GRAM POSITIVE COCCI Staphylococcal species: Gram positive, facultative anaerobic grape-like clusters of cocci.

Distinguishable from strep species by catalase test (positive). Organism Staph. aureus Staph. epidermidis Staph. saprophyticus Disease
MANY. Impetigo, mastitis, Toxic shock syndrome, scalded baby, abscesses, etc.

Fun facts Pyogenic, exotoxins (TSST), cytotoxins, coagulase, catalase, degradative enzymes.
Coagulase negative. Normal flora. Capsule. Can form biofilms on catheters/valve replacements.

Endocarditis, sepsis, prosthesis infection. UTIs (most UTIs are Gram negative)

Coagulase negative. Vagina and ureter. NO exotoxin. Pyogenic infections only.

Organism Strep. Pyogenes Strep. pneumoniae Strep. mutans Strep. agalactiae Strep. bovis

Disease Strep throat, cellulitis, scarlet fever
Meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media

Cavities and endocarditis Meningitis and pneumonia Nosocomial UTIs and endocarditis

Fun facts Pyogenic, Group A Strep, M-protein (fimbriae), immune related diseases, ‘flesh-eating’ bacteria #1 cause of bacterial meningitis in >60yr age range, capsule, major cause of death in elderly Enters bloodstream during dental procedures, why they dose 2g Amoxicillin beforehand. Group B Strep, 30% of mothers are infected, #1 cause of bacterial meningitis in <1 mo age range Group D Strep, commonly found in cows or other ruminant (multiple stomached) animals

Streptococcal Species: Gram positive, facultative anaerobic pairs/chains of cocci. Distinguishable from staph species by catalase test (negative). Coagulase negative.

Facultative anaerobes. can be vancomycin-resistant. Normally commensal. faecium Disease Endocarditis and other nosocomial infections Neonatal meningitis. Part of normal intestinal flora. faecalis E.Enterococcal Species: Often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains. GRAM POSITIVE BACILLI (RODS) Fun fact: The two genera that form endospores are Clostridia and Bacillus. less common than faecalis. can be opportunistic pathogens. gut wound infections Fun facts Part of normal intestinal flora. often found in root-canals. . can also be vancomycin resistant. Organism E.

CHF Anthrax. Lives in upper respiratory tract. toxin kills enterocytes ‘boto x’ Y. abortions. Potential bioweapon. N Y Y. food poisoning(10kcases/yr ) Food poisoning/botulism (higher mortality/rare). neck paralysis Causes spasmodic contraction of muscle. cutaneous or inhalation Fun Facts The “D” in DPT vaccine. diarrhea . very difficult to completely cure. intracellular pathogen (macrophages) Toxins liquefy tissue. spores in soil. endocarditis Gas gangrene (amputation). floppy baby syndrome Can grow in the refrigerator. AB toxin Y Historically important. War wounds. Can cause skin lesions. vomiting/diarrhe a Food poisoning. meningitis. N N N N Y Y Y. infection shows effects in days to weeks Nosocomial.Organism Corynebacteri um diphtheriae Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Listeria monocytogene s Clostridium perfringens Clostridium botulinum Clostridium tetani Clostridium difficile Anaerob ic Growth Spore s Exotoxi n Disease Diptheria. Y. found in canned goods. cranial nerve paralysis. neurotoxin ‘Lockjaw’/Tetanus Obligate Y Y Y. Facultative anaerobe. “botched abortion” organism. vaccine available. N Y Y N Y Y Y Y. vomiting (from rice) less severe than diarrhea (from meat or vegetables. entero - Food poisoning. Forms pseudomembrane near tonsils. cytotoxin Pseudomembrano us colitis. Heat labile toxin.

bronchopneumonia. NO capsule Via respiratory droplets. Disease Gonorrhea (pyogenic). neonatal eye infections. grows in water. men not so much. pneumonia. PID/infertility Meningitis. can be nosocomial infection on catheters and respirators. sepsis.GRAM NEGATIVE COCCI Organism Neisseria gonorrhea Neisseria meningitidis Moraxella catarrhalis Acinetobacter spp. most women asymptomatic. bronchitis/sinusitis Fun facts Often coinfected w/Chlamydia. Pneumonia. Spread by respiratory route. Found in soil/can be normal flora. YES capsule. UTIs GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI (RODS) . arthritis Otitis media. meningitis outbreaks in infants and dormitories.

soil and water. fecal-oral from humans only. Vibrio cholerae Vibrio parahaemolytic us Helicobacter pylori Camphylobacter jejuni Klebsiella pneumoniae Serratia marsescens Enterbacter spp. destroy microvilli in small intestinal mucosal cells O17:H7. bloody diarrhea. endotoxin. binds/kills large intestinal cells with verotoxin. Produces urease (w/NH3) to neutralize stomach pH. large intestine. Most abundant facultative anaerobe in feces/colon.Organism name Escherichia coli (general) E. meningitis. electrolyte loss. bladder/kidney infections. etc. Heat labile enterotoxin. UTIs. . Infects from intestine to Peyer’s Patch to bloodstream which leads to fever Intracellular. soil and water. Fecal-oral. Foul smelling diarrhea. UTIs. Fun facts 80-90% of all UTIs. fecal-oral route. large intestine. bloody diarrhea. Microaerophile. gastritis. S-shaped rod. pneumonia UTIs. Primary cause of stomac/duodenal ulcers. pneumonia. infant diarrhea Infant diarrhea (infected at birth) Hemorrhagic colitis Dysentery Gastroenteritis. rice-water stool. coli ETEC E. coli EIEC Salmonella enterica Salmonella typhi Shigella spp. opportunistic nosocomial infection. very similar to EIEC. Fever. cancer risk Enterocolitis. bloody diarrhea with inflammatory cells in stool Intracellular parasite. w/o inflammation. Usually from contaminated water. Disease MANY. massive diarrhea. large intestine. Invades large intestinal cells. coli EPEC E. severe abdominal pain. infects small intestine. dysentery. pneumonia From eating raw shellfish. watery diarrhea. coli EHEC E. low exposure needed to cause infection. pneumonia UTIs. Opportunistic nosocomial infection. Thick bloody sputum. Watery diarrhea. 40% mortality untreated Traveler’s diarrhea. Bloody stools. food poisoning from pigs/chicken products. soil and water. Opportunistic nosocomial infection. NVD Typhoid Fever Shigellosis Cholera Diarrhea Stomach ulcers.

can live in air conditioners. and soil. Urease positive. aerobic. and soil. Pathogenesis depends on site colonized. highly motile. Anaerobic. and soil. live in colon. nosocomial). Urease increases pH. Urease increases pH. skin/eye/ear infections Fun facts Urease positive. predominant organism in colon (>E. water. 10-15% mortality in outbreaks (esp. meningitis. no spores. oxidase positive. . Pertussis toxin. water. live in colon. Legionnaire’s disease. Urease positive. intracellular parasite. infects after abdominal wound or surgery. Intra-abdominal abscesses Otitis media. highly motile. live in colon. Urease increases pH. Lives in soil/water. highly motile. sinusitis. systemic or local. Attaches to/kills epithelium/ciliated cells in upper respiratory tract. Strictly aerobic. bronchitis. live in colon.GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI (RODS) CONT. grows in tap water/hot tubs/nosepieces of your glasses. Transmitted via respiratory droplets. opportunistic. Urease positive. water. motile. epiglottitis. capsule. Organism name Proteus vulgaris Proteus mirabilis Providencia rettgeri Morganella morganii Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteroides fragilis Haemophilus influenza Disease UTIs UTIs UTIs UTIs Nosocomial UTIs. pneumonia. The “P” in DPT vaccine. coli). pneumonia. highly motile. severe atypical pneumonia Whooping cough Endotoxin. Legionella pneumophila Bordetella pertussis Facultative. and soil. water. Urease increases pH.

cervicitis. bronchitis Pneumonia Urethritis. Can cross placenta. Lower respiratory tract infection. 3ulcerated granulomas. 3-Chronic arthritis/CNS disease. Spread via flies and handeye contact. Spirochete. congenital (fetal death) Fun facts Cause of ~10% of pneumonias. STD and infants via birth canal. leads to necrosis. bronchitis PID (infrequent) Urethritis Lyme disease (3 stages) Syphilis (3 stages). 1-Flu-like (easily treatable) 2-Arthritis/Bell’s palsy. Rare in U. easily killed. Most common vectorborne (via deer tick) disease in U. Spirochete.S. Attaches to cilia.MEDICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIA Organism name Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia psittaci Chlamydia trachomatis (STD strains) Chlamydia trachomatis (trachoma strains) Disease Atypical pneumonia. Causes ~20% of non-gonococcal urethritis. 2-skin lesions. infertility due to PID. Transmitted via respiratory secretion. Bird feces Only infect humans. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma hominis Ureaplasma urealyticum Borellia burgdorferi Treponema pallidum Leading cause of blindness worldwide. Infertility due to PID. . flagellated. Only infects humans. 75%F/50%M asymptomatic.S. Eye infection leading to blindness Atypical pneumonia. 1-painless chancre.

chills. then liquefy to allow bacteria to spread.MEDICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIA (CONT. leads to nerve damage. intracellular growth in cool temperatures. Common in severely immunosuppressed AIDS patients. Lice borne. Form granulomas (in lungs and other areas) that harden. headache. Tick borne. Slow growing. humans dead end host (via deer tick).) Organism name Anaplasma phagocytophilu m Rickettsia rickettsi Rickettsia prowazekki Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium avium (MAC) Mycobacterium leprae Disease Fever. Typhus Tuberculosis Disseminated miliary disease Leprosy . Rocky mountain spotted fever Fun facts Infects granulocytes. Can spread human-human. Most common systemic bacterial infection. headache. stupor – leading to CNS dysfunction and myocarditis. High mortality untreated. High fever. High fever and rash. etc. Normal host is mouse. Mortality ~25% due to vascular collapse. myalgia. spread by long term skin contact. leukopenia. Top worldwide killer organism.

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