Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester III

Name: Ashwatha Narayanan.B Roll No: 511032634 Learning Centre: GLACE Learning Centre Code: 2815 Course: Master of Business Administration Subject: Managing Human Resources in Projects Subject Code – PM0013 Semester: III Assignment No: 1239 Date of Submission at the Learning Centre: 06/12/2010

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Q.1 Write short notes on a. McGregor’s theory b. Maslow’s Theory c. Precedence diagramming method Staffing Management Plan d. Dependency determination McGregor’s Theory McGregor’s Theory X and Y are appealing to managers and dramatically demonstrate the divergence in management viewpoints toward employees. As such, Theory X and Y have been extremely helpful in promoting management understanding of supervisory styles and employee motivational assumptions. There are two aspects of McGregor’s Theory: · X theory · Y theory X theory: 1. Employees normally do not like to work and will try to avoid it 2. Since employees do not like working, they have to be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to motivate them to work 3. The average employee is lazy, shuns responsibility, is not ambitious, needs direction and principally desires security Y theory: 1. Work is as natural as play and therefore people desire to work 2. Employees are responsible for accomplishing their own work objectives 3. Comparable personal rewards are important for employee commitment to achieve work goals 4. Under favorable conditions, the average employee will seek and accept responsibility 5. Employees can be innovative in solving organizational problems

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6. Most organizations utilize only a small proportion of their employees’ abilities Maslow’s theory: The focus on human influences in organizations was reflected most noticeably by the integration of Abraham Maslow’s "hierarchy of human needs" into organization theory. Maslow’s theories have two important implications for organization theory: 1. People have different needs and are therefore motivated by different incentives to achieve organizational objectives 2. People’s needs change predictably over time, which means that – new needs arise as the needs of people lower in the hierarchy are met The various levels of Maslow’s theory are:

The precedence diagramming method (Which is also known by the three letter anagram PDF) refers to a specific project management technique in which the project management team and or the project management team leader employs a schedule network diagramming technique in order to graphically represent any known and preexisting schedule activities via the use of boxes (which can also be referred to as nodes). Once all of these particular schedule activities have been graphically displayed in this box, or node format, at that point all of the individual boxes are linked together
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but a temporary fix among the parties. The agreement is not reached by a majority vote. Collaborative Approach Ans: Avoidant: Some people will do anything to avoid a direct confrontation. It can be a useful. Accommodating: Here. Consensus Approach d. The fundamental and most significant benefit to using the precedence diagramming method format technique is that it quickly and easily allows the project management team and or the project management team leader to view all schedule activities and their relationships with one another. this strategy works better under such situations. Rather. When the issue is more important to oneself than to the other person.via the use of a line which represents any logical relationship (of if there are more than one. and so forth) under consideration. or any vote for that matter. decision. Accommodating Approach c. A simple device is to ask each team member in turn what he or she thinks about the situation and what he or she suggests be done about it. one party is ready for keeping the psychological door open to the other party. the agreement is reached through discussion. Q. logical relationships) that are found to exist. It is the responsibility of the project manager to make sure that this happens.2 Describe the following conflict resolution styles a. Avoidant Approach b. Often this approach will diffuse any direct confrontation between two individuals on the team. They agree even though they are opposed to the outcome. Each person’s input and opinion must be sought. This style can not be tolerated on the project team. Forgetting or Forgiving on one issue may be key to moving the conflict to a new level where issues may be discussed better. Consensus Building: Consensus building is a process that a team can follow to reach agreement on which alternative to proceed with for the item (action. whereby each participant reaches a point when he or she has no serious dis Roll No: 511032634 Page 4 .

not destructive. The approach seeks out a common ground as the basis for moving ahead to a solution. Once a decision is reached. individualisation. are put forth by practitioners as well Roll No: 511032634 Page 5 . team members do not seek to create conflict unnecessarily. As soon as no one has serious objections to the defined action. Conflict is good. the team looks for win-win opportunities. This approach encourages each team member to put his or her opinions on the table and not avoid the conflict that may result. The decision will have been revised several times for the participants to reach that point. all team members must support it. The approach is constructive. At the same time. Talk through the issue until an acceptable action is identified. To use the method success fully. The three important working life and HRM trends: knowledge intensity. Consensus building is an excellent tool to have in the project team tool kit. If the project manager chooses to operate on a consensus basis. but tries to be creative as you search for a compromise action. there will be a legitimate difference of opinion as to how a problem or issue should be addressed. Collaborative approach: In this approach. In all but a few cases. he or she must clearly define the situations in which consensus will be acceptable.3 List and explain in brief the key features of a project Ans: Relevance of HRM trends in Projects The development of HRM in projects is part of a more general development of HRM and of trends linked to HRM issues in a wider industry context. In such situations the team must fashion an action or deci sion with which no team members have serious disagreement even though they may not agree in total with the chosen action. and decentralisation of HR responsibilities. Q. The team needs to know these situations. make sure that everyone on the team gets to speak. There will be no clear-cut action on which all can agree. you have reached consensus.agreement with the decision that is about to be taken.

and keeps having. (2004:1475) suggests that “Recent interest in the emerging knowledge economy has reinforced the view that project organizations in their many varieties are a fast and flexible mode of organizing knowledge resources. Knowledge intensity and competence development The trend of knowledge intensity refers to the focus on knowledge as the most strategically-significant resource of the firm. Moreover. Authors claim that jumping between organizations is becoming a natural part of working life. Individualization and employability Another trend. In this context. requires a solid competence base and an individual responsibility for developing that base. Work and career have become a ‘life project’ with the purpose of self-realization and that loyalty therefore is closer attached to the own person than to any collective forms of loyalty bases. This is a trend that is also acknowledged internationally by authors who discuss people’s ‘project-based learning’ as a ‘career capital’ that can be invested in current and future project activities. is the ‘individualization’ of working life and society which has had. and they are particularly interesting and relevant in relation to the increased use of project-based structures and work systems. Today’s working life. closely related to the first one. This is reflected in the results from the Cranet Survey 20041. The Cranet Survey 2004 reveals that employment contracts are increasingly being closed on an individual level. a great influence on HRM. Roll No: 511032634 Page 6 . individuals seek less support from central unions and more frequently act independently. et al. changing organizational structures and project-based work. project-based learning is a product of the times. Several authors have also discussed changes in traditional competence development approaches within contemporary organizations. due to the increasingly knowledge-intensive work. the importance of central union negotiations has decreased. the skills and competencies of individual employees are then crucial. which indicate that firms invest more than ever in competence development of their employees. in which employees change employer and assignments increasingly often.” For knowledgeintensive organizations and their survival in highly competitive markets. Sydow. Moreover. For example. several researchers argue that knowledge intensity is tightly coupled with the increased use of project-based by researchers. Knowledge is then considered to be the fundamental source of competitive advantage and there is also a stream of research that addresses the ‘knowledge economy’ and ‘knowledge workers’. so competence and competence development are important issues.

3.Manpower planning committee show examine number of employees on pay roll during past 5 year to knew trend within each group to determine whether particular group has been stable or unstable. The increased requirements on ‘stressed-out knowledge workers’ reflect on their own learning and development through project-based ‘curricula’. it may not be possible to rectify the errors in shortrun.arises due to death. This development implies an empowerment of the individuals in their working life. Q. 2. retirement. It may relate to supervisory. it also involves an increased responsibility of co-workers in the employee-employer relationship. equipments. after one year. On the other hand. and an important source of motivation. clarical groups and must be anticipated in advance. The second aspect relates to installation of more productive tools. The factors relevant for manpower forecasting are as follows. The first aspect relates to effective utilisation of manpower. two years & so on must be attempted. but there might also be a backside of the coin. Roll No: 511032634 Page 7 . Planning for productivity has several aspects. (iii) Productivity:. Demand Forecasting:.Assessment of demand for operating personnel presents less problems of uncertainty & current manpower supply can be adjusted accordingly.The persons concerned with manpower planning must be clear about goals of manpower planning because once the wrong forecast of future requirement of human resources are made. skilled. Objectives of Manpower Planning:. This will also help in drawing recruitment & development plans to meet the needs of certain skills future. But for supervisory and managerial levels projection is complex problem because required talents are not available at a short notice.A proper forecast of manpower required in future say.4 Write a note on human resource planning. The last aspect relates to matching of skills with requirements of jobs. resignation & termination of employees. Ans: 1. the individualization places higher requirements on organizations to create attractive and developing working environments in order to attract and keep valuable employees. (i) Employment Trends:. (ii) Replacement Needs:. Current Manpower Inventory:.Gain in productivity will also influence requirements of manpower.On the one hand.

This is also known as ‘workload analysis. an appraisal must be made of effectiveness of manpower planning. Corrective actions should also be taken whenever it is necessary to remove deficiencies in manpower planning. Therefore Manpower planner should take all these factors into account while studying impact of various business expansion plans on manpower requirements.After training programmes have been implemented. Training & Development Programme:.(iv) Growth & Expansion:. 5. Similarly executive development programmes have to be devised for development of managerial personnel.This phase deals with planning how organization can obtain required number of right type of personnel as reflected by personnel forecasts. Enumerate the 5 stages of team development.5 what do we mean by developing a project team process. It facilitates division of work in to different jobs. 7. Employment Plans:.Can be used when it is possible to apply work measurement to know how long operations should take & amount of labour required. 6.Training is essential not only for new employees but also for old employees for improving their performance. Q.Means a situation when a person fails to come for work when he is scheduled to work.’ 4. The management should go into cause of absenteeism & attempt to reduce absentism as far as possible. Job Requirements:. (vi) Work Study:. Deficiencies in programmes should be pointed out & catalogue of manpower inventory should be updated periodically. Appraisal of Manpower Planning:. Due to absenteeism work get upset leading to overtime work which in turn leads to increased cost of production.A good organization always tries to adopt itself to change in method & techniques of Production.Job analysis is the qualitative aspect of manpower requirements since it determines what is the quantum of work which an average person can do on a job in a day. Ans: Developing the Project Team Roll No: 511032634 Page 8 . The talent of employees are not fully productive without a systematic programme of training & development. (v) Absenteeism:.

contracted team members are available for only short periods of time on the project. The major difficulty that project managers have is that the project team is not their line responsibility. The day of the small contractor and niche market player is here to stay. That authority is often delegated. Organizing the Project Team Now that you have identified the individuals who will become the project team. They are assigned to the project when it is time for them to contribute their skills. and those changes are per manent. There are two reasons for choosing to use contract team members instead of the company’s own employees: · Shortage of staff · Shortage of skills Those shortages have made it possible for a whole new type of business to grow – tech-temps are the name we associate with this new business opportu nity. First. but it is the project manager who is ultimately responsible. it is time to make them function as a team. they leave the project.The business-to-business environment is changing. and according to specification. then several procedural matters that the team will have to discuss and agree on. we’ll briefly look at authority and responsibility. Organizations are routinely outsourcing processes that are not part of their core business or core expertise. How often have we been in situations where we were respon sible for making a certain thing happen but had no authority over the resources needed to make it happen or no authority to make and carry out a decision? To be effective. Typically. this brings the need to effectively manage a team whose membership will probably include outside contractors. Authority Authority and responsibility go hand in hand. To have one and not the other makes no sense. Remember right now that they are a herd of cats. Some may be with the project for only a short time. Others may be no different from core teams except they are not employees of your company. It is his or her job to get the project done on time. To the project manager. the project manager must have authority over the" project. they are not a team – at least not yet. They possess a skill that is needed for just a brief time. within budget. As soon as they have completed their assigned task. Team members are assigned based on their expertise Roll No: 511032634 Page 9 .

The project manager assigns activity management responsibility to team members. This responsibility cannot be delegated. As a result.but report to other managers. which was developed by David Kolb in 1981. though. Let’s take a simple example – learning styles. the project manager must exercise sound leadership and management skills. They are focused on ideas and concepts rather than people. There are several ways to measure balance and several characteristics of the team that have been used to define balance. Roll No: 511032634 Page 10 . which means that the project manager will have to exercise the best leadership skills and diplomacy to get the job done. the Learning Styles Inventory (LSI). He or she will do this by maintaining a consistent level of interest in and communication with each of their activity managers. They would rather observe than take action. If the project manager remembers to keep the resource managers involved and aware of all project changes. and problem resolution. Balancing a Team Balance on the team is a critical success factor for any team that hopes to suc cessfully complete its project. Learning styles are measured using an instrument. Responsibility There is no question where the responsibility lies. It is the project manager. These individuals like to put data and information together into models that explain the situation from a larger perspective. by involving them and engaging them in planning. It is here that the resource manager makes the commitment of people resources. Kolb identifies four learning styles: Assimilating. Diverging. who is ultimately responsible for completing the project as expected. They are then responsible for completing their assigned activ ity within its scheduled window of time and for producing the activity deliv erables on time according to specification. They are not results-oriented people. such as developers. In con veying this sense of responsibility to each team member. change management deliberations. Assimilators are people who excel at collecting and repre senting data in crisp logical form. These individuals like to look at alternatives and view the situation from a variety of perspectives. The key is in the project planning activities that schedule resources to windows of time. negotiations will proceed better when circumstances warrant. they are more interested in something making sense logically than they are in any practical value. These types of individuals are generally found in the more technical or specialist careers. He or she will keep everybody on the team informed of project status. Honoring that commitment within the time allotted reduces the incidence of problems.

These individuals like to assemble information in order to solve problems. They are good at picking the best option among a number of alternatives. What do you think might hap pen? With no one on the team to encourage looking for alternatives (the role of the diverger). Now suppose you have a team that is loaded with convergers and does not have a single diverger among their members. They will often be the peacekeepers as well. and they will often be found facilitating the working together of team members. Convergers are the solution finders but not the solution implementers. Accommodators are people persons. Roll No: 511032634 Page 11 .Divergers like brainstorming and generally have a broad range of interests and like together information. Their strength lies in their ability to take concepts. A team that has balanced learning styles among its members is a team that is prepared to do a very good job at solving problems and making decisions. They are strong at imple mentation and hands-on activities and are good team players. They will drive the team into action by help ing it focus on which approach to a situation is best and then mobilizing the team into action. and the convergers on the team aggressively suggest that the team go forward with the single proposed solution without even considering whether there is an alternative. We have personally wit nessed many situations where a single approach to a problem is presented. As problem solvers they rely on people for input rather than on any technical analysis." as the convergers press the team into action. Teams that are involved in high-technology projects are likely to display this behavior. On a project team these people will often suggest outside-the-box thinking and offer suggestions for other approaches than those that may have already been identified. They tend to be action-oriented and more spontaneous than logical. or "group think. On the project team these will be the results-oriented members. Converging. They like to converge to the correct solution. On the project team you can count on these people to help foster a strong sense of teamwork. These individuals are results-oriented and want to put things into practice. and ideas and turn them into practical use. models. Accommodating. you would very likely have a rush to judgment. They are adaptive and can easily change with the circumstances. They are not particularly people-oriented and would rather work with technical tasks and problems.

develops you people. in turn. An organization desirous of executing a project will be required to delegate authority to the project manager commensurate with the tasks entrusted to him. But delegation at the individual level and with insiders is known more for various lapses.6 List & explain the 3 major issues related to delegation which need close scrutiny. When to delegate? 3. Roll No: 511032634 Page 12 . How to delegate? Delegating authority skills. A manager at his individual level can achieve this by entrusting some task to the care or management of his subordinates. In project management delegation has to take place not only at the individual level but also at the institutional level. therefore. Good delegation saves you time. examine what goes wrong with delegation at the individual level so that the same is avoided when delegation is institutionalized. The issues relating to delegation which need close scrutiny are: 1. grooms a successor.Q. It is interesting to note that the reasons for delegation. What to delegate? 2. and if the same is allowed to perpetuate at the institutional level it may be disastrous for any project. may entrust a part of his task to insiders and part to outside organizations having requisite skills for management of the same. The project manager. tasks and the process of effective delegation Delegation is one of the most important management skills. Ans: Delegation Delegation is considered essential when one has to be at more than one place and doing more than one thing simultaneously.delegation is a two-way process!). These logical rules and techniques will help you to delegate well (and will help you to help your manager when you are being delegated a task or new responsibility . Poor delegation will cause you frustration. and motivates. We should. Each time he has to delegate authority necessary for the accomplishment of the tasks. the process of delegation as also the expected outcome from delegation are almost the same with individual as well as insti tutional delegation.

Just as significantly. Delegation can be used to develop your people people and yourself . and for the manager too: the main task of a manager in a growing thriving organization is ultimately to develop a successor. SMARTER. which is applicable to individuals and teams. with different levels of delegation freedom that you can offer. Delegated tasks must be: • • • • • • Specific Measurable Agreed Realistic Timebound Ethical Roll No: 511032634 Page 13 . and fails to achieve the task or purpose itself. as the recipient of delegated tasks you have the opportunity to 'manage upwards' and suggest improvements to the delegation process and understanding . Delegation is a very helpful aid for succession planning. Therefore while this page is essentially written from the manager's standpoint. personal development and seeking and encouraging promotion. It's a quick checklist for proper delegation. Effective delegation is actually crucial for effective succession. This delegation skills guide deals with general delegation principles and process.delegation is not just a management technique for freeing up the boss's time. Of course there is a right way to do it. When it fails to happen the succession and progression becomes dependent on bringing in new people from outside. As a giver of delegated tasks you must ensure delegation happens properly.demotivates and confuses the other person. Managing the way you receive and agree to do delegated tasks is one of the central skills of 'managing upwards'. or tospecially formed groups of people for individual projects (including 'virtual teams'). These delegation tips and techniques are useful for bosses .and for anyone seeking or being given delegated responsibilities. the principles are just as useful for people being managed. For the successor. Here are the simple steps to follow if you want to get delegation right. It's how we grow in the job delegation enables us to gain experience to take on higher responsibilities. or better still. So it's a management skill that's worth improving.especially if your boss could use the help. A simple delegation rule is the SMART acronym. When this happens everyone can move on to higher things.

How will the task be measured? Make sure they know how you intend to decide that the job is being successfully done. however. assuming you subscribe to such philosophy. the steps of successful delegation 1 Define the task Confirm in your own mind that the task is suitable to be delegated. it is not always possible to ensure that all delegated work is truly 'exciting' or 'enjoyable' for the recipient. you can't delegate. 6 Consider resources required Roll No: 511032634 Page 14 . let's be honest. More importantly. If not. which in itself can be exciting and enjoyable. 4 Explain the reasons You must explain why the job or responsibility is being delegated. And why to that person or people? What is its importance and relevance? Where does it fit in the overall scheme of things? 5 State required results What must be achieved? Clarify understanding by getting feedback from the other person. Does it meet the criteria for delegating? 2 Select the individual or team What are your reasons for delegating to this person or team? What are they going to get out of it? What are you going to get out of it? 3 Assess ability and training needs Is the other person or team of people capable of doing the task? Do they understand what needs to be done.• Recorded Traditional interpretations of the SMARTER acronym use 'Exciting' or 'Enjoyable'. although a high level of motivation often results when a person achieves and is given recognition for a particular delegated task. the 'Ethical' aspect is fundamental to everything that we do. in truth.

what are the priorities? At this point you may need to confirm understanding with the other person of the previous points. getting ideas and interpretation. Failing to agree this in advance will cause this monitoring to seem like interference or lack of trust. You must absorb the consequences of failure. money. materials. equipment. Methods of checking and controlling must be agreed with the other person. when are the review dates? When are the reports due? And if the task is complex and has parts or stages. and inform them. Warn the person about any awkward matters of politics or protocol. and of sufficient profile. this helps to reinforce commitment.Discuss and agree what is required to get the job done. As well as showing you that the job can be done. If not. and deal with the problems. other related activities and services. and pass on the credit for success. Involve the other person in considering this so they can see beyond the issue at hand. Roll No: 511032634 Page 15 . 7 Agree deadlines When must the job be finished? Or if an ongoing duty. Consider people. 8 Support and communicate Think about who else needs to know what's going on. location. and whether they have achieved their aims. premises. 9 Feedback on results It is essential to let the person know how they are doing. Do not leave the person to inform your own peers of their new responsibility. Inform your own boss if the task is important. you must review with them why things did not go to plan.

It requires that work has to be done in some place. A work environment doesn't require a job. at a construction site.1 Explain effect of an individuals of work environment. External/Internal Factors External/Internal Factors The purpose of this paper is to explain rapid change. It may counts the things that you are using in one way or the other. It depends upon your position at status at a work place. We tend.ASSIGNMENTS – Set 2 Q. Roll No: 511032634 Page 16 . They are working there. innovation. Say you need to do homework. from a car or truck. It can be your home environment where you use to work for all the time where you are supposed to interact with your family members by and by. management (the boss!). at home at the kitchen table. They are supposed to co-ordinate with you in one way or he other. ergonomic seating. All of them are to be there with you. diversity. Ans: Work Environment A work environment can be identified as the place that one works. It is your social and professional environment in which you are supposed to interact with a number of people." This can point to other factors in the work environment. This environment is all about the people at your home and those who have any concern at your home. Work environment means the milieus around a person. and even the size of one's cube. technology. E-business. -in an office building in a cube. to hear about "healthy work environments. air quality. Where do you do it? At school in study hall? At your kitchen table? On the floor at a friend's house? These can also be considered work environments. however. All are work environments. parking. Work environment does not only counts the living world tings but also the materialistic world stuff. They may be working under you or you may be working under them. such as co-workers. It may count the room or home where you are working. i. It is all about things and livings that are around you where you are working. globalization. child care. It is not important that an office would always be called your work place. ethics and how these external and internal factors that can affect a company's management performance under these conditions. noise.e.

China. Vol. Spain. Vol. Philippines. Mexico. 125 Issue 12. Labor unions were formed to help deal with disputes between Starbucks and the employees. the role of the HR department inevitably p33-33. Indonesia. and the United Kingdom. 378 Issue 8466. Starbucks owners had to learn how businesses were operating in these countries to be accepted and allowed to do business around the world. (Staying pure. The question is what the ‘new role’ for the HR department Roll No: 511032634 Page 17 . With locations in this many counties. Jordan. 2/25/2006. Chile. Bahamas. The Fair Trade Certification was put into place to ensure farmers were being a fair market price for the products being sold around the world. Economist. Japan. Puerto Rico. Beverage World.. Germany. Switzerland. The website URL is www. Malaysia. Oman. Lebanon. Taiwan. As more HR responsibilities are decentralised to the line. Turkey. Bahrain. Saudi Arabia. Singapore. Canada.2 Explain organizational chart and its various types. p72-72. Globalization has opponents also that like to attack the company on the internet. France. New Zealand. The site has many entries from non-Starbucks customers and former customers too. 1p. Starbucks is currently fighting a battle over Fair Trade Beverages. Cyprus. 1c) Starbucks covers Ethics on many different levels and through the following paragraphs the levels. Kuwait. Austria. Ireland.Starbucks now has locations in Australia. 1/6p). (Equity in a Bottle. Q. Qatar. Greece. Brazil. Peru. 12/15/2006. The two unions are called Industrial Worker of the World and Starbucks Workers Union. Egypt. In the world market Starbucks had to able to compete with other coffee sellers. Thailand. Ans: Organizational Charts & Organizational Structures The general trend of HR orientation of the line manager role is definitely closely related to the changing design and role of the HR department. United Arab Emirates. South Korea..ihatestarbucks. Starbucks had other issues to deal with while trying to expand into the market. In order to do that Starbucks had to keep the prices comparable to the other coffee makers that have been the world market already.

circles etc. These two project managers are directly responsible to the Program manager. The term is also used for similar diagrams. org chart. It also depicts the relationships of directors: managing director. Various shapes such as rectangles.implies. The following is an example of a simple hierarchical organizational chart is the image-chart on the right. and how HR specialists as well as the organization itself should be organised to contribute to a well-functioning HR organization. advisory and informal links between people. A department or position yet to be created or currently vacant might be shown as a shape with a dotted outline. triangles. for example ones showing the different elements of a field of knowledge or a group of languages. etc. The word ‘Organ gram’ is widely accepted as being created by Graham Halewood. or organ gram (me)) is anillustration that shows the arrangement of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its components and positions/jobs. There are three different types of organization charts: · Hierarchical Roll No: 511032634 Page 18 . can be used to indicate different roles. and possibly formal. An organizational chart of a company usually shows the managers and subworkers who are the part of the organization. Colour can be used both for shape borders and connection lines to indicate differences in authority and responsibility. Importance of the position may be shown both with a change in size of the shape in addition to its vertical placement on the chart. An example of a ‘line relationship’ in this chart would be between the Program manager and the two project managers. chief executive officer: various departments. Organization Chart An organizational chart (often called organization chart. In many companies the organization chart is large and complicated and is therefore further dissected into smaller charts for each individual department within the organization. squares.

Members of hierarchical organizational structures chiefly communicate with their immediate superior and with their immediate subordinates. then the Archbishops. the hierarchy usually consists of a singular/group of power at the top with subsequent levels of power beneath them. then the Cardinals. For example. in reality many companies are run at least in part as personal fiefdoms by their management. this is also its major limitation. where the height of the ranking or person depicts their power status and the width of that level represents how many people or business divisions are at that level relative to the whole – the highest-ranking people are at the apex. creating an organizational chart or organogram. This is the dominant mode of organization among large organizations. the broad. Again. As a result. Those nearest the top have more power than those nearest the bottom. corporate governance rules are an attempt to mitigate this tendency. and there being fewer people at the top then at the bottom. These hierarchies are typically depicted with a tree or triangle diagram. and so on. most corporations.6. and the collective power of the business owners is for most purposes delegated to a board of directors. which in turn delegates the day-today running of the company to a managing director or CEO. and there are very few of them. there is now no longer a single dominant shareholder. This arrangement is a form of a hierarchy. the base may include thousands of people who have no subordinates). The business owner traditionally occupied the pinnacle of the organization. Roll No: 511032634 Page 19 . superiors in a hierarchy generally have higher status and command greater rewards than their subordinates. and organized religions are hierarchical organizations with different levels of management.2 Hierarchical Organization Chart A hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization. A hierarchy is typically visualized as a pyramid. top-level overview of the general organization of the Catholic Church consists of the Pope. power or authority. although the shareholders of the company are the nominal top of the hierarchy.· Matrix · Flat (also known as Horizontal) 1. In an organization. Structuring organizations in this way is useful partly because it can reduce the communication overhead by limiting information flow. is subordinates to a single other entity. In most modern large companies. except one. governments.

including Susan McClary and one political philosophy which is vehemently opposed to hierarchical organization: anarchism is generally opposed to hierarchical organization in any form of human relations. construction or the aerospace industries) have structures built around project teams as their functional units. Amidst constant innovation in information and communication technologies.Opponents to Roll No: 511032634 Page 20 . with some research studies contrasting traditional organizational forms against groups that operate as online communities that are characterized by personal motivation and the satisfaction of making one’s own decisions. Therefore. it allows team members to share information more readily across task boundaries. Second. The disadvantage of matrix management is that employees can become confused due to conflicting loyalties. with some adjustments to their hierarchy to support project units. all engineers may be in one engineering department and report to an engineering manager. First. Whereas project-centered organizations (like those in engineering. The belief is that a properly managed cooperative environment can neutralize these disadvantages. Proponents of matrix management suggest that there are two advantages to matrix management. For example. For example. Tetrarchy is the most commonly-proposed alternative to hierarchy and this has been combined with responsible autonomy by Gerard Fairtlough in his work on Tetrarchy theory. hierarchical authority structures are giving way to greater decision-making latitude for individuals and more flexible definitions of job activities and this new style of work presents a challenge to existing organizational forms. Some organizations fall somewhere between the fully functional and pure matrix. it allows for specialization that can increase depth of knowledge and allow professional development and career progression to be managed. each engineer may have to work under several managers to get their job done. Matrix-based Organization Chart Matrix Management is a type of organizational management in which people with related skills are combined for work assignments. but these same engineers may be assigned to different projects and report to a project manager while working on that project.Hierarchies and hierarchical thinking has been criticized by many people. even a fundamentally functional or matrix organization may create a special project team to handle a critical project. matrix organizations follow the traditional structures. These organizations are defined in the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) 4th Edition as composite.

matrix management believe that it is an out-datedmethod to organize a company. and software packages. Representing matrix organizations visually has challenged managers ever since the matrix management structure was invented. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and Human resource management systems (HRMS) software did not support matrix reporting. such as Visio and PowerPoint support this approach. Late releases of SAP software support matrix reporting. regardless of management structure. Matrix Management should not be confused with "tight matrix". · The use of a project team which is dynamic and able to view problems in a different way as specialists have been brought together in a new environment. and Oracle eBusiness Suite can also be customized to store matrix information. or co-location. project managers) are created through the use of project teams. · Costs can be increased if more managers (i. · Project managers are directly responsible for completing the project within a specific deadline and budget. refers to locating offices for a project team in the same room. The advantages of a matrix include: · Individuals can be chosen according to the needs of the project. and as the time to reach a decision increases with the number of managers the result may be an increase in management related overhead expenses. One disadvantage of matrix management is that it doubles the number of managers when compared to line management.e. · If teams have a lot of independence can be difficult to monitor. Most organizations use dotted lines to represent secondary relationships between people. Roll No: 511032634 Page 21 . Whilst the disadvantages include: · A conflict of loyalty between line managers and project managers over the allocation of resources. Until recently. "Tight Matrix".

By elevating the level of responsibility of baseline employees. The idea is that well-trained workers will be more productive when they are more directly involved in the decision making process. Roll No: 511032634 Page 22 . comments and feedback reach all personnel involved in decisions more quickly. rather than closely supervised by many layers of management. Expected response to customer feedback can thus become more rapid. this organizational structure generally depends upon a much more personal relationship between workers and managers. This structure is generally possible only in smaller organizations or individual units within larger organizations. Hence the structure can be more time-consuming to build than a traditional bureaucratic/ hierarchical model. Certain financial responsibilities may also require a more conventional structure. organizations can retain a streamlined structure but cannot keep a completely flat manager-tostaff relationship without impacting productivity. Responsibilities’ that require additional or detail descriptions are usually specified in text-oriented formats. Some theorize that flat organizations become more traditionally hierarchical when they begin to be geared towards productivity. Since the interaction between workers is more frequent. When they reach a critical size.Flat (Horizontal) Organization Chart Flat organization (also known as horizontal organization) refers to an organizational arrangement with few or no levels of intervening management between staff and managers. The flat organization model promotes employee involvement through a decentralized decision making process. and by eliminating layers of middle management.

Human Resource planning is utilized to decide and recognize. The inputs for creating a Human Resource (HR) plan are: · Enterprise environmental factors: The enterprise environmental factors comprises of individuals of an organization interacting and relating with one another. One key result of Human Resource planning is the Effective Human Resource planning must think and plan for these factors and widen Human Resource options. It is defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that controls the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization”. Know the team member’s existing job descriptions. Ans: Creating a Human Resource (HR) Plan Creating a Human Resource (HR) plan is the method of identifying and documenting project roles. . responsibilities. reporting relationships and creating a staffing management plan. interpersonal. experiences. and required skills. attitudes. Staffing management plan depicts how and when team members are added to the team. existing Human Resources and policies and procedures. knowing how different technical disciplines work. The enterprise environmental factors that play a major role includes are existing organizational culture.Logistical – Find whether people are in different locations or time zones.Organizational culture – Organizational culture is an idea in the field of organizational studies and management which describes the psychology. Roll No: 511032634 Page 23 .Technical – To accomplish the project successfully. logical and political issues with respect to Human Resources. . List the organizations or departments that are going to be engaged in the project. Know the formal and informal relationships between the departments.3 Describe the elements of enterprise environmental factors-the input to creating HR plan process. Human Resources with the necessary skills are essential for the success of a project. beliefs and values (personal and cultural values) of an organization.Interpersonal – List formal and informal reporting relations existing among the team members. . . Enquire whether there are any existing working arrangements between them. and how the team members are released from the project.Q. list the fields of expertise needed.

Accurate inputs for creating a Human Resource (HR) plan leads to good results which have a strong foundation.Political – List the individual goals and agendas of stakeholders. processes. little or no training funds. there are some restrictions. In human planning. · Assets of organizational process: As project management in an organization evolves.Matrix-based responsibility chart . Human Resource planning uses activity resource requirements. experience acquired from past projects is available as assets of organizational processes in terms of checklist.Text-oriented format Roll No: 511032634 Page 24 .Hierarchical-type organization chart . Besides these aspects. and lack of traveling budget.Structure of organization – The usual constraint in an organization is a weak matrix structure.. · Activity resource requirements: For the purpose of Human Resource needs of the project. . The basic information regarding the required people and capabilities for the project team members are progressively involved as part of Human Resource planning and information regarding the same is obtained from the activity resource requirement. List the informal agreements that are present.Economical conditions – Some of the restrictions on staffing options can be freezing of hiring. Find the informal authority base and how that can impact the project. the instances of rigidity are: .Collective bargaining agreements – Contractual agreements with service organizations can require nuances to certain roles and reporting arrangements. . Organization charts can have three formats[1]: . The different tools and techniques used by project team for creating a Human Resource (HR) plan are: · Organization charts and position description: Organization charts and position description clarifies and communicates the roles and responsibilities of the team members and ensures that each work package is assigned accordingly. etc.

Team Building: Building the program is one of the prime responsibilities of the project manager. and organizational units behave. competencies. technical aspects to handle employees. some of such skills are explained below. authority.Hierarchical-type organization chart: The structure of traditional organization charts is used to show positions and relationships among team members in a graphic. Text-oriented format: The required detailed descriptions of the responsibilities of team members are specified in text-oriented formats.. Roll No: 511032634 Page 25 .4 Describe people management skills that a project manager should possess. Organizational theory has been in practice for a long time. Effective Communications b. Matrix-based responsibility chart: Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) illustrates the connections between work packages or activities and project team members. top-down format. Ans: People Management Skills Projects are often complex and multidimensional. Q. and qualifications in outline form. 1. This involves maintaining a. But Maslow’s theory might be a relevant one. effective leadership abilities etc. Managing these projects or Programs represents a challenge requiring skills in several areas of management especially in the areas of People management. · Networking: The formal and informal communication between professional and business groups and the people in an organization is known as networking. · Organizational theory: Organizational theory depicts how people. Sincere interest in professional growth of team members. teams. It takes place among co-workers in the organization to comprehend the political and the interpersonal factors in a productive way which will affect the organizational relationship. so these theories might not hold good today. The documents generally provide information such as responsibilities.

Conflict resolution: This includes understanding the determinants of conflicts so as to respond to the conflicts effectively. the plan remains viable. to communicate effectively in technical terms with the project teams and to assess the risks and make trade off between cost. For example. Thus the project manger must understand the importance of reducing costs in the project. requirements and limitations into decisions that benefit the overall project performance. Roll No: 511032634 Page 26 . To determine when a conflict is desirable what kind of conflict will be useful and how much conflict is optional for a given situation. Technical Skill: It is essential for the project manager to understand the technology. Planning skill: It requires the ability to negotiate the necessary resource and commitments from key personnel in the various supporting organizations with little or no formal authority. 8. 5. An understanding of these interfaces is important to a project management as it enhances their ability to build favorable relationship with senior managements. 6. Organizational skills are particularly important during the project formation when the project manager establishes the project organization by integrating people from different discipline into an effective work team. that is. Leadership: It involves the ability to integrate individual demands. Administration skill: The project manager must be experiences in planning. Technical expertise is necessary to evaluate technical concepts and solutions. markets and the business environment to participate effectively in the search for integrated solution and technological innovations. And how to work with the organization. Organizational skill: The project manager must be a social architect. schedule and technical issues. lengthy delay over issues and disruption of the team’s effort. scheduling and other control techniques’ 9. staffing. Thus. budgeting. the manager needs a “Sixth sense”. 7. 4.c. Management support building skill: The project manager is surrounded by a variety of organizations that either support him or control his activities. Commitment to the project. he must understand how the organization works. 3. economic considerations are one component area that normally affects the organization’s financial performance. The planning must be done such that at any point of time in the project. 2. Entrepreneurial Skill: The project manager needs a general management perspective. Dysfunctional conflicts result in poor program decision making.

the project manager or the team member’s line manager will have to correct the team member’s behavior. In many cases. It has been recognized that successful execution requires a stronger emphasis on people skills such as leadership and collaborations. sustainable team environment took more work. The project manger must also understand the culture and value system of the organization he is working with. Successful team based companies saw higher employee morale. and project team. The team-based structure quickly become a norm in organizations Business and projects benefited when people together well as a team. problem solving. cross functional teams. but how the teams operated and the impact of these teams on organizations were far different and much more empowered than in the past to make changes. In the past decade. knowledge and experiences. A team operated as a group of people with shared objectives and process and possessed complementary skills. self managed. the project manager will just have to take a calculated risk that the team member possesses these characteristics even though the individual has not previously demonstrated that he or she has them. and financial success. and team behaviors around decision making. and conflict resolution. innovation. employee networks. The project manager must understand this need for varying resources and be capable of allocating resources as and when wanted. the focus on strategies and process has significantly shifted to team behaviors and project executions. different types of resources are needed at different stages. and if those characteristics are critical to the team member’s role in the project. To help.10. It will become obvi ous very quickly whether or not the individual possesses these characteristics. These values define how people work together on a day to day basis. Resource allocation skill: Once the project begins. Some of these team structures such as project teams and cross functional teams were not necessarily new. If not. The traditional hierarchal structure was replaced with natural teams. The traditional hierarchical structure was replaced with natural teams. self managed teams. Roll No: 511032634 Page 27 . These business developments resulted in a profound change in organizational structures and how work was being managed. Thus the project manager must be both socially and technically aware to understand how the organization functions and how these functions will affect the project organization of the particular job to be done. But creating a productive. companies began personalizing their value statements by defining specific behaviors that supported those values.

On a larger scale. but they are the team nevertheless. If you still have gaping holes. the team is formed more on availability than on any need to balance its membership. but it is a goal not likely to be reached. Q. What characteristics does the team have? Where are its strengths and where are its weaknesses? For example. Teams are most likely to be formed without knowledge of this kind of information.Having balance on the team in all of the characteristics discussed in the previ ous section is certainly a worthy goal. The staffing management plan can be formal or informal. highly detailed or broadly framed. However. a part of human resources plan within the project management plan. In reality. describes when & how human resource requirements will be met. there might not be an accommodator on the team. Information in the staffing management plan varies by application areas & project size. the project manager had better know where the imbalance exists. It is only after the fact that these imbalances are discovered. The plan is updated continually during the project to direct ongoing team member acquisition & development actions. Build the strategy. the project manager needs to determine which team members have a greater likelihood of success on which types of work assignments. but items to consider include: · Staff acquisition · Resource Calendars · Staff release plan · Training needs Roll No: 511032634 Page 28 . That means that teams are not balanced. also describe Responsibility Assignment Matrix Ans: Staffing Management Plan The staffing management plan.5 Explain staffing management plan. What’s a project manager to do? First of all. suppose a confrontation has arisen with the client. depending upon the needs of the project. you need a team development plan. We would much rather send an accommodator than a converger to resolve the confrontation.

thus reducing project costs. A project management plan is created to showcase specific target goals as well as project deadlines for various tasks that your company may need to complete. The information provided within said staffing management plan is determined by the application being completed as well as the size of the project. Staff Acquisition A number of questions arise when planning the acquisition of project team members. or formal and details. The plan is essentially a portion of the project management plan in which allows projects to be successful by properly managing various teams to complete tasks effectively and efficiently. Thus. When team members are released from a project. A staffing management plan or process is ultimately a document that explains the various human resources requirements that will be met for both staff management and employees alike. Compliance Roll No: 511032634 Page 29 . Morale is improved when smooth transitions to upcoming projects are already planned. A staffing management plan can be created in two ways – whether informal and broad. For example. will the human resource come from within the organization or from external. contracted sources? Will team members need to work in a central location or can they work from distant locations? What are the costs associated with each of level of expertise needed from the project? How much assistance can the organization’s human resource department & functional managers provide to the project management team? Staff Release Plan Determining the method and timing of releasing team members benefits both the project & team members. A staff release plan also helps mitigate human resource risks that may occur during or at the end of the project. you must create a proper Project Management procedure that allows feedback and maximum productivity to occur. the costs associated with those resources are no longer charged to the project.· Recognition & Rewards · Compliance · Safety After acquiring the project team. creating a staffing management plan that is tailored to your business is imperative to its overall success in your daily operations. each staffing management plan are tailored to the various needs of each specific project.

and a horizontal axis (top row) of roles (e.. Table 7. The RAM allows easy identification of all responsibilities for a given resource.. Safety Policies and procedures that protect team members from safety hazards can be included in the staffing management plan as well as risk register Responsibility Assignment Matrix A Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a chart displaying the resources assigned to a project. from a product breakdown structure or PBS). There is a distinction between a role and individually identified people: a role is a descriptor of an associated set of tasks. A specific type of RAM is the RACI matrix. may be performed by many people.g. consulted. from a work breakdown structure or WBS) or deliverables (e.1 shows a typical RACI matrix The matrix is typically created with a vertical axis (left-hand column) of tasks (e. and one person can perform many roles.g. and a person who is able to perform the role of project manager may also be able to perform the role of business analyst and tester. RACI is an acronym derived from the four key responsibilities most typically used: Roll No: 511032634 Page 30 . although traditionally each project only has one project manager at any one time.g.The responsibility assignment matrix is commonly known as a RACI matrix. and informed in project activities. For example. from an organizational chart) – as illustrated in the image of an example responsibility assignment (or RACI) matrix. union contracts.. It also shows the assignments that are responsible for.The staffing management plan can include strategies for complying with applicable government regulations. accountable. an organization may have 10 people who can perform the role of project manager. This shows the resources that are responsible. and other established human resource policies.

Responsible: Is the one who has the liability to give account of his/her action towards accomplishing the task. this generally implies that participation has not yet been fully resolved. Roll No: 511032634 Page 31 . Where more than one participation type is shown. There is typically one role with a participation type of Responsible. and the one to whom Responsible is accountable. The first step in creating a responsibility assignment matrix is to decompose your project and create a work breakdown structure. Outside of this exception. There must be only one Accountable specified for each task or deliverable. which can impede the value of this technique in clarifying the participation of each role on each task. just one of the participation types. it is implied). at most. it is generally recommended that each role in the project or process for each task receive. you will know what the project deliverables will be. Accountable (also Approver or final Approving authority): Those who are ultimately accountable for the correct and thorough completion of the deliverable or task. it will facilitate the process of assigning deliverables to responsible parties. Informed: Those who are kept up-to-date on progress. often only on completion of the task or deliverable and with whom there is just one-way communication. i.e. Creating this second chart is an option that is highly recommended. but no role Responsible for its completion. In other words. Once you have completed this important first step. although others can be delegated to assist in the work required (see also RASCI below for separately identifying those who participate in a supporting role). Very often the role that is Accountable for a task or deliverable may also be Responsible for completing it (indicated on the matrix by the task or deliverable having a role Accountable for it. an Accountable must sign off (Approve) on work that Responsible provides. and with whom there is two-way communication. Consulted: Those whose opinions are sought. If you compose an organizational breakdown structure – breaking the project down into a hierarchy of departments.

pressure from the shareholders. prices of raw materials. Roll No: 511032634 Page 32 . Q. A: Accountable – this is the person who approves the work. There is only one accountable resource. list those as well. If there were intermediate deliverables discovered in the process of creating the work breakdown structure. After listing each deliverable down the side. list each resource across the top of the table. high inflation.Once you have the list of deliverables. I: Informed: This is the person who is informed of the progress of the deliverable. these environmental conditions have existed before but not to the degree that they do today.6 Why we need HR skills in a project manager-Comment Ans: Today. S: Supportive: This is the person who provides work in addition to the responsible party. F: Final Authority: This person gives the final stamp on the completed work. Now. union demands. Down the left-hand side list each deliverable. open an Excel file. managers in any organization are facing increasingly complex challenges in their regular work life. lack of borrowing power with financial institutions etc. Each deliverable should have at least one person responsible for it. C: Consulted – this is the person who delivers information required to complete the work. you will assign deliverables to resources using the following code for roles: R: Responsible – this is the resource that owns the work. V: Verifies: This is the person who ensures that the work meets standards. These challenges are the result of high escalation in factors like salaries.

Project Manager’s Knowledge Base Real education is supposed to change the mental make-up of a man. Objectives: · To understand the competencies of a project manager · To learn about various skills required by a project manager · To understand the need for business related competencies for a project manager · To know about qualities required to become a successful project manager. then we need a good education programme and not simply short-term training programmes. If we really possess the shortcomings that have been highlighted in the above referred report. though the emphasis there is mainly on hardware systems. project reviews.The project manager is responsible for coordinating and integrating various activities across the organizational functional areas. Hence. The short-term training pro grammes are good to impart skills in preparation of networks. his outlook towards life and things around him. development of performance budgets. but the employers as also the educational planners seem to have agreed on one point that a project manager must have basic education in the hardware system which forms the heart of any project. Whether this is necessary can be debated at length. continuously project things he would be required to manage. etc. and above all manage a project through installation of self-controlling systems. design of systems. Perhaps the need for a basic degree in engineering comes from acceptance of the fact that an engineer’s main business is design. His behavior is very important because the functional employees at the interface position find themselves reporting to more than one boss. but they would not prepare a man to accept uncertainties without any grouse. operation and maintenance of systems. The hardware system forms the core in any project and the concern for effective performance of the hardware is so over-riding that almost all recruitment advertisements for project managers look for an engineer having a basic degree in the hardware system of the project. in short. performance measurement. Roll No: 511032634 Page 33 . he should be a person with varying quantum of knowledge and skills and much have sufficient knowledge and competencies in several areas of management. his commitment.

This. The chief executive may expect the project manager to coordinate and expedite the project which the latter will find a very trying proposition in view of his not having any authority. almost all the universi ties who are thinking of formal education in project management are planning for postgraduate programmes after a basic engineering education. in most cases. is slightly different from general management education programmes where even arts graduates are admitted. as a staff assistant to the chief executive. A project manager may be positioned in many situations. does not make any decision for the project. to whom he reports. Many would consider that at least for engineering construction projects. he has to rely on personal authority for getting things done and not on positional authority. In other words. those with whom he communicates. one could see. but he cannot himself make any decision which can become binding for others. will tell much about a project manager’s authority though not in very clear terms. in this position. at best.An organization chart. is the simplest and quickest way to demonstrate the project manager’s authority. Accordingly. He serves. Details such as where a project manager is positioned. He may influence some decisions taken by the chief executive or by the functional depart ments. Roll No: 511032634 Page 34 . the project manager should possess a basic degree in engineering – advanced education in project management and/or training in effective project management could follow. and in each case the authority he can wield and consequently the end results he can produce will be different. This arrangement may be chosen by a chief executive who wants to directly control the project but cannot devote much time to keep track of details. and all those who report to him. The project manager. The project manager merely collects information – collects and communicates the same to the chief executive. nor does he provide any staff service to the functional departments who make all the decisions relating to the project.

Roll No: 511032634 Page 35 .

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