E C The demonstration component of the Joule-Thermie Programme T

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Bioclimatic Architecture

Directorate General for Energy (DG XVII)

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JOULE-THERMIE
The JOULE-THERMIE programme was launched in 1995 as the European Union’s first ‘integrated’ programme, bringing together the resources of the European Commission Directorates-General XII (Science, Research and Development) and XVII (Energy). This programme is funded by the European Union’s Fourth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development, one of the most extensive research funding initiatives available to European companies and research organisations. The JOULE-THERMIE programme runs until 1998 and has a total budget of 1,030 MECU of which 566 MECU are allocated to the THERMIE demonstration component of the programme for the support of projects and associated measures. THERMIE is focused on the cost-effective, environmentally-friendly and targeted demonstration and promotion of clean and efficient energy technologies. These consist of renewable energy technologies; rational use of energy in industry; buildings and transport; a clean and more efficient use of solid fuels and hydrocarbons. Essentially, THERMIE supports actions which are aimed at proving both the technological and economical viability and validity of energy technologies by highlighting the benefits and by assuring a wider replication and market penetration both in EU and global markets.

Colour Coding
To enable readers to quickly identify those Maxibrochure relating to specific parts of the THERMIE Programme each Maxibrochure is colour coded with a stripe in the lower right hand corner of the front cover, i.e.:

RATIONAL USE OF ENERGY - RUE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES - RES SOLID FUELS - SF HYDROCARBONS - HC GENERAL - GEN
Reproduction of the Contents is subject to acknowledgement of the European Commission. Neither the European Commission, nor any person acting on its behalf: a) make any warranty or representation, express or implied, with respect to the information contained in this publication; b) assumes any liability with respect to the use of, or damages resulting from this information. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Commission.

Bioclimatic Architecture

THERMIE PROGRAMME ACTION NO DIS-0162-95-IRL

Univer sity College Dublin

For the European Commission Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII)

Energy Research Group University College Dublin Richview, Clonskeagh Dublin 14, Ireland Tel: +353.1-269 2750

Goulding and Sinéad McKeon INTERNET This maxibrochure is available on the THERMIE World Wide Web site (http://erg.com/comprod/mirror/index. Goulding and J.G. London. Architects: Jestico & Whiles. Those interested can download the Acrobat Reader for their specific computer platform and then download the maxibrochure for viewing on screen. Follow included instructions in each item of software for appropriate setup. (b) assumes any liability with respect to the use of.2-657 3640 Front cover image: Zero Energy Headquarters building for Hyndburn Borough Council. University College Dublin Published by: LIOR E.2-657 5300 Fax +32.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Authors: John R. These software are available to the user at no cost. express or implied.E. UK. Energy Research Group.ucd. 1997.netscape. Panoramalaan 7. Design and layout: John R. Neither the European Commission. Owen Lewis. . All World Wide Web links referred to in this maxibrochure can be accessed through viewing the pdf document within the WWW browser Netscape. This project is supported by The Energy Commission DGXVII for Energy under the THERMIE programme. September 1997 Reproduction of the contents is subject to acknowledgement of the European Commission. or damages resulting from this information. B-1560-HOEILAART Tel +32.I. Accrington.ie/thermie. Netscape can also be downloaded from the WWW site http://home.html.html) in Portable Document Format (pdf). nor any person acting on its behalf: (a) makes any warranty or representation. Copies of the maxibrochure can then be printed. with respect to the information contained in this publication. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Commission.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Urban Morphology . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. . . . Microclimatic Design and Urban Planning . . . . . . . . . . Dublin . . . . . . . . 2 Bioclimatic Building Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Thermal Comfort Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windberg . . . . . . 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thessaloniki . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 5 6 7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . 10. . .2 Passive Solar Heating . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Daylighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bioclimatic Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 CD-ROM on Bioclimatic Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .1 Housing: Student Hostel. .2 Information via the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Urban Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Commercial: Irish Energy Centre offices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9. 12 Active Solar Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Natural Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Institutional: Teaching Hospital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 15 15 16 17 18 8. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 10 Thermal Comfort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Thermal Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Sustainable Construction Materials . . . . . .1 Sources of Further Information . . . . Athens . . .1 Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . 14 Case Studies 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Retrofit: Old Central Market. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 12 12 4 5. . . . .1 CD-Rom Screen Images. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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new heating. including electric lighting. a new approach is emerging that 'Wings of Glass' . Their meanings overlap and some have been around for longer than others. Far from limiting architectural freedom. and ‘Sustainable’ design are now familiar terms. climate and human needs and which gives expression to soundly based. it seeks to create an architecture which is fundamentally more responsive to location. and there is a growing body of evidence that the artificially maintained conditions within many of our modern buildings are not conducive to good health. affirms. with increasing awareness of the environmental impact of modern living.1 INTRODUCTION seeks to provide buildings which are better suited to the needs of occupants and kinder to the global environment.” Architecture has always involved the use of natural resources to serve human needs. ‘Passive Solar’. Germany. 2 . it offers a broad range of new possibilities to enhance the design and function of our future buildings and our delight in experiencing them. Since the Industrial Revolution. ‘Green’. Cheap fuels. However. healthy buildings and materials. and enables. proclaims: “Sustainable design integrates consideration of resource and energy efficiency. ‘Bioclimatic Architecture’ implies a design approach which embraces the principles of sustainability*.House in Regensburg. Chicago 1993. but at enormous and unsustainable cost to the environment. but which goes further than minimising the environmental impact of buildings. technological developments affecting the building sector. ‘Ecological’. * The UIA (International Union of Architects) Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future. ecologically and socially sensitive land use and an aesthetic sensitivity that inspires. Many of these buildings manage to provide acceptable levels of thermal and visual comfort indoors. Architect: Thomas Herzog. central heating and air conditioning. vital design parameters. have allowed buildings to become progressively more detached from their environments. ‘Bioclimatic’. cooling and lighting technologies and increased expectations of occupants have resulted in buildings that are designed and used with little regard to their location or their ambient environments. There is a long and inventive tradition of making buildings that are sensitive to place and to climate. Munich.

It requires a knowledge of climate. Architects: Energy Research Group University College Dublin. to that in well-designed new buildings where the solar contribution may represent more than half of the energy conventionally required to provide comfortable thermal and visual environments. Dublin. As an aside. Characteristically a design-orientated and building-specific technology. The rich design potential of bioclimatic strategies coupled with their economic attractiveness has determined that these approaches are of fundamental importance in a more energy-efficient architecture and sustainable design. and by reducing internal gains. earth and water) by means of natural modes of heat transfer. and exemplars of climate conscious design are to be seen in vernacular buildings of various cultures throughout history. or 13% of building sector use. Passive heating. Dublin. However substantial potential exists to increase its contribution. Heat flows occur primarily by the natural mechanisms of convection. A 1990 study for the European Commission [23] reported that passive solar design then supplied the Community (of twelve Member States) with 96 MTOE primary energy per annum . sky. and awareness of the available technologies and materials combined with an understanding of comfort. as of their nature these systems have profound architectural implications. cooling or daylighting will vary by region and building type. by 27% by the year 2000 and by 54% by 2010. Socrates evidenced a clear understanding of climate-sensitive design and of the principles governing the solar heating of buildings. and compared to more highly serviced ‘conventional’ buildings it may be significantly cheaper to operate. bioclimatic architecture permits a dynamic interaction between people. Dublin. Nevertheless. conduction and radiation rather than through the use of pumps and fans. View of the atrium. the principles involved were known in ancient civilisations. windows. as noted above. and how these conditions can be affected by changes in climate. if rigorous action is taken. at a certain level bioclimatic architecture has already been shown to provide in a cost-effective manner indoor climates which occupants enjoy. and whose contribution varies from the modest fraction by which most European buildings already benefit. Bioclimatic design elements cannot be considered only in their technical dimensions. a criticism which can fairly be levelled at some early solar buildings is that they were diagrammatic in concept. their built environment and the outdoor conditions. But the cooling load is firstly minimised through architectural design by reducing solar gains to the building fabric or through its windows. Primarily a design strategy. The terms ‘bioclimatic’ and ‘passive solar’ have been in use for not much more than a decade. Irish Energy Centre. The objective is to manage energy flows and thus provide comfortable conditions in the occupied parts of the building at all times of the year and the day. Thirdly. and similarly. The definition also includes natural cooling and shading. roofs and floors to collect. The building is cooled by rejecting unwanted heat to ambient heat sinks (air.2 BIOCLIMATIC BUILDING DESIGN As a design approach it is relevant to all buildings and locations though the relative importance of heating. in that it would seem that sometimes practically all other 3 'The Green Building'. . natural cooling and daylighting represent a spectrum of strategies whose applicability is modified by region and building type. Bioclimatic buildings are characterised by the use of building elements including walls. store and distribute solar thermal energy and prevent overheating.equivalent to 9% of total fuel (and greater than coal directly burnt for heating at 6%). The auxiliary inputs and their controls are designed to supplement the climatic contributions. the use of radiant energy for daylighting while maintaining standards of visual comfort is also encompassed within the bioclimatic approach. The design and construction of a building which takes optimal advantage of its environment need not impose any significant additional cost. Architects: Murray O'Laoire. The report indicates the potential to greatly increase this contribution. As far back as the 5th century BC. In most situations it is necessary to provide some additional heating or cooling at certain times. daylighting cannot meet all lighting requirements.

the prevention of unwanted air infiltration.considerations were made subservient to energy collection. Cooling is of particular (though not exclusive) relevance in southern climates. All climate-sensitive or bioclimatic architecture will incorporate solar protection and shading as appropriate to regional circumstances. of course.1 Energy Conservation While passive solar energy can help to replace conventional fuels with more environmentally benign alternative sources of heating. to reflect heat back into the room by radiation. Thought should be given to topography. Solar Wall. yet this is an approach in which there is renewed interest as energy issues in non-domestic buildings are studied. The perception of the thermal and luminous implications of elements such as walls and roofs is more difficult and less familiar to most designers than concepts such as architectural space and structure. energy-saving ventilation and optimisation of daylight to minimise the use of electric lighting) are essential to make the best use of the available energy. The addition of thermal insulation to the envelope reduces thermal conduction. Architectural devices designed to increase the penetration of natural light deep into the interiors of commercial buildings and schools improve the distribution by techniques such as clerestory lighting. Barriers such as aluminium foil can be placed behind radiators. sometimes filled with low-conductivity gas. energy efficiency. It is interesting that vernacular architecture often displays an exemplary appreciation of the exigencies of local climate but (apparently through a period of cheap energy) professional building designers seem to have lost the skills of designing in harmony with climate. . can reduce thermal losses through windows. 2. Double and triple glazings. Daylighting must be the earliest and most natural ‘bioclimatic’ application. and by transmission through thermal conduction. Modern service systems have tended to mask the direct experience of a building’s environmental response to climatic change. cooling and lighting. Techniques include evaporative cooling and night ventilation. and substantial thermal inertia will usually form an important feature of such buildings. building shape. but usually have relatively low impact on the architecture of the building. energy-efficient design and construction practices (including appropriate use of insulation and thermal mass. 4 Natural insulation for energy conservation. Energy conservation techniques are. A more holistic design approach is better suited to people’s increased expectations of their buildings in terms of environmental impact. convection and radiation. offer significant design potential. light shelves and so on. and planting of wind shelter. indoor health and comfort conditions and architectural quality. to achieve change it is necessary to motivate and inform professionals so that they modify their behaviour. Given that issues of energy-efficient building must form part of a design strategy. It is not necessary to cut out infiltration altogether. and lowemissivity glazing can be used. The building envelope can lose heat by infiltration. The aim should be to minimize it so that replacement of air can be controlled easily. Workmanship should be good and attention paid to details such as joints and closing systems. of primary importance in energy conscious design. and to provide the necessary tools to support design and predict performance’. Translucent Insulation Material. effective.

2 Passive Solar Heating Passive solar design represents one of the most important strategies for replacing conventional fossil fuels and reducing environmental pollution in the building sector. The sunspace or conservatory is a glazed enclosure attached to the south elevation. Movable insulation may be deployed at nighttime. usually without auxiliary heating and with storage either in a heavy separating wall or elsewhere in the sunspace. Trombe and water walls. Heat storage. DIRECT Non-diffusing Diffusing Direct gain sunspace Clerestory INDIRECT Mass wall Sunspace Direct Gain is the most common approach. The Trombe wall has vents at high and low levels to allow convective heat transfer to the occupied space. entirely new construction materials are now being developed for the market which are often ideally suited to passive solar buildings. It may be used to pre-heat ventilation air for the building. Depending on the local climate and the predominant need for heating or cooling. where collected/stored heat is redirected to rooms or zones which require heat.2. Solar energy can make a major contribution to the heating requirements of a building. Transparent or translucent insulation materials (TIM) are a new class of materials which combine the properties of good optical transmission and good thermal insulation. A development is the BarraConstantini system which uses lightweight glazed collectors mounted on. depending on the circumstances. while the mass wall relies on conduction. Water replaces solid masonry in the third type. south-facing glazed apertures opening directly into habitable rooms in which are exposed appropriately-sized areas of heavy materials to provide thermal storage. especially in larger buildings. where heat is retained in the building for as long as possible. 5 Passive solar heating configurations. with large. whose external surface is glazed to reduce heat losses. For most parts of Europe it is appropriate to use the following strategy: • • • • Solar collection. Storage is in a south-facing wall. of considerable thermal mass. but insulated from south-facing walls. Heat distribution. Heat conservation. at little or no extra cost compared with conventional construction. where heat collected during the day is stored within the building for future use. where solar energy is collected and converted into heat. Indirect Gain systems include Mass. a wide range of passive techniques is now available to the building designer for new and retrofit building projects which. which can reject or help to retain heat. There has been a recent upsurge of architectural interest in glazed sunspaces and atria. walls and floors warming these before returning to the bottom of the collector. can result in buildings which are both more energy-efficient and offer higher standards of visual and thermal comfort and health to the occupants. . Roof pond Thermosiphon Trombe wall Barra-Constantini Remote storage wall Black attic In addition to special glazing materials (using special coatings or which operate electrochromically or photochromically). Heated air from the collectors circulates through ducts in the heavy ceilings.

.One of the most obvious applications of TIM is on the sunny facades of buildings. sky... the term ‘passive cooling’ applies only to those processes of heat dissipation that will occur naturally. can help to maintain comfortable indoor conditions.... ground and evaporative cooling to reduce the temperature of ventilation air and night-time cooling of the building by radiative heat loss to the sky and enhanced ventilation. A useful design strategy for the overheating season is to first control the amount of heat from solar radiation and heated air reaching the building... natural cooling may be considered in a somewhat wider sense than the strict definition above suggests... Some transparent insulation materials are commercially available while others are still undergoing development.... or shading provided by vegetation and special glazing may be used to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the building. thermal inertia in the building envelope. .... .. before taking measures to dissipate unwanted heat. Internal gains can be reduced by the use of more efficient lighting and appliances and appropriate control strategies for their operation and by the use of natural daylight wherever possible to replace artificial lighting. it is prudent to consider how the build-up of unwanted heat can be minimised in the first place. However.. The definition encompasses situations where the coupling of spaces and building elements to ambient heat sinks (air.. .. .. ... . Infiltration gains can be reduced by cooling the incoming air and by reducing its infiltration to a minimum necessary for comfort and health.... then to minimise the effect of unwanted solar heat within the building skin or at openings. It is anticipated that large-scale production will significantly reduce their cost in the near future [24].. Solar Collection Heat Storage ... including increased air speeds to maximise perceived levels of cooling.. 2. In this context. Several methods of natural cooling.. Fixed or adjustable shading devices... to use environmental heat sinks to absorb any remaining unwanted heat.... reduced window sizes. where necessary.. ... Heat Distribution Heat Conservation Passive solar heating strategy.. Ventilation using cooled fresh air driven through the building by naturally occurring differences in wind or air pressure can help to reduce internal temperatures...... reflective materials and compact building layout. Well-designed TIM facades can reduce the annual energy requirements for space heating in new and retrofitted houses to one quarter that of comparable buildings with conventional wall insulation. .... earth and water) by means of natural modes of heat transfer leads to an appreciable cooling effect indoors. . replacing conventional opaque insulating materials. In practice a combination of these cooling techniques is almost invariably in operation... ... to include preventive measures for controlling cooling loads as well as the possibility of mechanically assisted (hybrid) heat transfer to enhance the natural processes of passive cooling...... next to reduce internal or casual heat gains from appliances and occupants and finally.. that is without the mediation of mechanical components or energy inputs... 6 External heat gains due to solar radiation can be minimised by insulation. . Internal Gains Passive cooling strategy. Solar Control External Gains Ventilation Natural Cooling ....3 Natural Cooling Strictly defined.

Recommended optimal illuminance values for the workplace for different types of task. space organisation. Finally. Both the spectral composition and light consistency should be appropriate for the task to be performed [7]. visual comfort and the well-being of occupants. form and dimensions of the openings through which daylight will pass the location and surface properties of internal partitions which will reflect the daylight and play a part in its distribution the location. however. energy savings by replacing artificial light and the more subjective benefits of natural light and external views enjoyed by the occupants.2. [25]. Window openings and artificial light sources should be placed in such a way that glare is minimised. indicated by a sufficiently high daylight factor. A good daylighting system has a range of elements.4 Daylighting The optimal use of natural daylight. form and dimensions. make a significant contribution to energy efficiency. be retained for the relief of each object to be brought out. Clerestory Reflective blinds Atrium Light duct Light well Roof monitor Light shelf External reflectors • • • • Good daylighting design will not only reduce energy costs related to artificial lighting but will also diminish the need for mechanical devices to cool rooms overheated by lowefficiency electric lighting appliances. Such a strategy should take account of the potential for heat gain and conservation. Enough illuminance. most of which must be incorporated into the building at an early stage in its design. without fatigue. function and geometry of the spaces to be lit the location. should be provided to allow relevant objects to be seen easily. are given in the Building Energy Code published by the (UK) Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE). Prismatic components Tilted / reflective surfaces Achievement of comfortable lighting conditions in a space depends on the amount. especially in buildings used mainly by day. can. the light 7 Claustras External / internal shades Coated glasses Transparent insulation Daylighting devices. by replacing artificial light. The light distribution in the space should be such that excessive differences in relative illumination which could give the impression of inadequate lighting are avoided. Illuminance Although the human eye is extremely adaptable. of movable or permanent devices which provide protection from excessive light and glare the optical and thermal characteristics of the glazing materials. distribution in the room and the luminance of the walls and other surfaces.. particular care should be taken over the quality of the light to be provided. Sufficient contrast should. it can nevertheless only perform visual functions within a small range of illuminance levels. . etc. This can be achieved by consideration of the following in relation to the incidence of daylight on the building: • the orientation. [15]. distribution and quality of the light there. For a particular task. the range is affected by the visual performance required.

illuminance or reflectance between surfaces. it always produces a feeling of discomfort and fatigue. be chosen with regard to their reflectances (the ratio of overall reflected radiant energy to incident radiant energy). Glare can be reduced by careful design and choosing light sources and backgrounds of suitable luminances. Direct glare occurs when a light source with a high luminance enters directly into one’s field of view. This effect could be enhanced in the occupants of deep-plan buildings where artificial light levels are insufficient to trigger physiological responses. to achieve good luminance distribution. It can be expressed in terms of luminance. In general. HQ for Legal & General Assurance. Kingswood. The penetration of natural light can be controlled by reducing the incident flow. light colours should be used for large surfaces. indirectly or by reflection. the amount of contrast and the luminance of the windows. Dublin. when removed. It can be mildly distracting or visually disabling for the occupant. Whatever its level. Architects + Engineers + Quantity Surveyors. It can be achieved either by incorporation of permanent or movable exterior devices into the building design to reduce the view of the sky or by using movable interior screens to reduce the luminance of the window. Health effects Besides being needed for visual perception. UK. therefore.as long as the sun’s rays do not reach the occupants’ eyes directly or by specular reflection. Architects: A&D Wejchert. Control of direct or diffuse sunlight is important to comfort because it reduces glare. 8 Meeting area. and affects the immune system and psychological and emotional states. The amount and distribution of the light (and hence the amount of contrast) in a room is very dependent on the reflectivity of the walls and other surfaces. Glare can be caused directly. A lack of light (particularly in winter at high latitudes) can lead to seasonal affective disorder (SAD) with symptoms of lethargy and depression. Surrey. . light also regulates metabolic processes in the human body. Daylight also provides clues for spatial and time orientation which. Light control Penetration of solar radiation into a building contributes much to the quality of the lighting there . lead to psychological discomfort and loss of productivity. Dublin. Surface finishes should. Humans evolved in an environment of purely natural daylight and it seems likely that it has other. Daylight is involved in setting the "biological clock" and its associated rhythms. Glare Glare is caused by the introduction of an intense light source into the visual field. It can be experienced with interior lighting or when the sun or clear sky is seen through windows either directly or after reflection from an exterior surface. Arup Associates. Beresford Court office building. Reflected glare is caused by specular reflection from polished interior surfaces. hitherto unknown effects on the human mind and body. Indirect glare occurs when the luminance of walls is too high.Contrast Contrast is the difference between the visual appearance of an object and that of its immediate background.

air and ground temperatures. precipitation. but in recent decades. Today. In the past. strategic. distancing work. [11] & [12]. climate has been a strong influence on urban planning. while in many regions contemporary city planning imposes limitations on development which force the same suburban model. transport facilitates the ‘suburban dream’. and building design. wind. urban planning should become more responsive to site. New planning directions are needed to reduce energy consumption in existing cities: for example. and humidity can be established using data from national meteorological services and other publications [10]. although it should be taken in context with an analysis of the microclimate at the site. Various publications give general guidance on site analysis techniques and some include tools and methods to aid the process: [4]. In the design of a few totally new towns. it has been possible to integrate energy. Seville. environmental.3 MICROCLIMATIC DESIGN AND URBAN PLANNING 3. General climatic factors such as solar radiation. urban morphology. To take best advantage of and to build in harmony with the environment. and loss of amenity. aesthetic. etc. such as Ecolonia in The Netherlands and Louvain-la-Neuve in Belgium. pollution. [7] & [9]. Architect: Jaime Lopez de Asiain. municipal ordinances. Italy. political. The amount of land covered by contemporary cities continues to grow with consequences for energy consumption. and the shelter from wind and rain provided by the hills of many Welsh and northern English valley towns. a good knowledge of the local climate and a detailed analysis of the chosen location are desirable before a strategy for bioclimatic design is embarked upon. Urban form is the result of the complex interaction of many pressures and influences: economic. recreation and home from each other and increasing transport demand. As concepts of bioclimatic design penetrate deeper into society. Local knowledge of the climate can also be useful. cheap road and rail transport and specialised land-use zoning have encouraged dispersed settlement patterns which have resulted in increased energy consumption. climate and nature. climatic considerations have informed the location of urban settlements: for example the availability of cooling winds in Perugia. Microclimatic design for outdoor cooling at the World Fair.1 Urban Planning In the past. social. Conventional land-use planning is influenced by obsolete zoning concepts. Seville. Cities and energy use interact on three levels: urban planning. 9 . transportation systems. in existing settlements as well as new ones. and wider social considerations in a more holistic urban plan. the integration of living and working places and improvements in the energy efficiency of public transport.

for shelter from or exposure to winds depending on the requirements. Where hard surfaces must be used. At southern latitudes. the urban microclimate is generally warmer than the surrounding countryside. Tall buildings interfere with winds by creating undesirable turbulence and downdraughts to the detriment of the microclimate at ground level. Prague city centre. and air temperatures tend to be high at this time of day. In the cooling season. and to provide shelter from cooling winds and rain by the use of topographical features. where possible. filtering of dust and airborne pollutants. westerly orientations should be avoided. Dense city planning of Athens showing mutual shading of buildings. Information on design tools and guidelines are provided in [4]. cities also tend to be warmer than surrounding areas because of impeded ventilation and large areas of hard surfaces of high thermal mass which retain heat. Czech Republic. deciduous vegetation can offer shade. as it is difficult to achieve solar shading because of the lower altitude of the evening sun. Vegetation may also be arranged to direct cooling breezes to where they are most needed. Studies by ETSU in the UK have shown that simple site re-planning and housing re-orientation can result in significant energy savings. 10 . Where the need for summer cooling is greater than for winter heating.3. vegetation and neighbouring constructions. energy use and environmental impact. improve urban temperatures and comfort in the heating season.2 Urban Morphology The interaction between urban form. Where cooling is required. Street orientation can dramatically influence solar gain and the effects of winds. space. pale colours can more effectively reflect solar radiation. climate and energy is complex. Favourable orientations for solar access can. when needed. Care must be taken to maintain solar access. In winter. because buildings impede wind flow and give off heat. while permitting solar access in winter. as seen in the whitewashed streets and buildings of some Mediterranean towns. Different layouts result in differing microclimates with greater or lesser comfort. cooling of the air by evapo-transpiration and Canal. streets and public spaces may be oriented to take advantage of prevailing summer breezes and buildings configured to provide mutual shading. Urban and building morphologies may be moulded for solar access or shade. [5] and [9].

Except for extreme situations (when the air is absolutely dry or it is saturated). raising the relative humidity from 20% to 60% allows the temperature to be decreased by less than 1K while maintaining the same comfort level. however.0 met. to prevent drying up of the mucous membranes. this can be taken to be the mean of the temperatures of the surrounding surfaces in proportion to their surface areas. In temperate regions. This reduces the radiative heat losses and therefore increases the feeling of thermal comfort. If a building is well insulated. The average surface temperature of the surfaces enclosing a space is the mean radiant temperature. The other four are linked to the surrounding environment:. Room temperature. playing squash produces approximately 7. The actual balance between the two depends on seven parameters outlined below.or dissatisfied. and 70%. Within buildings. for instance. to avoid the formation of mould in the building. Relative humidity is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the amount of moisture in the air to the moisture it would contain if it were saturated at the same temperature and pressure.1 metres per second for office work to 0. It also diminishes the occurrence of convective draughts. it is more important to design spaces in which people can influence the conditions they experience that to try to maintain complete stability. Comfort charts are also available to enable a quicker assessment of the comfort zones.1 Thermal Comfort Parameters It is impossible to specify precise values for the seven comfort parameters which would give an environment suitable for everyone.7 degrees C. and the absence of these can create a feeling of discomfort. Bioclimatic charts also show the influence on thermal comfort zones of changing buildingrelated parameters. As a simplification. Unlike internal body temperature.5 to 2 metres per second for someone playing squash. clothing and room temperature. such as those caused by a faulty air conditioning system. the relative humidity in a room should be between 40%. The clo is the unit of thermal resistance due to clothes and is equal to 0.155 square metres K per watt. it is not constant. the temperature of the internal surface of the outer walls is close to room temperature. as the body has no means of storing heat. Thus. The pattern of variation is also important. or with which the occupant has little sympathy. The velocity of the air relative to the individual influences the heat lost through convection. is 1. heat generated by it has to be dissipated. for instance.4 THERMAL COMFORT The internal temperature of the human body is constant and. The thermal resistance of ordinary summer clothing is 0. Causes that are not obvious. air speeds are generally less than 0. is very important to thermal comfort since more than half the heat lost from the human body is lost by convection to the room air. to be made.8 square metres. generates approximately 0.8 met whereas . Dublin. The met is the unit of metabolic energy and is equivalent to 58 watts per square metre. cause the most stress. The aim is to maintain the body at a constant internal temperature of 36. measured with an ordinary dry bulb thermometer. People are more tolerant of changes which they understand. Office work. Production of metabolic energy depends on the level of activity in which the individual is engaged. Generally. It is crucial to remember when designing spaces for human occupancy that people are not best suited to entirely “comfortable” conditions. such as a sunbeam or a draught. we are conditioned to adapt to quite major changes in our environment. on average.2 metres per second. These show given values of certain comfort parameters as a function of the other comfort parameters. Three of the seven comfort parameters relate to the individual: metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of the chemical reactions which occur within the body. 11 4. comfort zones. Dublin. been described by a number of thermal indices (such as the optimal operative temperature. A sunspace in the ‘Green Building’. for a predicted percentage of the population (typically 75%). Skin temperature is a function of metabolism. metabolic reactions occur continuously to compensate for loss of heat to the surroundings. Architects: Murray O'Laoire. the influence of relative humidity on thermal comfort is small. In fact. An individual’s feeling of thermal comfort is optimal when the production of internal heat is equal to the thermal losses from the body. clothing and skin temperature. The interactions between the parameters have. Because the temperature of the body is usually higher than that of the room. The surface area of the human body. The relative air velocity due to the individual’s activity can vary from 0 to 0.5 clo while that of indoor winter wear is 1 clo. the predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dissatisfied) which can be used to establish the conditions under which a percentage of occupants will be comfortable . and particularly those which can be controlled.

through production. there is substantial agreement that LCA is not wholly adequate for the comparison of building materials and few building materials have been investigated. 4. Pa 25 3000 20 5 3 40 10 20 tB ulb T em We 2000 15 15 10 1000 5 5 10 1 2 2 6 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 4 25 30 35 40 Dry Bulb Temperature (°C) Graph of hygrothermal conditions showing indoor thermal comfort conditions [18]. The environmental profiles of many individual products and processes have been identified by means of life cycle analysis (LCA) which outlines the environmental effects from extraction. over half of the waste we produce comes from the building sector.2 Thermal Indices Vapour Pressure 4000 30 mm Hg Relative Humidity (%) 100 80 70 90 per atu re ( °C) Thermal indices have been developed which describe the interactions between the seven parameters above to evaluate the occupants’ likely feeling of thermal comfort. They show that by changing these parameters the comfort zone can be extended a considerable amount even when the external climate conditions are unfavourable . A strategy which focused only on the minimisation of fossil fuel use and its replacement in buildings with renewable energies would ignore a hugely significant opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of modern living. Thus. then for a mean radiant temperature of 19OC.thus showing that. 6. demolition and recycling. when the PMV is +1). real space. The optimal operative temperature is defined as the uniform temperature of a black radiative enclosure in which the occupant exchanges the same quantity of heat through radiation and convection as he or she would in a non-uniform. However. the operative temperature can be taken to be the mean of the room temperature and the mean radiant temperature. for instance. It can be deduced from the PMV. 20 30 50 25 60 . The optimal value of the operative temperature corresponds to the comfort temperature in the room.3 Bioclimatic Charts Bioclimatic charts have been prepared by Givoni [18] which make it possible to determine the effect on thermal comfort of changing building-related parameters such as thermal inertia and ventilation rate. The comfort zone is generally regarded as stretching from a slight feeling of cold (termed ‘fresh’. When the air velocity is 0. Furthermore. To reduce this figure to 10%. Comfort zone Zone of influence of thermal inertia Zone of influence of ventilation Zone of influence of occupant behaviour Air conditioning zone Heating zone 5 SELECTION OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS The reasons for selecting sustainable building materials are compelling: half of all the raw materials extracted from the Earth are for building-related purposes.5. 1. 2. the room temperature must be set at 21OC. detailed information on the environmental impacts of the materials they commonly specify is not yet available on a basis which facilitates direct comparison. reliable. If. Building designers play a key role in the selection of materials. The mean opinion of a large group of individuals expressing a vote on their thermal feeling under different thermal circumstances has been used to provide an index to thermal comfort.2 metres per second or less. then the PMV has to be in the range -0. 3.4. by applying the concepts of climate-sensitive architecture. then the PPD index shows that 25% of the population will be dissatisfied. 5. the PMV is in the range -1 to +1.5 to +0. the effects of climatic variation on the interior environment can be minimised to the extent that they become negligible. if the comfort temperature has been established as 20 OC. A PMV value of zero provides the optimal thermal comfort conditions. Comfort Zones: The human body involuntarily regulates its production of internal heat to the thermal conditions of the environment. For example. and almost 50% of all energy used in Europe is buildingrelated. eventually creating a situation where the metabolic generation of heat is offset by the heat losses so the individual experiences only very small variations in the feeling of thermal comfort and thereby feels at ease. use. The predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) is an indication of the percentage of people susceptible to feeling too warm or too cold in a given thermal environment. However. when the PMV is -1) to a slight feeling of warmth (termed ‘mild’. A positive PMV value means that the temperature is higher than optimal and a negative value means that it is lower. The predicted mean vote (PMV) is a thermal sensation scale. a brick fired in an electric kiln in one country which uses oil for the production of electricity might involve the release of two or three times as much CO2 as a brick made in an identical kiln in a country which mainly uses hydro-electricity. LCA studies do not take account of one type of environmental impact compared 12 4.

and the environmental issues associated with each material featured are also briefly discussed.contained within the EPM strategy. For example. increased demand is likely to lead to greater availability and quality and reduced prices of some currently expensive materials which have acceptable levels of environmental impact. A 1 Nr: Validity: C DI S E / ER duction TU Pro cessing Pro ibution r dist Reu Rec se or yclin g 7 Date/ Test institute: Product: 2 R. While based on available information. policy instruments such as regulations and subsidies are absent. A TI truc I O nstallatiotion N n on oliti g T Dem ucturin N str ReAI Con s M . but a pragmatic approach. was originally prepared for application in The Netherlands where it is used by most of the municipalities. this does not reduce the responsibility of all involved in building specification to reduce the risks their choices impose on people and the environment. and offers a good basis for the comparison of many building materials and products which are in common use. The development of new products and markets can also be stimulated by the choices of materials being made by building designers who are taking environmental issues into account. but a relative ranking based on environmental impact: an environmental preference. It has now been edited and published in English for wider use throughout Europe [21]. R 8 S. new research and product development may affect the environmental preferences 13 Demolition and disposal Building product life-cycle flow chart. In some countries. which is more important in the long and short term . Decisions made by building designers and those who commission buildings will largely determine the future of the construction materials supply industry. Similarly. and it may not yet be possible to lay down comprehensive statutory conditions for sustainable building. F.the destruction of tropical rain forests or the destruction of the ozone layer? Definitive answers to these issues covering a range of commonly used building materials are unlikely to become available in the near future. The building-related Environmental Preference Method (EPM). developed in 1991 by Woon/Energie. The result is not an absolute assessment. START L SA ion osit Dep eration Incin P O L. W Test MA Ra min w mat NU ing/ Har erial FA prim ary vesting ene rgy P. based on such information as is currently available has been devised and its use throughout Europe is increasing. T 6 Producer: 3 4 H. However. the Environmental Preference Method considers environmental impact throughout the whole life-cycle of a material taking account of the following main issues: Shortage of raw materials Ecological damage caused by material extraction Energy consumption at all stages (including transport) Water consumption Noise and outdoor pollution Harmful emissions Global warming and acid rain Health aspects Risk of disasters Repairability Re-usability Waste The Environmental Preference Method is not final. In brief. S / Use Cle anin g 5 EN Ren Re ovat AN habilitat ion ion C E UT IL IZ Green: Low environmental impact Yellow: Medium environmental impact Red: High environmental impact A = Air impact W= Water impact E = Earth impact P = Power consumption L = Landscape picture F = Flora and fauna T = Transportation R = Refuse / waste H = Health of the people S = Social aspects TR = Trouble risk £ = Economic aspects The ‘Swiss Roll’ eco-label system. These are ranked according to their environmental impact. Life Cycle Stage 5 with another. Life Cycle Stage 1 Raw material extraction and processing into raw materials Energy Fuels Life Cycle Stage 2 Production of building materials Emissions into the atmosphere Emissions into water Emissions into soil (solid waste) Others INPUT Raw materials Water Life Cycle Stage 3 Construction and re-building / extension of buildings Life Cycle Stage 4 Operation and maintenance of buildings Planet Earth.

distributed and stored using a variety of active systems. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are used to convert the energy of the sun directly into electricity. A typical system consists of south-facing collectors. it can be stored in batteries or supplied to the national grid. matching energy supply and demand is the major challenge for system designers. usually roof. Connecting the PV panels to the grid means there is no need for costly battery installations. Costs of PV systems are falling dramatically. or for emergency supply. battery-driven systems are generally appropriate where there is no existing grid connection. 14 . standalone. and usually a back-up conventional heat source for periods when the sun isn’t shining. The simplest is an uninsulated black plastic or metal tube through which water is circulated. These include photovoltaics. The past quarter-century has seen solar thermal grow from an "alternative" movement to a mature industrial sector. nor do they significantly impact ecosystems. other applications include space heating. A network of experienced installers and maintainers exists throughout Europe. one side of which is transparent glass or plastic. such as cooling fans. with over a million square metres of collectors produced in the EU in 1997. Solar thermal energy is one of the easiest and most economical ways to put the sun to work. have been eliminated). without noise or pollution and with little visual impact. otherwise. solar thermal systems tend to be decentralised. The cost of glazing. sometimes with a special selective coating. and industrial processes.or ground-mounted. Because heat is difficult to store or transport. which convert sunlight into electricity. and reliability is high. Collectors can often be integrated into the building envelope. There are three main types of solar collector in widespread use. Roof-mounted solar thermal collector. and semi-transparent systems replacing glazing. Solar thermal systems are the most widely used and economical form of active solar energy. These unglazed collectors are limited to producing temperatures in the heat transfer fluid about 20 K above ambient. district heating. Solar thermal is probably the most environmentally benign form of energy in widespread use. sometimes the building fabric or the ground. type is the flat plate collector in which an absorbent black plate or tube. a distribution network carrying a fluid. and most common. toxins. usually water-based. the sun’s energy may be harvested. or other heat store. Arrays of PV cells are typically arranged in panels on south-facing areas of roof or wall. and these collectors can reach temperatures of more than 100 K above ambient. roof or facade elements can be offset against that of the PV systems that replace them. Because solar energy is unevenly distributed over time. is enclosed in a flat insulated box. a storage tank. Solar thermal systems trap solar energy and deliver it as sensible heat without conversion into any other form of energy. The next. with most energy (in temperate zones) arriving during the summer months.6 ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEMS As well as being used passively for lighting and heating. have little or no visual impact. once used in some evacuatedtube collectors. and many thousands of systems are in use in buildings in Europe and worldwide. The electricity they generate can be used immediately in some applications. Architectural integration of PVs offers interesting possibilities. particulates. The most common use is for domestic hot water. Lifespans are estimated at 20 years. The glazing and insulation reduce heat losses so that fluid temperatures up to 70 K above ambient can be reached. the most sophisticated type in widespread use is the evacuated tube collector. which use solar energy to heat air or water. with energy collection near to the point of use. and while in use emit no greenhouse gases. cooling. Finally. or noise. The insulating properties of the vacuum mean heat losses are low. and solar thermal systems. It consists of an array of evacuated glass tubes each containing a flat absorber plate which conducts heat to the transfer fluid. and in many cases owners and occupants are happy to be visibly using solar energy. including the installation of opaque panels on roofs. Solar thermal systems are made from relatively harmless materials which can be recycled after use (CFCs. before long PV should be able to compete with other forms of electricity generation. facades and shading devices. Visual intrusion is not great.

Indeed.1 Student Hostel. been strongly influenced by a thorough analysis of the patterns of use of the various spaces. When required. the hostel also serves as a working demonstration of the principles of bioclimatic architectural design. To minimise heat losses due to ventilation. Lighting energy is also low. this low-energy hostel provides sleeping accommodation and ancillary rooms for 100 guests. In summer. incorporating 140mm of insulation. 7. A particular requirement of the brief was that spatial divisions in the hostel should be flexible and capable of future change. for the frame structure of the northern zone of the building and for internal finishes. and visible service runs. The students are made aware of the passive and active energy systems and environmental performance of the building and these presentations are facilitated by a digital information board in the entrance area showing energy performance. Used for only a few hours during daytime. they benefit from direct solar radiation through the ample. The external wall facing north is of a thermally lightweight construction. and no energy is used for HVAC other than a few small fans in bathrooms and similar areas. from an early stage. but continuously during night time at a relatively low temperature. transparent insulation which heats up the massive external walls. The design of the building and its energy systems have. in particular youth groups attending the adjacent 12th century monastery and education centre which it serves. a nonrecirculating heat recovery unit is fitted in the roof space. some recreation and common room facilities having been previously provided in the monastery. The overall heating energy used by the building is only 45kWh/m2y.7 CASE STUDIES excessive solar gain by a large overhanging roof. Munich Completed in 1991 and situated in the rural Bavarian town of Windberg. storage. the bedrooms are protected from Student Hostel. The bathrooms need higher temperatures than other spaces. timber is used extensively for structural roof members. structural systems and materials used in the building. Windberg. high specification windows. 15 . rooms which are used for several hours at a time are separate from those used for short periods. The design brief also included the treatment of external spaces around the monastery. Germany. and features timber cladding reminiscent of local Bavarian barns. The intermittently used spaces are located behind the north facade and include circulation. but only for a few hours per day. These differences are evident from an analysis of the space planning. The latter can respond quickly to provide both heating and the requisite air changes to the shower rooms located in the thermally lightweight northern zone. two gas-fired boilers with a total capacity of 92 kW provide auxiliary domestic hot water and also space heating via small radiators in the southern part of the building and a warm-air ducted heating system in the northern part. All bedrooms face south giving views of the surrounding countryside and allowing solar radiation to be optimised during the heating season. Profiled metal decking elements are used for the roof covering. In addition to its primary function. Architect: Thomas Herzog. entrance and bathroom areas. Windberg. solar collectors and storage elements. Water for showers and other domestic purposes is heated by evacuated-tube solar collectors located in the southfacing roof and stored in six large tanks situated internally. and a high level of thermal mass in the internal walls which modulates day-night temperatures in the building.

healthy.7. Architects: Energy Research Group University College Dublin The architects’ brief was to design an office building for thirty occupants. with ancillary spaces. CFC-free insulation is used in wall cavities and under the ground floor. while the design of the building section allows light to penetrate the core areas of the 410m2 building and provides views to the north. The atrium is the public face of the building. Four open-plan offices are grouped around a small doubleheight atrium which accommodates the entrance.2 Irish Energy Centre. From the top floor corridor there are views back via the bright atrium to the green space beyond. context and function. well lit and comfortable environment for the occupants while consuming a fraction of the energy which would be used by a similarly-sized conventional office building. Dublin. and the intention was that its natural lighting and finishes should reflect an external quality and emphasise the relationship with the external public route. windows and partitions. The building was completed in 1996. context and function • To incorporate innovative applications of conventional materials and energy systems • To make a positive contribution to the existing campus. Total primary energy consumption is 140 kWh/m 2 y. low embodiedenergy and recyclable materials. Dublin. Ireland. exhibition and meeting area and assists the natural lighting and ventilation of the building. Monitoring has shown daylight factors on the working plane to be between 5% and 10%. Dublin. These and the reinforced concrete upper floor contribute significant thermal mass. The objectives were as follows: • To exemplify an awareness of energy efficient design and construction • To respond architecturally to climate. There is an emphasis on the use of natural. which would be architecturally responsive to climate. providing ample natural light. was formerly a car park. thus placing minimal demand on non-renewable energy sources. The result is a building which provides a natural. Windows use low-emissivity. and views for all of the occupants. or 57% of consumption for a comparable new Irish office building with no air conditioning. and structural walls are of locally-made concrete blocks. Floor plan of the Irish Energy Centre. The organisation of the building breaks naturally into small-scale cellular spaces and larger open-plan office spaces on both floors. The IEC site. while using proven energy-efficient strategies to satisfy heating. The elongated form of the building screens a work-yard and reinforces a principal pedestrian route through the campus. located among twenty buildings of various ages and forms on the campus of the State development agency. natural stone for floor coverings and external paving. 16 . Average room height in the offices is 3m. lighting and ventilation requirements. gypsum plastered to the inside with a self-finish to the exterior. for example: timber for roof trusses. All of the open-plan offices have windows on four sides which results in optimum daylight Irish Energy Centre offices. argon-filled double-glazed units and careful attention has been paid to the draught sealing of door and window openings. and mineral-fibre insulation in the roof space. under overcast conditions. Forbairt.

lighting and construction materials analyses made possible by the EC JOULE ‘Solar House’ programme and carried out during the design phase of the project have helped to optimise natural forms of energy for heating. those associated with the lighting design such as the incorporation of 'intelligent' lighting controls. the specification of thicker insulation. viewed from the North. among other detailed measures. In general. shading. Architects: Meletitiki .A.5 1340 1794 9. 17 . the highest of which has seven storeys. ventilation patterns.3 Papageorgiou Foundation General Teaching Hospital. indoor air quality and comfort. A BEMS. shading. the use of natural ventilation. while the diagnosis and therapy units are to the north-west. The building thermal simulation studies have. Athens. following the thermal and lighting studies. which concentrated on the nursing wards and the main entrance hall under overcast sky conditions and involved the use of scale models and fullscale physical simulations using a PASSYS test cell. Thessaloniki. N.3 2160 2808 4. To explain and facilitate the operation of the different energy saving design features of the hospital. three main categories of energy saving measures were incorporated in the final design: those concerning the architectural elements such as insulation. Detailed thermal. passive cooling. from an early stage.7.the air handling units and the chillers. The building is organised around a large central entrance hall from which the main vertical and horizontal circulation axes lead to wings of different heights. Located seven kilometres to the north west of Thessaloniki on a 150. led to the incorporation of ceiling fans in most nursing wards and areas of similar function.000m2 of floor area has been designed to function using less than three-quarters of the energy used in a conventionally designed hospital of similar size. which may be operated from a central point. Thessaloniki. and use of ceiling fans. where possible.0 Total estimated annual energy savings for three main categories of energy saving measures. equipment duty cycles. users' guidelines have been prepared as a manual and in poster form for display. cooling and daylighting while the energy use in the extensive mechanical and electrical plant essential in a modern hospital has been minimised by careful design and Saving Energy conscious architectural design Intelligent lighting controls Enhanced efficiency in mechanical processes and heat recovery Energy MWh CO2 tonnes Pay back years specification (see table). Tombazis and Associates Architects Ltd. and modifications in the design of the shading devices. have led to improved design of the window shading devices. this 735 bed hospital occupying 70. Greece. Design emphasis. Model of Papageorgiou Foundation General Teaching Hospital.. Daylighting studies. The L-shaped nursing wards are to the south-east with patients’ rooms in a quiet zone away from traffic noise. heat recovery and reduction of heat losses. 2940 3822 5. and those measures applied to the mechanical installations. and an 'economiser' for night cooling using ambient air. optimum start and stop times. etc. controls electricity demand via time-programmed commands. and efficient energy management control information via a Building Energy Management System (BEMS).000m2 site adjacent to a busy dual carriageway. has been placed on the bioclimatic use of landscaping for cooling and to reduce traffic noise. daylighting. the most important being major heat recovery in two main parts of the mechanical installation . night cycles.

Winters are mild while summers are hot and conditions in the market are far from comfortable or suitable for the display and sale of produce. Athens Architect: Synthesis and Research Ltd. Effective air filtration thus improving indoor air quality and protecting the outdoor environment. and producing less heat than the incandescent lights they replace. Greece. • • • • • • The requirement for local lighting above the fish and meat stalls has been met by the installation of high-frequency fluorescent lamps which can provide the required illuminance while consuming less electricity. Scale models and computer simulations have been employed to evaluate the energy and environmental effects of a range of thermal and daylighting proposals with support from the EC JOULE ‘Solar House’ programme. An average internal illuminance of 800 lux. consisting of an earth-to-air heat exchanger. Installation of an ‘environmental panel’ shading device which is covered with deciduous plants. and an air distribution system incorporating ducts. The market consists of a large rectangular hall with top and side lights (the fish market with 74 shops and 109 stalls) and three surrounding arcades along the perimeter of the building (the meat market with 75 shops and 192 stalls). The retrofit is projected to save 55% of heating and cooling energy and 70% of lighting energy when compared with existing or conventional systems. by Fraunhofer Institute Freiburg. Co-ordinator: Talos Engineering. Electric Lighting is needed at each stall. fans and air diffusers. The total estimated savings are 240 MWh.4 Rehabilitation of Old Central Market. a series of solar air heaters. Various passive and active features were considered for incorporation in the design and.000 ECU. • • • The incorporation of these measures is projected to achieve the following results: • Internal temperatures of 20 oC in winter and 28 oC in summer. • View of existing conditions in Old Central Market. Increasing the area of roof glazing and the use of diffuse glazing to increase the penetration of daylight and reduce solar gains during summer. a year. The incorporation of a hybrid system for cooling and heating. The Old Central Market. reduce solar gains in summer. Improvement of the local microclimate and creation of a ‘green’ image for the building which will encourage users to consider the environmental effects of their actions. after exhaustive evaluation. Athens. filters. opaque roof panel to reduce thermal losses in winter. located in the congested centre of Athens. and improve natural ventilation. Photovoltaic panels to supply electricity to the automated control system. Computer simulation of improved lighting conditions in Old Central Market.7. while preserving the architectural integrity of the building. the following were selected: • Four symmetrical ‘air chimneys’ at the corners of the building incorporating waste heat recovery and filtration units for the supply and exhaust of air to and from the building. The introduction of an insulated. Athens. • The installation of thermostatically controlled adjustable louvres at openings on the terrace level and at the upper part of the inclined roof. worth about 21. The renovation study focused on the need to improve lighting through better use of daylight. 18 . Its upper frame contains water pipes and injectors (with a water recycling system) to irrigate the plants and assist cooling by evaporation. The installation of ‘air curtains’ at the main entrances to the market. is a 19th-century building of significant architectural interest which is in daily use. reduce heat losses in winter.

However. They range from quite simple written assessment procedures to advanced computer applications. they are based on assumptions and approximations which introduce errors. and three-dimensional modelling software which allow the architect to study lighting distribution in spaces or to predict ventilation in buildings. tabulated data. The users of these design tools will tend to be trained staff and they will often be part of several project teams with the specific task of carrying out these simulation studies. The computerisation of information sources allows designers to locate required information quickly. This is certainly true for complex dynamic simulation tools. users will bring to a tool their own assumptions and simplifications of the design problem. Here. the smaller practice can not afford to dedicate staff in this way and so consultants can be employed to provide these specialist services. Daylight factor profile (coarse and fine) results. 3D solid rendering of building CAD model. . some of which can be refined as the design progresses. One reason this situation exists is because building designers often do not have the means to assess the impact of new energy strategies and technologies efficiently and reliably. can offer extremely useful guidance early on. re-use at a later date may only require a brief review of the user documentation. However. Although less accurate than high-level dynamic simulation tools. whether new or rehabilitation projects. They are often mistakenly used with the assumption that they can predict reality often the basis for serious misuse of design tools. The introduction of CD-ROM technology over the past few years and the emergence of the Internet are examples of this. These tools make it easier and quicker to study questions that may not have been considered in the design process. these strategies and technologies have not been widely adopted by the building design community. many other types have been developed. are still designed without any energy-related considerations beyond those enforced by building regulations. Design tools are not always calculation methods. they are capable of correctly indicating appropriate design directions at a stage when strategic and major tactical decisions about the building form. when the design is still fluid and major changes can be easily made.8 DESIGN TOOLS After more than two decades of research. The value of these simplified tools should not be underestimated. Handbooks. Most buildings. With simple tools. In some cases this extends to assessing interactions between design elements previously treated in isolation. Often. Some software packages. But such tools require a considerable amount of information on the design of the building and are generally best suited to fine tuning the design at an advanced stage. tools also have their limitations. have been created to help with energy efficient design. we have a broad understanding of building energy use and strategies to improve the efficiency of its utilisation. Awareness of the assumptions and simplifications made within the tool’s theoretical analysis method is crucial. orientation. A wide range of design tools is now available to help architects and engineers design more energy-efficient buildings. 19 Design tools can sometimes assist where specialist or expert knowledge of a topic is not available or where the required study of an issue would be prohibitively complex or time-consuming. it is likely that once the use of the tool is understood. can produce very detailed predictions of a building's performance under a range of closely defined operating conditions. whether manual or automated. This has led to the development of building energy design tools. Many tools have been developed to determine the behaviour of physical phenomena which would otherwise have been too complex to examine. The more complicated the tool the more the user will need to remain familiar with all aspects of its application or re-training will be required. both manual and computerized. Simpler tools. These simplified tools frequently depend on a range of assumptions. materials and operating conditions can be made at little or no cost. such as dynamic simulation methods of which ESP-r is an example. Similarly. we focus on manual and computer-based calculation procedures. Applications now available include tools which indicate the energy related aspects of an emerging design where only an outline of information is available. Assessing a building’s energy performance in detail requires complicated calculations to estimate year-round performance. leading to more thorough consideration of energy issues. While some tools can achieve quite accurate predictions. and physical tools.

me.epfl.com Web site:http://www. operation and maintenance of buildings.html Solar Energy Laboratory http://sel.1344-487575 International Building Performance Simulation Association IBPSA’s objective is the advancement and promotion of the science of building performance simulation to improve the design.htm PASSPORT .de/wt/adeline/adeline.tamu. United Kingdom.Software http://www.dap.uk/bepac/ 8. Department of Architecture Texas A & M University. Contact: The Building Services Research and Information Association. e-mail larry@archone.ucd.htm l PASCOOL Passive cooling of buildings http://www.energy.lbl.lbl. Ireland Fax:+353.com/Science/Energy/ IVAM Environmental Research http://www.uoa.edu/ep/eic/ Building Design Advisor http://eande.erg.1734842861.gov/html/osti/estsc/estsc.htm The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Energy http://solstice.html Energy Ideas Clearinghouse .1223-62865 BSRIA . Dublin 14.8.ucd. Fax:+41.html Yahoo . Fax 409 845 4491. e-mail: jolivetp@richview.ucd.html Computer-Based Design Tools http://eande. Bracknell. a computer aided learning module for architecture students http://lesowww. Clonskeagh.html ESP-r .ie Info Energie . Purley on Thames.crest.org/online/virtual-library/VLibenergy.html Centre for Building Science.31-352 7756 Guidance on Selecting Energy Programs This guide.gov/CBS/CBS. provides detailed information on the selection of energy software.ac.dmu. e-mail: 100572.gr/pascool.Simplified http://erg.1 Sources of Further Information on Design Tools Resource Guide Contains numerous references to design tools and energyrelated publications.uk/Departments/ESRU/ esru.wsu. Available from Bundesamt für Energiewirtschaft.gov/BTP/BDA/BDA.mae.ivambv. Available on disk (for Macintosh) from the Energy Research Group University College Dublin.ie Web site: http://www.Software for Building Services .ucd.ie/ 20 .html Energy Science and Technology Software Center http://apollo. Cambridge CB2 3QQ. Guildhall Place. construction. Contact CICA.fhg.html BATMAN. University of Strathclyde http://www. College Station. US.ie/passport/passport. Contact: BEPAC Administration.nl/welcome. Richview.okstate.iesd.3163@compuserve. Berkshire RG12 7AH.html Building Environmental Performance Analysis Club BEPAC aims to improve building performance by encouraging the use and development of environmental analysis and prediction methods. Fax: +44. Fax: +44. 16 Nursery Gardens.gov/CBS/NEWSLETTER/NL3/EDA.ac.2 Information via the Internet RADIANCE . TX 77843.yahoo.gov/radiance/ ADELINE http://www.Science: Energy http://www. Fax: +44.strath.Daylighting simulation http://radsite. Switzerland.osti.edu/ibpsa/IBPSA.wisc. CH-3003 Bern. produced by the UK Construction Industry and Computing Association.1-283 8908.Energy Systems Research Unit. Contact: IBPSA.lbl.ch/anglais/Leso_a_software_batman.uva.edu http://www.edu/ Energy Research Group UCD http://erg. UK. Reading RG8 8AS.a selection guide Information on a wide range of energy software.lbl.ibp. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory http://eande.Liste der Software/Liste des Logiciels A comprehensive listing (in German and French) of internationally developed software with contact details for each design tool included. UK. Old Bracknell Lane West.

joints. Illuminance: The light striking a unit area of a specified surface. store and distribute solar energy without artificial inputs of energy. Heat pump: A thermodynamic device that transfers heat from one medium to another. Mass wall: A solid south-facing wall that absorbs solar radiation and transmits some of its heat into the building by conduction.5°C allowance for internal gains and heat stored in the fabric of a building. The heating degree day value for a year is calculated by taking the sum of the differences between the base temperature and the mean daily temperature for each day of the heating season.5°C is a common figure) and the number of days when that temperature occurs. around door and window openings. Luminous efficacy: The ratio of the light emitted by a lamp to the energy consumed by it. or. relative to the transmittance of a single sheet of 3mm clear glass. the lower the shading coefficient. use of such (crops. for example) to generate energy. Macroclimate: The general climate of a region. For electricity it includes heat wasted in generation and distribution losses. The base temperature of 15. One unit of electrical energy saved in a building represents 3 units of energy saved at the power plant. also. In an oil or coal fired power station about one third of the primary energy emerges in the form of electricity. for example). Biomass: Organic materials. process machinery). Microclimate: The climate of a specific site or of a small area. Hybrid system: A predominantly passive solar system in which some external power is used to move naturally heated or cooled air or water around a building. It is expressed in candelas/m2. and glazed to reduce heat loss to the outdoors. Passive solar systems: Systems which use building elements to collect. Embodied energy: The total amount of energy used in bringing a product or material to its present state and location (including harvesting/mining. the intensity of light per unit area of surface seen from a given direction.9 GLOSSARY Infiltration: Unwanted leakage of outdoor air into a building through cracks. Diffuse radiation: Solar radiation which is scattered by reflection from or transmission through a diffusing material (such as the atmosphere). Internal/Casual gains: Heat gains within a building resulting from occupants. human. in soil or in the crevices or pores of rock. Possible sunshine: Amount of time between sunrise and sunset when the sun is shining (expressed as a percentage). with a 2. Groundwater: Water found within the earth. the less energy the window transmits. Degree days: The product of the number of degrees below a given base temperature (15. Shading coefficient: A measure of a windows ability to transmit solar radiation. Primary energy: Energy value of a fuel at source. while the second (the heat sink) warms up. processing.5°C assumes a design temperature of 18°C. Active solar system: A system in which mechanical equipment is used to collect. Photovoltaic (PV) energy: Use of solar cells to generate electricity from solar radiation. Expressed as a value between 0 and 1. expressed as a percentage of the simultaneous horizontal illuminance outdoors under an unobstructed sky. Sometimes called ‘cogeneration’. more generally. Direct radiation: Solar radiation coming directly from the sun. which may feed springs and wells. For oil this includes the energy costs of extraction and processing. liquid or gas) produced from organic material. 21 . manufacture. etc. Heat exchanger: A device whereby heat is transferred from a medium flowing on one side of a barrier to a medium flowing on the other. Life cycle analysis: Assessment of the total environmental impacts associated with a products manufacture. lighting. Combined heat and power (CHP): The use of a single source to generate and both electricity and heat. animal or commercial wastes. store and distribute solar energy for the building. office equipment. Daylight factor: Illuminance at a specified point indoors. and equipment (domestic appliances. It is expressed in lumens/W. measured in lux. The outer surface is generally given a matt black surface to increase absorption of solar radiation. Heat recovery: Reclaiming heat which would otherwise be wasted (see Heat Exchanger). off-gassing from paints. Luminance: Light emitted by unit area of matt surface. use and disposal. influenced by local topography. Often used to reclaim heat from outgoing ventilation air or waste water. Reflectance: Ratio or percentage of the quantity of light reflected by a surface to the amount of light striking that surface. The first medium (the source) cools. The remainder is waste heat vented to the atmosphere or lost in transmission. Biofuel: Any fuel (solid. and transport). Out-gassing: Emission of gases or volatile organic compounds from a material (solvents.

and drawing cool air from the living space through the bottom vent. gas filled and with a low-emissivity coating. Convection currents set up in the water transfer heat more rapidly through the wall. 22 . glass or plastic tubes or drums. airborne substances (typically indoor pollutants). Sustainability: Activities are sustainable if they will not contribute to irreversible damage to or depletion of natural systems or resources within a foreseeable period. Windows with electrochromic or photochromic glazing are two examples. Visible transmittance: A measure of the light in the visible portion of the spectrum which passes through glass. but constructed of water-filled metal.g. entering the living space through the upper vent.Sinks (out-gassing): Materials which first absorb. glass) to the total radiant energy incident on its surface. Transmittance: Ratio of the radiant energy transmitted through a substance (e. Utilisation factor: The percentage of useful incoming solar energy which displaces conventional or fossil fuelled heating. Super windows: Double or triple-glazed windows. Air turbidity is generally due to smoke. Thermo-circulation: Natural circulation of air induced by temperature-related changes in its density. Trombe wall: Similar to a Mass Wall. but with vents at top and bottom. and then release over an extended period. Air between the wall and glazing is heated by the wall and rises. Smart windows: Windows which respond to changes in thermal or lighting conditions. usually with reference to air or water quality. haze (moisture) and/or dust. Turbidity: Lack of clarity or purity. Some heat is transmitted into the living space by conduction. Water wall: Similar in action to a Mass Wall. It is expressed by a number between 0 and 1.

students.2-657 5300 Fax +32. This new CD-ROM on Bioclimatic Architecture has been created as part of a THERMIE Programme action of the European Commission (Directorate-General XVII for Energy) and will be updated on a regular basis. tables. Panoramalaan 7 B-1560 Hoeilaart Belgium Tel +32.be Website: http://www. design guidance. builders and planners. 23 .lior. and a range of exemplary solutions combining good architecture and sound energy practice are provided. environmentally friendly technologies for the building sector.G. graphs. architectural drawings. help facilities and keywords in seven EU languages. The CD-ROM operates on IBM PC compatible platforms and provides opportunities to explore a wide range of easily applied energy-saving.be/ ORDER FORM (Please photocopy and send to LIOR E. and all those who wish to explore an architecture which is responsive to the environment . It is part of a growing family of CD-ROMs on energy efficiency and environmental topics titles include: • Biogas from Waste & Waste Water Treatment • Biomass Combustion • Wind Energy Technologies • Rational Use of Energy in Road Transport • Composting • Photovoltaics • Organic Farming • Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems The CD-ROMs are available at 150 ECU each (plus 10 ECU for post and packaging) from: LIOR E.E. video and animated graphical sequences. The material is presented in highly graphical forms to suit various levels of users’ experience and knowledge while allowing complete freedom to efficiently navigate through the material to find relevant information to the task in hand.10 CD-ROM ON BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE This Maxibrochure gives a brief overview of the main topics covered in an associated interactive CD-ROM on Bioclimatic Architecture which is now available from the address below. A very large quantity of information is presented in a visually appealing format on the CD-ROM which is fully illustrated with photographs. architects.2-657 3640 E-mail: info@lior.G at the above address) Name: Address*: Country: Please supply Tel: copies of the CD-ROM on Bioclimatic Architecture Fax: Organisation: Method of Payment: ❑ Eurocheque Credit card number: Expiry date: ❑ Bank draft ❑ Visa or Mastercard / Access credit card Signature: Date: (please tick) * NB: Please state credit card billing address where different to that above. Only minimal computer skills are required to use the package effectively. background music and spoken information. It is envisaged that the CD-ROM will be a convenient.E. Basic principles. The first edition is in English with additional menus. practical tool for architectural teachers.a sustainable architecture.I.I.

1 CD-ROM Screen images Bioclimatic Architecture CD-ROM screens 24 .10.

U. ECD Partnership.A. ECD Partnership. Materials and Services. [26] Contact: Michael Brown. 1996.V. 1992. Vivienne Brophy. Aplicacio de sistemes d’aprofitament solar passiu.1996.. Baker et al. B. B. J. Goulding (Eds). SOL A.N. Szokolay. J Greif (Eds). John A.New York.K. London.A European Reference Book. ISBN 1-873936-39-7 [2] Living in the City . in Maxibrochure format. ISBN 0-2730-0268-6 [14] Conception thermique de l’habitat. Dublin for the European Commission DGXVII.. N. 1996. Steemers (Eds).R.An Architectural Ideas Competition for the Remodelling of Apartment Buildings. Dapartament d’Industria i Energia . Ann Mc Nicholl and J. Owen Lewis. 1980. [23] Passive Solar Energy as a Fuel. C. J. Owen Lewis. Robbins. ISBN 84-393-0670-9 [17] Guide d’aide à la conception bioclimatique. Edisud. for the European Commission. ISBN 87 550 1482 8. ISBN 1-873936-71-0 [7] Daylighting in Architecture . ISBN 0-442-27949-3 [16] Estalvi d’Energia en el dissery d’edificis. Commonwealth Science Council. London for the European Commission DGXII. J. Owen Lewis (Eds). Morris. Denmark. Energy Research Group University College Dublin for the European Commission. James & James Science Publishers. ISBN 0 7134 69196.Power for a Sustainable Future. Owen Lewis (Eds).V. Baker. European Association for the Promotion of Cogeneration (COGEN Europe). Design and Analysis. EUR 13445 [10] European Wind Atlas. N. London. 1996. Office of Public Works. T. Theo C. Steemers (Eds).London. for the Commission of the European Communities. Fax +32 2 772 5044. 333pp. Climate and Energy. Graduate School. Oxford University Press (in association with the Open University). Guide pour la région Provence . B. Pitman. Chiel Boonstra and John Mak. Thermal Comfort. ISBN 1-898473-30-7 [3] Green Design . 1987 [20] Passive Solar Energy Efficient House Design. 1976. [5] A series of four booklets (Passive Solar Heating. 1986.Sustainable Building for Ireland.Côte d’Azur. Lighting / Daylighting.The European Passive Solar Handbook. London.T.Alpes . London for the European Commission DG XII.L. Risø National Laboratory. 1996.T. DGXII 1990. 1989. 656pp.11 REFERENCES [1] The Climatic Dwelling . ISBN 0 7134 69196. ISBN 1-873936-39-7 [8] Energy Conscious Design . James & James Science Publishers. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company . 1993. John R. 1994. UK. University of Queensland. James & James Science Publishers. Research and Development. prepared within the INNOBUILD (Innovative Mechanisms for the Dissemination of Energy-Efficient Building and Product Research) project of the European Commission DG XII co-ordinated by the Energy Research Group. Givoni. ISBN 3-540-61179-7 [13] Buildings. Energy Management. London.A Primer for Architects. Owen Lewis. Tel +32 2 772 8290. Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). Olley and J. Fanchiotti. Directorate General XII for Science. Directorate General XVII for Energy. Energy Efficient Lighting) and 16 illustrated posters (Bioclimatic Urban Design. 1997 (annual publication since 1993). Harwell. [25] Daylighting in Buildings.An Environmental Preference Method for Use in Construction and Refurbishment. Goulding. 25 . Steven V. ISBN 0-8533-4108-7 [19] Passive and low energy building design for tropical island climates. EUR 13445 [24] Transparent Insulation Technology. Theo C. ISBN 0-7076-2392-8 [4] Solar Geometry. Steemers (Eds). Climate and Architecture. University College Dublin. ISBN 1-873936-38-9 [22] Renewable Energy . Solar Heating. Brussels. Science Publishers. Batsford for the Commission of the European Communities.Components. John R. London for the Commission of the European Communities. Owen Lewis. 1992. David Anink.I. ISBN 0-19-856452-X / 0-19-856451-1 (Paperback). Cellule Architecture et Climat. June 1993. 1996 [6] The European Directory of Sustainable Energy-Efficient Building 1997 . W Palz. A. EUR 13445 [9] Energy in Architecture .Generalitat de Catalunya. Ann McNicholl. Owen Lewis. Department of Energy Solar Programme . Markus and E. in Maxibrochure format. 1986. [11. 1988 [21] Handbook of Sustainable Building . Passive Cooling). Universite Catholique de Louvain Services de Programmation de la Politique Scientifique de Belgique. James & James Science Publishers. PLEA & Department of Architecture. Energy Research Group University College Dublin for the European Commission. Solar Water Heating. 135pp. Springer-Verlag (for the Commission of the European Communities). K. Godfrey Boyle (Ed). 12] European Solar Radiation Atlas: Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces. J. 1986 [18] Man. John R. 352pp. Batsford for the Commission of the European Communities. Goulding. Directorate General XVII for Energy. Eoin O’Cofaigh. John Goulding and J. Architectural Association School of Architecture.An Introduction to ClimateResponsive Residential Architecture. Brisbane 1996. 1988 [15] Daylighting. Energy Studies Programme.

) Linke Wienzeile 18 A-1060 Vienna Austria Tel: +43 1 586 15 24 ext: 21 Fax: +43 1 586 94 88 E-mail: lechner@eva. 7.cce@mail.it IDAE c/o Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía Paseo de la Castellana.venet@swipnet.manner.Department of Energy and Environmental Technology S-117 86 Stockholm Sweden Tel: +46 8 681 95 14 Fax: +46 8 681 93 28 E-mail: anders.vol.Cedex 15 France Tel: +33 1 47 65 20 41 Fax: +33 1 46 45 52 36 E-mail: ademcepi@imaginet.de BRECSU c/o Building Research Establishment Bucknalls Lane Garston GB WD2 7JR Watford United Kingdom Tel: +44 1923 664540 Fax: +44 1923 664097 E-mail: crooksm@bre. atic E-08036 Barcelona Spain Tel: +34 3 4392800 Fax: +34 3 4197253 E-mail: edificis@icaen.Eglwysfach Machynlleth .fr CORA c/o Saarlaendische Energie-Agentur GmbH Altenkesselerstrasse 17 D-66115 Saarbrucken Germany Tel: +49 681 9762 174 Fax: +49 681 9762 175 E-mail: sacca@sea. 49 I-10128 Torino Italy Tel: +39 11 3190833 / +39 11 3186492 Fax: +39 11 3190292 E-mail: soges@mbox.watling@aeat.com NOVEM c/o Nederlandse Onderneming voor Energie en Milieu BV Swentiboldstraat 21 .Isla de la Cartuja E-41012 Sevilla Spain Tel: +345 4460966 Fax: +345 4460628 E-mail: sodean@lander.O. Energie.cilea.pt CLER c/o Association Comité de Liaison Energies Renouvelables 28 rue Basfroi F-75011Paris France Tel: +33 1 46590444 Fax: +33 1 46590392 E-mail: cler@worldnet.is PARTEX-CEEETA Rua Gustavo de Matos Sequeira 28-1∞ Dt∞ P-1200 Lisbon Portugal Tel: +351 1 395 6019 Fax: +351 1 395 2490 E-mail: ceeta@mail. Sp. Praceta 1 P-2720 Alfragide Portugal Tel: +351 1 4718210 Fax: +351 1 4711316 E-mail: dmre. GR-190 09 Pikermi Greece Tel: +30 1 60 39 900 Fax: +30 1 60 39 911 E-mail: mkontini@cresdb. Box 5091 .es FAST c/o Federation of Scientific and Technical Associations 2.ullerich@kfa-juelich.interpac.2700@compuserve. For further information please contact: OPET .rm@agora.sb. San Vicente. Colón 32 E-46010 Valencia Spain Tel: +346 386 7821 Fax: +346 386 9634 E-mail: ximo.at OPET Finland c/o TEKES (Technology Development Centre) P.Dulas The Old School .nl LDK c/o LDK Consultants Engineers and Planners Ltd. GR-113 61 Athens Greece Tel: +30 1 8563181 Fax: +30 1 8563180 E-mail: idk@mail.no OPET Austria c/o Energieverwertungsagentur .Scotland GB G3 7 UY Glasgow United Kingdom Tel: +44 141 332 4140 Fax: +44 141 332 4255 E-mail: 101361.eunet.ortola@impiva.es Institut Wallon Boulevard Frère Orban 4 B-5000 Namur Belgium Tel: +32 81 25 04 90 Fax: +32 81 25 04 90 E-mail: iwallon@mail. P.O. le R.de ENEA CR Casaccia .se NVE c/o Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Adminstration P.uk EVE c/o Ente Vasco de la Energia Edificio Albia I planta 14 .Wales GB SY20 8AX Powys United Kingdom Tel: +44 1654 781332 Fax: +44 1654 781390 E-mail: opetdulas@gn.Austria c/o ZREU Wieshuberstr. 301 I-00060 S Maria di Galeria . 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Box 17 NL-6130 AA Sittard Netherlands Tel: +31 46 42 02 326 Fax: +31 46 45 28 260 E-mail: nlnovade@ibmmail.de ICIE c/o Istituto Cooperativo per l'Innovazione Via Nomentana.2752@compuserve.zreu@t-online.A.co.es ICEU c/o Internationales Centrum für Energie und Umwelttechnologie Leipzig GmbH Auenstrasse 25 D-04105 Leipzig Germany Tel: +49 341 9804969 Fax: +49 341 9803486 E-mail: krause@iceu.O.Malminkatu 34 FIN-00101Helsinki Finland Tel: +358 105215736 Fax: +358 105215903 E-mail: marjatta.com NUTEK National Board for Industrial and Technical Development . Fax: +32 2 743 8931 .telepac. Agency for the Technological Development of Emilia-Romagna Via Morgagni. Box 443 S-901 09 Umea Sweden Tel: +46 90 77 69 06 Fax: +46 90 16 37 19 E-mail: france. 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These include staging of promotional events such as conferences.es IMPIVA c/o Instituto de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa Industrial de Valencia C.gr Cross Border OPET . ADEME c/o ADEME-BRIST 27.heaker@nutek.m400.aarnilia@tekes.V.ie IRO Association of Dutch Suppliers in the Oil and Gas Industry P.stm.com ICAEN c/o Institut Catala d'Energia Avinguda Diagonal.O.Bavaria .O. It is the role of these organisations to to help to coordinate specific promotional activities within Member States.uk RARE c/o Agence Regionale de l'Energie Nord-Pas de Calais 50 rue Gustave Delory F-59800 Lille France Tel: +33 3 20 88 64 30 Fax: +33 3 20 88 64 40 SODEAN c/o Isaac Newton s/n Pabellon de Portugal . workshops or exhibitions as well as production of publications associated with the THERMIE programme.apc.ac.fr ASTER-CESEN c/o Aster.de CRES Centre for Renewable Energy Sources 19 km Marathonos Ave.it Energy Centre Denmark c/o DTI P.The Austrian Energy Agency (E. rue Louis Blanc F-92038 Paris La Défense France Tel: +33 147 17 68 65 Fax: +33 147 17 67 47 E-mail: gep@gep-france.Roma Italy Tel: +39 6 3048 3686 Fax: +39 6 3048 4447 E-mail: cariani@casaccia.org These data are subject to possible change.

More information is available in DG XVII’s pages on Europa.E. Panoramalaan 7 B-1560 Hoeilaart Belgium Tel +32 (2) 657 5300 Fax +32 (2) 657 3640 With the support of: The European Commission Directorate-General for Energy DG XVII 200 rue de la Loi B-1049 Brussels.cec. Altener and THERMIE. renewable energy sources and the rational use of energy. DG XVII initiates. Dublin 14.be URL: http://europa.G. +353 (1) 269 2750 Fax. nuclear energy. Richview. the Commission’s server on the World Wide Web. 353 (1) 283 8908 for LIOR E. electricity. School of Architecture. the promotion of energy research and technological development through demonstration projects. the promotion of sustainable development in the energy field and.’ Produced by: Energy Research Group University College Dublin. coordinates and manages energy policy actions at European level in the fields of solid fuels.eu. DG XVII manages several programmes such as Synergy. Ireland Tel.‘The overall objective of the Community’s energy policy is to help ensure security of energy supplies for European citizens and businesses at competitive prices and in an environmentally compatible way.htm .int/en/comm/dg17/dg17home. SAVE. oil. the integration of energy markets.dg17. gas. Belgium fax: +32 (2) 295 05 77 E-Mail: info@bxl.I. Clonskeagh. The most important actions concern the security of energy supply and international energy cooperation. finally.

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