Lesson Plans 1-2 (Week 1-2) Chapter One: The study of the morphological structure of English 1.

Learning Objectives Upon completing this chapter, students are expected to be able to: 1.1 Identify the morpheme base affixes allomorph and morph. 1.2 Identify the types of morpheme morph. 1.3 Identify the function of morpheme base affixes, allomorph and 1.4 Use the morpheme base affixes, allomorph and morph in 1.5 Be aware of different types of allomorphs in words. 2. Topics of Content 2.1 What is Morpheme? 2.2 What is Segmentation? 2.3 Types of Morpheme 2.4 Base English correctly.

2.5 Affixes and Affixation 2.6 Allomorph 2.7 Morph

3. Teaching and Learning Method 4.1 Lectures 4.2 Brainstorming 4.3 Discussions 4.4 Assignment

4.5 Presentations

4. Teaching Materials 4.1 Main textbook 4.2 Supplementary materials 4.3 Transparencies 4.4 Charts 4.5 Worksheet 4.6 Textbooks 4.7 English Dictionary 5. Measurement and Evaluation Students will be evaluated on: 5.1 Exercise in the book 5.2 Small test

5.3 Observation of the learners attention and participation

Chapter One The Study of the Morphological Structure of English According to traditional linguistic theories, grammatical description

largely operates on two important units: the word and the sentence. These two units form the basis of the differing writing systems in various languages of the world. In order to make the study of meaningful linguistic elements simpler

and more explicit, it has been found convenient to postulate abstract

entities called ‘morphemes’ in somewhat the same way in which and more explicit.

phonemics were postulated to make the study of speech sounds simpler In English, the smallest grammatical unit is the morpheme (which is

unstructured) and each higher unit is made up of units immediately below it. The highest grammatical unit is the sentence which includes all the smaller units. Thus, morphemes function in the word structure, word and clause structure in the complex sentence structure. The diagram below shows this hierarchical arrangement of syntactic structure in English.

structures in the group structure, group structures in the clause structure,

Sentence Clause Group

Word Morpheme

What is Morpheme? with the structure of words. It is the study of words – words which exhibit arrangements of morphemes. The study of word–formation or the language. structure of words in a language is called the morphology of that The definition of the morpheme may not be completely unassailable Morpheme, an important division of the grammar of a language, deals

as will be evident from the discussion that follows, but it is certainly a language. Some linguists describe morphemes as the ‘smallest recurrent

very satisfying definition applicable to a majority of words in any elements of grammatical patterning’ and leave meaning out of the definition. The word ‘receive’ may be regarded as one morpheme; if broken down into smaller units, ‘re’ and ‘ceive’, one can claim that ‘ceive’ is grammatically significant and recurs in a slightly different form, cept, in adjective such as receptive, perceptive, perceptual, etc. Similarly, the following words may be split up into two units: conceive (con, ceive), transport (trans, port), report (re, port), export (ex, port), perceive (per, accepted by many other linguists since it totally excludes meaning. ceive), etc. This represents one point of view, but not one which is The morpheme is the second basic unit in the expression system of

a language, the first being the ‘phoneme’. A morpheme may be defined

as the smallest meaningful unit in the structure of a language. It cannot be sub-divided without destroying or drastically changing its meaning. For example, ‘man’/µ { ν / is a morpheme. We cannot subdivided it into /m-

and also the form -s is a morpheme. It recurs in differing verbal environment with a relatively stable The words 'bats' for example. and n/ or /m/ +/{ / + /n/ because every time we do so. Likewise if may . The English word unassailable is made up of three morphemes. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language. each one of which has a particular meaning distribution and a particular phonological form or shape. Therefore the unit /m{ n/ is a morpheme. 2. assail. A word consists of at least one morpheme. the form bat is a morpheme. has two morphemes. Look at the following words. Carpet is a minimal meaningful unit by itself. the word ‘garbage’ is a single morpheme while the word ‘grab’ and ‘age’ are independent morphemes by themselves. The word ‘unlikely’ has 3 morphemes while the word ‘carpet’ is a single morpheme. able. the smallest meaningful unit of English language./+/ / { units of language having meaning quite different from the meaning given by /m{ n/. The bat means "a kind of animal" and the -s means "there are more than one". A systematic study of morphemes or how morphemes join to form words is known as morphology. consist of two or more morphemes. we get morpheme is a short segment of language that meets three criteria: 1. The word ‘carpet’ has nothing to do with the meaning of ‘car’ and ‘pet’. un. It is a word or a part of a word that has meaning. 3. The word ‘car’ and ‘pet’ are independent morphemes in themselves. Again. It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless remainders. meaning.

Consider the following sentences. Such a morpheme will be boys). . Deer are in the park.s = women Ø boys A meaningful linguistic unit which is said to be minimal – unable to be further divided or broken into smaller meaningful parts is called a morpheme. Dealing with the study. A deer is in the park. cats. Women are in the class. But the plural form is /Ø/ which is a variant form of the plural morpheme. The nouns underlined consist of noun + Some morphemes have no clear shape. Ø woman + plural = woman + boy boy + plural .kind kind ful un kind ful un kind ful = = = ness = one morpheme two morphemes four morphemes kindful kind three morphemes Unkindful Unkindfulness called "Zero" or /Ø/. deer : plural + deer plural (like dogs. A woman is in the class. description and classification of morphemes in morphemic.

we shall have the word unreadable. Examples: . consists of three morphemes. and a minimal unit of grammatical function –s passed knowingly watches But there are several words which can either not be segmented (indeterminate) at all. and if a conventional construction is to be adjective meaning not able to be read. or are only partially determinate with respect to segment.Units of word building such as the prefix un.” Examples: boys playing unable boy-s play-ing un-able pass-ed know-ing-ly watch-es A large number of words can be broken down into segments and (meaning ‘person who does something’). another minimal unit of meaning is re.(meaning ‘again’). meaning George Yule gave the definition of a morpheme as “a minimal unit of or grammatical function”.the base or stem read and suffix . The police reopened the investigation. and a minimal unit of grammatical function is – ed (indicating past tense). What is Segmentation? are said to be “determinate with respect to segmentation. tour.able are morphemes since they are meaningful and unable to be segmented further. There is one minimal unit of meaning. another minimal unit of meaning –ist (indicating plural). The word tourists also contain three morphemes. an ‘reopened’ in the sentence. One minimal unit of meaning is open. We would say that the word formed of these morphemes.

comparative and superlative degrees of the adjectives in question. mice. The problems of segmentation in all such words may vary in kind as well as in degree. comparative and superlative functions being marked by factors x. best and shortest too are alike as they express the superlative degree of the adjective. sheep. children.e. better. took. Now suppose.best. short by b. or distributional factors of words are morphemes. Thus. worst.e. sung. we can express the relationship as a proportion of grammatical (or distributional) equivalence: good : better : best :: short : shorter : shortest Good and short are both adjectives and the expression better and shorter are grammatically alike in the sense that they both express only the comparative degree of the adjective. good) in them and those on the right hand side have the component b (i. went. brought. All these components. yet the words better and went cannot be segmented into parts (as lower and walked) as per the given definition of the term morphemes. broke. on an analogy from algebra. Components x. short) in them. the word good being denoted by the factor a. worse. but may merely have a factorial role as indicated above. y and z stand to mark the positive. the above equation can be rewritten as: ax : ay : az :: bx : by : bz All the three words on the left hand side have the component a (i. there the positive. y and z respectively. men. Similarly. a morpheme may not necessarily be a part of a segment of a word. Since we know that better has the same grammatical function vis-a-vis good as shorter has vis-a-vis short. we resolve each of the six words given above into factors/components. . This presents a serious problem. Although better and went stand in the same grammatical relationship with good and go and as lower and walked have with low and walk.

s .ed in in in in in loved beautiful mistake dogs goodness . This is a free morpheme. A bound morpheme. replay. cannot be uttered alone with meaning. run. can. and must be attached to words i.g. girl. unlike the free. bad. antedate. quickly. manly. of. The morpheme .e. The underlined morphemes in the examples are all and un-. unable. Morphemes in English can be classified into two categories: free For instance. A free morpheme is one that can be uttered alone with meaning. for one would not utter in isolation forms like ante-. enlarge. the.2 A bound morpheme A bound morpheme is dependent as it is always attached to another morpheme. re-. in reply to “What are you going to do now?” you might answer “Eat”. The bound morphemes are those that cannot occur alone. -ly. have. singing. bound.er. replace. etc.1 Free morphemes A free morpheme is independent for it can occur alone by itself as a word in the language.ness . widen. 2. etc. e. you. I. two. It is always annexed to one keeper.miss .ful . 2.Types of Morphemes morphemes and bound morphemes. . love. or more morphemes to form a word. Free morphemes are those that can occur alone: dog. good. Most bases occur independently as free morphemes and few For example: bases are bound morphemes. Affixes are bound morphemes as they always occur with bases.

or) Articles (the. postscript ex- in in in in in in neopostin unhappy dislike replay antedate ex-president. prepostpaid. a) Preposition Affixes Base Suffixes -s BOUND Contracted Bound Forms Adjectives Adverbs ‘ll Demonstrative (this.ize .ify cran . Classification of Morphemes MORPHEMES FREE MORPHEMES MOREPHEMES Noun Verbs Conjunctions (and. preview. in in neo-Latin. prepay. ex-wife. predate. pre-test. midterm. preschool. preflight. that) Prefixes re- undis- . neopost-war.‘d ‘ive ‘s . exmiddle. midnight Nazi. neoclassic.unre- disantechild midmidday. prefix.

lovable. Here is a tree diagram showing the morphological analysis of the word ‘unknowingly’: Unknowingly affix base un-knowingly for example. morphemes like un-. and most of them in English are free Another classification of morpheme puts them into two classes: bases morphemes. childhood. disagree. ‘dissent’. morphemes such as happy. contains the free base read and the two affixes –abil. pretest. -hood. In the words like unhappy. like. etc. The underlined morphemes in these words are bases: denial. and ‘unmistakable’ has the free base take and the affixes un-. ‘Readability’. A base morpheme is the part of a word that has the principal meaning. reenter. cannot stand on morpheme. dis-. Morphemes such as dis-. On the their won as independent words. –ity. and ‘assent’.en and affixes. -ed. disregarded. -ed.misBases . A word may contain one base and several affixes. and –able. A base is a morpheme which is the core of the word that contains the word’s basic meaning. annoyance. mis-. manly. Bases are very numerous. regarded and child can stand on their own as independent words. -hood are also called bound affixes.sent in ‘consent’. They are always attached to a free other hand. un-. Such morphemes are called free morphemes.and . etc. The form to which an affix is attached is called a base. but some are bound.

act  actor affix The bound morphemes.A Prefix unimenil-legal Base Base affix -ing (knowing) (- Set . are called “affix” and base word .B friendship childhood girls nicely nice friend child girl -ly Suffix -s unhappy ship immobile hood enable illegal -happy -mobile -able the words to which the affixes are added.base affix ly) stem (root) know Affixes and Affixation Affixes base). are called “base word” (free morpheme). in word–formation. may be divided into prefixes (which appear at the beginning of the base) and suffixes (with appear at the end of the Consider the following sets: Set .

both nouns. and those that are added at the end of words are called affix prefix + base word + suffix base. play and replay. adjective from noun. verb from adjective.g. (Derivational affixes can be both prefixes and suffixes).g. Those that have to be added at the beginning of words are called “suffixes”. The affixes in English can be arranged into two groups: inflectional and derivational. They do not pile up (only one speaking . on the other hand.play  affix replay base word The word “affix” is a general term that means either prefix or suffix. for example slide hot boy speak slides hotter (both verbs) (both adjectives) (both verbs) An affix is a bound morpheme that occurs before or within or after a boys (both nouns) They come last in a word and appear only as suffixes. girl and girlhood. “prefixes”. is the process by which new word belong to the same class (e. able and enable. Inflection is a change made in the form of a word to express its relation to other words in the sentence. dance and dancer. noun from verb). both verbs) and is class-changing if the two words belong to different categories (e. Inflectional suffixes do not change the class of the word. An affix does not carry the principal meaning but is added to a free or a bound base to change the meaning of the base or to mark a grammatical function. reason and seasonal. Derivation.

More examples of inflectional suffixes classified according to a part of Noun inflectional suffixes a. Possessive marker-’s Samran – Samran’s (Samran’s pen) Verb inflectional suffixes c. Plural marker –s girl – girls (The girls are here) b. inflectional suffixes go with all stems of a given part of speech.g. Third person present singular marker –s bake – bakes (She bakes well) d. Progressive marker -ing play – playing (They are playing) f. higher. written. books. Past tense marker – ed walk – walked (We walked here yesterday) e. Also. Part participle markers –en or –ed eat – eaten . e.ends a word). for example Verbs come sing see comes sings benches sees cold tall short Adjectives colder taller shorter girl pen bench Nouns girls pens speech.

which are: prefixes. unlike the situation with derivational affixes. Prefixes in English are a small class of morpheme. Prefixes in English usually modify the meaning of the base form. reconsider. The following are some of the active prefixes. two . as in import. Comparative marker –er fast – faster (She is faster than you) h. and suffixes: Prefixes are those bound morphemes that occur before a base. bi-plane co-passenger twice.(She has eaten mango) bake – baked (He has baked a cake) Adjective inflectional suffixes g. prefix. Kinds of affixes There are three kinds of affixes. Superlative marker –est fast –fastest (She is fastest) English has only the inflectional affixes listed above. infixes. Prefix antibiarchcoApproximate Meaning against chief with Examples arch-enemy anti-people bi-monthly. together with their approximate meaning. and all inflectional affixes in English are suffixes (none are prefixes. numbering about seventy-five. unhappy. which include both suffixes and prefixes). Their meanings are often those of English prepositions and adverbial.

maltreat miniskirt misbehave pan-Indian predegree non-committal postgraduate pro-capitalist pseudo-intellectual quasi-passive regain semi-circle. seeming(ly) back. without contra-dication counter-move decentralize emplane encircle equidistant disable former outside Iabnormally high mnrnot ex-president hyper-sensitive illogical extra-constitutional hyperi + immobilise invisible irresponsible interintramalmismininonpanprepropseudoquasiresemisubsuperpost- between within small not not all after before sham favouring half. bad(ly) inter-college intra-college maladjustment. away in.contrade- counterdisemenexequiextra- against against from. on equal away. semi-final sub-committee super-diplomat very high degree . again half under defective.

-s.before another prefix. replacing the –oo. nails. Suffixes may pile up to the number of three of four. for example shrinkage.of goose. A suffix can occur after another suffix but not directly after a prefix. when suffixes multiply like this. (placed) under (with nn) under-secretary next below vice-president Infixes are bound morphemes that have been inserted within a word.transtriultraun- across three not excessively trans-continental tri-junction unusual ultra-modern undervice- not sufficiently (with vbs. noisy. failure. like the –o. -ize. but. except for the negative un. their order is fixed: there is one and only one order in which they occur. whereas prefixes are commonly single. In ‘normalizes’ we perhaps reach the limit with four: the base norm plus the four suffixes –al. Occasionally they are additions within a word. and (b) the others that are used to derive new words from the base form. -er. and more often in the past tense and past participles of verbs. Like the –ee. Suffixes are bound morphemes that occur after a base.in geese. realize.) under-estimate. dreamed. infixes in English are most commonly replacements.of chose and chosen replacing the –ooof choose. According to these two functions the first group is called grammatical or Inflectional Suffixes and the second group is called lexical or Derivational Suffixes. They occur in a few noun plurals. . Suffixes are generally divided into two classes: (a) those that serve some grammatical functions. not additions. although in English these are rare.

as in many other languages.g. However. Latin. English uses inflection only for a few limited purposes. or for other grammatical functions snf are called the Inflectional forms of the words. unlike some highly inflected languages (e. words are sometimes . etc. Sanskrit. boy n  boys n modified or changed to meet grammatical requirements. For instance. or comparison.Classification of Affixes to their effect on the base. uncountable Adj. the word ‘like’ in Dogs like meat. understand v  misunderstand v countable  adj. past tense. Inflectional affixes meanings such as plurality. and this is usually done by adding inflectional suffixes to the base form. They do not change the word class of the base to which they are attached. They are: In English.) where even entire sentence can be squeezed into a single inflected form. The forms are so changed or modified to indicate their connection with or dependence on other words in the sentence. Inflectional affixes are those that do not change words (to which For example: Inflectional affixes are bound morphemes that mark grammatical Affixes may be classified as derivational and inflectional according they are added) from one word – class or subclass to another.

thus done by adding –s or –es to the base form in writing. will. shall.s /and /Ø/ the form –s is used if the subject of the sentence is singular with a third person in the present tense. the form /Ø/ will be used if the subject of the sentence is plural or I. The tense affix in English is divided into two kinds: present and past. (i) The present tense affix in a verb has two forms: /.1. Tense affixes a verb which is the first element in the predicative structure. may. must. you or if the sentence consists f modal (M) Subject A girl She Men They You A girl She Modal  take take have + + Predicate takes my pen has a book take my books have books have one book may take my pen can have a book can. You. or if the sentence consists of modal (M) singular present tense affix /-s/ if the subject of sentence is The tense affix is used by adding it at the end of an auxiliary or /-Ø/ if the subject of sentence is plural or I.  present -s present takes  have .

went The form of the past tense affix will be shown at the first element she + go + past + to + Lomsak A sentence : Is the string : The girl opened a letter. therefore. girl The plural affix taking the form chair -s girls chairs . namely: have Ø (ii) The past tense affix has two forms: -ed and Ø ed past tense affix Ø of the predicative structure of a sentence.The allomorphs of this morpheme too are phonetically identical with the plural and case-suffixes and occur under similar phonetic contexts. the + girl + open + past + a letter open open + past . For examples A sentence : Is the string : She went to Lomsak. it is the suffix. for a countable noun. The plural affix has two forms :/-s/ and /Ø/ .ed opened  opened (iii) The plural affix is added at the end of the word.

Ø deer fish sheep men dogs pens The plural affix taking form deer fish sheep man child + plural Ø  woman goose etc. A sentence: (be + ing) She is coming be + present tense affix is are am The previous sentence is the string: . affix Ø plural (iv) The affix – ing usually occurs together with ‘be’ in a sentence.dog pen etc. + plural (-s)  etc. children women geese -s etc.

ed. (v) The participle affix usually occurs together with ‘have’ in a sentence (have + participle). is inflectional in the continuous (progressive) tense of the verb. Since both of these are identical in form and sometimes ‘the –ing form’ of a verb.g. For instance. no –ing form) regularly take the –ing suffix to form the present participle and the gerund. talk cut A sentence: He has been here.She + be + present + come + ing She + be + . he + have + present + be + participle + here + + participle participle participle = = = talked spoken cut speak + . See the following sentences: We have talked in the park. e. You have spoken in class. -en and /Ø/. the participle affix has three forms: . Seeing is believing (here the suffix is used to derive the two nominals). I have cut the paper. they are conveniently labelled as The suffix is regarded as inflectional when its function is purely grammatical. It becomes a derivational functional suffix when the resultant form has an adjectival or nominal function. All full verbs and the auxiliaries ‘Be’ and ‘have’ (auxiliary ‘Do’ has difficult to distinguish grammatically.s + come + ing is She is coming. A rolling stone gathers no moss (here the suffix is used to derive the adjectival).

and it can even be added to nouns: e..g.1 Nearly all one syllable adjectives: big/ bigger small /smaller younger long/ longer young/ short/shorter.g. etc. e. They are also regularly added to any new verb acquired by the language. They are: /t/ : /d/ : after a voiced sound except /d/. The adjectives that take the comparative affix are the following: The comparative affix ‘– er’ is added to many 2. 2.has Participle affix -ed -en Ø been three different forms can be added to the base. they are inflectional.g. and therefore in these functions. these suffixes may be grammatical functions in the formation of the tenses (simple past and functions.g. the because the great majority of the English verbs use them. bearded. . and after a voiceless sound except /t/. e. Comparative affix adjectives and a few adverbs. begged The participle forms of regular verbs are spelt –d or –ed. e. seated . The verbs which take these suffixes are called ‘regular verbs’ –ing form) is sometimes used in a purely adjectival function. e. blooded.. the past participle form (like the wanted man. sounded inflectional or derivational according to their As in the case of the –ing suffix. They have the perfect tense) and in passivisation. looked /id/ : after /t/ or /d/. talented (cold). On the other hand. In this function it is derivational.g.

the word the is inserted before the adjective or adverb. Somyos is old.2 A number of two–syllable adjectives. Result: = Somyos is old + er + than + Samran is old Somyos is older than Samran is. which is then followed by the superlative affix – est. = Somyos is older than Samran. Amy is hopeful. two sentences. Albert was wise. For most adjectives of two syllables and all of more than two + of of and the subject of the inserted . unfriendly/ unfriendlier.in – y: dirty/dirtier.3 Three – syllable adjectives made by adding the prefix un. particularly those ending 2. 2. more must be used instead of . happy/happier. are put together with suffix – er the word than to form a result sentence. each with the words of the second group: unhappy /unhappier. Superlative affix in the Superlative Transformer. Samran is old. them were wise. The comparative with more except the un. Result: Albert was + the + wise + est+ of + all = Albert was the wisest of all of them = Albert was the wisest. All of them were wise. friendly /friendlier. the word sentence.type.er Robert is hopeful.to In Comparative transformation . same adjective or adverbs in the predicate.

{ -s pl ps} 4. {-s sg pl} ps} cars. higher Name noun plural noun noun singular plural 2. {-s present third person singular present participle past tense past participle comparative 5. {-d pp} 8.Result : Amy is + more + hopeful + than + Robert is hopeful = Amy is + more hopeful + than + Robert is = Amy is more hopeful than Robert. {-ing vb} 6. nearest. swum bolder. {-est sp} soonest. eaten. rode chewed. mice girl’s. The girls were beautiful. The and most are placed before the adjective or adverb. The superlative with most For most adjectives or adverbs of two syllables and all of more than two except the un-type. highest superlative . men’s vacates. oxen. bird’s boys’. Result: Mary was + the + most + beautiful + of the The inflectional affix can be schematized as follows: Inflectional affixes Examples 1. {-er cp} 9. most must be used instead of –est. {-s possessive possessive 3d} 3. {-d pt} 7. girls. watches discussing. Mary was beautiful. and of after it. = Amy is more hopeful. studying chewed. nearer.

followed t. Indeed. Nevertheless. namely. by a noun) st 2 nd Genitive i.e. (independen followed by a noun) Singular st 1 Person 2 3 nd rd I you he it me you him her it my your his it mine yours his myself yourself himself herself itself Person e Person (a) Masculin (b) Feminine (c) Neuter Plural 1 Person 2 nd st she her hers its (rare) we they you us them you our your their ours yours theirs ourselv yoursel es Person .3. object and two genitives) and number (all except elaborate pronominal system was acquired by the language quite early in long usage. Pronominal Inflexions: The English noun has only two inflected forms. But the English personal pronouns exhibit an elaborate system of inflected forms to distinguish not only case (subject. the plural and the genitive case-form. As this its career. It has therefore become extremely difficult to analyse them (which some grammarians regard as compounds) have an ‘you’) but also person and gender (at least in three of them).forms easily distinguishable suffix. the pronominal forms that follow represent an inflectional class: Subject Objec form t form 1 Genitive (dependent. many of the distinguishing feathers have been obliterated by into their respective bases and suffixes.e. only the self. not Reflexiv e form i.

Only one ends a word. It does not derivational suffix changes a word into a different word class and sometimes adds new meaning to the base. for example: happy  happiness . if we take any of these inflectional affixes away from the base + affix form. When we + affix) is When we add the inflectional affixes plural to the noun girl. Go is a verb. we do not change the part of speech.2 Derivational Affixes The only exception is the genitive (possessive) plural. word from one class to another. in the following ways: change a To conclude. tallest. Going is a verb. When we add the inflectional suffix comparative to the adjective hot. walks. an inflectional suffix is different from a derivational suffix 1. Smooth is an adjective. the new form (base usually the same part of speech as the base form was. boys’ toys. the new form (hotter) is still an adjective. Similarly.3 rd Person themsel ves ves add inflectional suffixes to a base. falsified.g. The affixes we are studying are called inflectional affixes. It is added to a word for a grammatical reason.g. 3. 4. whereas a 2. as in The derivational affixes are those that change words (to which they are added) from one word class or subclass to another. It comes at the end of a word. e. When we add the inflectional suffixes past to the verb run. It does not pile up. Smoothest is an adjective. e. the new form (girls) is still a noun. the new form (ran) is still a verb. enlightens.

-ible Class of words derived adjective noun noun noun noun noun noun adjective adjective: verb noun (diminutive) adjective noun.   slave enlarge embody v v n  Most suffixes are derivational. Though there are numerous such suffixes from a strictly philological point of view.nation n adj. -ence -ant -ate -cy -er. irresistible derivational observance. verb Examples leakage workable. existence claimant worker. lengthen kitchenette harmful adjective electorate. em-. slave n large body n adj. many of them have become extinct in the sense that they are no longer used in the language to derive new words. n Almost all the prefixes are inflectional. etc. visitor proficiency freedom bearded. -or -able. Some of the active suffixes that are still freely used in the language are given below: Suffix -age -al -ance. Only some of them are derivational. en-. educate -dom -ed -en -ette -ful . haunted (house) silken. Those are a-.  national adj.

adjective noun verb noun noun personify heroic photography historical writing.-fy -ic -graphy -ical -ing -ion -ise (ize) -ish -ist -ity -ism verb noun adjective adjective noun. friendly movement darkness migratory dangerous troublesome failure width. tenth -ment -ness -ory -ous -th adjective adjective adjective noun. starlet biology quickly. adjective noun noun worthless godlike princeling. adverb adjective. ordinals noun adjective -some -ure -ward -wise -y -ways adjective. adverb noun westward sideways lengthwise discovery The differences between Inflectional and Derivational Suffixes . adjective adverb. -let -logy -ly adjective adjective noun (diminutive) adverb. interesting rebellion equalise wolfish adjective adjective adjective groupism deformity opportunist remunerative -ive -less -like -ling.

the two inflectional suffixes (viz.g. etc. This accounts for the inclusion of these two suffixes in the list of inflectional as well as in derivational suffixes. doings... Note: Sometimes. A derivational suffix usually changes the base into another word class (e. etc. in forms like doctor’s children’s. Usually the inflectional suffix is the last item added to the base and no other suffix occurs after it. an adjective into a verb. The forms of markedly. the distinction between the two kinds of suffix is not very clear-cut. to form a new word. willingly (-ing followed by both inflectional and derivational suffixes) can be explained by assuming two derivational suffixes (-ed and –ing) identical in form with the two derivational suffixes. etc. loveliness. Hence. one inflectional and the other derivational. etc. inflectional suffix does not so change the base but fulfils certain 2.suffixes may be noted: The following points of difference between the two kinds of 1. reportedly. backwardness. or to change the word . willingness. In each case there are two phonemically identical forms. the plural and the genitive) occur together.) but normally only one inflectional suffix occurs with the base. 3. a noun into an adjective. Derivation affixes are bound morphemes which are added to the base in order to add meaning. while an grammatical requirements in the sentence. when the two kinds of suffixes occur together. personality. (-ed followed by –ly) and writings. More than one derivational suffix may occur together (e. For example.g. wives’. the inflectional suffix follows the derivational suffix.).

The addition of the affix en. which ends in a derivational suffix. You bring me joy.changes the noun ‘joy’ to the verb Derivational suffixes usually do not close off a word. and to fertilizer one can add the inflectional suffix –s. closing off the word. However. to the word -er. Compare: The addition of the derivational suffix –ment to the verb ‘employ’ They employ many new workers each year. the verb ‘befriend’ in the above example. By adding the derivational affix signaled by –al to the verb base arrive. Compare: They usually arrive early.class (part of speech) of the base. one can add another one. ‘enjoy’. fertilize. there is a large set of affixes in English called derivational affixes that usually (not always) change words from one part of speech to another. (applicable to English language only): The following diagram summarises all the statements made above .to the noun ‘friend’ gives the verbs a derivational suffix one can sometimes add another derivational suffix and can frequently add an inflectional suffix. A derivation affix may appear in the final position or may be followed by other derivational suffixes. I enjoy you company. Sometimes the addition of a derivational affix changes a noun You are my friend. Their early arrival was typical. form to a verb form. gives the noun ‘employment’. that is. after The addition of the affix be. we get the noun arrival. You befriend me. For example. His employment was terminated.

An allomorph may be defined as the “variant of morpheme which One of the various distinct forms of a morpheme is an allomorph. marks as in beaches. each. represent the plural morpheme in the English language. Allomorphs occur in predicable environments. women -es -en An abstract such as plural morpheme in English can be represented The suffixes –s. A morpheme may have one or more allomorph. but do occur . Allomorphs can be described in terms of phonemes. -es and –en.Morpheme Free morpheme Prefixes Derivational Class Class changing Class maintaining Bound morpheme Suffixes Inflectional Derivational Class changing maintaining Allomorph occurs in a certain definable environment”. dishes. children. Each of these distinct forms cannot be established under phonetic conditioning. as follows: as a morpheme because they cannot occur independently. peaches as in oxen. in three forms: -s as in books. pens.

impolite. un. disapprove./s/ dog. irrational. Phonetic conditioning that determines the negative prefixes in-. -en does not occur under phonetic conditioning. of the allomorph. im-. The negative particle not in English also has a bundle of allomorphs. x. illiterate. v./z/ Plural morpheme cat + s dog + s Allomorphs of the plural morpheme /s/ /z/ . -s occurs after sounds spelled with p. il-. unbeloved. ungraceful.is prefixed to possible base with other initial letter sounds as in in. and un-. il-. we should consider the notion disagree. t. illegal. ng. f. ir-. irresponsible. inapplicable. improper. illiquid. irremovable.is prefixed to possible bases with other initial letter sounds as in irregular. disestablish.is prefixed to possible bases with other initial sounds as in In the relation to a bound morpheme. in-. r. inhuman. -es occurs after sounds spelled with ch.m. inviolable. th. illuminate. disaffection. unprejudiced. Representing the negative not are im-.is prefixed to possible bases with initial letter I as in illegible. ir-. d. in certain composite words is the initial sound of the base which follows each of the prefixes: Im. disunion. immovable. dislike. immature. s. l. y. z. illogical. and dis-. but is a matter of convention. n. unanalyzed. we can look at the way English nouns are pluralized in the following examples: Nouns cat.is prefixed to possible bases with initial letter m or p as in il. independent. k. un-. incapable. To simplify it. inadequate. sh. insensible. immorality. g. ir. unburnt. dis. w. irreversible. unhappy. impossible.is prefixed to possible bases with initial letter r as in irrelevant.

/∂ z/ /s/ ox + en deer + Ø /Iz/ /Ø/ /∂ z/ consonants.. except the sibilants and affricates.) the allomorph of the plural morpheme is shown as /Ø/ {=zero). occurs after the singular forms of nouns ending in voiced vowels. is not predictable in term of the phonologically. sheep. consonants or /Iz/ sibilants and In cases where there is no marker for the plural (as in ‘deer’. occurs after the singular forms of nouns ending in the affricates.’ etc. the base form of the noun. What is not phonologically conditioned is morphological conditioned. to two types of conditioning: Allomorphs of morphemes may change their phonemic shapes due (a) phonological or phonemic conditioning But the occurrence of the allomorph /∂z/ in words like ‘oxen’. it is called a process . /z/ and /Iz/ of the plural morpheme in English is predictable in terms of phonological ending of phonological conditioning. ‘men’. The occurrence of the allomorphs /s/. ‘children’./Iz/ horse +s deer -/Ø/ ox. /z/ occurs after the singular forms of nouns ending in voiceless except the sibilants and affricates. This kind of predictability is called in ‘man’. In the case where the plural meaning is manifested through the phonological modification such as a change in the vowel of the noun as allomorph. the allomorph shows a process.horse. it is called a zero allomorph. etc.

{Plural Morpheme} /s/ /z/ /Iz/ . i. sounds are in complementary distribution. Thus. In set A words which also appears as a voiceless phoneme /-s/. These show phonological We thus obtain three phonologically conditioned allomorphs of the plural morpheme /s/ . horse. advise. also pose /π≅Υζ Iz. In the same way words ‘rose. judge’ take the plural morpheme which is phonemically realized as /Iz/ so we have rose /ρ≅Υζ words Iz/. Both /-s/ and /-z/ are the allomorphs of the plural /-z/. which becomes conditioned. in set B it appears as /z/. The phonetic quality of one sound affected sound is phonetically morpheme. Phonological is predictable.(a) Phonological condition A (b) morphological conditioning We shall first examine the following sets of words: sets bits bats clips /sets/ /bits/ /b{ t/ /klips/ beds /bedz/ lads cabs /k{ bz/ beads /bi:dz/ clubs /klς bz/ /l{ dz/ B caps /k{ ps/ The pluralizing suffix in set A appears as /s/.. etc. pose./Iz/. But in set B the stems end in voiced sound and affect the plural morpheme./z/ . This can be explained as due to the occurrence of the final end in the voiceless sounds /t/ and /p/ affecting the plural morpheme sound of the stem (root) which is voiced or voiceless. horse /η Ο : σ Iz/ . Their positions cannot be interchanged.e. we cannot have /z/ placed in set A and /s/ in set B.

/d/ .{Past Tense Morpheme} /t/ (b) Morphological condition The regularity of phonological conditioning is restricted..e. Such changes are said to be due to morphological conditioning. We can always explain reasonably why such variant forms as the . and /t/ . en is peculiar to ‘children. conditioning./z/ /d/ /Id/ But such explanation is not possible in the case of the plural form of ‘sheep – sheep’. i. oxen’ and ‘brethren’. ‘child – children’. There are several irregular forms that do not show the predictable direction of morphophonemic changes./Id/ occur for past tense and /s/ . These forms are not phonologically conditioned. the proximity of a sound does not affect these forms./Iz/ for plural morpheme. . These singular – plural and present tense forms are alike. We shall consider below some major types of morphological 1) Zero suffix 2) Vowel mutation 3) Consonant change Zero suffix when inflected Certain words in English do not show any change of form either of pluralizing or being made into past tense form.

‘sheep’ is written as /Σ ι : π + Ø/ ‘cut’ is written as / κ ς τ + Ø / Vowel mutation Let us take another example. This is shown by /Ø/ symbol which is called zero allomorph. There are sheep. He cuts He has cut the past tense We can say that a zero suffix of plural and a zero suffix of that set B has been added to these forms. the plural form of ‘man’ is ‘men’ that of .Set A Singular sheep deer cattle Set A Present Tense cut hit put beat Set B (Plural) sheep deer cattle cut put hit beat Set B Past Tense But we know that set A words are in the present tense and words are in the past tense. The change is not one of overt alternation in the phonemic shape of the morpheme (allomorph). Thus. With this understanding we use the words. They are said to undergo a zero modification. There is a sheep.

nounmaking.> -.> /Ο : / These changes too cannot be explained by the process of change.> /e/ /{ / /Ο : / /ι : / -. we can change the vowels below: as shown find – found /aI/ /I/ -. and ‘louse’ is ‘lice’. slay – slew get – got meet – met take – took adjectivising.> /ι : /{ / /au/ /Ο / swim – swam bring – brought seek – sought feed – fed phonetic catch – caught -.> / -.> /e/ /aI/ Similarly.> /I/ -. In making them plural we see that nothing has been added.> be /u:/ /u:/ /e/ /u/ seen in verb-making. but a change in the vowel and diphthong has been made.‘woman’ is ‘women’. /a/ /au/ -.> -. and so on.> . for making past tense. These irregular changes are known as vowel-mutation.> -. Consonant change changes in Apart from vowel changes.> -.> -. A few more examples can to be seen below: fly – flew /aI/ /eI/ /e/ /I:/ /eI/ can also -. pluralizing is effected by Vowel mutation /Ο / .

Examples are given below: sheaf /Σ I:f/ wolf /wulf/ shelf.> lend spend -. make their plural by converting /f/ into /v/ and adding /z/.consonants also. Not all words ending such changes – ‘proof. to name only three.> bend -. roof’ and ‘reef’. and / -∂:/. shelf /Σ elf/ -.> sent lent bent spent In the case of past tense formation also we observe in /f/ undergo /d/ -.> -. life. loaf. while ‘hoof’ is pluralized both by simply adding /s/ . take /s/ for changing into plural form. ‘write’ and ‘-er’.> wife /waIf/ -. This phonetic representation is called its morph. For the analysis of word structure. These are realizable in the phonetic shapes as / ρ α Ι τ / the morpheme (or word in this case). knife.> /t/ referred to as morphs. These are two morphs of -.> knife /naIf/ -. a term related to morpheme is established: morph. consonant replacement – send -. Some English words ending in /f/ -leaf. wife.> knives /naIvz/ wives /wIvz/ sheaves /Σ I:vz/ wolves /wulvz/ But here too we observe irregularity.> Morph The concept of morph recognizes that a morpheme has a phonetic shape. the different parts are .‘hoofs’ and through the process of consonant change – ‘hooves’. The word ‘writer’ has two morphemes. When a word segment represents When the word is segmented into parts.> shelves /Σ elvz/ -.

/τ Σ / .g. / Ζ /. Sometimes. It is word went (phonologically /went/) which cannot be segmented into morphs. vases /vΑ :zIz/. and each segment represents one morpheme. famous contains two morphs. a particular morpheme may be represented not by the customary to represent morphemes between braces. (other than /Σ /. For example the same morph but by different morphs in different environments. dΖ / e. In phonological transcription the two morphs can be represented as /h{ pI/ and /∂ /. /z/. Each morph thus represents (or is the exponent or factor of) a particular morpheme. unhappiness.one morpheme in sound or writing. happy. The morpheme is an element of form which may be represented directly by phonological (or orthographical) segments with a particular ‘shape’ i.τ Σ Iz/ {e(s)} rouges /re:Ζ Iz/. ness. For example. cap /k{ ps/ churches /τ Σ Ζ . represents the combination of two morphemes. is comprised of three segments un-. The word happier thus consists of two morphs which can be orthographically written as happy and er (conventions of English orthography allowing a charge of ‘y’ into ‘i’).e. buses /bς sIz/. We say that unhappiness consists of three morphemes. cats /k{ t/. and mouse has just one morph. by morphs. /Σ /. the segment is a morph. bushes /bΥ Σ Iz/.g./s/ . Such different representations of a morpheme are called allomorphs. /s/ in the case of word ending in a voiceless consonants /τ Σ / e. The terms ‘morpheme’ and ‘morph’ are thus comparable to the term ‘form’ and ‘substance’ given by Saussure. Examples: Plural morpheme Allomorphs /Iz/ in the case of word ending in /s/.

bagged /b{ θ d/ /d/ after morphs ending in voiced sounds (except /d/) /Id/ after morphs ending in /t/ and /d/ e. /d/ and /Id/.g. packs {-e(s)} /p{ ks/. morphemes e. allomorph. boys /bΟ Iz/. love /lς vd/. The past tense morpheme of English. The /t/ after morphs ending in voiceless sound (except /t/) e. booked /bΥ kt.g.g. allomorphs /s/. morph Lexicon {e(d)} (Lexical Analysis) Morpheme (Segmented) Morphs . have digs three /diθ z/. present /z/ and tense /Iz/. {-e(d)} has also rule that governs these allomorphs is as follows: Past morpheme three different (phonological conditioned) allomorphs /t/. washes /wΑ Σ Iz/. wedded /wedId/ Lexical Analysis: morpheme. bags /b{ gz/ Similarly./z/ in the case of words ending in voiced sounds (other than /z/. wanted /wΑ ntId/. / Ζ / and /dΖ / e. pushed /pΥ Σ t/ e.g.g.

said to be in complimentary distribution. distinctive unit in the sound system of language. The phonemes /p/. have two phonetic forms each i. A phoneme may sometimes occur in more than one phonetic form.Allomorphs I possibl e regulari ze logical happy appropr iate the m Ir -s e em The relationship between terms morph. [p] and [ph]. /z/ and /Iz/ are all allomorphs of the plural morpheme {e(s)}. Thus. however. allomorph and morpheme is similar to that between phone. [t] and [t ]. [k] . Any minimal phonetic form that has meaning is a morph. a same morpheme are called allomorphs of that morpheme. buses /bς sIz/ = Iz. bushes /bΥ Σ Iz/ =Iz . Those morphs which belong to the Similarly. called allophone. never occur in the same phonetic environment and are also in complimentary distribution. The term ’morph’ means shape. like allophones. /t/ and /k/ for example.e. Allomorphs. These phonetic forms have considerable phonetic similarity between them and their phonological function is the same. phoneme is a minimal. cap /k{ ps/ =/s/ are all morphs. allophone and phoneme. Thus /s/. are h They.

while some others (e. Sometimes a particular morpheme may be represented not the by same morph but by different morphs in different phonetic environments. e. h speech sounds (phonemes as well as allophones) are called phones. there are languages in which the morph tends to represent a single minimal grammatical unit (a morpheme) while these are others in which it is not so. better) are indeterminate with respect to Such words are said to be determinate with respect to segmentation segmentation. however.g.g. For instance. /Ι z/ in a different environment. All segmented into parts (morphs) while it is not so in others. it is conventional to use the term ‘factor’ for morphemes. broke. can stand by itself. In the case of the word belonging to the latter type. only one. namely ‘mean. the word ‘meaningful’ is made up of three meanings. Such different representations of a morpheme are called allomorphs. Consider the following cases: . the others. A systematical study of morphemes or how morphemes join to form words is known as morphology. namely. though carrying some meaning. Of these The morpheme that can stand by itself is called a free morpheme and the one that cannot is called a bound morpheme. cannot stand singly. A morpheme is a minimal. spoke = {speak} + {ed}. meaningful unit in the grammatical system of a language.and [k ]. /z/. The plural morpheme in English. ‘mean’. Summary morphemes. A large number of words can be broken into segments. A word may consist of a single morpheme or a number of It may be noted that in some languages words can generally be meaningful units or morphemes. Similarly. is represented by three different allomorphs: /s/. Allomorphs too exist in some language only. Here [p] and [ph] are the allophones of the phoneme /p/. ing and ful’. for example.

/z/.in the word 2) Suffixes: Affixes which are added after the base (free morpheme) are base (free . /-s/ (as also /-t/) occurs after voiceless consonants. morphemes like –ed and -un can not stand on their own as independent words. and in ‘rose’ three different common ways: in ‘ruled’ it is /-d/ : in ‘stopped’ it is /-t/ : and in wanted it is /Ι d/./-Ι z/ occurs after the consonants /s/. for example. re. They are considered as such because they occur in a certain definable environment as. and are called bound morphemes. ‘resign’. Such morphemes are called free morphemes. un. girl). These are two important kinds: 1) Prefixes: Affixes which are added at the beginning of a morpheme) are prefix. Similarly./-Ι d/ occurs after the consonants /t/ and /d/. Affixes may be divided into prefixes and suffixes. 3) The past tense morpheme –ed in verbs is pronounced in .2) The plural morpheme –s is pronounced in three different common ways: in ‘cats’ it is /-s/ : in ‘boy’ it is /-z/. /-z/ (as also /-d/) occurs after voiced consonants. Thus /s/.g. Bound morphemes are also called affixes. /-Ι d/ are three allomorphs of single past-tense morphemes. : /-d/. On the other hand. . sad. /Ζ /. /Σ /. de-in the word ‘demerit’. Some morphemes can stand on their own as independent morphemes (e. /-t/.in the word ‘unkind’. regard. it is /-Ι z/. /z/ and /Ι z/ above are three allomorphs of a single morpheme or are members of the same plural morphemes.

called suffixes.> strengthen 2) Inflectional Suffix: The inflectional suffix merely modifies which it is added. -tion. -ist.> memorize (v). More examples of derivational suffixes are: (v) Suffix ‘– ve. sympathy (n) -> sympathize (v) Suffix ‘– fy’: beauty (n) -. -cation. For example. dishes. Somsak’s. strength (n) -. -ance. / and /Iz/. etc. -er. Suffix ‘–en’: fright (n) -.> beautify (v) Suffix ‘– ment’: encourage (v) -. the sound of which may also vary as /s/. -er in the word ‘player’.. When added to the base ‘man’ (noun). ize’: memory (n) -. -ar. 2) The possessives in Samran’s. -ature. / and /Iz/. /z/. . -ture. -ly in the word ‘manly’. -iton. the word to Other derivational suffixes are. girls. -s in the word ‘boys’: -hood in the word ‘boyhood’ . -or. the may vary as /s/. cats. /z/. No other suffix used in English are mentioned here. without changing its part of speech. we get ‘manly’ which is an adjective.> frighten (v). -ion. A number of inflectional suffixes commonly 1) The plural –s in boys. -ly is a derivational suffix. These are: sound which can ordinarily be added to it. -ant. There are two kinds of Suffixes: part of speech 1) Derivational Suffix: The derivational suffix changes the of the word to which it is added. etc. for example.> encouragement (n) -ence.

8) The suffixes in the pronoun system of English. and wanted. 7) The suffixes that occur with the comparative and superlative markers ‘-er and –est’. /z/. Subject: Object: Possessive I: Possessive II: I me my min e you you you r r you he him his his she her her hers it it its its we us our ours they the m their their s . etc. going. rises. is.’ the sound varies as /s/. am. 4) The verb past tense suffix ‘-ed’ in ‘stepped. /d/ and /Id/. perfective and sleeping. rubbed. 5) The verb continuous – forming suffix ‘-ing’ in 6) The verb past-participle suffix ‘-ed’ or ‘-en’ with its passive functions (the perfective being form with the helping verb ‘have’. and the passive with the helping verb ‘be’). / and /Iz/.3) The verb-person and number-suffix includes the three forms of ‘be’. plays. are. as the set fine-finer-finest. For example. -s in ‘sleep. the sound of which varies as /t/.

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