The term growth and development both refers to dynamic process.

Often used interchangeably, these terms have different meanings. Growth and development are interdependent, interrelated process. Growth generally takes place during the first 20 years of life.; development continues after that. Growth: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Is physical change and increase in size. It can be measured quantitatively. Indicators of growth includes height, weight, bone size, and dentition. Growth rates vary during different stages of growth and development. The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slows during childhood. Physical growth is minimal during adulthood.

Development: 1. 2. 3. Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression. It is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to the environment. Development is the behavioral aspect of growth.

THEORIES:

1. Freud s Psychosexual Development Theory
STAGE 1. Oral AGE Birth to 1½ y/o CHARACTERISTICS Center of pleasure: mouth (major source of gratification & exploration) Primary need: Security Major conflict: weaning Source of pleasure: anus & bladder (sensual satisfaction & selfcontrol) Major conflict: toilet training Center of pleasure: child s genital (masturbation) Major conflict: Oedipus & Electra Complex Energy directed to physical & intellectual activities Sexual impulses repressed Relationship between peers of same sex Energy directed towards full sexual maturity & function & development of skills to cope with the environment

2. Anal

1½ to 3 y/o

3. Phallic 4. Latency

4 to 6 y/o 6 y/o to puberty Puberty onwards

5. Genital

2. Erikson s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory
STAGE 1. Infancy 2. Early childhood AGE Birth-18 mos 1½ to 3 y/o CENTRAL TASK Trust vs Mistrust Autonomy vs Shame & doubt (+) RESOLUTION Learn to trust others Self control w/o loss of self esteem Ability of cooperate & express oneself Learns to become assertive Ability to evaluate one s own behavior (-) RESOLUTION Mistrust, withdrawal, estrangement Compulsive, selfrestraint or compliance. Willfulness & defiance. Lack of selfconfidence. Pessimism, fear of wrongdoing. Over-control & overrestriction. Loss of hope, sense of being mediocre.

3. Late childhood

3 to 5 y/o

Initiative vs guilt

4. School Age

6 to 12 y/o

Industry vs Inferiority

Learns to create, develop & manipulate.

establish self in a career/occupation 2. concern for others. Feelings of confusion. Young Adulthood 18-25 y/o Intimacy vs isolation 7.learn sex differences and sexual modesty . career or lifestyle commitments. Infancy & early childhood DEVELOPMENTAL TASK .manage a home .achieve assurance of economic independence .accept own body .walk .formulate a conscience based on a value system .relate emotionally to others . Withdrawal from school & peers. & possible anti-social behavior.develop a set of values that guides behavior . writing & mathematical skills . Maturity 65 y/o to death Integrity vs despair Acceptance of worth & uniqueness of one s own life.learn physical skills. Self-indulgence. Sense of loss. 6. Adolescence 4.learn to live with a partner . indecisiveness. selfconcern.prepare for an occupation .achieve personal independence . Coherent sense of self. Middle childhood 3.build healthy attitudes towards oneself .achieve a masculine or feminine social role .talk .control elimination of wastes .establish more mature relationships with same-age individuals of both sexes . Commitment to work and relationships.5.select a partner .distinguish right from wrong through development of a conscience . required for games .prepare for marriage & establishment of a family .develop concepts necessary for everyday living . Impersonal relationships. Early Adulthood . Adulthood 25-65 y/o Generativity vs stagnation 8.achieve personal independence . lack of interests & commitments.establish emotional independence from parents .start a family .eat solid foods . Acceptance of death.develop attitudes toward social groups & institutions . Plans to actualize one s abilities Intimate relationship with another person.form simple concepts of social & physical reality . Havighurst s Developmental Stage and Tasks DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE 1.acquire skills necessary to fulfill civic responsibilities . 3. Creativity. contempt for others. Avoidance of relationship.gain basic reading.learn appropriate masculine or feminine role . Adolescence 12 20 y/o Identity vs role confusion Develop sense of competence & perseverance.learn to socialize with peers . productivity.

maintain an economic standard of living . long-lasting relationship with someone of the opposite sex 6.establish satisfactory living arrangements 4. Experiments with methods to reach goals. Juvenile 4. Later Maturity . Levinson s Seasons of Adulthood AGE 18-20 yrs 21-27 yrs 28-32 yrs 33-39 yrs 45-65 yrs SEASON Early adult transition Entrance into the adult world Transition Settling down Pay-off years CHARACTERISTICS Seeks independence by separating from family Experiments with different careers & lifestyles Makes lifestyle adjustments Experiences greater stability Is self-directed & engages in self-evaluation 5.adjust to physiological changes .adjust to physiological changes & alterations in health status . Sullivan s Interpersonal Model of Personality Development STAGE 1.5. Childhood 3.adjust to death of spouse . 4-8 months 8-12 months 12-18 months .adjust to aging parents . Develops rituals that become significant. Preadolescence 5. Differentiates goals and goal-directed activities. Middle Adulthood 6. Piaget s Phases of Cognitive Development PHASE a.assume civic responsibilities . happy adults . Infancy 2.relate one s partner . Becomes aware of external environment.meet civic & social responsibilities .adjust to retirement & altered income . Objects are perceived as extensions of the self. Early Adolescence 6. Sensorimotor Stage 1: Use of reflexes Stage 2: Primary circular reaction Stage 3: Secondary circular reaction Stage 4: Coordination of secondary schemata Stage 5: Tertiary circular reaction AGE Birth to 2 yrs Birth to 1 month 1-4 months DESCRIPTION Sensory organs & muscles become more functional Movements are primarily reflexive Perceptions center around one s body.develop affiliation with one s age group .fulfill civic & social responsibilities .become part of a social group .assist adolescent children to become responsible. Late Adolescence AGE Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 6 yrs 6 to 9 yrs 9 to 12 yrs 12 to 14 yrs 14 to 21 yrs DESCRIPTION Infant learns to rely on caregivers to meet needs & desires Child begins learning to delay immediate gratification of needs & desires Child forms fulfilling peer relationships Child relates successfully to same-sex peers Adolescent learns to be independent & forms relationships with members of opposite sex Person establishes an intimate. Initiates acts to change the movement.

LEVEL II: Conventional (9-13 years) Stage 3: Interpersonal concordance Stage 4: Law and order orientation LEVEL III: Post-conventional (13+ years) Stage 5: Social contract orientation Stage 6: Universal ethics orientation 7. Approval of others is sought through one s actions. It is wrong to violate others rights. Formal Operations 7-11 years 11+ years 6.Stage 6: Invention of new means b. not on others responses. 2-7 years 2-4 year Intuitive stage 4-7 years c. Misbehavior is viewed in terms of damage done. Recognizes connections to others. Puts needs of others ahead of own. Right is defined as that which is acceptable to & approved by the self. Authority is respected. Gilligan s Theory of Moral Development LEVEL I. Selfish. Transition 2: From Goodness to Truth . Unable to break down a whole into separate parts. Person believes that trust is basis for relationships. they are right. Increased social participation. A deed is perceived as wrong if one is punished. Goodness as Self-sacrifice CHARACTERISTICS Concentrates on what is best for self. Exhibits use of symbolism. Individual feels duty bound to maintain social order. Feels responsible for others. Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Development LEVEL AND STAGE LEVEL I: Pre-conventional (Birth to 9 years) Stage 1: Punishment & obedience orientation Stage 2: Instrumental-relativist orientation DESCRIPTION Authority figures are obeyed. The person understands the principles of human rights & personal conscience. Considers needs of self and others. Emerging ability to think Thinking tends to be egocentric. Is dependent. When actions satisfy one s needs. Learns to reason about events in the here-and-now. Able to classify objects according to one trait. Pre-operational Pre-conceptual stage 18-24 months Uses mental imagery to understand the environment. Cordial interpersonal relationships are maintained. Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract. Orientation of Individual Survival Transition Transition 1: From Selfishness to Responsibility II. Decisions based on intentions & consequences. Dependent on others. the activity is right if one is not punished. Individual understands the morality of having democratically established laws. May use guilt to manipulate others when attempting to help. Uses fantasy. Makes responsible choices in terms of self and others. Concrete Operations d. Wants to help others while being responsible to self. Behavior is right when it conforms to the rules.

1. Questions values & religious beliefs in an attempt to form own identity. mistrust Freud Oral Piaget Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) Sensorimotor (1-2 years). cognitive and moral skills develop in stages. 3. Accepts existence of a deity. Fowler s Stages of Faith STAGE Pre-stage: Undifferentiated faith Stage 1: Intuitiveprojective faith Stage 2: Mythical-literal faith AGE Infant Toddler-preschooler CHARACTERISTICS Trust. Basic tenet to hurt no one including self. Psychosexual Sigmund Freud considered sexual instincts to be significant in the development of personality. Self-judgment is not dependent on others perceptions but rather on consequences & intentions of actions. preoperational (preconceptual) (2-4 years) Preoperational (preconceptual) (2-4 years). Integrates other perspectives about faith into own definition of truth. At each stage. preoperational (intuitive) (4-7 years) Kohlberg 2. Cognitive Jean Piaget proposed four major stages of development for logical thinking. Imitates parental behaviors and attitudes about religion and spirituality. social. Accepts concept of reciprocal fairness. Each stage arises from and builds on the previous stage in an orderly fashion. Makes concepts of love & justice tangible. regions of the body assume prominent psychologic significance as source of pleasure. Moral Lawrence Kohlberg s theory of moral development is based on cognitive development and consists of three major levels.III. Psychosocial Erik Erikson s theory of psychosocial development is most widely used. Each stage has two possible components. Appreciates others viewpoints. Morality of Nonviolence Sees self and others as morally equal Assumes responsibilities for own decisions. 8. each containing two stages. children confront a crisis that requires the integration of personal needs and skills with social and cultural expectations. same and doubt Anal Preconventional Preschool (3-6 years old) Initiative vs. School-aged child Stage 3: Syntheticconventional faith Stage 4: Individuativereflective faith Stage 5: Conjunctive faith Stage 6: Universalizing faith Adolescent Late adolescent & young adult Adult Adult Theorists consider that emotional. hope and love compete with environmental inconsistencies or threats if abandonment. 4. At each stage. Has no real understanding of spiritual concepts. Stage Infancy (birth to 1 year) Toddlerhood (1-3 years old) Erikson Trust vs. Autonomy vs. Conflict between selfishness and selflessness. guilt Phallic Preconventional . Religious & moral beliefs are symbolized by stories. favorable and unfavorable. Assumes responsibility for own attitudes & beliefs.

Initiative vs. Conflict Weaning away from mother s breast Toilet training Oedipus (boys). people who were toilet-trained strictly and at an early age grow up to be intolerant of mess. . Age 0-2 years old 2-4 years old 4-5 years old 6 puberty Oral Anal Phallic Latency Name Pleasure Source Mouth: sucking. feeding. Children learn either to be self sufficient in many activities. Electra (girls) puberty onwards Genital Source: Changingminds. inferiority Latency Concrete operations (7-11 years) Formal operations (11-15 years) Conventional Identity vs. Babies learn either to trust or to mistrust that other will care for their basic needs including nourishment. warmth. cleanliness and physical contact. Musculo-anal (1-3 years) Locomotor-Genital (3-5 years) . sometimes overstepping the limits set by parents and feeling guilty. walking and talking or to doubt their own abilities. shame and doubt. For example. much of it so early that we don t even have conscious memories. guilt.org Erik Homburger Erikson Executive summary: Eight Stages of Childhood Stages Oral-Sensory (birth to 1 year) Developmental Task or Conflict to be Resolved Trust vs. mistrust. Direct sexual feelings towards others lead to sexual gratification. swallowing Anus: defecating or retaining feces Genitals Sexual urges sublimated into sports and hobbies. Children want to undertake many adultlike activities. including toileting. biting. role diffusion (confusion) Genital Postconventional Sigismund Schlomo Freud e was the first one to suggest that psychological problems might have their roots in how children were treated. Autonomy vs. Freud believed that most of our personality is formed by early childhood.School Age (6-12 years) Adolescence (12-18 years) Source: Lippincott s Review Series Industry vs. Same-sex friends also help avoid sexual feelings Physical sexual changes Social Rules reawaken repressed needs. disorder and anything that doesn t go by the rules of how things are supposed to be. sucking.

They establish sexual. performing meaningful work. Adolescents try to figure out Who Am I? . either seeing life as a meaningful whole or despairing at goals never reached and questions never answered. role confusion. Middle aged adults are productive. or become stagnant and inactive. Identity vs. Children busily learn to be competent and productive or feel inferior and unable to do anything well. or are confused about what future roles to play. Older adults try to make sense out of their lives. Generativity vs. Integrity vs. inferiority.Latency ( 6-11 years) Industry vs. Young adults seek companionship and love with another person or become isolated from others. despair. Intimacy vs. and raising a family. and career identities. stagnation. ethnic. Adolescence (12-18 years) Young Adulthood (19-35 years) Adulthood (35-50 years) Maturity (50+ years) . isolation.

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