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1. ABSTRACT 2. RESOURCE RECOVERY 3. PROCESSED SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION a. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL - PROCESSES b. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL - PREPARATION c. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL - CLASSIFICATION d. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL e. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL CHARACTERSTICS HIGHLIGHTS
4. WTEE – SOCIO ECONOMIC PROJECT 5. DEVELOPMENT & FUTURE OF WTEE 6. CONCLUSION 7.BIBLIOGRAPHY
What happened on May, 2004 in Mumbai? Due to failure of local grid. The business capital of India jammed for hours. Being largest railway network city, even the locals also stick to tracks. This incident shows the human connection with electricity. Electrical energy is an essential ingredient for all activities, as well as the lifeblood of economies throughout the world. It plays a vital role for economic growth and quality life improvements: with the increase in population of the world. The demand for power has gradually increased. Hence the burden on the countries, especially developing countries like India have increased to meet the demands in the present day. Most of the demands are met by conventional sources such as fossil fuels, hydal, nuclear power etc. The use of these sources have not only resulted in their depletion. But also increased the population. Hence there is a great need for improving technology in the use of nonconventional sources of energy which could greatly decrease the environmental needs and which would assure the future needs particles to rural people at affordable rates. This paper presents an overview of waste to electrical energy technology The basic concept and different features of WTEE is described. It includes the various processes to produce Refused Desire Fuel (RDF), its characteristics and classifications. This shows the solution to disposal of municipal and agricultural solid waste which is an increasing problem today and the developments and goals are described.
For the foreseeable future, the disposal of municipal and agriculture solid waste will continue to be an increasing problem. This waste is either composed, land filled, recycled or converted to some form of energy but we have another option called as Resource Recovery. Recovering the energy from municipal and agricultural solid waste. And using this energy for power production by Incineration and Biomethanisation. Under this resource recovery we have three options for power production. 1. Unprocessed Solid Waste Combustion. 2. Processed Solid Waste Combustion. 3. Solid waste to liquid\gas convert ion
2. PROCESSED SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION
Under this process Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) is used. The solid waste are subjects to various process to improve their physical & chemical properties. These processes include drying, comminution, densification, physical separation and chemical modification.
3. SOLID WASTE LIQUID / GAS CONVERTION TECHNOLOGY
These technologies convert solid waste into either liquid or gas fuels. This fuel can then be burned in a conventional manner.
PROCESSED SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION :
The WTEE technology identified in this subsection are refused derived fuel which has been processed from MSW. Due to having improved combustion characteristics and emition characteristics and easy preparation. We prefer this processed solid waste combustion.
1. UNPROCESSED SOLID WASTE COMBUTION…………
The mass burn technologies use municipal solid waste (MSW). The MSW under goes only limited processing to remove non combustible and over sized items. Mass burn technologies include water wall furnace, rotary kiln furnace, refractory furnace water cooled rotary combustion furnace and controlled air furnace.
Refused Derived Fuel-Processes
Five major processes are available to improve the physical and chemical properties of agricultural and other solid waste.
DRYING….. Removal of physically based water either thermally& mechanically in Centrifuges and process. COMMINUTION………. Reducing of particle size by shredding, cutting, grinding &pulverization. DENSIFICATION…….. Increasing of bulk density of waste through palletizing, cutting Briquette, extrusion ,as rolling compressing. PHYSICAL SEPARATION Removal of unwanted components from solid waste. CHEMICAL MODIFICATION Changing of waste’s chemical structure. RDF-PRODUCTION PROCESS The Process : The conversion process of garbage into fuel fluff / pellets involves the following processes: • • • • • Pre-sizing Drying Screening / Sieving Separation of Combustibles Size Reduction and production of Fuel Fluff
Densification (with Binder and Additives)
REFUSED DERIVED FUELPREPARATION
Following are the unit operations of the process of refinement of MSW. These are Material handling, size reduction, Drying, Cyclone separation. STEP I The picked MSW is then allowed into the premises of the plant over a sorting conveyor to allow manual separation of unwanted material like stones, rubber glass etc and also a magnetic separator for elimination of Iron objects. STEP II The manually sorted out MSW is then passed to a homonegeniser for segregating the MSW over a screen, which will pass material to the Primary crusher. STEP III The screened MSW is fed to an impact or for disintegration of the MSW in to small pieces .There is no limit on the input size.
The moisture will be high. It may contain some sand and silt, which may have some abrasion affect and corrosion affect. STEP IV A conveyor to the rotary then transports the discharge of Impact or to dryer for moisture removal. STEP V The rotary dryer comprises of rotary dryer, feeding, hot air circulation in co current fashion with a cyclone separator and blower and chimney for removal of fines. STEP VI The discharge of Rotary dryer will be dried MSW. This is fed to a screen to remove fines of less than 5-mm size, which is primarily sand. This can be used as manure. Over 5 mm will be fed to the air classification system.. STEP VII The discharge from the secondary screen will be fed to AIR DENSITY SEPERATOR (ADS) system in which the material is fed through a rotary air lock. The discharge from the rotary lock is subjected to airflow in a zig -Zag construction, which is controllable, by dampeners. Hot air from Hot air generator is also introduced here in addition to the rotary drier for achieving higher dryness. In this system the light combustible system (organic and combustibles) is segregated and the heavier material (inert) falls by gravity.
The key factor for the separation is dryness of the feed. Highly wet input material will not separate and loss of combustible fraction may occur. The rejects at the ADS will be non-combustible fraction. This fraction is conveyed and manual sorting is resorted to pick up heavier fraction of combustibles like woody biomass, coconut shell, etc to return the same to feed. STEP VIII The discharge from ADS (Combustible fraction) is further subjected to a secondary shredding for finer disintegration of the refined, combustible fraction of the Processed MSW. The unit also comprises a cyclone separator and a bag filter unit and a suction blower in closed circuit. STEP IX The discharge of the Secondary Crusher cyclone is palletized through a pellet mill
POWER PRODUCTION :
The specific processed fuel (RDF) which produced from above process is used to fire in specially design furnaces like Traveling grate furnace, Spreader stoker fired boiler, and Suspension fired boiler and Fluidized bed combustor for production of steam. This steam can be used to run Turbine which is mechanically coupled with Generator which produces Electrical power.
LAY OUT OF WATER PLANT
RDF - CHARACTERSTICS:
Refused derived fuel has better emission and burning characteristics and it is a low cost substitute for other fossil fuels like coal, gas. High sulphur content of oil and coal when burnt pollute the environment. There is no sulphur in RDF. RDF have a consistent quality have high burning efficiency. Are ideally sized for complete combustion. Combustion is more uniforms compared to coal and boiler response to changer in stream requirements is faster to higher quality of volatile material. RDF Characteristics Ash Content Moisture Content Volatile Material Sulphur Content Calorific Value Efficiency of Boiler : Using Coal Using RDF 48% 53% 2-10% 8% 75-80% Nil 3,500 - 4,000 K.cal/Kg
Fuel pellets from garbage: a better option
RDF - HIGHLIGHTS :
Comparing to coal and other fossil fuels. RDF has several activities and consistent characteristics over other fuels.
RDF - CHEAP FUEL :
RDF is a low cost substitute for coal and other fossil fuels. It is cheaper than coal, lignite, peat. It won’t cost that much as coal. It takes only transportation and processing cost, which is, has less comparing to other fuels.
RDF ECOFRIENDLY FUEL :
RDF has better emission characteristics than coal. In the process due to reduction of sand and reduced moisture content it has improved calorific value. It won’t emit any harmful gases, which cure global warming like CO2, CO and methane (C2H4). Due to less carbon content this avoids methane gas, which is produced due to decomposition of waste.
RDF – ALLROUNDER :
RDF is not only used for power generators. It can be also used for burning in process plants like Paper Mills, Alluminium Industries and other steam production purpose. This is most economical to use instead of other furnace feedings.
WTEE –SOCIO ECONOMIC PROJECT :
Waste to electrical energy is the best alternative comparing to other conventional and non-conventional sources. This is mass reliable and cheap source. WTEE won’t give any harmful pollutents and it decreases the problem of waste disposal and decomposition of waste. This WTEE system can aid in saving a lot of urban land, which is wasted. And this is the system among the other non–conventional sources, which is more reliable. This WTEE is the only solution to meet our future needs. According to Central Pollutions Control Board (CPCB) the per capita generation of MSW per head is 350 gms. From this statistics being second largest population country our India won’t get any power scarcity if we use this WTEE technology.
capacity 6MW named as SELCO at Elicatta village in Shadnagar of Mahaboobnagar District. This plant using 700 tons of MSW of 2200 tons generated every day in twin cities of Hyderabad. Another plant named as Shriram Energy Systems Ltd., also producing 6 MW of power at Vijayawada using RDF as fuel processed from MSW generated in Vijayawada & Guntur cities. The technology development board and technology information forecasting and assessment council (TIFAC) are trying to assist industries on this technology. The above cited SELCO is going to establish another 20 MW power plant in Hyderabad city. And Shriram Energy got permission to install Another plant in vizag. This processed to our state that the WTEE plants are only in AP and our president also appreciated.
DEVELOPMENTS & FUTURE OF WTEE :
This WTEE technology is in practice since 1942 in US and Germany. In India it comes in to the picture in 2003. The first power plant using waste to electrical energy technology (WTEE) is commissioned on Dec, 20th 2003 of
With the above discussion we conclude that this WTEE technology is the better solution. Being second largest population country the demand has drastically increased. And most of our Indian villages still unelectrified. According to CPCB studies in India 70% of cities won’t have sufficient facilities for transportation of MSW. By using this WTEE we can avoid the MSW disposal problem and we can save a lot of money which is going to be wasted for transporting to outer yards of cities and a lot of urban land which is wasted under dump yards. Not only in cities, this WTEE technology is also suitable for rural villages where Agricultural and solid waste is abundant. By preserving the Agricultural waste according to seasonal crops, we can light so many villages which are not aware of electricity. If we implement this technology in rural areas we wont need to wait upto 2012 for “MISSION-2012 POWER FOR ALL”.
COURTACY Power Plant Engineering BLACK & VEATCH
SRIRAM ENERGY SYSTEMS, VIJAYAWADA.
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