P.C.NARAYANA MURTHY III B.Tech. M.E. Ph:95330 95660 E.MAHESH GOUD III B.Tech. M.E. Ph:9959929709




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Energy is the amount of force or power when applied can move one object from one position to another or Energy defines the capacity of a system to do work. Energy exists in everybody whether they are human beings or animals or non living things for eg: Jet, Light, Machines etc Non-conventional or Renewable energy is energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and can be generated again and again as and when required They are available in plenty and by far most the cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. For eg: Energy that we receive from the sun can be used to generate electricity. Similarly, energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides can be used this form of energy to another form. The use of these sources have not only resulted in their depletion. But also increased the population. Hence there is a great need for improving technology in the use of non-conventional sources of energy which could greatly decrease the environmental needs and which would assure the future needs particles to rural people at affordable rates. This paper presents an overview of waste to electrical energy technology The basic concept and different features of WTEE is described. It includes the various processes to produce Refused Desire Fuel (RDF), its characteristics and classifications. This shows the solution to disposal of municipal and agricultural solid waste which is an increasing problem today and the developments and goals are described.

Key words:Natural sources,WTEE,RDF,municipal and agricultural solidwaste



What is Energy?
Energy is the amount of force or power when applied can move one object from one position to another or Energy defines the capacity of a system to do work. Energy exists in everybody whether they are human beings or animals or non living things for eg: Jet, Light, Machines etc.. Energy can have many forms: kinetic, potential, light, sound, gravitational, elastic, electromagnetic or nuclear. According to the law of conservation of energy, any form of energy can be converted into another form and the total energy will remain the same. For eg: a laborer when pushes the pile of bags, his potential energy stored inside him is converted into the kinetic energy from the movement of matter or when you burn the wood it's chemical energy is converted into the heat energy or when you charge your mobile phone the electrical energy is converted into the chemical energy which gets stored inside the battery's molecules. The many different natural and renewable energy technologies highlighted throughout the website are by no means breakthrough. Many of the renewable energy technologies have been around for years, and as time goes by, are increasing in efficiency.

Who uses Energy?
We human beings have been using vast proportions of earth's natural resources for our own needs. We use energy for or heating and cooling, lighting, heating water and operating appliances. Apart from that we use energy for many purposes, such as traveling in airplanes and cars using oil that is converted into gasoline. The U.S. department of energy has divided energy users into 3 category: Residential and Commercial, Industrial and Transportation. Residential and commercial uses energy to light up their homes, for heating and cooling purposes and to fulfill their daily basic needs. Industrial sector mainly consume energy for lighting up of offices, running machines, for heating and cooling purposes. Transportation sector uses energy for uploading and downloading of goods and services from one place to another. Their mainly source of energy is oil on which transportation sector depends.

What are the sources of energy?
1.Renewable or Non-conventional 2.Non-renewable or Conventional

energy are broadly classifies into two main groups:


Renewable or Non-conventional energy
Renewable energy is energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and can be generated again and again as and when required. They are available in plenty and by far most the cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. For eg: Energy that we receive from the sun can be used to generate electricity. Similarly, energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides can be used this form of energy to another form. Here are some of the pros and cons of using renewable sources of energy:Pros
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The sun, wind, geothermal, ocean energy are available in the abundant quantity and free to use. The non-renewable sources of energy that we are using are limited and are bound to expire one day. Renewable sources have low carbon emissions, therefore they are considered as green and environment friendly. Renewable helps in stimulating the economy and creating job opportunities. The money that is used to build these plants can provide jobs to thousands to lakhs of people. You don't have to rely on any third country for the supply of renewable sources as in case of non-renewable sources. Renewable sources can cost less than consuming the local electrical supply. In the long run, the prices of electricity are expected to soar since they are based on the prices of crude oil, so renewable sources can cut your electricity bills. Various tax incentives in the form of tax waivers, credit deductions are available for individuals and businesses who want to go green.

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It is not easy to set up a plant as the initial costs are quite steep. Solar energy can be used during the day time and not during night or rainy season. Geothermal energy which can be used to generate electricity has side effects too. It can bring toxic chemicals beneath the earth surface onto the top and can create environmental changes. Hydroelectric provide pure form of energy but building dams across the river which is quite expensive can affect natural flow and affect wildlife. To use wind energy, you have to rely on strong winds therefore you have to choose suitable site to operate them. Also, they can affect bird population as they are quite high.

Non-Renewable or Conventional Energy
Non-renewable sources are not environmental friendly and can have serious affect on our health. They are called non-renewable because they can be re-generated within a short span of time. Non-renewable sources exist in the form of fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal. Here are some of the pros and cons of using non-renewable sources of energy:5

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Non-renewable sources are cheap and easy to use. You can easily fill up your car tank and power your motor vehicle. You can use small amount of nuclear energy to produce large amount of power. Non-renewable have little or no competition at all. For eg: if you are driving a battery driven car your battery gets discharged then you won't be able to charge it in the middle if the road rather it is easy to find a gas pumping station. They are considered as cheap when converting from one type of energy to another.


.Non-renewable sources release toxic gases in the air when burnt which are the major
cause for global warming.
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Non-renewable sources will expire some day and we have to us our endangered resources to create more non-renewable sources of energy. The speed at which such resources are being utilized can have serious environmental changes.


Why should we conserve energy?
Energy needs to be conserved to protect our environment from drastic changes, to save the depleting resources for our future generations. The rate at which the energy is being produced and consumed can damage our world in many ways. In other words, it helps us to save the environment. We can reduce those impacts by consuming less energy. The cost of energy is rising every year. It is important for us to realize how energy is useful to us and how can we avoid it getting wasted. To start saving energy is not a big thing at all. We can start saving the energy from our home itself, just by turning off the lights during day hours, washing clothes in cold water or using public transport instead of using our own vehicle and later can implement these things on much wider scale at society level, then at city level then district level and finally at country level. You might notice a small change in your monthly bills by implementing these changes as they would be getting decreased more and more. With so many alternatives and so many techniques about there, if millions of people like us start doing these things, it will help us to save much more money and also help the environment.


For the foreseeable future, the disposal of municipal and agriculture solid waste will continue to be an increasing problem. This waste is either composed, land filled, recycled or converted to some form of energy but we have another option called as Resource Recovery. Recovering the energy from municipal and agricultural solid waste. And using this energy for power production by Incineration and Biomethanisation. Under this resource recovery we have three options for power production. 1. Unprocessed Solid Waste Combustion. 2. Processed Solid Waste Combustion. 3. Solid waste to liquid\gas convert ion

The mass burn technologies use municipal solid waste (MSW). The MSW under goes only limited processing to remove non combustible and over sized items. Mass burn technologies include water wall furnace, rotary kiln furnace, refractory furnace water cooled rotary combustion furnace and controlled air furnace.

Under this process Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) is used. The solid waste are subjects to various process to improve their physical & chemical properties. These processes include drying, comminution, densification, physical separation and chemical modification.

3. SOLID WASTE LIQUID / GAS CONVERTION TECHNOLOGY These technologies convert solid waste into either liquid or gas fuels. This fuel can then be burned in a conventional manner.


The WTEE technology identified in this subsection are refused derived fuel which has been processed from MSW. Due to having improved combustion characteristics and emition characteristics and easy preparation. We prefer this processed solid waste combustion.

Refused Derived Fuel-Processes(RDF)
Five major processes are available to improve the physical and chemical properties of agricultural and other solid waste.

Removal of physically based water either thermally& mechanically in Centrifuges and process.

Reducing of particle size by shredding, cutting, grinding &pulverization.

Increasing of bulk density of waste through palletizing, cutting Briquette, extrusion ,as rolling compressing.

Removal of unwanted components from solid waste.

Changing of waste’s chemical structure. RDF-PRODUCTION PROCESS The Process : The conversion process of garbage into fuel fluff / pellets involves the following processes: • • • • • • Pre-sizing Drying Screening / Sieving Separation of Combustibles Size Reduction and production of Fuel Fluff Densification (with Binder and Additives)




Following are the unit operations of the process of refinement of MSW. These are Material handling, size reduction, Drying, Cyclone separation. STEP I The picked MSW is then allowed into the premises of the plant over a sorting conveyor to allow manual separation of unwanted material like stones, rubber glass etc and also a magnetic separator for elimination of Iron objects. STEP II The manually sorted out MSW is then passed to a homonegeniser for segregating the MSW over a screen, which will pass material to the Primary crusher. STEP III The screened MSW is fed to an impact or for disintegration of the MSW in to small pieces .There is no limit on the input size. The moisture will be high. It may contain some sand and silt, which may have some abrasion affect and corrosion affect. STEP IV A conveyor to the rotary then transports the discharge of Impact or to dryer for moisture removal. STEP V The rotary dryer comprises of rotary dryer, feeding, hot air circulation in co current fashion with a cyclone separator and blower and chimney for removal of fines. STEP VI The discharge of Rotary dryer will be dried MSW. This is fed to a screen to remove fines of less than 5-mm size, which is primarily sand. This can be used as manure. Over 5 mm will be fed to the air classification system.. STEP VII The discharge from the secondary screen will be fed to AIR DENSITY SEPERATOR (ADS) system in which the material is fed through a rotary air lock. The discharge from the rotary lock is subjected to airflow in a zig -Zag construction, which is controllable, by dampeners. Hot air from Hot air generator is also introduced here in addition to the rotary drier for achieving higher dryness. In this system the light combustible system (organic and combustibles) is segregated and the heavier material (inert) falls by gravity. The key factor for the separation is dryness of the feed. Highly wet input material will not separate and loss of combustible fraction may occur. The rejects at the ADS will be non10

combustible fraction. This fraction is conveyed and manual sorting is resorted to pick up heavier fraction of combustibles like woody biomass, coconut shell, etc to return the same to feed. STEP VIII The discharge from ADS (Combustible fraction) is further subjected to a secondary shredding for finer disintegration of the refined, combustible fraction of the Processed MSW. The unit also comprises a cyclone separator and a bag filter unit and a suction blower in closed circuit. STEP IX The discharge of the Secondary Crusher cyclone is palletized through a pellet mill

The specific processed fuel (RDF) which produced from above process is used to fire in specially design furnaces like Traveling grate furnace, Spreader stoker fired boiler, and Suspension fired boiler and Fluidized bed combustor for production of steam. This steam can be used to run Turbine which is mechanically coupled with Generator which produces Electrical power.


Refused derived fuel has better emission and burning characteristics and it is a low cost substitute for other fossil fuels like coal, gas. High sulphur content of oil and coal when burnt

pollute the environment. There is no sulphur in RDF. RDF have a consistent quality have high burning efficiency. Are ideally sized for complete combustion. Combustion is more uniforms compared to coal and boiler response to changer in stream requirements is faster to higher quality of volatile material. RDF Characteristics Ash Content Moisture Content Volatile Material Sulphur Content Calorific Value Efficiency of Boiler : Using Coal Using RDF 48% 53% 2-10% 8% 75-80% Nil 3,500 - 4,000

Fuel pellets from garbage: a better option

Comparing to coal and other fossil fuels. RDF has several activities and consistent characteristics over other fuels. 1.RDF - CHEAP FUEL : RDF is a low cost substitute for coal and other fossil fuels. It is cheaper than coal, lignite, peat. It won’t cost that much as coal. It takes only transportation and processing cost, which is, has less comparing to other fuels.

RDF has better emission characteristics than coal. In the process due to reduction of sand and reduced moisture content it has improved calorific value. It won’t emit any harmful gases, which cure global warming like CO2, CO and methane (C2H4).


Due to less carbon content this avoids methane gas, which is produced due to decomposition of waste.

RDF is not only used for power generators. It can be also used for burning in process plants like Paper Mills, Alluminium Industries and other steam production purpose. This is most economical to use instead of other furnace feedings.

Waste to electrical energy is the best alternative comparing to other conventional and nonconventional sources. This is mass reliable and cheap source. WTEE won’t give any harmful pollutents and it decreases the problem of waste disposal and decomposition of waste. This WTEE system can aid in saving a lot of urban land, which is wasted. And this is the system among the other non–conventional sources, which is more reliable. This WTEE is the only solution to meet our future needs. According to Central Pollutions Control Board (CPCB) the per capita generation of MSW per head is 350 gms. From this statistics being second largest population country our India won’t get any power scarcity if we use this WTEE technology.

This WTEE technology is in practice since 1942 in US and Germany. In India it comes in to the picture in 2003. The first power plant using waste to electrical energy technology (WTEE) is commissioned on Dec, 20th 2003 of capacity 6MW named as SELCO at Elicatta village in Shadnagar of Mahaboobnagar District. This plant using 700 tons of MSW of 2200 tons generated every day in twin cities of Hyderabad. Another plant named as Shriram Energy Systems Ltd., also producing 6 MW of power at Vijayawada using RDF as fuel processed from MSW generated in Vijayawada & Guntur cities. The technology development board and technology information forecasting and assessment council (TIFAC) are trying to assist industries on this technology. The above cited SELCO is going to establish another 20 MW power plant in Hyderabad city. And Shriram Energy got permission to install Another plant in vizag. This processed to our state that the WTEE plants are only in AP and our president also appreciated.


With the above discussion we conclude that this WTEE technology is the better solution. Being second largest population country the demand has drastically increased. And most of our Indian villages still unelectrified. According to CPCB studies in India 70% of cities won’t have sufficient facilities for transportation of MSW. By using this WTEE we can avoid the MSW disposal problem and we can save a lot of money which is going to be wasted for transporting to outer yards of cities and a lot of urban land which is wasted under dump yards. Not only in cities, this WTEE technology is also suitable for rural villages where Agricultural and solid waste is abundant. By preserving the Agricultural waste according to seasonal crops, we can light so many villages which are not aware of electricity. If we implement this technology in rural areas we wont need to wait upto 2012 for “MISSION-2012 POWER FOR ALL”.

REFERENCS: 1.Power Plant Engineering BLACK & VEATCH