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**Kolkata Campus Consumer Behaviour
**

Report on the Study of the Effects of Anti-Tobacco activities on the Smoking Behaviour and Attitude of Young People

Submitted to: Prof. Saikat Banerjee

Date: 8th March, 2011 Submitted by Group 3 AdityaAdavi ArnavMathur PiyushAgarwal SaurabhMitra (04) (10) (24) (33) (34) (38) (40) (48)

ShashankKyatanavar SiddharthDeswal SukeshChande Ankur Gupta

Vedvyas (49)

......... ................................................................. 18 Findings and Conclusion...................................... ................................................................ ................ ................ ....................................... ...... ........................................ .................... 6 Analysis .................. .................................................................... ................................. ........................ ............ 8 Employed vs...... .............. . ... ............... ....... 14 Smoking Age ...... ........... .. .............................................. .............. Student .................... .............................................. 6 Sample Size ..... ....... ................ 4 Research Approach ................. ................................................ ........ 5 Methodology ................................................................ .......... ................ .........Contents Executive Summary........... ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Chi Square Test........................... ................................................................ ...... .............. ..................................... ..................... ........................... .................... 16 Paired Difference Test .. ............... ................. 12 Residence........ 10 Economic Status.................................. ................................ .......... ......................................................................... 8 Age Group................................. ................... ................................................................................ ............................................. ......................... ................................................................................................................. ..................................... 19 2 ................................................ .................................... ....... .......... 6 Target Sample .......... 3 Introduction .....

pictorial warnings on all tobacco products etc. By youth we mean individuals in the age range of 17 to 35 years. To counter this and to make the public aware of the adverse effects of smoking and other forms of consumption of tobacco. For instance we would like to see if the ban on public smoking has actually caused someone to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked or maybe even quit smoking altogether. But the effectiveness of these campaigns has been a major question mark. Our main purpose of carrying out this study is to find out if these campaigns have brought about any changes in the smoking behaviour of the youth. We received 130 responses which were analysed using the chi square test and the paired difference test. The number of smokers in India has been on the rise for quite some time now. the government of India came out with a few anti tobacco campaigns such as the ban on public smoking. But still a lot of people continue to consume tobacco in some form or the other (cigarettes and bidis beings some of the most common forms). 3 .Executive Summary It is a very well-known fact that consumption of tobacco is injurious to health. The research was carried out on the smoking youth segment.

primarily industrially manufactured but also hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. Our main focus would be on the youth segment. hookahs. In response to these the government has resorted to various anti-tobacco activities which include: y Ban on public smoking o India imposed a ban on smoking in public spaces on 2nd October 2010. bidis. y No ads on smoking o Tobacco advertising has been banned in India from 1st May 2004. cigars. The harmful effects/ diseases caused by smoking include vascular stenosis. vaporizers and bongs.Introduction The practice of burning and inhaling tobacco smoke is referred to as smoking. We classify the youth segment as the people aged between 17 and 35 years. y Pictorial and graphical warnings on cigarette packs o The pictorial warning on cigarette and tobacco products highlighting adverse effects of smoking and using tobacco products have been implemented from 31st May 2009. lung cancer. heart attacks and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 4 . y Government taxes o Excise duty on cigarettes went up by 10-18% in February 2010. Other smoking implements include pipes. Through this study we aim to find out the effects that the above mentioned anti-tobacco activities have had on the smoking behaviour of the youth in India. The active substances such as nicotine provide pleasure to the smokers.The most common method of smoking today is through cigarettes.

the questionnaire is formed which is then used to collect data from a sample. Data Collection and Analysis o Based on the answers obtained from the respondents in the pilot survey. This data will then be analysed using the chi-square test and the paired difference test in order to find out if these anti-tobacco activities have had any effect on the smoking behaviour of the youth.Research Approach To carry out the research we need to perform a certain set of activities. The results from this pilot survey help us in the formulation of the questionnaire which will be used in the next stage of the research. This research can be broadly classified into two activities: Pilot Survey: o This stage of the research includes observing the behaviour of the people smoking as well as approaching them and asking a few questions related to their smoking as well as any anti-tobacco activities that they might be aware of. 5 .

people aged between 17 and 35 years. has been divided into different sub groups based on various factors.e. The groups formed are based on: y Age Group o o o o 17-21 22-25 26-30 31-35 y Whether they are employed or a student o o Employed Student y Economic Status o o o Low Middle Rich 6 . our main focus is on the youth segment.Methodology As mentioned earlier. That is. Target Sample The sample consists of smokers aged between 17 and 35 years. Hence the data that has been used for the analysis is purely primary data. The data collected.) This study had been done by conducting a survey with smokers (consumers of tobacco) directly (primary data) through a questionnaire (to get direct information). We make sure that the age of the respondents does not exceed 35 years and we also make sure that the respondents are people who consume tobacco in some form (cigarettes. bidis etc. a sample size of 130. Sample Size 130 samples have been collected to analyse and reach a conclusion i.

By obtaining this data we can find out if there is any difference in the number of cigarettes smoked before and after the introduction of the anti-tobacco activities. No change in the number would mean that the campaigns did not result in any reduction of any sort. Apart from the Chi-Square tests.rented place in the same city or a different one etc. we have also made use of the paired difference tests to measure the overall effect of the anti-tobacco activities. residence. To perform this test we have asked the respondents the approximate number of cigarettes that they used to smoke before they were aware of the antitobacco activities and the number of cigarettes that they smoke as of now.y Residence o o Home Away from home (hostel. 7 .) y Smoking age o o o o Less than 1 year 1-3 years 3-5 years More than 5 years By dividing the sample into the above mentioned groups we can find out for each of the anti tobacco activity if it has any dependence on the factors (age group. economic status. For example we can test if the effect of the ban on public smoking and the age group are independent of each other. This would give us an idea about the effects that these campaigns have had on the smokers.). etc.PG.

93536891 p value ¨¢ ¦¢ ©¢ ¢¢¡ ©¢ ©¨§ ¦¢ 1 10 5 2 ect Reduced ti T Not Reduced cco 3 64 31 13 ¦¦¥ ¤£¢¡ 8 . only one has reduced his cigarette consumption because of the ban on public smoking.42339231 0.Analysis Chi Square Test As mentioned above data collected has been divided into many groups based on various factors. H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and the age group H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and the age g roup Test Statistic 6. Age Group Effect of Ban on Public Smoking 17-21 22-25 26-30 31-35 Effect of Ban on Public Smoking Reduced Not Reduced 1 20 11 9 3 54 26 6 Age Group Reduced refers to the number of people who say that the Ban on Public Smoking has caused them to reduce the number of cigarettes that they smoked. in the age group 17 -21.46037789 0. Let us look at each of those factors individually. Effect of Ban on Promotion of Tobacco Age 17-21 22-25 26-30 31-35 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and the age group H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and the age group Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value. out of the 4 respondents.09123827 Chi-Square p-value E! 0. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis. For instance.

Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.E! 0.76029224 p value E! 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value. C C C C 17 22 26 31 21 25 30 35 1 16 8 4 B Redu ed GF F ED Effec f I crease i Not Redu ed ax 3 58 26 11 0# (% '' & 9 ' $ (# # B '& # & 0& )% '% %% # % $# - ! " 4 4 23 21 Eff t of i tori l w rnings N tR c ! 9 8 76 A AA A U T SR W WW W QPE I H 51 @ V .20675893 0.97649087 p value E! 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.16965032 0. Effect of Increase in Tax A e r H0: There is no dependence between the effect of increase in tax and the age group H1: There is dependence between the effect of increase in tax and the age group Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 0. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis. Effect of Pictorial Warning R Ag roup c H0: There is no dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and the age group H1: There is dependence between the effect of pictorial warning and the age group Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 1.

05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.04876612 0.37864625 E! 0. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis. wvvyw w w w w w yx w vu t Ya cYe ` Empl yed r de Eff Reduced t f r m ti Not Reduced 12 6 X ga `fe dcb a` a f `Y X 52 37 u w u w q p ih s ss s ` r 68 44 10 . Student Effect of ban on public smoking Redu ed Effec Employed Student f Ba l ic Not Redu ed 28 13 ki H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and whether they are employed or a student H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and whether they are employed or a student Tes S a is ic Chi. Effect of ban on promotion of tobacco Em l r t t Em loyed Student H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and whether they are employed or a student H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and whether they are employed or a student Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 0.Employed vs.82522439 p value E! 0.77509249 p value 0.u r 0. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.

Effect of Increase in Tax Reduced Em l r t t Em loyed Student H0: There is no dependence between the effect of increase in tax and whether they are employed or a student H1: There is dependence between the effect of increase in tax and whether they are employed or a student Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 0.73534779 t Eff t f I r as i Not Reduced 16 13 ax 64 37 11 . Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis. j i f f gi h gf e ifmo n h mf lh k d dd d s r qp u uu u Tes S a is ic u r 0.33981308 0.Effect of Pictorial Warnings Reduced Employed Employed or Student Student Effect of Pictorial warnings Not Reduced 21 11 59 39 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and whether they are employed or a student H1: There is dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and whether they are employed or a student Chi- p value E! 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.55993714 p value E! 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.11425781 0.

Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis. Effect of ban on promotion of tobacco Effect of Ban on Pro otion of Tobacco Reduced N t Reduced 0 7 11 Econo i c Status Low Middle Rich H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and the economic status H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and the economic status Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 1.42593006 p value E! 0. 37322564 Chi S E! 0. p- zw y x wv Eff t of an on ubli moking Not Reduced 1 18 22 8 34 47 z ~}| { 9 45 58 12 .05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.97114424 .70696026 0.Economic Status Effect of ban on Public Smoking Reduced Economic tatus Low Middle Rich H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and the economic status H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and the economic status Test t t st re 1.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.

44038838 0. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.Effect of Pictorial Warnings Reduced Economic tatus Low Middle Rich Eff ct of i ctorial warnings Not Reduced 0 15 17 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and the economic status H1: There is dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and the economic status Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 3.2109094 0. ¤ £ ¢¡ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ Ec m ic a s Low Middle Ri h 0 16 13 Redu ed Effec f I crease i Not Redu ed 9 37 52 ¥ ax 9 36 56 13 . Effect of Increase in Tax H0: There is no dependence between the effect of increase in tax and the economic status H1: There is dependence between the effect of increase in tax and the economic status Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 5.17903138 p value E! 0. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.07386954 p value E! 0.

72585382 Chi S p- E! 0.00501107 0.Residence Effect of Ban on Public Smoking Reduced Effect of an on Public Smoking Not Reduced 12 29 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and the place of residence H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and the place of residence Test t t st re 0. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis. ¶ Residence Home A ay · § Residence Home A ay ¨ 25 64 µ´ ´ ³ ² ÄÃ Ã Â Á ¬«ª © »º¹ ¸ ±°¯® À¿¾½¼ 33 79 14 .05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis. Effect of Ban on Promotion of Tobacco Effect of an on Promotion of Tobacco Reduced Not Reduced 4 14 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and the place of residence H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and the place of residence Test t t st re 0.12295273 0.94356578 Chi S p- E! 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.

Effect of Increase in Tax Reduced Effect of Increase in Tax Not Reduced 8 21 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of increase in tax and the place of residence H1: There is dependence between the effect of increase in tax and the place of residence Test t t st re 0.03133452 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value.9085035 Chi S p- E! 0. Ì Residence Home A ay Å Residence Home A ay 28 70 ÙØ Ø × Ö É È ÇÆ Ë ËË Ë ÐÏÎ Í ÕÔÓÒÑ Ê 29 72 15 .01320807 0.Effect of Pictorial Warnings Reduced Effect of Pictorial warnings Not Reduced 9 23 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and the place of residence H1: There is dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and the place of residence Chi- Tes S a is ic u r 0. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.85949615 p value E! 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.

5774192 Chi S p- E! 0.yrs more than yrs Eff ct of Ban on ublic moking Not Reduced 12 9 8 12 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and the smoking age H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on public smoking and the smoking age Test t t st re 1. ö ø î îí Smoki A e ñ Ý ë Ü ð í Û 19 15 23 32 ï ë Ú Ú ì ì êé é è ç Û õôó ò ø÷ áàß Þ æåäãâ 19 21 31 41 16 . Therefore we reject the null hypothesis. 055278 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be less than the E value. And we can observe that people who have started smoking recently (smoking age < 1 year) are the ones who have reduced smoking after a ban has been placed on the promotion on tobacco.Smoking Age Effect of Ban on Public Smoking Reduced Smoking Ag Less than 1 yr 1-3 yrs 3. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be greater than the E value. Effect of Ban on Promotion of Tobacco Effec of Ba on romotion of obacco Redu ed Not Redu ed Less than 1 yr 12 1 3 yrs 3 3 5 yrs 0 more than 5 yrs 3 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and the smoking age H1: There is dependence between the effect of ban on promotion of tobacco and the smoking age T t Stati tic re 22.97592198 0.000042 C i-S p-value E! 0.

04381161 © © © § ¦ ¥¤ © Chi- p value E! 0.yrs more than yrs ¢ ¢ Eff ct of Incr as in Tax Not Reduced 12 6 6 5 £ £ £ H0: There is no dependence between the effect of increase in tax and the smoking age H1: There is dependence between the effect of increase in tax and the smoking age Tes S a is ic u r 8.10901502 0.Effect of Pictorial Warnings Reduced Smoking Ag Less than 1 yr 1-3 yrs 3.yrs more than yrs Eff ct of i ctorial warnings Not Reduced 13 10 2 7 H0: There is no dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and the smoking age H1: There is dependence between the effect of pictorial warnings and the smoking age Tes S a is ic u r 16. Effect of Increase in Tax Reduced Smoking Ag Less than 1 yr 1-3 yrs 3. And we can observe that people who have started smoking recently (smoking age < 1 year) are the ones who have reduced smoking after the pictorial warnings on the cigarette packs have been in place. And we can observe that people who have started smoking recently (smoking age < 1 year) are the ones who have reduced smoking after there has been an increase in the price of the cigarettes due to an increase in tax.00109143 ¡ ¡ ¡ Chi- p value E! 0. Therefore we reject the null hypothesis. û ú 18 14 29 37 ù ù ú £ ÿ þ ýü ¡ ¨ 19 18 25 39 17 .0810027 0.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be less than the E value. Therefore we reject the null hypothesis.05 The p-value obtained by performing the Chi-square test is coming out be less than the E value.

We have used these answers to find out if the campaigns have been successful in causing a reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked or not. 6154 QD Stdev.05.Paired Difference Test In the questionnaire we have asked to respondents to give the approximate number of cigarettes that they smoked before and after they were aware of the anti-tobacco activities. of Difference 2. 18 .7672 Do not Reject H0 Assumption Populations Normal The data obtained has been analysed using the paired difference test with the hypothesis as: H0: The difference in the means is equal to zero H1: The difference in the means in not equal to zero At a = 0. 2967 t Sample1 . The analysis is shown below.36497 s D Note: Difference has been defined as Test Statistic . since the p-value is coming out to be greater than the E value we do not reject the null hypothesis.. In short that means that the campaigns have had no effect on the smoking behaviour of the youth.. Evidence Size 130 n Average Difference .Sample2 df 129 Hypothesis Testing At an E of Null Hypothesis p -value 5% H0: Q 1 Q 2 = 0 0. Therefore we can say that there hasn t been any significant change in the number of cigarettes smoked before and after being aware of the anti-tobacco campaigns.

The average number is cigarettes smoked before and after being aware of the campaigns remains the same. o This means that those who are new to smoking (smoking age < 1 year) and the ones who can be influenced with the help of these campaigns. 19 . y The effect that the anti-tobacco activities have had is dependent on the smoking age of the respondent. y And from the paired difference test we can conclude that the anti-tobacco activities have not resulted in any change in the smoking behaviour of the youth in India. these campaigns do not seem to affect them. y People who are new to smoking are the ones that can be influenced by these campaigns. Once people turn in experienced smokers. And from the finding of the survey we can come to a few conclusions: y The anti-tobacco activities/ campaigns introduced by the government have not been successful in causing a reduction in the average number of cigarettes smoked. Therefore the government and the NGOs should target the younger population (schools and colleges) to make these campaigns more effective. we have found out the following: y The effect that the anti-tobacco activities have had is the same: o o o o Over different age groups Whether the respondents are employed or students Over people from different economic status Whether the respondents stay at home or away from home y The effect that has been observed is that these activities have not caused in any sort of reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked. The number of people who have reduced smoking after being exposed to these campaigns is very less compared to the number of people who have not reduced.Findings and Conclusion From the results obtained after performing the chi-square tests and the paired difference test.

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