element-of wire an he e~pr as

.6. \i == va 61 ...

wh ere )I = .~pecil1 weight of the material a - cro s sectional area of the wire ilL = 1· ngth of th e1 m n

III should be noted that il'l the "if .;Y~'km (( ur . II. gi\f'A nlnt'l!rioJ Is gl.'ncralll lerized by its densily P' (mass pcr mnt vlJl.l1u.,) rather than by Irs speci1lc 'Il"E1'!Ihr 5pt'dfi c weigh! I) f 111 t' III oiterialC:dn Ll I~ be oblaJJled rio m tlrc rc:l:IJton

)' lIO' pg

1\'11 'n' ~ ~ 1:1. 1 lui,.! Slace P is e.tpresst'd iII kgi'm:l, we oU~"n't· tlult y willl~i''IF (!~W!I':J)(m!s~). mILt is, in. :-.11m",

5.4. First MOl nts Q Ar"a.s a'1d Lioos 223

y

M,. -A = Ex- A l:~l. r A = IlIli.> F9.5.3 Cell' don area

EM ""iL - ], At Ii\{· yT, = III L FIg. 5.4 Cenlrolc ot a ne.

Ile renter of gravit) of the wir then cui n 'ide with th :(' J1 (raid C {thr line Lenning th shnr. f 111 wi re ( • itT. 5.4), Th ordiutes i aud ] or thf! e n trnid of th ~ lln . L ar obtain fr III the Kj aOOu

xL = f x rlr.

ud

(. . )

5.4. FIRST MOMENTS OF AREAS AND LINES

nil: mtewal f;t d. in Eqs. (5.3) of lbe l'recedin se tirm is known

the fiflr moment 0 the area itll rest ect to he!J axis' ts de-

n t'd by Q!I' Sirnil rly, th tnt grnl J !J d rl nllt~· 1, fir~·I. moment f.\ lC;ill! respect to the x £11:', 0 i is r1.11( red 1 y Q". We \, °

(.5.5)

UJUljlanl1g Eqs (5.3) \\1111 "<.]s. (.5,5), we noe that the first moments IIII' area A call be ex loess d as the products of the area and th .Idini:l e of its xmrrotd:

-

I=X

It 0\. from l~' ( .6) til ordinntes or tJ enlr i ~ of

JlJ 'I! call be htaincd b r dt riding the Ilrst moment. of that area h dlt'lI! :II. i If. The first mo nents of the area are also u. fi.t1 ill rn . l lie of materials for det: rmining (he shearing 51 res ses it hams u~l~r h'llllS\t'fli loadi Ilg·. Fi nall • W' ob erv Irom Eq . (5.6) that if IIIl tocntroid of an arc. is located all n co rdinate . xi ,tll fir' mo'll'nt of the ar with re p cL to that •. is i. Z o. ;1. IIV I' I. i r II

jffi IIIOUll'Ut of an area witlr p t to' . rrlinat axi is ZCI'O then

dil n roid of the area is located all that axis.

Rei tion similar to E . 5.5 and ( .6) can b l .• <1 ( de n th tnt mornents of a I111C, tth re peet l th c or it tax' awl to ixWl'!S these moments as th roduco of tit I ngth D or the line and hi: OO<lrdinates x and Ii 0 its e ntruid,

224

Dllitnbutcd Force : Centrol<:la nd Canters o Gmvity

[J

a)

I

/ "A'

(b)

Fig. 5.5

lJ
I
;-\.
IJ
0/
/
-I] I
I
l I
Fig. 5.7

s

An a,l'.' A is s' i 1 to be '!JmllJ ric with resp '(;t to (111 (/lis B for -v I)' point P of the ar th rc cxi us a poi t P' :f th 'am

ueh !:hat tlu"linc PP' is perpen licular 0 BB' aml i. divided ill to e ual parts b, tb l a.xi (Fig. S.5c1). A line L' said to be spume with r sp ct t an axi HB' if it sati:l'ip. irnilar condtti n . \\ hCll . 'a or Ii e L [ as essex an t ds of s -rn try BB'. it fhst morn with re i ct to BB' is ","In, !1J1d its centr if j. loc l on dUll For ex mple, in th ease of the . reo Fig. 5.5b, which is III nric v ith r pee to th !J axis, we 01 erve thaL for every ele of 'ea eli ol' absciss r I h re .xists an elem at d. I or equal ;II' a

ivith , bsei 'sa +r. H follows til(U the int zral in tile l r jl'

i. Z I all 1 thus, that Qy = O. It also fi 1I0\ { fro II I tl,p fir t of the , lations (5.:3) tba.t x = . Thus, if an area Aot a line L P ssesses lin of SYJume y, i C 'II . id C i I ~ d on th taxis.

'i\ . r 11' II r not tlu if an area r line 1 osscsse ' t\ 0 axe vf met! " its C 11 trt tel C 1II11:1ll be located t tl int rscl!tioll of Ute ax ,s (FIg. .). T1 Is prop . etmhl s us to termin irnmCUl

h c nlr id of areas such as circles, . es, .1)11 .rc • rectangle 1. tern! triangl >;, or other . ) mmcrrie figure ; s well lIS th~ centro nes it th shap. 0 III ircurnferenc or c:l irci tlU' perim I . :lllH· • el.

D

(II)

Fig.5.B

i. s •. id to I ,'1ymm ric wuh • p« I to n an/er for WI) elcm 'llt of mea d of C 0 Iinat s rand y there ell '

1 meur dil' of equal < rea with c urdinnlcs -x lei -I) {Fi?,.5.1

then rollO\~ tha the Inte s tn ECI . (5.- .1I' bo II z .ro

!I - O. It also follows rom Eqs. (5,; ) that x -I] = 0, th c ntroid of the a 'a coincides with its c:; nter of vmmc

, in Ilur] , ira lin pas sse a center 0 111 t I 0 thr' c otro

the' c will eo' lei 1 with the center

I should be 11 t d lhal <l igure po es Lng a center of S) lJ

Tl( t neccssaril p ss iss ar tl"i' of sym m t Fi. 5.7). w f rur pu ..... s iDer two 0..\':05 of symmetry do's nut necessardv

a er-n er ,,11m t (Fig. E),f'fI , However. if. f'ignr poss s c

axe r 5 '111111 try, a right .mgle to ("' ·11 th r; the poi 'e tian oft llf"S ax es i a een ter of syrn m try (F ig. 5.6b).

Del rmilling lit cen r ids of uns rrnruetncal ar a and III uf areas and line p St'_ ing: 0111, one ax; of '1llTll try "'ill I uss (1 in ecs. 5.6 d .5.7. entroids 0 COII1Hl U shu! 8'1 or. as

lines lire sh wn hi Fig. '. Aid B.

5.4. Firsl Momentu DI 11.11;11.15 and Line:!J 225

Shape

_z/d' l,l,:

. 'I

- --

I, b

2. 1

!m~

c c ,

01,/' - -[ii-- --!/' .

7 _ 01

- ... \" .. -

.1

ij

Area

--------1

h a

4r 370

bh

2

4.n 3:rr

J

_-

3r.

2

..

3n

T

3h 5

wb

2

~----~------_4---- ----

.,jull

1l~1 -6 1+1

5

o

nl, II + I

ah 3

~{-cin.",JIIJ' .In:~

,_

-

,'ll ~llptk'tll lW11

I

'mrp.1TC~hnlft·

IIn··1

.3a

, ar-

rig. i.SA ce lraids 01 common shapes 01 areas.

[

i

226

Oi$tribumd Forces: Centrolds and Cantarr. 01 GI'tIV

Shape

.f Y TA:Ilgi:
2r- -,. !I
11' 11 2
!lr
• f
tr QlIIlI"tc'r-t'i .,.,.1 r

II •

o

nIna (J

CJ

Flg.5.8S CQ Iroid 01 comrno

5.0. COMPOSITE PLATES AND WIRES

hi many Instances, 11 fittl plata can b . oivi,led illl~ rt!' nnglp~ t

IE'S, r the other ornrnon shap hown in Fi . ·.8 . The absc

f f it~ oenl r of gra' C n be d terminer] fn III th absciss ;\:2 •••. '-:'1 J th "ot rs of ruvity or the urious p. rt: bv f'.'p f'!

hat the noment of the eight of whol plat about 1 y

i . l\lal ( th SIll fen oments of th wei h t.:_ of til \" parts : 11 h S TIl axi (Fia, .9), TIt ordinate Y of tilt' e f gravity of the plate is found in. a similar \ (\:.' by equating Ilion abo It II x CL'\i •• W writ

.\f!J: X(llJ + r~ 2 + + "r,) - X.WI + r2,H I) + . , . + T'I

"i:.l'v!: Y{V('l + '\ '] +, II) = lj \VJ. Y21'2 911

=

IJ

DJI/ .\'.1:\ ~LX\\' III.r. YEU';1:iJ'1' Rg. 5.9 Center 01 gr3VIty of a composite plate,

or fllr dmrt.

(:'),7)

Th!s!' equationscnn b solved r or the coordi nates ltll\Cf or !1nlvil,of tho plate.

nnd Y of the

r

Q = X1:A =-I;x \. f

Q. - YI: 1.-:Eji:.i1

FIg. &,.10 Cenlroicl o~ a composite area

lfthe plate is homo cncousand of uniform thickness. the c:eQter rI gr""i~' coirrei des wi til rh e con troid CoC irs area. The abscissa X of thr ~"lltroilllJr Ih, ;trea can be detormined b noling that the Ilrst l:I!.1ffirnl9y of tho composite are_!!: With respect to the y axis can be apressed both as the product or X and the total area anda the sun I ~f tilt- Ilrsl rnomen ts 0 r th'L If' men tat)' areas n,; lh I'f'Sp@ct to the Ij i:F,g. 5.10). The ordinare Y of ths centroid ie; found in a , imilar wa I

1 caasdenng the first moment Q~ of the composite area, vVe have

Q, _K(A. + A + .. , + A,,) - :rIAl + ii!~12 + . , . + x".11,. VI == l'(tl1 -r lh + .... , + 1\,,) = Ylt\l + Y2i\2 + ... + Ti,,· "

~I~ ror ~IIIJ 1

(S .. 8)

nl'?Il' equations yield the fIrst m ments of [he compos±t area, or 111['\' enn br 115Cd to 0 tllin the ccordinatcs X nod Y or it" centroid .

. Cllre SllOUlil be taken to assisu the appropriate sig.n to the moIi of each area First moments of areas, like moments of forces, m.1 ~ !IDsilive or negntiv. or example. an ares whoseeentroidi, ~11 L-d to the left of the Y axls will have a negiltivc-> ·first mom ent with Mp«t to that axis. Also. the area of a. hole shcul beasstrrned a negJl:ilt'sigll (Fig . .5.11),

Similar[', II is PQssiblpin 11'1 n c. SA!'; . 0 d~h"lrrninelhe center of

• tlfy of .t composite \ ir ror tha 'enh'oid of a cornposit line by Jiml:ing the wire ~ T line mtn simpler elements (sC" arnpl Prob. j,2

5.5. CQfT'pOs11 P,lale. and Wlr!:!&227

;

!I

:r A. xi!

}\1 Scrmcuclc - + A2 Potll n·L"t;,t·I1W'· .. + JtJ Circu I "hole ...

FIg. 5 ... 11

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.1

FOT the plane r l:l • h Wll, d t rmine (a) the first rna \ nts with x and !I' s, (b) the locati n of the centroid,

SOLUTION

nmponcnts r ArelL The area i obtained h adding reotan biangl OJ id a semi 'ire! and by dum subtrac . g i r le. inu the 1 , te 'lW,'S shown, the area and the C rdin Ie s (.Ir Ihr centroid of ach of compon nt areas r d t rrnined mel nlered in eh table elow. the of the eircl i. indic1l.t d as I ,gati ,SInce it is to he subtrac d from other ar us. l no tll. t the coordrnan ij of e C ntroid of the trian ,11'

neg.lIiv fI r Lhc axe 'J,O'o The r.i moments of t eompou nt areas

re e -t to the coordinat eompu I d entered in o table

'I

+

4 mm

I.

rT

re=10 liD

00 "JI11I

GO mill

60mm

- mlll

Component

Y.mm

XA, mnr

Re(..1ungle Liangl~ emi lrcle Cird

y

tJ.. 'ir!ot (om nt of the !\ren. U ing qs. (5.8), we \\ 'te

Qx = l:gA = 5 6.2 X 10'1 Dlina Qy = iA:= 7,5 7 X ] 03 nUII3

It - - fi x 1 m ,l Q" = 75'3 X 10'1 mm3

b. ocation of Centruid. ub ... 1ituling the value gin:!! ill til

in th e-quuti m derIDing th centroi l it eomp 'itt, rea, w 01

:-(13 .• " X J 3 mmS) = 7!r.i X O·~ ~s X-I

)( I 'Ull2) 50.2 X 1 mmJ

1'=3. om

X .. 54.arin

= !.y

228

12ill-j I .]6' • I

~~ ~---:1s:s-=r

I :> III

I

"1_ ·18

2<111 .. ----1

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.2

The gure I (I" is made fro a piece 0 . thtn, hon 0 11 ow; v _ c. De rine til location of i rooter gr vit)""

SOLUTION

o 130

312 o

Substituting the value obt 1M I from he tabl i to I e equurlons . fining 11(' (~ mid rile an ~i e li Ie, w btah

XI-I... = }:XL: -U = -:i.IjL:

XlfiQ in.] = 600 m2 1"( in.) - HI in~

X= 10 !D ... r ,J I. ..

229

23'0

\\

\rl- W' I

I

1

,

I'

(1.1

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.3

A uniform semicircular rod o[\1;reight I and radius r is artached to a 'lJin at A and rests against a Idctionless surface a- B. Determine the rt'il.et\OTl$ IItA and 13.

SOLUTION

Fn .. t".Hud., Diagl"aJn. A rre _·body diagr-am of the rod is drawn. ne ~ roes acting 0, the rod are its weight W. which L~ applied a the center ~tnwitv G (whose position is IJbtaiH d fmm Fig. 5. (3), a reactiol~ .31.>\\ represented by itscourpcnents ... , <L11cl AI); and a hori ... .ontill"'eactian at B.

+i~M.4. = 0:

W B=+-

R=

A~ + B = 0

W

A .. =-B= -'1T

\

...1..j""F, = 0·'

, - 9 •

A!I-W=O

ddtngthe two components frhe r('acIion at A:

[. ( W)2]l/2

A= ,' ...... -._

'1f

,r

tan .0 = W ITr = 'IT

Theanswerscan also be expressed as follows:

A = L 4u\\' !:t:...72.3"

a tan I TI" •

B-f)3tH .~

SOLVING PROBLEMS

----------------------------------

ON YOUR OWN

In thi I _ssnn we de lop d th g ner quati s for 10 ling tl c nt rs t r gra\ 'ty of tw -di ensional hom s and wires [Eqs, (52)] aud the C 11 roi of plan area: [E 'ls. lIu\ ng r nb1 Ill',) 0 will have to I cal t h r d t ermin the rt ouients of tb

1. Lo('aling 1116 ('enlrairi.'S of cmnpmrite area» and lines. S . lple Problems 5.1 a d 5 Illustr te tit procedur I u should r 11 w wlu-n ""tYing prnhle'ws of this tYl . ThN are, however; several poin s that sho ld be mphasized,

a. The . t ep in ' ur solution h lid he (0 d it! b w to construct tll

U' a I Iill I1l th omm n shaocs 0[" Fl . ;:) .. Y U shoul recognize that

dJl:as it is often pu 'sib] to 0 ct ( p rt lcuh r ha in ore than o \ 'up .

• hOWLnlY 1 tlifferent (.'0 Ip neuts (as is done in ample rob.5.l will help you to corredly (.l hli:h lIIPil'l'Plllroids all]:11 us UJ I II ths. D I for etthat ' II car subtract areas a." well as add th ern to obtuin tI U sired shape.

h. ~1e trongly reeonuneud that fo each p1'Obi 01 yo 011511"11 t a table eontaiu-

ing Ill, m't'fC )1' 1 lIgth: mid lIP r sp c\'· oordinn es of the' cc rrmd It is essential

for you to rem .rnb '1" 1 t areas which ill' "r III U·· ( or eM\1 pi . hoI ) 11r(! tr atl-'d

as negali re, Also, the <;ign of nc artve coordinate ust be in. ude 1 Therefor . VOl!

. ho lid alv ,)IS • rc uTI r n t tl 1 'ation of the ori . l of the coordins te a; es.

o \ h ibl . I' [Sr-c, 1 to hell yuu I n in th 1 atlon of

a oi ,

d. In t e forn ulas ~ r he eire I Ii. r sector and for angle C1 11m :t alwa oS he xpresscd in ra hans.

an. (} il circle in Fl . 5.( . the

2. Culc:ul(lting tl1' firM nwmenlN of (IU (21"('". Tln- pro ~(11II'~s !"It 11I(.'Hliltg rh C 11-

troid f an area for de e ninin e ti rst rno 1 nts or an area re similar: I owever,

lilr th luti.eJ II is II) 11 S Illy to 1111 It the 0131 . Also, as no u in ·ec. 5.4.

you . h( nlrl r c )!,rnize at the first mom nt of un arer relative ru Cl ( utrm lal .00. is zero,

3. o/dng problem~ ;ll{'o/t~inJ! tit c u( 1" of ~rar·ity. • bodies nsidered in til

follow 'ng p lhl('!ll x art-' hOIll(rgen ()Us; tluu 1 tl Ir enters or gravily and ntroidi coinride. In addttton, when a body that is susptmcld from 11 ina1 pin is in cquillbruun,

he pin and bo ty's ent T of !,.IT'd\'iI)· . ust lie IJ e S TIl v rtical li 110.

It may, p ar 1 hat 1 y of the probl in tln . Ies 'U11 lia e little to 10 \ it h I hr- tndy

of mechanic . He w v 'I' b ing ~thl(· to Im'ltt .. th cenlrt id tJf COl hrq ~ ~11 b

essential . ral to ic h. ,. 1I will. o n ('I unter,

231

I I 11

"),,·1 _l

~I----Will-,-~I :t

Fig. P5.1

!J

IS 111111

6mm '--

l:

1

lfi 111111

I

--'

F.fg.P5 .. 4

T

Fig .. P5.7

232

5.1 through 5.8 Locate the centroid or thr- plan~ =1I'!~'a ~I {)\\'n

Fig .. 1>5.2

fJ

12U IIUll

Fig. P5.5

'Flg.P5.8

'/

i'5mm

Ag. P5.3

1----15 tn.---I

Ag. PS.6

5.9 Fur lhe area of Frob 5,.8, determine til Ii "'" 3r,/4.

5.10 Show lat;to; 1'"1 approaches T2, tl.~ loealion of the ce oirl:[ FrtI,'lciles dJ'1t 01" It ('1 reular arc or radius (rl 1'" 1',)/2.

Flg,.PS.10

5.11 through 5.16 Locate th centrnkl of the p11ll1l:' HI' .0: shown.

I - . 00 111m ~ :ID Ilull

Fg, PS,l1

QmLlh~t "UipM:'

Fig,. P5.1'2

'l'rlM /

r~\./ Pnrnl)lltn

lmm "\

"~b1_

1--15l11llUI~ 1 Ag. PS.14

Fig •. PS.15

Problems 233

--,

h 40mm

I

I

T

Fig •. PS.13

i Bin ----'1'1

1111.--·

FIg. PS.,li6

234

01 h1blliad Fol"Cf!S C8l1lroidG lind CooI~ 01 GraVity

y

fig. P5.19

5.17 an d 5.18 The horizontul rads is drown through the een ·d ·of the area shown and dividesthe area intol:'\vacomponent !ITens ,\ I illl~ D t· rmine the rrrst mom nt of end. i'nl POlll"'OI ar It witb res[Jecl I~ It-.:is. and C'xplain Ill, results obta.ined.

!J

x

·16 !Till Fig. PS.17

!J

5.19 Tlrefirs 1:rlC111l1"'nl of Hie shuut-d 11rlL with respect tothe 1 d ·lloleu b Q_r. (a) EX/press Q .. in terms of r and 0, (b) or what, ... - is Q" maximum. and what is the maximuDi valuel

C . I

A I

:100mul

I

001 tJ

..__ ............... _-+ _ ___l

5.20 compasilc beam is eeushueted b)! bollillg foW' plates to

2 x 2 x 3 /R-in Jlllglc~ as . hnw . The holts 11T'f'f''lIIllII) spaccdalon~ the an i'llI:' hean. supports a vertical load, I\~ proved in mechanics of !Mil: tltehea.ring forces exerted on the bolts ut i\ and B at l>roportional 13 first nlon\f'n~ with :resplX't to thecentroidlill \C axis of tit rd lmdt'tl ~hO\v:lI. Tf:'spC'ctin.,1 ' in pariSlI un.~l b of I helgnr . KnowlngthHhe ; tlrl.ttd 011 !'ilf' ho.lt .1 A i~ -0 Ib, determine til force exerted on the oolt:tl

FIg •.. P5.18

lSIn.

\ .J '.

rr, :eM1=-' -===:::=;:::',

o.:n."i Ill. 0.37.5 m.

(nJ

Fig. P5.20

5.21 through 5.24 A thin, I, mogellc: us vir j I D to [om til rcrimcterof tIlt' figllre tndics ted. Locate the C nter u gravU I of the \VII LeurI.' thus fum.

5.21 i. R'" I. 5.22 Fig. P52. 5.23 Fi. P 4. 5.24 Fi. P5 '.

5.25 .\ 750-g uni orin st el m i is bent into. circular arc 0 . rudins ~ I 111m I: 'Ittlwll. The rod is pportcd hy a pin Itt A an the :tm.l RC.

o rlllln~ (1) 11 I1s1 n in the :or l (b th I 8('0011 'it

5.26 The hom gc us \ ire "Mev is )t'lit lL' ·hmvll and is s pport d

Iv. :"')i1la B. Kn wing hall = in., d. rmin th angle tHorwruch porti 11 B( oi 'lit! wira I, horizontal.

Fig. PS.26 and P5.27

5,27 The bomogeJlt' II \ ire ABeD is b'TI tIS. b \ I an is. IIpported iJ\'apir a B. Kno \<ing IQt - 0°, dell:!11TIin • the len th 1 for which portion

Wuft wil' hudmntal

5.28 The h mogt'l1€ us wire ABC is b n t : !iho\\ II all 1 is attached u bill., at C. Detennin the e g L trJf which llle pOl ti 11 BCD r the ~ue j bonzontal.

FIg. P5.28

5.29 f) ermine the dtstanc h 0 that t ie centroid of 111 sin cl Arc UJ.~dose 0 line BB' as P sstble when (a) k -= 0.2, (b) k - O. ,

5.30 Shm \ -ben lh <list'lJ e II i. sf'le eo I 1i irruz the di ;tnTI : • ij irom Iinc BB~ to tit centroid 0 rhe shaded ar that 'J :::: h,

Problems 235

Fig. P5.25

r-kb

r

(J

1 1/

H·· ~""""':'__B'

..... 1 ~--" ----1

Fig. P5.29 and pS.ao

236

Distributed Forces; ~ntrold.!> and Cent&f5 of Crsvily

I

'J

I

()

rl:r

X'A =- I X rl

5.6. DETERMINATION OF CENTIROICSBY I'NTEGRAnON The centroidof an area bounded hi analytical CUrves (that is, defined by algebraic eqnations) i. usually detennin d by e\ tile illtegrals ill' q!:.. (5.3) of St'C. 5.3:

yA = f y rlA

If the element of area d isa _ U lall r -ctan Ie of 'es dx and dy. evaluation ()f ea ·11 of these iutegrals-<juires adaub/e irltegraJ:irm resppcl to : and y. . double I II tegntlion hi 011so IH~<.'es:xlt)" if co rdinatesare us ed fOT wlueh d ts a S flail dement of sides dr r JIJ.

In 111 . teases. however, it is po sible to detcrrmn the nates of the controtd or an area by performing a sIngle' Thi~ is achieved by choosing d to be thin rectangle or strip thin ector OT pic-shaped I mcnt (Fig. 5.12A); the eentrotd nr thiu reetangl is 10 ~ .ted at its center, and th c ntroid of tL thin tor is located at n distance ¥ from its vertex {as it is for a The ccordinates of th centroid of the area under considprnlion then obtalncd by xpresslng that t]l fir. t moment of th entire with respect to each of the coordinate axe: is equal to the sum (Of tegrall of the corrs!iponding moments of theelements ofawd, noting hy x<1t'ln 1 fin! lilt! cnrmlilwtes f f the '~ntl"Oi.d of til e cIA, we write

Q,! = iA = f X,.I dA Q, = VA = J Yr4 dA

If tile- area A is not al ready known. it can al so be '01 rip uted from .. If"ll'ltmts.

!I

Y '1,1

l~ ............... ......!......-

°1 __ X~I~

x

.Flg. 5.12A Centroids aM areas 01 dilferenUal elements.

The ooordin(ltp, Xci ~d Y"/ of til centroid of th e-lement of area 'I~ SllOlJ!d be e;qJTe e in terms f th oordin tes of a pint 1 'ted on th un bounding the 0.1 und r consideration, . lso, the ~ a

oftbe elemeutdA should he - pressed ill terms of the rdinates of

Ihal poi and the ppropria diITercn lals. Thi s has "'11 dou ... in

f~. 5.l2B for three (;011111101) types of cl ell '; e I Ie- h p eleII mtofpart c should be used when the equation f the curve boundir.glhl'art'a i. giv in polar coordinates. The appropli'ltc expression

r ~,!/l

dA - ((1 -.t)tly

(b)

Flg,5.12B Centroids and areas of diflerenlial slame IS.

IOlild he sub itutcd into form . (5.9). id th e uatt n or the bounding curve honJd h wed to espre , one 0 the eoordinates in terms oC c other. Th i t gration IS tim. reduc d to angle in e:! '011, Once th area h he n d termii and th inh grdl i sqs, 5. ) have been valuated, these equo.ti ns 'IiTl 1 solved for lb co-

unlinal' i d!i 0_ the c entroid of th a,

\%en a . e is define bv II L brule eq HI inn, its entroid car be dfltemlined by evaluating the integrals in Eqs. (5.4) 0 Sec, ;'·.3:

u. = J I .u: yL - Y tiL (.-. )

['oirTeT'f'n ial length dL h uld t placed L" r one of I e rollowincr e\pre. ions, depending upon which coordinat , :1:. y, or 8, i. cblJ~n a th ind p n len va 'able in the equation used to defin

the llne (til{," , rprcssion can be rh d U 'in the Pyth aorean

thf>Omm):

( d )2

dL = 1 + li"'C dy

!I.6. DetermInaTion Dr C ,nlrolds by 237 In "1;11<111011

!J

"r

-.1 ~(n~8

- 2r. 9

'M= 3 'lIn

(/_A=!rldO

2.

ee)

238

d Cen &1'5

Photo S.2 The storag.e lanks ShoWn are an bodIes of revolution, TIlus.elr surface areas a d vo urnes can be de ermined using the thear ms of Pappus Guloinus.

l\.1ter th . I ti I ordi t _ in terms of th

Eq . (5. ) 'an ... lv or 11 line.

5.7. THEOREMS OF PAPPUS-GULOINUS

These th iorerns, which were Ilr t Iortuulated by le Crt" kg om

1· pll. d. rt rh hire! c nt I \.D, an late-r resta t1 L. the

til. thematic! I ldiuus, or Guldin, l577-1 fi...l.3) d .. t with surf:

and Lo ics of r voluuon

A mfne of rl'1' luiior: i . urface v hieli can be ff ncrato

rotalin 1 e curv till nrt a fi ced axis, 'or ex;: nple ( iz. 5.13".

B /8

--9~- _L _

c. :\

o

• n

To

FIg. 5.13

surfaceof a sphere '~m bf' obtain ed by rotating a s micirc:uw

BC abo the diamet r "tit 'urfa of a. ne c. n pr ril

h rotnri g . : ight lin An about an axis AG, an t11 snrfu toms or rin 'an c C 1. cd by rotanng th mn I 11 'e ef a de about a ontntcrscctinz a.·tis., body 0 r t; lution i. Ii UIX 'W

~ n hI" If'lIer<Lled f rotulin a pl IC'!lIe 1 ut a fixe] is. : s in Fi/, 0.14, a sphero, a c nc, and torus can each be g nerated rotating the approp fate shrq e about the indicated axis.

'=4----

v

Sph ri' Fig,5.14

CO~1I'

T 1'\.1\

THEOREM I. The area oj a $~lIface af r '(JIll to« i.v 'CftUll t l'llgtli ll1 gen raiillO cur ·e tim til li.."itaru:e tmel d by tllS troid. o he c roe line the urfa is hem 1 g"TUm'ltec1.

Proof. CunsiJcr an 1 un nt dl: of th lin L

is r olve bou the . axis, he a e' rlA n 1

dL is qual to 2,'TrY d ,'11m: II entire area u 'mlcd b.! L is , J 27ry di: R -c lin . that w found in Sec. 5.3 that the in.tegml f y

Fig. 5 .. 15

IS rq1llll to ijL. we: therefore have

x

1

( .. 10)

~bert' 2wg L~ the distance traveled hy tb centroid of I.. (Fig. 5.15). It ~h{luld IIf' noted lhat the generating curve must not c.:rO:O;~ the axis Jbout whidl i is rotated; if H did, the h 0 sf'ctions neither si le of IheaWiwolltd u~nernte areas haVing opposite signs, and the theor rn I'tuuld not aIlply.

"'HEOREM II. 'fl! wlwne of (J bmly of t"eCOlllliuH h (!<IUlII to ,III' 11rrlrraljllg area. times the distance traceled by the centroid of he lillll'l wllije the budy j~' b 'l'lg grwerate:d,

Proof. Consideran I:lt'Ulc-ut ,riA of tb area A wlrieli is revolved .ibtHlt tlt~ taxis {Fi .. 5.1 G), The volume dV enerated b ~ the olcH'ICTI t

Fig. 5.1'6

d~ is. l'qll.al. to 2rry ~ ,Tlm~, tho. utire vo~ulUe gel1e~ t d by A is I = J2rrry d .snd smco the 11ltearru J y d is equal to yA. (' C', .5.3),

wr hnH

(5.11)

',1,here 27iY isthe distance traveled b the centroid of A. gail1. it IllOuki be not' 1 that the theorem dU~5 not ~11 ply If th axis of rotaliOl '~fU cts t generating area.

The- theorems of IJ,t.ppus-GILldinus offer a simple way to eompnte ~m 9!1W of surfaces of revolution anu tlre olume ... <; of hod! of revo~Ltl(lll. Conversely. the; call also be used to det rminc the centroid Ill' £ ~lanlHurve when th area of'the surface 1t'II~rated h, the urve is OO'lrll or to d terminc th ' centroid ora pIiUI(;" art»l .. vh~n the volume ffilllP body generated by th area is known fscc 'ample Frob. 5 . .).

S.7. Theo ems 01 Pappus-Guldlnw 23'9

240

!I'= Ii x2

~l

1- - ~----------T-

rfA =Y'/;';

rLJ,_ - fa -.3.) dlj

b

J

\ r Y.I= !I

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.4

Det rm'tle bv direct iute~:ration the location of the (X"ntroid of u puntholKr .~pandrf'l_

SOLUTION

Determinafion of Lhe Con. tanl k. Tbe valu ok i~ d lE'nuilililll" 51uhstilting :r = (l (mel y = b into thegiven equation. "':'e have b = lal ' ~. - ilia:!. Theequation 'Of th curve is thus

or

x = . (j '1J/2 - b1/2 .

.1

Vern cal Dirt rcn Ual EI men l "" .hoose the di rrer!:'111 ltd ele'11fnl shown ,1llU find the total area 'Of the flgure.

f f· [ b r b .1.':1 -""t.1ab

A =. ciA = . rId,' =: 2" .1.'2 dx = '. -::1:;- = 3

o 1I . 'I .~ 1 .

The I'r. t 1I10nlent of the differential clemen \\0; h respect t ,tlu;' y ;00s XcI riA; henet'. e first moment of theentire area with respt!(,t to this am

Q. "'" I lid ciA = J XV d'\: = (I t( b. n ;\.:1) rll. - r "n X I ].~ "'"'" cr}J

y . 10 a: (1- "" II 4-

Since Q/I =:: . we have

iA = J ~,,' d.~

_ abo'l/) .\._- =-

J ,I

3 .T = a

Likewise. "the ArloT moment of the di1Ierenlial clcmc t wit1lre,~p·t ttl x aids is ",.j d \. ,lui tilt' first 11H.:III1ent of the entire area i s

j' - f 9 r· 1 (h ,,)2 I bl. .r'" JI1 I1b~

Q, = Y"lcM = . 'iyd:r=. 9!!:X-, dx > 9'T - = 10

- I)_a :u7'?(I.

Si Cf' Q. == yA we have

jJA = J ijd rIA

!i +1

orizoatal Differ ntinl EJl!ment. The same results can be b) l:ol1~id~ling <1 hnnzontalclr-merrt. The fin.-t moments of the area. are

I ftl+x . {aZ- Z

Qr/ = .. x,.., dA = 2-- (rl - x) dy = u -2 ~ dy

= ~ I,b(, (j.2 _ tll2 Y) ely = (l1.b

~ n I· 4

Q, - f 1j,.I,l = f yell - xl ely ..... J y(a - b~/Zy'/'1) dy

- f (flY - b~r- ,,:IN) d!l = ~~

Tn d tennille x "lid y. theeXIne5siollS obtainC'd:\r again snbsrituted illtu ('{]unl uns tlf·fllling the centroid of th a1'03 ..

a

,

"

,

, , ,

dr, "" ,.,18 --

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.5

Dctrmnin[;' the location of thecentroid of the 'irclllar arc shown.

SOLUTION

ilnce till' arc is s Il1Im'tri ,11 wit h respect 0 the r a.\i:.. Ij = O. A diffC' 1"(' Ii'! tiul element is chosen !IS • h em! II , ami the leugth of the tll'C is detennined b intcgl'alioll

I rv f'

L =' elL = J r de == r . dB = 2ra

Ok ..

The first moment r the aT' with respect to the y 'xi. is

Q, = I :\ tlL =' r (r 005 O)(r dO) =. ):2 r CQ.~(J dB

_~ -h

= r[sin 8]~cr = 2.r stne Siuce 'Q!J - xL., we write

i'(2ra) = 2r stn Q

Q

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.,6

Determine the urea. of the surfac of revolution shewn, v hid I iii obtained by ruMiug , qllarter~(:ircular arr-uhout a vertical <lxi:. ..

SOL.UTION

Ac.'(;.'('lrd.ing to Theen m Luf Pappus-C ldinus. the area genen.tcd is .... 1{UW L the pm Iuel uf the I gtb of he arc cOld the distallcr I raveled hy its centroid. Rt:'f'torring to Fig. 5 .. .13, we have

.t = 2" - 2r = 21"(1 _ _L)

7r 1iI

~~ = 2r. _T L == 2 7tf 2,.(, - ~ ) ]( ;)

.\ = 2,,1' (17 11 ....

241

The \'OI1l1'M of th rim call be fou ,d or ilpplying Theme II of PR}lpts

00 hlUl 'uldinilL'i t which st:at.S that I. vulmue etlLut!s the prod (.."t of the gi"t'"n c

-",.1 'wcliollalama .mel ill"Mlo;t"nc travel xl hy r centroid in on t'oUlple1t' ft.,

1111 lon. HmVi '\' 'r, he volumecan bt' 1TIort'~Hsily determined if we obstn

. I,' _lh_,ru~,_tl_lp_c_r_o_~_'~~C_tl_OI_ •• _e_!UT1_L_e_~_I_'I'_'~_{_I(_'I_U'_II_re~et_:\_'I_gl_.,_[_._\_h_O_~_~_'lr_._a_iS_l_I~_.n_n ... and r8Cial1!?;le I]. whose area is neg,ath·e.

DIslance Traveled

3&\, mm 2 -

A~ea,mm y, mm by C, mm

1-100 mm---1 20 rnm

;=--~n

l I J 4()O Innl

~GOmm~,." I

20 111m ~ mill J

__________ _l

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.7

375 mm

I. ""1tr

-

If

, '

The outsid~ di.a.llIeteT of a pullev is 0.8 m, lIud thecross section of its rim as shown. KnO\\oiTlg that the pulley is made of steel and that the dellSLt)· steel i~ p "" I.St X 1 :I kglln·1, determine the massand th weighl oflile n

SOLUTION

I I +SOOU 3j,-:- 2'ir(375} - 2,'3')6

+ Jl 800 ass 2.11" (36.1:j) = 2293

'f .... ... -"'. . ..

SAMPLE PROBLEM S.8

(5000)12356) = 11.78 X (-lBOO){2293) = -.J 13 X I

Volume of rill1 = 7 65 X llf

Sint'e 1 mm= lO-3m, we have 1 mm:~ = (10 :~ mfl =] -u m:', and we e hun V = 7.65 X 10" mm1 = (7.60 X lo")(O!} IU:1) = - .. 65 X 10-:1 mJ•

m = p\ = (7. 5 X loJ kglm3)(7.'5:; X 10-3111.1) 111 = 6QJI h~

W = TIl:.!. = (60.0 kg) 9. 1 m/s2) = ,'589 kg . mlsl! \if - 5~!:l \

sin V the theorems of P"PPlJs· GHlclJI'lIL~, drt{' rmim' (n) the «'nL mid semicircular area, (b) the cenlroid of a semicire ar arc. \oVe reeell thal volume and thesurface area of a. sphere are ~ ,r1 and 4~, respectively_

SOLUTION

Til mllunr> uf a spllerc i!'i eqll31 In tho pmrlllc1 of the 1111'<1 ofa .~t'lllIdlt and the distance ti veled b the cenlroid- of the scmICJ.rclc·· one ICvolu about the x axis.

_ :lr s=x: ;1r,

'~C\vise,lh .• ';1 of a ::r-phere is equal to dlt' prudu(..-t of the lell,l.rtb th . gl'I"Irmtilig suinicircle ll'nd the di:;tltTlce tmveled by its centroid in 0 j,'1·lnhllion.

A = 2'1TIjL

_ 2r !J =-

.

242

SOLVING PROBLEMS

~

ON YOUR OWN

[U re problems for thiS" 1~!'iSUlI. you will sc the equations

i.4=fxc:

T = J . .u.

u = J Ij dA YL=JydL

,-.3)

(5.4)

243

tel J <Lte tl cent r i cis 0 r plane areas an tines, "('.'iF ~ctively. 0 will 1'0 apply til theor O1S of Pappus- . 1 inn' (. r-e, 5,7) t del rmin he areas of surface r re '01 ti 11 and the volu ies of bodi f r volun n.

1. D tenuining by dir ct lntegrat ion til(! (. '01 roid nJ area' anti line . \\ hen ohing prohletns f this t 'PC', TI houkl follow h m -thod uf rolution pi Probs, 0..4 and 5.5: C 11pU C or L, tielerllline til nrsl mom ubi f the M ( line, and solve Eqs, (5.3) or (.5,4) for the' eonrdlnates of the nl mid. III • ddilion, 'all sho ld E:1)' articular attention 0 h lollm~ poi ts.

u, gin YUlI solutioll b. car 1111, d BJ' g or de erminin~ each t n j tl c ap-

ph ~bl mtcwaJ fOITfm13.'l. We st rongl ' eU(..1J'U'uge • au to 5110\\ on youI' sketch of the ri\ n at or line IOlU' eli ice for d or dL and the distance 0 its C 1 t:r td,

t}, '-'xplai cl ill P',~, '. the x and the !J in the <1 ov eq ation: repres nt the

CQ(jrdhlat~ (jf the centraid of the differential "h"lIIeHl d. and di; It is imp rtant to r ;ognize tha h c rdlnates f the c n roid of dA are ot ual t h <.'1 ,nljll, I e of . poiu located on the nrrve bolt din th rca. und r consid ration. ou lwul CIlrCfnllrstuu' Fig. 5.12 u til IU full, under and tllis lmportan! poi t.

c. To p ssibly i mplify orminimize .. our compn' 'ODS. ak lI.., s exau iHI'" I h of !lIP gi\'t't ~ ~ r li helnre defiuing the difr rential elemen that y u will us ,F r exampl • sometin ssi lila lx· rrt"ft'r~lhlt:' to u honzon . reetan ular el I cnts ID!'ote< d 01"' 'cal ones, J ~o. it will nsu: _. be aJvrultagcoI s o 1J,.'i~ P lar coordinates \ hen a Ii (' r:u ar ·~I h. s , r cular : mm trv,

ll, Although most of th~ inpgr~t.iun~ in thi lesson are straightfonvard., at times it

rna r be' nece sary 0 use J ore advanced t ch . qu, ·1, as 'gUIl m I,..i ubsti tu . n

( integration bv Pell . Of course, 1 in a able of int -als is ttl fruIt . n thod r l e alu \ cUiTIc:nlt intezn .

2. ~ipplyil1g the theorem £If P"TIIJU,.,·Culd·utl .. As sh wn in Sample Probs. 5.6 through 5.8, these simple, ye v ry llseful theorems ill ow II to appl, your knowledge of enl aiel<; t tb. .( mp L 'on of rca, ohnnes. I hou h the tlieore 15 r Icr to the distil ec tra cl ' t b_ the c ntrold < nrl t I lht:' length or th K erati g rv or to the gecerab g area, dl resulting eq ratious LEqs. (5.10) md ( .11) I '~'IIItHiJl th prod. Ill': f these qua ti i 5, which are simply the first moments of a line f[jL) and an ar W l • res • ' ~ r th problem for which the gel e ling li e or area 0 - sis s of more than a f' ernnrrron shape, you n OKI onl deterrn in fjL or fjA; you do not ha to to '~k-ulate h 1(' gth of the get} ra n cu I've or e generating ar a,

244

Ij

5.:n through 5.33 D termin« by dir et inttl!lTuticm the oontroi:ll dlc area shown. E rpress yo"r answer hl t nus of o and 1..

Ij

1

11

I

h

!I=k1r I

I

PI g.P.5.S1:

Flg,P5.32 .-

Fig. PS.33 ...

5.34 through 5 .. 3,6 Det rmine bv direct inlcgrati n ihe l't;!llt the urea shown,

~-- --;e

iFlg:. P5.34

Fig. P5.35

FIg. PS.36

5.37 and 5.38 Determine by direct integration the eentroid rl urea shown, ~liP" ll!i Y lUT answ r in terms of a and h.

v

a I
Ij_k~ 1
b
I !J
I
-I .~
20 FIg. P5.37

Ag.PS.3S

5,3·9' 0 lennine by direct I galion the cenlroid o[ lhearea shown,

5.40 and 5.4,1 Ddenuint! h direct itltt'gmtiou the centroid of the lR'd s!ll;\\lI. E.WD S your answer in terms 'of Q and b.

h

h

__ ~_l _

L:-l-_Il I 1(

Ag PUQ

-

x

a

t--"2

Fig. iPS.' i

tS.42 A lmmoge!l .IS wir , is bent into the sllapeshCJ\ II. Dr.lt""nllillf" ~ direct integration the .t coordinate of its centrotd. E~llress )'our answer m ["ffii50r e.

5.43 and 5.44 . hOI't1ogcl1 nus wire L~ bent illto tho spc ShO\\11. i1t-lenn t' II) tlir -d i nlegl"al ieu the . coordlnate or its ce ntrokl,

Fig. ,PS.«

'5.45 and 5.46 Detcmlillo hy direc integration the centroid ofth IrtilSllilWll.

v

1

L 1-----2"--- ....

fq.P5.45

FIQ. P5.46

IJ

Problems 245

~L .1.

Flg.P5.39

!J

Fig. P5,42 -

J

II

I

,

246

Dls1nbutocl Forces.: COl'llrol91ll'1D Cel'lters or Gravity

Flg.PS.50

FI.g. P5.51

I

'Omm

"------" _I

!5mm

Fig. P5.53

If

5.47 Determine the volume Ilnd the ')1.rrfu{!t: tlreu of the solid oh . by rota ing the ar a of Prob. 5.2 about (tI) the x axis, (b) the line x= 165

5.48 Determine .Ihe v lume and the surfaee area ofilia soli L' by rota 'ngthe area ofProb, 5.4 about ((J) the line y = 22 mm. (b)

x = l_",lmn.

r

5.49 n·t nllin . th volume II.ntl til smfu.ce u.reu of th solid Db . l1y rotating the area fPmh. 5.1 abuut (a) the" 11,) is, (b) the linei ='

5.50 Detern line tI! e volume of the solid genefated by latin!)' the elliptieal area shown ,mout (a) the (t\:i~ AA'. (b) the mas 88. (e) the IJ

5.51 Determi €I the volurn and the surf'·I.ce mea uf the elmil shown, which is made from a 2",ill . -diameter bar. if R "'" 3 in and [,0:1

5.52 em)' that the expresstcns for the volumes of the fmt fours in Fig . .5.21 on pnge 261 !ITt' C01Tt't't

- 5.53 A 15-mm-diameter hole is drililed in a pi-the hoic is then oourltersUl1k as shown. Detennill€ the voiume of stt-d: moved eluring'll(' (:. tultcrsinking process.

5.54 Three diff .rent 'ri" I ell prAlesa:r!::lto ue sOld!erl Tf ,:U . givcn time each belt makes contact "vitn Oil e.. haJf of the (;"ircumfertlnce puDa)" detcrmmc the co'iMa area h tw .Pll the helt and the pulley fur de .. <;ign.

40"

\; ·rfl~ ~

\ 1/ _~.~mm

rL 1.L"

eOmm

j

r=5111111

\

((J) FIg. P.5$4

(b)

5.55 Det rrmne the capacity. in gallons. of the punch bowl slID: I Ii = 12il1.

Fig- P5,55

- 5.56 Tltt>' n1l1inuill shad ~ for a small Wgb-intensity lump hils a uruhUllhk-kl!p.~s of 3IJ2 in. Knowing thstthe spe(..-ific weight oJ' aluminum is 1011hfm3, dclcrmiue the weight of the shade.

1 -'---I----=--===--I

2..5 iir, },5i.u.

1 ...J....__I ~~

5.57 The top of a round waoeL n rabl has the edge prollle shown.

Uawmg that the diameter of tl· top is 1100 mm before shaping and that tOOdtnsity ofth~ wood is 690 kgl1l13, clrt("n' i th w igll t of tilit Wu,s.tt' \\'0lX1 r~lIiU<l fnml the produetton of "'00 lops.

12 HlIU

Fig. P5.S1 and P5.68

5.58 The lOp of a round wooden tabl has tll1~ 'Im shown, J)p.b~nnjlle • ~1111 !Ill 1i1l"1'5 nfl.! :qner aJ'1 required (-0 'IIi II 15000 top~ kllowing th leach 'til' ... gn'NI tllt [' coals of lacquer and that 1 Iit'P.T of lacquer roy 1'S 12 m2•

5.59 The escutcheon (,l deeorsttve pilit placed on a pipe where the ,*'5115 (rom a wall) shown u; east from Y£c,llow hrnss. Knowing thaL tllE' spe r.:. lIt'jghl of yellow hruss is 0.306 Ihlil13, dl'lt . 1'I'dnc the weight 01 the Utl'IK'<III,Fig. P5.S9

·S.fiO The reflectcrof ~I small f I~hlight has the pll!:iibolic shape shown, 1l1ctminc the surface areu of the insid" of h rr-fll"clor.

4-~~-----------------4---x

\ '"

i.5 rnrn

'....

'~"-- l~r"

Fig. PS.60

Problema

247

.

.lin.

E-

248

Di!>uibuted Fotce9: Cf.!nlroJds and Ceru ra or Qmv,y

(IW

"

~-------1------~

FI~g. 5.17

Photo 5.3 he roofs 01 e bulldl g8 sHown.

must be ab'e to supporl not only Ihe talal weight 01 the snow cuI also the nonsymmelnc dislribul.ed loads resulting from dnf1lngof the snow.

· 5.8. D.ISTRIBUTED LOADS ON !BEAMS

The concept of thee ntroid of all ar a '~Ul he used Lo sol\'(' problems besides those dcalmz with the weight! of flat plates.: 'ider, ft)l'P omplp. a beam supporting a c/i.stribut(fd load; tllis load consist of tll(a weight of materials supported dlrcctly or imHred. the beasn, or it Ina), h~ cuuserl by wind Of hydrost, tic pr sure distrlLl.llt'tllo.,d eau hE" Teprp:>enled by ploUing tho [0, I It; suppa per unit t'Il!rth (.Fi . 5,17); this load Is expressed in :\/m OJ ill I The magnitudo of the force e"<erted Of} anelement of beam of I I dx Is li'l' ==w dx, and rhe t tall ud S lppmte-ti hy he beam i~

'" = f' IV dx o

We observe that tile product LV (it. is equal ill IlUl.gltitud Lu thu men!' of areu riA shown In·ig. ;5 17a. The load 'iV IS thus equ mac nitudc to tit • total urea A lIlItlf'r lhpl I:ld lin e:

,v = J dA = A

\Ve nO\ determine where a single corrCJ!ufmted load \1\'. uf . arne magnitude \Vas the total distrtbuted load. should beappH the earn lf it j to [>!'OOIlCl" (hr same reactions .. \tthe sllpP(lr.s I 5.17b). However, thi. .. coccentmted loadW. whlch represents III sultant of tlu,,'veu distributed loading, is oqutvalcnt to til k only wh 1.1 V1Isideri ng. thp frE'P body dingHIlTl 0 f the 11 ti re beam, point of applit:ilti()n P of tht> ('l({lu v alent one ntrated load W is tamed by expressing th.tttbt' moment of \ about point 0 is cq the slim of lhe mOIll('nls uf til elsmen al loads (~ about 0:

(OP)W = f:c d\\'

or, since dW = w dx == dA and l = i\ ..

(5

Sin ethc in ('gml rr-presents the tlni moment with respect to I axis of the areaunder the 10<ld . urve • !! ('1111 llf' rppiaCf'n hylhr uct .rA \Vo therefore have P = I. wb re x is the distance from u; axisto thcccntrotd C of thear a (hi. ic; f101 the centrotd beaml.

A dlt;trlhutf1d load on a beam c~m thus be replaced b~l 4 COl trated load; the Inagnliude of tllis single lood is equal to tllrt {lffd der tllP loan Cllt'I'l, and. Us line of a~liQIl pa$$c'<; .throuf!,h thtce'tl of tlutt area. It should be noted. however, that the (,'01-11..:1"111 r- .. tt'l'l is E(l,]i alent to the giv n loading only as far ;IS evtenud forc <..'01 eemed, Itean be u'Ipd t,o dpt - rmins reactions hut should n used 10 compute internal [or ' S and deflacti us.

'5.9. FORCES ON SUBMERGED SURFACES

11t' np roach u ~ in th pTecedilig e .tion an be used to de ermmo d~ resultant [the hyclrmtali(, pre lire rOl' ~ .' .rtp Ion. redan~"lIr I11fa e ib ergo l m a liquid, 'onsid .. the n~d;mgnhlr T)I t ~h(ll\fJl in Fig. ,:'.1 ,wi ich is 0 len t h I, and wirlth h. wh re h i mea- 51]rrtl \}(1I'J ndlcular to th plane oft I C Ciglll::t'. . nul f'fl in S c. .(, die load exerted on an element of the plate of lcmrtli ell' is II; tlx, wlwT'. Il: i. til I ~ I per unit length. ITO\ ev r this load • n al 0 be e :pre 'sed 3.\ p ,1 - pb el,', \ herE' II i. the g g preSSl r in rh Ii lid t and b; Ii.. width f the plat,,; thus, tV = bp. inc the p,ll pressu ' ..

hql1i is P = 'fIr. when' 1'i . th pe- ill weight of the' Ilquid nd J i d \ rtleal distuuee rOil] III frpp su dA . it [oHO\·s hat

tV = bp = bv]

(-.13)

which shows th'lt L1J<" loud p'l~ U1I1t It'lIgtll IV is propod ional to hand. s, "aries linearly with r,

Recalling the results of icc. -.' we ob 'e e that tb result t R r he h droststic fore 5 xcrtcd on 011'" side of lit' platE" i equal in mIl mitud to th tra zoidal r a U udcr the ]ua cu . (Ill 1 ha i.

lie of acti II thr ugh th oentr ld C of that· r a. 'I h P tnt P

r IIf" pili f' \\1 N i~ appli d is kn wn as the enter uf pre. .. wm

. ext, '~l'(lIISi r th -. fore. : rl d by 'quid 011 a curv U ur~ of con ant width (Fig. 5.1 C a'. Since the de rminution of the reml anR hes for '(-'s by dirac: iotegmtioll woul . not be asy. we consider the frC' ' bod I oh ail] d by dt'tndtiJ.ag the VOIUl11C' of liquid .{liD bot ded hy the nrrved : ~IC AB and y the two pi c sur-

sAD 11])13, town ill Fig ...... 19b. The forces acting on til free " UJD ir tho weight ~ uf the le ach a volume r li juid. th

re uhaat fthe forces c, rtc on \f) tllt r snltaut _ ol'th for

x rt d on RD, and the H.". ltan - of he fo ex rte by ih

CIl • d !lrfo" em {he liqllid. lit:' r 'ul alit -R i 1I.I.n cpposlt

nod has the.' same line of aetkn as. tll(o' TP~ ults t R of th for es f'Xerted (JY the Uq[lid on (11 curved ,';;urfa ·e. The "orees ,V, h and R, con hp' rl If'1111ine I bv standard 111 thods, after their alues h ve Ilffll1 felll d. til force - R is obtain d by solVing h . 1< rtous f e In ilibmun for e free bo v of Fl . 5.19b. Th r ilta t R of the h.lll'Olij,lli Iorces ex rI' n It curv d surfac is til n ob in, by

n;r, '11 S ns of - R.

The r I(;,thr 011 Hueu in this. eti n call be u cd t dot Til'

tbt, resultant 0 th .. hvdr sra il' ~ r . =xe E".d (1 the surfac s r dams

I

and ~ • all ular zare and, VCl.Jlt!S .. Tb r -sultants r aICl'S 0 sub-

mer ed lIrfii"f".~ of nmabie width will be determined in Chap. 9.

IThe PI' ~~lIn'I' \ 111·1, f''Pfl'Ii4'"1\ II In It! l '" unit nN'tI, 15 ~\r ~ cI n NJm ~r 1 II)/fi'l 1lIl"I'ffil'tl , I 'nut KIm:!. is caJl,·J IJt1sclli 0> ).

• 'olm" rna hi' arr-a limit-or til{' Iliaci urve is H]lIo1 to III I. \.mi"r'~ WK i rhr- load J'lf'r milt I I , • till' '<!likr E or the plate. ru.d re !lIng' q. !5 1:'\). WI' c" n \vrttr

R = IV, T. = 0'T'IJI. r'L (III .. ) -- PeA

d~ A Jn~r: j~ ~lll:j( lhe< plot Thus, th lllilg in.,l· Ilf ,';, III' IIbt iTwtl by 111111·

!it'll llJ area of the plal€, by tile pressure at its (;'C'uf'cr F: I(' fl.·\"I.lhml R. uo",~er

,1It..M iJtlll'plll!tl fliP, 1Wt (If &

5.9. Forces on Submf!fgf1d S f = 249

Fig. 5.18

B

\(1)

FIg. 5.19

Photo 5.4 As dlscus.seo In ItJis section, the

G nd Co 10m supports I ree dl (erant kinds of distrlbu ee forces: the \Valg ts 01 lis 00 alit tive elements, the pressure forces exerted by the water on Its s bmerged face, end Ihe pressure forcesexerled by the ground on lts bass.

I, kX/11I

1

::; 3.5m i __ ~

lJ

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.9

A beam supports u di frihlllPfllb:lu . shown, (a) D t1 rmin . the cqlliva:lellt

c nr cntr: cl I ad. II) ermine he tl ·on. at the supp rts,

SOLUTION

250

Componenl A,k if, m xA. kN· m
Tri;mgl I 2 9
Tri gleII 4 Thus, Xl;A ::::: ... XA.

<'] leN) = 63 k x 111

x = .5111

The equivalent concentrated load ;

\ = 1 IL"

nnd it'! lint:' of se iun is located at a distill)!)

x = 3 . .3 m to the ri~ht of

b. e coon. The re, ctinn at A h vertical and iy llt'IlU eel b\ ; reuetion t\~ B is represent II pits compen lit. D .. :lJ d 8", The gi~'cn In

Can U nstdcr d to be tll ''1111 of I;\' ri;ll1gll1ar 10 ds as :;1, V11. The

sult tnt () each lriuugulm lo d ls equal to tIll! area of the tJi~\1 , • nd c ' its cenlrni .\ e writ the following equtlibrimu uatio f r tIl rree a ·11 w :

"f.Jo\ - , + .<.-MA = 0:

n.t - ()

(4..5 I (2 1 - 1,.5 k )(.1 I )...!. 8y(G Ill) = 0 Bt, = 10.5 k:'\ • -I- 4.51df l m) + (13.- kl )(2111) - A(6 m) =

\ -= 7.51..\ r

j 1.2".1\18 = 0:

t mati c elution. TIll: viVf'11 di..o;t I'il JIllt'Jhul can b r plae ['. us r sulomr, which w' " found ill 1 art a. The reacf 11' .111 he determiTletll. writing the o:'<!lIilihrJllnl equation IF = 0, ~}.~ = 0, nnd }'MIJ = 0, \\ fl~,l n oh~:til!

B~ = ()

H" :::. 10.5 ki\

- ,;", k .

/--1 c h. II sultnnt R of Walt=r r . Tin.' pa .lholic se . 'on of water

I r=-----..., D~ ~\ - BCD is chos n as a Er f rt; involv fire ie r ~1l1 ant -' 0

" ~ 'Ill the Iorces x rt d by th dam 0 te ws ter. the weigh W.I• and the fo c P.

/ p = 10, inn lb inc be t1 nrrrent, - R passes through the point of

: / illteL crio of" 4 . nd P. for > rrumgle i draw fro which c mag-

II nitude and dire tion of -R arc l rmiu d. Th cullnnl R r thE" ~ r·.:

L__________ exerted b e water 0 th face Be i. e 411 II d opposite:

B = ]2..5.'; Ib 736.50 ...

\

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.10

The era s section of c ncr € d u is i ~'UWll. )11 idN a I·ft-thi k 'e 'tion of the dam an t rmir (({) the resultan of the reac 'on f ree eel ed by the groWld on e h Sf! l\B of ria durn, (b) the resultant of the pre ure forces exert d by the \ atcr 011 th fa"~ 8 of the dam. The specific weigh

o . uerele and water aro 1.-0 Ibi e UlH.I 62.4 lb/ft;\ respectlvely

SOLUTION

WI = ~ ){2:. ft (l ft)(!.5 Ibl t3) = 14, 5 lh \ 2 = (5 )(22')(1 ft)(l50 IbJ" ')= _6,50 lb , :l = ±(lO ft)(] ft)(l ft)(150 IbJ[(I) = 9000 t vV.J = -!t 1 0 rt)( 1 fI)(1 rt)(62.4! )bln:)} = 74 • III

18 Ft)(62.:t Ih/ftS) P =:(1 Ft)(l ft)(lB ft}(62.4 I fI::I):::: lU,lOO Ih

~C(u illbrium Equal ions

~IF.l. =0: + l:.F, - (J:

11 10,109 lb =

- L. - Ib - 16,500 Ih - cO

- 10. 110 III - ...

- 74' lb = 0

V = ,17 10 III ....

+'~MA 0: -(14 &50 Ih)(6 ft) - (16.5 . II)) 11.5 ft) - ( 00 Ib)(r- ft)

- (i Ib)(20 fl) + (10,1 9 lb)(6 M "" U

~j - .~!!O, l.!GO 10 . ft -<4

\Ve can replace the ~ roe-co pi "Y 1 obtuin

. distance d to the rl ht of t\. wi ere

l single foro ~I jug 1

251

II.

SOLVING PROBLEMS

--------------------------------

ON YOUR OWN

The probJ rns i 1 tl . 'Ie. n inv I e two commoi a 1 v , im mer; di srri bu cl loads rn h m. and (are on sn bm rged 'urfr c . of Call tall t " . dth, we discuss ~t.l ill e .. 5.B ~U1d .,.9 ru d illustrated ill 'ampl. Pr hs, .9 and :5.1 > determining the 'ingle equivalentforce ror each of these loadin r r flair s a kno vldge of ccntr ids,

01 in problem imiol -iug force on ubme '/{ed bodi 8. Til _ oIl wiJ1g

poin s and I hni ues h uld rem mb r d when solvin p obl ern . of thi. e.

1I The pre "ur 1) at depth h b low the free surfa 'I;' of a Iiquj is equal to yh r pgh, W]l ere 'Y and p ar the spsclllc weight s ectivel . The 1 .ld P II it 1 ngth w acting on \ idlh b is th n

h. Til lin If' cti D of the results ~ rc R a ·ting 1 . subu rg d pi, c urfae.: . is E 'pt'lHli 'ular lo the surface,

c. For a v rti I rinelin d plane rectangular surface of \\ 'dth b, he loading

n til(' . nrfac be r pr' 'en {!u h a lin . rl_' rli. rihul d J ad vhich is tn p zoidal

in 'hap (l'i .5.1 . Further. the magnitude f ~ given h.

\ hei 11 i the rlical dil't. net' 0 at' ,

ut r f th S\Jr ee anrL

e area of the

252

d. T load 'UN will triangular (r rher the D crap zol . ) wi. J1 th op f'dg

of a plane rectangular surface coincides with th free surface uf tL .. liquid, since the pressure of tJ liq i. t I be fret=> s r H ~ is zer . F r thi c c, the line of ae-

'011, of H is •. , determin • for it pass through th ntroid of a irian .1ular di -

tribute load.

I' the ral - , ther than analyzing 0. trapezoid. \ e su cst tha ou ethod indicated in part b r, ample ?tob. -.9. us uvide the trapezoidal & ., It load into two ld,mgI S,' (1 rh '11 compute the magnttude of he re ultan of such trinngular load, (r maznitude i qua 0 h .. area f th triangle lin t=. tht1 width of the plate.) i ate that the lin r a 'lion of ca r nltan or pass s through the cell, rnid nf the corresponding trian lc and that the sum of the e forces j equival t to R. Thu , rather than usin r , YOll can se th two qutval nl resi I tant arms, whose pain f application ar'€ easil cal ulated, f lit'S, the e u ti n . n for R

in pllrag .• ph ( hould be lLS \ I, )1 Ul.11 the magnitlld of R is need d.

J. \ hen the su rue cd sur ill f -onstant width is curv d, th result t t rc actin on th surfa (is btained hv considc in tile equllihrtum [he hun f liquid bound d b the cur 'ed surface and y horizontal ~Lflc1 vertical planes (Fig. 5.l9.0b rv tho th fore R10f ig.~.l Is equal tc the w i of the liqukl lyr 1 ab th pl· n D. h O1et1 ad 0 rolution or roblerns in olving Ilfverl mrf. ccs is shown ill part b of Sample Prob, 5.10.

In sub .. qll mt echaalc course (in particular, meehanlc or materials aul n iumchanics), ou x '11 hav mpl 0 por uni 0 us I id as l tzoduced in thi I, son.

253

Fig. P5.S1

IOO~"l\yU_1

-.tfl 6 Ii: .; ft-)

Flg.P.s.63

~llIllhlll

A

Fl'g .. 'P5.65

A

Fig.PS.67 -

254

~ 5.61 and 5.62 For th ~ b 1111\ .nclloadin£.sh wn, uelellflin(' ((I r11l:l.gnituclr .mel io('a!ioll uf the r sultan], of the dlsllilJuted load (I,) reactions :il til bam SltI POitS.

Fig .. P5.62

5.63 throu.gh 5.68 Determine till." reacnnns at the beam supporu the ~h·en loading.

Fig. P5.64

.2 k'lm ~------lI

~ J ~.'~~I'"

-12m -lAm I

F1g. PS.66

I 100 II hi

J fi. ~8ft . !lit

Fig'. 1'5.68

5.69 Drt('".nllin (u) the distance a so thaL ll1(, v('me reactiOll:i lit :mpPllrjq .-1 allfl Jj un' ('1.;111 d. (b) the ('o1'J'Csponding reaenons af til ~ ~l;llpports.

Prot:..kl ns 255

5.70 Determine (a) th distance o so that t.h vertical rmctirlll ut sup-

port B is Illininmm. (M tile correspcndi g reactions althc SUPll0rtS. .

5.71 Determinethe rt"':tcllon~ at Iht:! ht"lIIl supports for tlw gin~l1load~J~ whell 11"0 = t5 kN/m.

35k.'n'~

, tC"11

~rlli~'J:IJ( ~D

1~"8 c-r

~ I 6ml--

!1: III I III

fig .. PS.71 and !P5.72

5.72 Determine (0) the distributed to<ld trio at the end 1) of rhe bean! -teCD for which the rnaetirm tHis zero. (b) the COJ're.c;ponding re.lCtIons ale.

5.73 A grade beam~.uJ sU(lpnrn thret! concentrated loads and rests on 'fIil l1B.! til top of lllnrgc rock the soil exerts all upward dislrihuloo load, <fl(J the lll.x:k exerts at'tlncC"ni 0}1('() lund RII us shown, Know:ing lila.!. P = .:4 k ., oItl\l 1('8 .,. .J110_",. detenn inc II \I<llllt'~ ufu:. \ tlild RI1 corn'lip ncling to t1]Tri lib rill m.

f1g.PS . .73 and P5_i''4

5.74· .. J\ gmde beam AB supports three COilCC' trated lo~.cls and rests on 1j]il ana filt' top r.1I, I,uge rock The saiJ exert .. an 111)Wilrd distributed load, .11 1 liI(, rock t."<t!rts .t c.'t)l}(:elltratcd load n'l .1$ sll \\'11. Knowing thal !r~ "" II -lUi l. detenllin!:' «(I) Ihlt Jargt!!'>l v.uu(' ofr fiJr\\ h1<.:11 the beam 1.. ... in equilihrium, (b) the eorrespondin r value of w \.

256

Ols1lil;lutRd Fo(eas~ C,,:mlro.dli and Cenlm1l Cit Gravtty

15111

I

Fig. P5.75

r

FI.g. PB.19

Il1llir fullmd Ig prnlllAII1" Ihf:' l' - 132.1 Uvl't I ur 1111" Sl'H:"'lli(' \\t'iulill II wale" and'}' = 1.50 III 1\.1 rnr llie speciI1c,; weight !If 'CUI .rt-'t:t' if t- . .,. ('II arv unus arc used. With Sl units. use p = lO~ k~ m I lOT the ut'f1\ih r m

• I '. .

\\ atcr and p, = 2: ItJ x ~U kg/Ill (or tI L' dens 11 of co len tl' ~I P lIu'

Illl II· nu ;-,agl' 2' 2. for IlL 1\\ 10 ddt rt I IIII.' !lIt!' "~'ilk \\'t-'il!;h I Ill' it llL.1I t' II ~

J I' fil I ':.h )

5.75 and 5.76 Th -cross section of a concrete dam is as shown. F a dum f;l(ltiun of nni width, determine (0) the reaction forces serted b)' ground 011 tlip 1 aso A B of t he dam (lJ) 111(' poi nl or appl i '1lt ion of tIlt', u I hI"' rtm .rion force, of E art a, (c) the resultant of the pressure orces by Llll:' wah:>r nn tile fnee8C of the dam.

j ,l

I

\ 'eJ'b:,x

Fig.P5,76

- 5.77 The 9 X 12 It !:.ill~ AB fit tallk is hi, ged [tl it!> haltom held in place by a thin rod BC. The maximurn t '(Isilf' forcp t11P rod withstand without breaking i) -10 kip:;,. and ~1!1t!' II ign sl)f!ciflC.'ations the force in the rod Flot to exceed 20 pereent of thi~ value, if the . slowly RIley with water detl'n nil1l"'h(' maximum .1Ilownlllf' deplh IJr wal

ill the tun k. -

.Fig. P5.77 and P6.78

5.78 The 9 X 12-fi side or till upt:'11 tun k j:s Iii Ilg ed ut its hUllom,~ L Iwld in pl.~'C hy u thin rod. Tll1~ !lml! !~ nllt'll \~;th gi)'cerint!, Vl'bo~' ciflc weight is 80 Iblfr'. Determine the Iorce T in the rod and the at the lUnge after the tank is .filled to a depth of

5.79 Thl" rri.c ion ron:~ L tweeu U 2: X 2-111 sqUflr lui. gall' .~6 ih gnirlr'!'!i is elillalla 10 pereeut nftlle' resultunt flli - presslIfC' rm rted b . the water on the Iace of tht'~te. Deren Ul11t' tile initial force to Uftthc gate knowing that its mass is 500 kg.

'~"" ...

5.80 The dam or 0. Ink i~ C'JIU tid by ill" hich haJ _ equh·!!l nt to a liquid d 111-\ • elf' c ilm or am d . :tin 1 on the dam [ace for 11

nrc

11.

Fig. PS.BO and P5.81

5.81 'J II, 1. s n a darn for lak is designed to resist It to 150 per~ eent of e horizoutal [ore h . \ HI I. rtt'r <.'on:.lru i • it i found th t 5111 (whkh is equivalent to a liquid of den oj ~. P# = l.7G Xl' kg/m'l) IS settllul on the lak bouorn a a elf' 20 l!Irrll} . Consid ling I-m-\ ide s .c-

rd· . detcrmlnc th num er 0 ' rs until th dam s I Lnsafe.

5.82 The quare gate AD' held ill I}I position shown h hinges Along i tup eel e A and by a shear pin at B. For II depth of water a = 3. m.

rf,.t~rlllin the force exerted all th to h, tilt' slleur pin

5.83 t ru pordlj' hm i~ :fill. f m 't ·d in a - -ft-wide fresh \\ ater chan-

n 1 ~. nailin~ two ards to pilings to at rI al the sides uf III chanu at r1

ppin II third board AB a ain.. pili gs WI • HOOT of ie hannel,

c:glc' lIg . O·ti n, uf::'terminc r cti I at A • lIfl B when ope Be is slack

Fig- PS.8a and P5.84

5.84 A l mpor.'U') ru m i c n ere i a.5- t-wic1 esh '3:lcr han-

001 b nailing two boards t pilings IOc:.Lt d II t e ;ides of the channel and pI\! ill It lbjrd oard , 1.1 gainm- tl pili gs and the floor of the ehannol, X~lt' '(111 [ridlon, c1 tcrminc Ilf' H1l1gni nl and directien r the m nlmul'11 t \SiOl1 r ired ill rope DC Lo r \f' hoard AB.

Fig. P5_B2

Problorns 257

258

Distnbuted Forces: Ce"' oids and CenIE6S o Gralll Y

Fig. PS.85

5.85 A 2 X 3-1"11 gal 1. hrng I A and is held jl) positi 11 b rod En 11 resl .. ,1< aius! 11 spring whose constant is l2 k fill. The spring i. , d .formed when the gale is vertical, . wning that e force exe d b) I CD on e !T"o1tremai. h liz ntal, rl en in the minimum d pth of \va a for which th ~ ottmn 8 of !lIt' gat wtll move to the n of the cylindti portion of th f c. II.

5.86 olve Pro . 5.85 if ems of the gate is SOU kg.

5.87 Til. gate Itt th end f 3-.ft~, 'up fresh, at r channel is til eated Irom hr e 240~lb. rec llgular st ("1 plates. Th got is hing d lAc rests against frictionless support at V. Kno .. 'i g that d - 2-5 ll, d term the reactions. _ and D.

1

(/

I

,

I

n

~

2ft

Aj_

c

Fig. PS.87 and PS.88

5.88 Th gnt -- t rill - end 0 a 3-H-\Io1de fresh witter channel is fu - l d fr m thre 240-lb, rectangular reeel plat _ The t - i. hill red al A rests against a j'ric.; 'unless support at f. . 1 t rmin the d pth 0 \\ Ite d \ hieh the gme wi II 11 3 •

5.89 A rain tter is supported from tl (' r of of a It use hy han

at are 'paced 0.6 Ll1 spurt, fler 1 (I es 'log gutter's Urain. the gn

sl wIy fills with jn" I ., 'hen the !Utter i completely fillf'i v.,rjth wdl de ermine (fJ th resultant of the pre~ur ~ ree exerted b . t w ter II .6 III S lion or the 'llrved stu-face of' he glitter, (b) the oree ,(lUpJe

tern exerte on a han er here i is II .t ·11- d the h'll ter.

Fig. P5.89

VOLUMES

5.1'0. CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A TH'REE .. DIMENSIONAL BODY. CENTROID os A VOLUME

TIll" ,'unter of gram y G of c three-dim nsional body is obtamed by dl\iJlngLbe bouy into sm JI I ments and: y then >.pn:.:ssing that the llelo:hl W of the body acting at G is equlvalcnt to the system of disI:ributed forces .6. W repr snting the wights of the small el III nts, CllOo~ing the y axis to 1 e vertical 'vith positiv s nse upward lfig. 5.20) and denoti.ng by r the' position ve tor of G, we write that

r ~

~W= '" i

o _~ _

M\'

w= 1\ j

Fig. 5.20

W 15 eqlllll to ~he 'lUIl of til elemental \veighls .6.\ and that its roompnt about 0 i equal to the sum of ,the moments "lboul 0 of the clement-al weights:

-''''j = ~(-ilWj)

r x (-lVj) = };(r x (-iHVj)]

Riiivriling tbe last quati n In the form

rwx (-,j) = (,Zr .u \ ) x (-j)

(5.13)

(5.1 J

wr observe th t the weight ,"V 0 I h~ Lody Is equtvaleat tc the system oftlw elemental weights doW if the following conditions are satisfied.:

11' = zew FW - ~r 6 W

Jocrea.o;illg the munberof elem nts and simultaneously decreasing lhe

s[2p of E:dch element, w: obtain in the limit .

111 = J dV rIll - f r d\ (5.15)

Wl'TIote that the relation' btained are Indep mdent of theorienra, ~ml of the hotly. For example, if the body and I:h coordinate axes \Item rotated so that th~ Z axis pOInted upward, the unit vector -j 1I'lJ' d De replac d h -lc in Eqs, (5.13) and (5.1 ,), but ie relations 5:5) would 1"CJ1l,Wn unchanged. Resohring tile' ve tors r ~Lnd riot Ilchmgnlar components. we note that the second of the relations 5.15) c. equivalent to the three 'ca1ar equations

rw f 1" dW y\,V = Y cnv ~W" = .r z tlW (5,16)

6.10. Cenler of 'Gravity ar D TtlfN!- 259 OIl'Wll!'IlonaJ Body. CC!nrroid of·it Vol irn

Photo 5.5 To predid Ihe flight characteristics 01 the modified Boeing 747 ..... hen used 10 transpo

a Space Shuttle Orbiler. llle cenl.er of gmvdyof eachcraf had 10 be deleirm ned.

260

Oi InbUled Force : CMllmlds aod Centers or Grov I)

If the b .. is de of· homog 0 IS mat rial f. r ,('ifie , Cl

"'/. lhf' rnagnuud rIl 0 til weight of an lnfintt sirnal element b rpf S. d ill ruts of tllf' olume dV r th lern nt,' d the nrtude \ of the total w i ht can be xpr ssed ir ern s of the

'oJ nne V. \ l write

dW = )lelV \V = 'Y~r

ubstituli) g lor dW ~ d," in l€ se end of he write

rv = f tlV

or in scalar arm

-v = f r v

sv J;:; d r

:/ = f Y d

Tlw lin \' has c ordinate are i. y Z is also C of th 'oIW1! \ or the bud . If th bod)' i not ll\ogelleous, (5.1 ) c mot b used to det rmine th center of gravity 0 the

owe ir, F:q" (, ,J) s-till nne th . ntroi of th olume.

The int 1 f r d'\ is kn WI i' h first mom nt of the

t iih respect to th y;-. plane. 'imilarly, th. integrals f'!J clVand define rh first moments of th volume with respect to th .... x < rd the xy pi n • r p etiv 1 , It is seen from '"Ill, ( ,I) that C ntroid 0 ( volrrme is 10 ted in a coordi r • plru • tli ftl'st n Pil f he volume with r spe to tha plane i. zero.

A volume is 'aitl to I 'n met ic I with respect to a given

if for every' point P of tJli'! volume til ire exists li lint P' r the , lurne, such that th . lin PP' i erp ndicular t th gi en plan is bi. d by t11· t plan . Th Inn i sai to he a plane oJ try for the gi en rolum ,\ 11.n ~l \I luine V posses' a plane m try. the rust moment of V \Villi re peet to that plan, is zero,

he enlroid of th V him is lee ted in the plane of runetr "

" lu e p. sses two pl ~) nm t.ry. c C lJ roid of the

VITI j 10 ted 00 the lin f intersection 0 the two plane', .. bell a volume po s tln plan s of s mmetry which' at , well-defin d oint (that is, not al ng < common line), he

o Intersection of th three pk 'illcid with the -nt

I volume, Thi prop rty ens hi S us to de rmine tmmedn h

locations Ltho centr i ph 'res ellips ids, cubes

parallelepipeds, etc.

The c ntroids of unsymmetrical vohll nes 01' of olum s i g onl on 0J't\ plan f s mine <should be detprmincd , teg a 'on e. 5, 2). Tl eel tr ids of so c I 011 rno vol c 'hown in ig. 5, L It h uld I e ob erved hat ill g n ral the of a olume of revolution do" 1I0t coincide with thee ntroid of

'r s secti n. Thus the ntroid of h misphe . is uiflpr 111

til a f., rnl if 1IJar TCa, and e entroid 0 0 i . diffi r nt

tho t 0 trianale,

h

Remlsp I~

Sell'icl~J .. id of revo llIti u

I'anbo id or te\ lu:l:ioo

:UIlt'

Pyramid

b

Ce t olds of common shapes and volumes.

I, 1

261

262

o :illlbulrKI FOI'CelIi: Centroid> Md C ttlrs or G Vtty

.'tel =-.\., Yrl =' y. =.r lall:::;:; rIl fl'J

Fig. 5,22 Delermil12t1o of the centroid of a 'lJlurne by do ble I1legr<1 ion.

Td=A rH'_'II'j"dx

Rg. 5.23 Deterrnlnauoo of the ce '(Old 0 II body of revolution.

5.11. COMPOSITE BODIES If

Z2\ = ZZ\V

J th 1,0 v is Il1 de or t hmnn I ous mat -rial, its cent r or

lty coi ·iu!"·~ h th icl of i v Ium • and W obtai

,

x ..... v= LX

r.!v = ~!V

5.12, DETERMINA 10 OF CENTROIDS OF VOLUMES BY I TEGRATION

TIl c ntrold 0 a vohnn . bouuded b I aualyti al . urf ces can he termined h e Iv tin the integral ~ n in S c. 5.10:

xV JxdV Ij =J yeN ~ =I zd\

Il the el rnent f alum dVls ·lm. n ~ b qual t a s • U C'lIhe Ides dx, fly, and dz. the evaluati on of each of the c in t grnls

triple integmti(}n. Howe or It i' possihle to d terrnin the nates of the enid of ost olurn b ' double irlf'gmiloll ir chosen to be equal to the volume of a thin filament ( i .. 5.22).

o rdinates of tit . n r id of he volume < re then obtained b in Eqs. (;).21) ~

~" - f - d"

h· - • .:..d·

and h til· sllbstituUI'g th ~:pr ion' giv ,0 in Fig. 5.22. for the

me an the co rdiru tes :rd, !if'! Ze'" By using the equ, tion

s rface 0 express N in t rrns ofx and y. h in~gratioll is r duccd • double mtegmtion in :t' and y

If the volume und consideration pos' . es t 0 pla:n8$ oj memj, i c .ntr ld must 1 Jcat don h lin of intersec 'OD two planus. hoo~illg 01 X .. xis 0 lie al n this line, \ e have

y=z=O

and the 0 Iy 'oorciinatc to dt'lerlllinf' is X. This call be done ~ . Ingle fntegr{~tiorl ' ill .. g the iven volume iuto thin lnbs all I t 1 l Z plane and e rpr !ising dV in terms of r all I tls in

ation

xV = J 'oJ dll

or a v f re 'OIUU011, lh 51. bs a til' mlar . their

.'

given in _ ig. 5.23.

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.11

Deter .in the location of he center 0 gravity of the homogeneous bod)' of revolution shown, which was obtaiued b ' joining ~I htlmi:.pllt!re and aey[in-

dcr and carving out a cone. -

SOLUTION

Because of symmetry, the center of gravity lies 11 tile x axis. As shown jin the figure below, the bod)' call be obtailll~d by adding a hemisphere to a cylinder and then subtracting aCOl~C. The vol me II d t e abscissa oftbe centroid of each of thes unponents are oht;!n d from ig.5.21 and are ntered in the table below. The total volume of the bodyand til fl rst I nom .1 of iIb· velum with respecl Iothe y':. plane are then detemlined.

g

~ (i nil rnm) =75 !I1T'l

X. mrn iV, mm<1

!41r (60f3 ~ OA512Alx 1061-09.5 2 3

'IT( titl}2(l COl - J.I3 tox lOG ..... 50

-~ {60:t(JOO) - -0.3770 X lO" +75

-101 . X lC)6 + -6.5.'5 X 10Ii -2 .28 X 106

Component Volume. mm3

H mlsph re Cylinu r Con

Thus, XIV=~iV:

zv == 1 206 X lOG

};Xv = + 1 .09 X 1.6

\ - 1.:; 111111 ....

263

SAMPLE PROBLEM 5.12

LoCUl 111 eeu e of ITravily or larneter of each hole i 1 in:

steel Jl, chine dement shown, TIle

SOLUTION

2in

+

lin. dlam,

2 in,

W IV

v

Y,ln. V.ln~ 'iv, in"
1 -1 1.12-5
rt .8488 .2.5 2.119
In -1 . ,5 0,393
IV -I 1..5 .393 Thus,

xx.,' = }.;:-V:

I~\ = ~!JV; Zl;V = _';1.

~ 1J .. ~17 il 1" - -0 . 5.:; III Z:= L61 in.

264

IJ

YrI

SAM:PLE PROBLEM 5.13

Del rrni DC th location of the centrold of th hal r right circular COIL ShOWII,

SOLUTION

Since lhp xy 1'1IlIHo! is tl.11h'uw of S} 1111111-:11) I III ceutrokl Ii ill this pia Ie mid -= = 0 i\ bib 0 hi 'k-He!) dx h choseu Ul:I It difterellt11l1element The vohnne of tld!-i elt11llel1t iN

d" I "J .. , = 2'Wr"" w:.

Yd

where fj", is t)htaiu d from P'ig. 5.8 (s micircnhlf area). 'Vt' ohsmvc' tllIl r is PWl)( moun! tu " und write

a r- -x

h

The' \'Oll11!W L)f till" body is

- I _ . 11i 1· (10 1 (:(1 )1, 7ru:1.h V = dv = I) yrr?- dx = )0 ?, h X~, dx = -6-

Thr mome-nt nfth . dlff~rr'!ntilL1('lr'1l"!Ilt with rc ..... prct to til" !F pl.mt· is 'i ... 1c!V; thC' tl t;J1 rnmncllt o lu' 1 IIlrl . \\~tb rf'$ipC'{' tu tin. plmw lS

J I,'laV = !' l·(~·TrI.z) dx = f X(tn-)( ~ x t dx = rro;hil

Tlms,

_ 7rc/lh 1r(}2/)2

x--=--

fi

Likewis ,tho memeat of the rllifcrenllal element w i,!:h l'espCCllO tJ.1C ::::.:t: plane

is Yrl rlV· (be ~nlal moment i~ _

f - 1" 4r I" 21" (a );1 .alfJ

!Id d'''.= 1 -, -. {1t,)rix = - .. -.t rL'I: = -_-

o :lw 1 3 0 (, f'i

Thus,.

(I

'/= - .... 1F

.265

266

SOLVING PROBLEMS

~

ON YOUR OWN

III the prahl ms for this I . son, 011 \l ill b ~ ·lU;ld to local e center of a t)' f 11ICCdimensionsl bodles 0 hr c n roids f the'r \''OJ in ,AU of the eohniques we pr viously

rlhcus'eJ fu o-dirn I1Sl0n& bodies-miJlK bc)'lom .try, dividing the bOOy j common

shapes, choos! the most efficient differe tial elem n ctc.-may also be ~lp Hoel t the

eneral three-dimension cas.

L LucfJliu{!, lite cent ~ of gamity of ompu.·jl(! Imrlil!N. In euerul, E ,. (5.19) must be used:

x

5.19)

Y W = l:jj\ r

How I r. ror LJ'tt c. of h mogeneou~' (xx/y. tee n cr of gr vi r of the b lei I coincides with th ce Itrend of i s colume. Therefore, for his. p cia! cas ,th ce t r of gnwily of tll ~ bod' can also be 10C8:' d wang 'qs. (5.20):

X \ = LX v y, - 2.y ZL - ~:V 5.20)

e T10te that twa special cases of intere t ceur when tile gl\' body ec mist'1 of [t er unl

onn WiT ¥ I uliform pia es made of ho sam 1l1. teri 11.

o. or II bod r mild of .~m.;(will I ir- el ment» r 1C Rame unifornr C"'OI) ction_, the

cross-s -climm] urea A or til wire dements will factor out of Eqs (5.20) when V is replaced will the produ ·t AI .... wh L is e length of· gi' II I.ment. Equations (5.20) til S T - duro' this case to

X L=};xL

Z"LL - :;r_,

b. For a ody llilld of secero) "Il)re~ of the same WI'!Ofll1 rh IclmrtslJ, the thick ss f or the. pIal will rae.: or 0 t of q. (5._0) when V is rep I red with th product t • wh re is th are f.~ iven plate. Eqll lin s (5.20 thus redu in this cas to

XkA = x..4 Y U = ~yA. Z2.A = L:-

Problems

5.90 Tnf'l composi'p hndy shown is Iormed by removing a hemisphere or f'ilrllu~ r rmrna cyhnrlcr of rarllus R and height 28. tennine (a) ,the y oonrdinatc of the centroid when ,- = 3l 4. (b) the ratio rIB for whioh Y'" 1.2R.

5.91 Determine (] e !j coordlnute of lit centroid fJf Ole body shown,

!II

x

Fig. P5.91 and P5~9a

... 5.92 Determine the;; coordinate of the rentro'u, of the body :,1.0WI1 . . Hint; se the resultcf Sample Prob, 5.13.)

Flg~ P5.90

y

5.93 oll'd 'r the (;o1l1positc bexl)! sl uwn, Df'tertTiinc '(tJ) til vn!lJ. of :.

i \ hen I, -= T.../2. (b)leratio h/I: ~ r which x:::: L. Fig. iP·!j.93

- 5.94 Fur the Jl1<ldli:lJe element :;ho\nI. detenl1in·· the:l coon:linat of tl:e a!1l ter of grd. vit)'.

o R·1fI

Fig. P5 .. 94 lind PS.9S

5.95 For the machine cI ment shown, determine the yeo . rdinate of !hI! center of gravily:

2.67

268

Dt:&tribl.j(ed F~! C!lI'Itl'Cllds and Cenlar& of Gr:uv.ity

Fig. P8.98 and P5.99

1'=4- mm

Fig. PS.100

5 .. 96 For the machine elem ut shown, lou\tld III .x confclinal:e or 1 center of gravity.

Fig. PS.96 and Po.S1

5.97 For the machine elemel1t shown, loea e the !JCOO een ter of gravity.

5.98 For til !iUp bruck ~ shown, locate the x l.'OOrriinalc of the C~ ler of gravity.

5.99 For th stop b 'k t shown. loeate the z coordinate of the ter of gnwit .

5.100 Locate the center of gravity of th heet-metal form shown

" 10 lllJlI

Flg,PS,1'01

5.101 A moun ti,llg bracket foreJs(...i:ronic componeets is formed sheet metal of unJfoml thickness .. Locate the center of gravity of the bnu

5.102 Locute th renter 0 grLl'l'i • 0 the be t retal form shown.

Fig. P5.102

'5.103 n en ~OSllrl" for an lee onie d \ lc is orrned In sheet metal

of Wliform tb.lckne~s. Locate th cent r of gri1\il}' of f' -ncl isur ,

!l

Fig. PS.l04

5.104 200-mm-diameter cyllndrleal duct and a 100 x 20 -rmn rPC-

OOll(\Jllir du '1 • r to 1 e join d as i di ated. nowi g thfl th rlll a f. bocal d from the me sheet me al, which . of unif rm hickn.. . lee I . lh!;'! (EDler of gra lity of the asscmbl s:

5.105 An elbO\ [or the due of a ven . ating s. _ 111 i.e; mar n Q Ii r IJn lfon II thick ess. L()(."L th center r gnwily of Ih eThm.

5.106 A window awnin is fabricated from heet m tal f unit rm es . Loc te the cent of gra ity of th aw ·Jlg.

Probl&rn!!. 269

~/I 12m~

.r

1.5ln,

Fig. P5.103

Fig. P5.105

II

r : ;~no 111111

Fig. PS.106

270

DI&tribIJtod Forc(ls: Controld a"p Cl;lniQl''!'l at Gravity

Fig. P5.10B

Fig. P-S.111

5.107 The hill, pla'ltic front cover of a w<llldock is of u.niform ness. Locate the center of gravity oI the cover.

300 mill

~

:r-.'iI'Imm 13()IUt~t

X

13( nun

r .. 3<hnm

Flg'.P5.107

5.1 08a nd 5.109 hin st I \.vi.rof uniform cross section Is

, "

into the shape SllOWfI, wlll~r· arc Be is a quarter circle of radius R

its ccotee of gra.Vi:tv:

F.lg. P6,109

Fig. P5.11iO

5.110 1116 frame of a greenhouse is eonstruetr-d from untrcnll m.inum charm Is. 1 .(lCatr thecenter .of gnt\'ify of the portion of the . shown.

5.1' 11 The de(.'(.lrative metalwork at the entrance of 1\ store is . eated from unifonn steel structural tubing. Kno\\1ng thdtH - the center .of gruvity of ,11 . metalwork,

5.112 A scrarc awl has i'I pla~U(' handle ru,d n skt'c1 hllld" and 'ib!lUk.

K:nowin that the specific weight of plnsLi, is 0 {)37/1 Iblin3and ,of steel Is 01841M.n:l, locate thecenter .of gravity of the aVJi

() 12in.

Art. P6. 112

5 .. 113 . bronac bushing is rumted insi{k, II :tl!elsl ve. Knov,ing thut tht' density of bronze is 880 kg! a and of steel L<; 1800 kglm3, determlne the center of !!nl"'ity of the assembly.

5.114 A marker [01' 3 gard n path oonsi..~ts ofa truncsr d regular pynlmid calVed from ~t(lI1eo,f 51 cillc w .ig,ht 16() lb/ffl. Th pynnnld is mounted on a steel base of thickness h. Knowi ng thai the s . ci lie weigh t uf steel is ~90 lMe and that steel plate is available inYL-in incrern nts, spe 'f)' the miu~ unum thickness It for which the center of glavil ' of the marker is apprn;ri~ mat~ly 12 in. above the top ofthe bs!'ic.

'5.11.5 The ends of the park knell s 'ow . arc made f conereta, wllil!:l the seatand back are wooden boards. Each r== ,of wood is 36 X 120 X J.lSO mm. Knowing th.:.Lt the density of concrete L" 23.20 'kglm3 and of wood I~ 41(1 k,W'lIil, d ·ten in the x and ycoordiru:H:s of the center of gravily of Ihe hen!.'!..

F,lg.P5.116

5.116 throug" 5.11 B Detcrmlnc by direet int,egr.a.tion t e value. s of i rOT the two vehirnes obtained by pas.'!Lng a v~rtical cutting plan~ through th~ givr::!l shape uf Fig. 5.2.1. "rh· culling 111M" is paral1C'l to th . has of the :rh"t' shape and divide:; the shape into two volumes of equal h ight.

5.116 A hernis here.

5,117 A semiefupS.oid of revolution. 5.118 A paraboloid of re ·olution.

Problems 271

22.5mm

Fig .. P5.113

/--12i!l

12 in

/

2Blll.

Fig. P5.1t4

272

Clstrlt)utcd FOrcas'Cflntro,d~ lind C..,nlrlr5 or Gravity

Ij

1

o

l

--11--......j·1

Fig. P5.121

!J

Flg.PS.125

5.119 an d 5, 120 Locate the t;<;lIItroid of the volame obtained DI'TO La 'ug t'ht- shaded area about the x axis,

!II

r

b

l~ .t

1

y

Fig.P5.119,

Flg,P5.120

5.121 Locate I'ht' ct"lltl'oid of the volume obtilined .qllH(lC"d urea ahout the lilll;! x = h.

-5.122 Locate the centroid 0 the volume generated by re\.'Olving portion of the sine curve shown abou th "t axis,

!J

Fig. P5.122 and P5.1:23

5.12.3 T ,otatf the centroid of the volulIIl! g('ll('rJlf'd h) revolvlll~ portion of the sill(' ('111""\"1' shown <thallI the y axis. tlilflf; Use a thin c . l.'U.l ~ht.jl of radius I" and thickness dr U5 the element of volume.)

"5. 24 Show that for a regular p 'Tamld of It ight" Rnrl n sirles (II- 4, .... ) the centroid of thC" volume of tb pyrmnirJ lsl C:!lt('(l at n dislHnl~ above tlll' hasl',

5.125 Determine by direct i:nt'e~mtiol1 the location of the o ntr 'd one-half of It thin, Ilniforll'l hcmisphencal S'I 41 or r!ltliH~ It

5. 126 TIll' :;iiles tlntll l.Kt!>t!' ur a I'll rich howl are of uniform II'I:'"S t, If L « 1'1. and R -= 350 mill, detenlline the location of the cetiW ~Ivity of (a,) the bowl, (b) the punch.

'(-)

I· R I

Fig, P5.12fi

J

5.127 Afl: r gmdillg n lot. a. huil er phu.'t'~ 10 Ir sNI es to ~~igntlte the

ItJrn rs of the sla f r house To pro id a mn, I· tel h s 1" the slab, h

I, Ildrr plnees a niutrnum of GO mm of grav 1 b neath the sl b. Deter e lh.: ~'OIum 0 gm"el1i d .d and the .Y coordinste 0 he centroid of the v l~ II e ol e ,1'.'("1. (Hil t. The bo om of the grav 1 i an ohli 11 1, Jl ,w111 ·11

l1U1 be represen ed b ' the ('qua i Jl!J - (I VI z.)

Fig. P5.127

5.128 Det nni II llr rli rcet in l r mtion

Ihc\'olwn betw e 11(' C .1.111"> an he

~ Ifl.l.!(ax - x2)(hz - ;-})/aJ},fJ..

If:' I cali()11 of the cc troid of Iti 11 sh wn of the surfac

F g. PS.128

5,129 l.neil the '~llIroid u th section shown, 'whicll was It Irorn lL1'l'uI.lr 'tinder by an iod.in U plane.

Prob ms

273

!J

Ag. P5.129

--

REVIEW AND S'UMMARV

FOR CHAPTER 5

This chapter was devot d cbiefly to the determinstion of the ler of gra'Uy of n rigId bod. th'lt is, to the determinati noll point G where a single force \+Y, called tile u;,'etght of th 'b y, be applied to represent the effect of the earths attraetton on hody.

Center 01 gravily of a two-dlmenslcnal body In the first part of the ch per, we considered .two-dim""ll"~rnllll!l

bodi~·> such as nUi plaIes and wires contained in the xy plane. adding fOl·CC compon nts j n th . \I rtieal z dir ction and mOIDeD about the horizontal y and .r axes [ ec. 5.2], wedenved the relal:i

ilV- f.l:dW

yW= f ydW

which define the weight of the body and the ooordlnarcs x and of its center of gravity.

Centroid of an area or line In the ease of a homofl,eneou.s flat plate of WlIjOl-m t'l

[Sec.5.3j. the center of gravity G of the plate coincides with c utruid C of III area A of the' plate, thecoordmates of which defin ed by the r ·latiOU5

x.A. = J x ciA !fA = J y dA (5.3)

Similarly. til dutcruti.natioH 0 thu eenter of gravity of a Jwmn IlCOUS wire of uniform cross secuon contatned in a plane to the dererminatton of th centroid of tilE: lin' L rerrresenlIIlf! the wire; we have

rL= I x dL

Firsl momenta The integrals in E(15. (.5.3) are mferred to 3S the fi,'S1 mmnena

of the area 11 with respect to the y and.y axes and are denoted Q!f and Pit- respecrtvely [ ec. 5.4]. \lVe have

Qy-iA

The firs I mom nts of'U line can be d fined in a similar W'3.y.

Properties of symmetry The detennlnatton of the centroid C of all area or lin is

plifif'd whpl1 thearea or line poss sses certain propr::riie.s of \ metnj- L the area or line is symmetric .... rilb re put to ,UI a. x is,

2'74

cellll'oi I n 5 01 th t axi : if it is ymmetri with sp t b two J.lC:S, G i located at the intersection of the two axes: if it i s)'"'ln-

metric \l ~th res ec to, ter O, e inoide with .

Review a~d Summary for Chapter 5 275

Th . 1II"e(1S and h cent mid 0 I aria is 'Ommon hapes tab- Center of gravity of a composite bo y

ulated in Fig, 5 ... \\ 'hen f]a~pl<lte_ n be dlvid ·d into c end of

thew shape'S, the c rcl.iJ ates X and Y or its center of gra 'ty G can

hi' t!clcnllin~ [i'om t h , coordinates XJ, X2> - •. and YiI. Tk ... _ 0

fh nt rs of gravity Glo Gil> ' " f th ~ vu no . pc. " [5 ,5.5,_

Iquating moments a out th yan x axes, r sp ctiv ly (Fig. 5.24 ,

we 11\'1"

=LX

YL\ = ~yW

(5.7)

o

Ag,5.24

If the plat is hom g neous and of uniform thlekness, its center f crr:l\'itycoinc:ioes with the centroid C of the area of the plate. and ECfs. (5. ) r due to

Q, - ".LA = ":XA

Q = Y}d\ = :£y

(5. )

equations yi ld th ~ first morn £!!s of ~c (JOIJlptl 'it arsa, Of

th eal he solv d f T th xiordi < t and' of i entr id [ am-

ple 1 rob, ,I]. TL d eteruiluation of the err gravity of" c posite wire is carried out in a similar fashion r ample prob. 1:'.21·

\ 11t>1l • rea i.! hound d bv anal tical curves, the oordinat

of its centr id can be detarmin by tuie rauou [ e '. 5.61. Thi em be non b, e uatiog ith r the uble integrals in Eqs. (5.3) or a slllgl integml w ich IlS s one of he thin rectangular or pie-

hap d 10m 'nts of ar a. hewn in Fig . .:.1.12. D noting h Xlii and 9 th c ordinates f the centroid f the e m nr ( • w h e

Qr = !iA = f Y<d dA (5.9)

His advant eous t us th sam slem nt f ar a to xnnpute b III uflh fir t I oments Q!I and Q~' the san: el m nt also e 1. ed o determtn the ar A [ ample Frob. 5. 1.

DetermmaUon of can roid by In og ation

276

Oistributed 'Forces: Centroids iIIld Cernel'll of Gravity

Theorems of Pappus-Guldmus

(a)

Fig .. 5.2.5

.r

(II)

Dislributed loads

Canter of gravity of a three-dlmsnslonal boa)'

Centroid of a volume

Tb .. tit arems of Pappu 'l-Guldinu:;; relat the determ i nation til area of a urf ace 0 r revolu lion or the vol u me 0 r a body 0 r re ' OIUDOIl to the determination of thee ntroid of the generattn en or area [ ~ec. 5.71. The area A of the surface generated by rotatinJ ::l curve of !Ienh L about ft Axed axis ( ig. 5.25a) is

A. = 21r1jI ..

(5.10)

where Y Tepre.'i nrs the distRne from the centroid G ortl'lI~ run to the .fixed axis. Si1lli1urly. the velum V of til hody g nerated l rotating all area A about fixed aris ( 'ig. 5.25b) is

V 211jA 5.11)

where y represents the distance from the centroid C of the area! . the fi". daxis.

Th concept of centroid of anar a canalso be used to sol\! , pro lems other than those denling wub the VI igh! of Il t plates. F e. . uple, to dcte.rut..i.ll. tL > reactions at the supports of u beam rS 5. ], we can r place a dtstrlbuted load w bya concentnt d load equal in mll~itudc to the area und r the load curve and passi tb.raugJI the centroid G of that area (Fig. 5.26). The same appro can be used. to determine the resultant of the hydrostatic forces erted on a rectangular plate submerged in a lIquid [ ec, 5.9J,

rlW

w

1-1. --[.----.11

1=.19,5.26

The last part of the chapter was devot sd to thedetermmano of the center af gra tty G of (J three-dimeflsi(}nal /Jody. The dinates i", y. ~ of G w re der'ined by the rel.lIlioli

X\'V - f i: lit. yW' = J Y dW sw = J z dW'

In t11 case of a hor'wgeneOtl~ body. the center of gravity G co cides ,v:ith the centroid C nf th« 1iOlume V of th body; the eoor . n ,tes of C Wi defined by the relations

-v = J x dV y V = J ~ dV z = J z d

If the volume p ssesses . plane of.~:yfmnetry .. its centroid C \ilri II ill that plan ; if it pu.sse:sses two _plaues of sjnunetry, C will be 1 cat on the line of intersection -of th two planes, if i poss three planes of S -rnmetry whieh intersect at only one point, C \\ eotn ide wilb that p inl [Sec 5,.101.

The voilltns and centroids of various common threedlJII(ms./(mnl.~haIJe.~ are tahlllatPd In Fig. 5.21. 7hcn ~ body n b diliacd mto s v ral of thes· bures. th· ooordinutcs X. Y, Z (.If its eentcr ol mvity G can be determined from the corresponding coordi- 1l:J,les of the c ltcr of g'vlty of ils various pam {Sec. 5.11 J. 'Ve have

Xl:\\1 = ~xw Y:l;\\l = ~gVV Zl:W = k'ZW (5.19)

Jflhf' body 1S made of a hornogeneous material, its center of g)'av- il\'comcid s '<vith the centroid G crib; l'u]'ulne, and we writ [Sam pjEl Probs. 5.11 and 5.121

(5.20)

When a volume ts bounded '. yanalytiCalnfaces, the eoordinilles oJ its centroid can be d terrnin d by integration {Sec. 5 .. 12]. 10 avoid the computation of the triple integrals in Eqs. (5.J ), \. ,

X(I;;X. I)(P'y, :'d~} rfi." _;:;dxdy

Fig. 5.27

ean use leme ntsof volume in the shape of thin :£Ilnwcnts" us shown in Fig. 5.27. Denoting by Xti/, !ltl. and Z~t the ccordinates of thecentroid of the element aV. we rewrite Eqs, (5.18) as

rv - J i"f dV yV - I Yd dV z = f Z~'l d1;

(5.22)

which involve only double integrals. If the volume possesses two p/tmf!," of liymmetry, its 'centroid C is located on their line of Interscctlon. ClJousing the x axis tu lte lidong thal lin .and divUling the volume into thin slabs parallel to the 'P plane. we can determine C from the relation

(5.23)

with a. SIngle in.tegration [ ·ample Prob. 5.13]. or a bod, of revolutioll. these slabs are circular and thetrvolume is gjven in Fig. ~5 ... 28.

fI View 8lId Summary fotChapter 5 277 Center ot gcavlty 01 a cornpostta bOd,y

De,ermlnation 01 centroid by in(egralion

If

XeJ· { (N 1T.r'~ 11"(

F,I'g.5.28

278

61.0..

8 in. I

12 ill •

....___..___..L

Fig. 1""5.130:

- -

Review Problems

- - -

5.130 Locate tbe centroid of the phme are a shown,

y

FIg. 1'5.131

5.131 For the tnC,~u shown, det nine the ratio (JIb r which '\ ~

5.132 Locate Ihe centroid of Ihe phlllt:! area shown

!JI

-I-- 3D lHlll

:r

;)4mm Fig. PS .• 132

7:2mm

5.133 Determine by direct integratiOi the cern aid of the areasllC\ E..'qlre:ss your answer in terms of a and 11.

Ij

fi

lr,.....___~

i-'<---- 0---"":1·1

Fig. P5.133

5.134 1.cmbP.r ABGDE ls a component of ;l mobile and is fo.nned

rrom a .!lingle piece of aluminum tubing Knowing t ut th member is supDIlriC-C. at C and that ( = 2. m, determine thedist,mc:e d so thclt portion BCD I)f the member ic; horizontal,

Fig. P5.134

5.135 Acylinchic-al hole is drilled through the center of a steel ball bmring shown hre in cross section. Denotmg the length of til lu'Jle hy L, .JIOW thai he vola 1~ ufthtl teel l"tlm.liuillg isequul to th~ volun1f> 0 .• sphere of diameter L.

5.136 For tho beam and lmldL g shown, u termine ((I) tll . JlLugllitud lUll! lOcation of the resullaal nfthe distributed. load, (b) the reactions at thlo' beam ~liP[JOrt.s.

Fig.P5.136

5.137 Determine tho reactions at the beamsuppc rts for the iven lo00mg.

"('1~,m. . -- .

60011,/ ft

. ,

" , , '

FIg. PS.137

Review PrtIblQn\$ 279

Fig. 1'5.135

280

Dhitribut!:'d Forces: Centrotd9 and Cen\en; (II G!gvlly

Ij

Ag. PS.139

5. 138 J ..ocnt· t 11(: ~ '1 Iter (If grovil} of 1 he- ~JlI~('t mel al form shown

o

Fig. P5.1S8

:t

5.139 lbe composite bodr shown i~ fonued by rem i'illg 11 J.('lI1wU soid of r -olunon of semjml~or ,I.\;S Ii tlnd Sf> ubnilll r I'l\is 11/2 from a her sphere 0' rudlus a. Dete-nniue ((I) the y cum Ullule of til etmtroid w h = {I/2, (b) the mno lJ/a for which Jj = -OAtl.

5.140 A thin steel wireof uni form cross .. eetion is 11I'ot 11110 t If' ~II~ shown. Locae its center Q gnl.v'it}.

Flg. P5.140

5. '41 Locate the centroid of the volume obt:tinnd hy rotawl§ shade i area about ilie:r .!LU5.

--

¥

~---h ·1

Fig. 'PS.141

5.C3 pprurimiJtc,' the g 1:1 'nll spandrel ShO\ ... 'lllslng ~l senes of TI ree-

.JJ~es .. Ilch 0 r .. vidth ill! and 01 (he fom I he .' b', uml then use CUluputulfollll] 1~1!l1re to calculate the coordmates ()f the centrmd of the area. LOC',Lte the untmid when (0) In ."" 2 •. n = 4 in., Ii. ,.,. 4 in.; (b) 111 =.2, a :, 4 ill., J., = ~m.· (r) III : 5, n = 4 in., Ii = 11 in., (rl) m = 5, fI = <I in" It = 25 in. In each ~!(,ooll1r\are I he! an ...... vers nnllllll"d I 0 I It,,(,x. t alu II of t 11I1(1!i orn pI! I N1 mm tile formul giV,11 1 Flg, 5.8 and d(>' 1 min th petcPntage er 01.

Com puter Problems

5.C1 For the trape'Z(')ld shown. determine t11C :X and ycooJ'diaatc!i of tOO centroid knmvingLha III = aln 2 and 112 = 011"1.. Plot the values of x and !i for loS" s 4- and a = Gin.

--------

r

5.C2 Derermme the disn ce II for which the centroid of th shaded Are'. is ILS It igll above B R' 11.'S pu :.ib Ie. Plcr thl! nttio hlh i1S n ["1, ceon of k for ~ 11';:$ k:;:;; 0.875.

(1'

FIg. P5.C2

y

Fig. PS.C3

281

Distributed FOrces: Centn::Udsand Ceflters Of Gmllity

II

5.C4 D terminf:! lh volume and the surfacearea of the ~oljd obtain hy rotutlng lhe ltreH shown ahout the IJ au'> when a = 80 mm ~l1Id (0)"::: 1 (b) n =2. (o) fl = 3.

_. ~a-"i> I...____·

Fig. P5.C4

5 .. C6 Cure AB of mlifnnn wi.dth w is held hi IIll> posltton shown 11;0') hingl:' . long its lop clge 1\ and by a single shear pin located at: the center its lower ~dge B D tE"rmillc the force 0 shear pi B.IS Il function of water depth d. Plot the force on pin B as a function of Wtlt r depth fir 0.54 I < d s ] .5, l1) when (0) LV ;;; 0.25 01, (b) w '" .50 m, td 1.1': = 0.75 (d) n; '" I m. Th d('nsit of "valeI' b p ;;; loa kghn3.

Flg. P5.CS

S.C6 I\n open tank is to be slowly filled with wilt 'I'. Dotormine I' sultunt ann clil1 chon of thepreti.sur forctlx rtoo by e water on a wid, sec Lion of side ABC of the tan k as a function of the depth d .. Using·· putati nal software, plot the pres!l>-ore force .1.S a function of d forll s ~ 10 ft- Til specific weight of water is 62.4 lhl ,J

_._,...~C

)_8

LLd II 7fL

I 600 I 'I

FIg.P5.CG

5.,C7 Tho cross section of a concrete dam is fL'I shown. For a darn sectioo of I-m width. 'plot the magnitude of the resultant of th rcactiol'1 forces r'llt'r\ccl b tilt" ground on thr' has(' 8 ef ~h(' dan flnd he resi ilran of Ill' pressure force'> exerted by' c water on the Iaee IJCoFthe dam as functrons Ii the depth d of the '#atet' for 0 ::s d s 16 m. The densities of concret and wa1nt arc 2.40 x Iff kg/1l13 and 10:1 kg/mJ, rcspecti\ely.

I

d

Fig. PS.C7

5.CS A beam is su ~ .. cted to e loading shewn. Plot the ruagnit de cl the ,'ertiCtll reactions at supports A·~ d 8 as functions of dis tanees for OSII :s; 3, III.

e. -~ll1 ! ~l~-m B

t:±~-I .I

Fig. pS.oe

5.C9 The tluee-dimensiOli1cll strueture shown is Fabricated from five thil1~r rods of equal diameter ~ing computational software, detenoine !hf- eoordln att:of th", cent r (If gravity oflht' ,stmt:turtl, T .()eat Ihtl ooordilIa1$ of the (J Iller of gnn 'I)' \, 111:'11 (tl) 11 == 40 ft, R == J ,. fl, a: = 90"; (I;) II =. ~ in., R = 30 in •. a = 30°; (c) 11= 70 ft. R = 6.5 ' a = 135°,

5.Cl0 I)otcnnin tl c y e rdmate of th centroid of til ~ bod)' hewn \dlf!Jl II ::::: lib and h == rlllJ. Plot fj as a f~nction or II lor Doth rases \JS111g 1 S 11$ to and (0) b == 4 tn., (b) b =' in., {el b "'" 8 in.

=

FIg. P5.CtO

Computer Prcblems 283

x

Fig. P·6.C9

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