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Jewelry is a form of personal adornment, manifesting itself as necklaces, rings, brooches, earrings, and bracelets. Jewelry may be made from any material, usually gemstones, precious metals, or shells. Factors affecting the choice of materials include cultural differences and the availability of the materials. Jewelry may be appreciated because of its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewelry differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to look appealing. Items such as belts and handbags are considered to be accessories rather than jewelry.

The word jewelryis derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French "jouel" circa the 13th century. Further tracing leads back to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. Jewelry is one of the oldest forms of body adornment; recently-found 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells are thought to be the oldest known jewellery.

Jewelry is sometimes regarded as a way of showing wealth and might also possess some minimal functionality, such as holding a garment together or keeping hair in place. It has from very early times been regarded as a form of personal adornment. The first pieces of

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jewelry were made from natural materials, such as bone, animal teeth, shell, wood and carved stone. Some jewelry throughout the ages may have specifically been as an indication of a social

group. More exotic jewelry is often for wealthier people, with its rarity increasing its value. Due to its personal nature and its indication of social class, some cultures established traditions of burying the dead with their jewelry.

Jewelry has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings and many more jewelry. While traditional jewelry is usually made with gemstones and precious metals, such as silver or gold, there is also a growing demand for jewelry where design and creativity is prized above material value. In addition, there is the less costly jewelry, made from lower value materials and often mass-produced. Other variations include wire sculpture (wrap) jewelry , using anything from base metal wire with rock tumbled stone to precious metals and precious gemstones.

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FORM AND FUNCTION Jewelry has been used for a number of reasons:
• • • • •

Currency, wealth display and storage, Functional use (such as clasps, pins and buckles) Symbolism (to show membership or status) Protection (in the form of amulets and magical wards),[4] Artistic display

Most cultures have at some point had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewelry. Numerous cultures move wedding dowries in the form of jewelry or create jewelry as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewelry has been used as a currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads. Many items of jewelry, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished. Jewelry can also be symbolic of group membership, as in the case of the Christian crucifix or Jewish Star of David, or of status, as in the case of chains of office, or the Western practice of married people wearing a wedding ring. Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures; these may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones,

Ed Levin. with the work of such masters as Peter Carl Fabergé and René Lalique. This trend has continued into modern times. Kenyan man wearing tribal beads . or glyphs (such as stylised versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art). It was only in the late 19th century. animals.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM plants. the other roles described above tended to take primacy. that art began to take primacy over function and wealth. body parts (such as the Khamsa). and Alberto Repossi. Although artistic display has clearly been a function of jewelry from the very beginning. expanded upon by artists such as Robert Lee Morris.

coins. Bronze. for example. indicated by a number followed by the letter K.6% pure gold). the Middle East and Africa Platinum . or silver. palladium. gemstones. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewelry. (though in the UK the number is 9K (37.9% pure gold) being considered too soft for jewelry use in America and Europe. In creating jewelry. the purity of which is stated in karats. titanium. and they are typically set into precious metals. however. or other precious items are often used.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM MATERIALS AND METHOD Anticlastic raised sterling bracelet. These high purity alloys. was common in Roman times. are widely used across Asia. Most American and European gold jewelry is made of an alloy of gold. platinum. Modern fine jewelry usually includes gold. American gold jewelry must be of at least 10K purity (41.5% pure gold) and is typically found up to 18K (75% pure gold). and 24 K (99.7% pure gold). white gold. Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K (91.

often carved or turned. Other commonly used materials include glass.0% pure). or 92. polymer clay. any inclusion of lead or lead solder will cause an English Assay office (the building which gives English jewelry its stamp of approval.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95. such as fused-glass or enamel. In costume jewelry. the Hallmark) to destroy the piece. natural clay. However. Bead embroidery design. Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewelry that has more of a natural feel. and even plastics. shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory. . stainless steel findings are sometimes used. The silver used in jewelry is usually sterling silver. wood.5% fine silver.

casting. and lapidaries methods include forging. These may be made of glass. soldering or welding. or beadwork. earrings. . carving and "cold-joining" (using adhesives. the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads. and imitation gemstones made of glass. staples and rivets to assemble parts). Beads may be large or small. is also very popular in many African cultures. As early as the 13th century. wood. cutting. Silversmiths. enamelled glass (smalto). these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewelry. Beading. metal. is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewelry making. Murano glass and Murano beads were popular.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Beads are frequently used in jewelry. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era. Beaded jewelry commonly encompasses necklaces. glass with threads of gold (goldstone). clay and polymer clay. gemstones. Bead embroidery. belts and rings. shells. multicoloured glass (millefiori). goldsmiths. bracelets. milk-glass (lattimo). Advanced glass and glass bead making techniques by Murano and Venetian glassmasters developed crystalline glass.

Australia.35 g). this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477. Diamond Ring HD photo .75 carats (621.[8] Pliny may have mentioned them. In 2005. although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas.106. Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production. Botswana. The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond. at 3.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM DIAMONDS Diamonds were first mined in India. part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905).Now popular in engagement rings.

and some amber can be up to 120 million years old. which can range in tone from light to dark. is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. an ancient organic gemstone. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber. Among them are: Amber Amber. Amethyst Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. . It is treasured for its purple hue.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Other gemstones Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewelry.

and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC. They have been treasured throughout history. history. Picture jasper . Jade is closely linked to Asian culture. as well. Jasper Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Jade Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colours.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Spanish emerald and gold pendant at Victoria and Albert Museum. and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven. Emerald Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. and tradition. jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone. Often.

are also part of the quartz family. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions. the word for ruby is ratnaraj. such as Amethyst and Citrine.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM is a type of jasper known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in the stone’s pattern. which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. A number of other gemstones. Among the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour). Quartz Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. In Sanskrit. Sapphire The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In . and smoky quartz (which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). meaning king of precious stones. Ruby Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones.

and sapphire). and its ancient heritage. meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Turquoise Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth. Others are inorganic. for example. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems. meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals. such as cubic zirconia. modern styles. coral. .SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM the United States. most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue. ruby. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewelry. which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour. and amber) are classified as organic. which can be used in place of diamond. Some gemstones (like pearls. and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones (emerald. have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewelry styles. but it is also used in many sleek. Some gems. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour. amethyst.

Some jewelry is plated to give it a shiny.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Metal finishes An example of gold plated jewelry For platinum. Satin. Brushed finishes give the jewelry a textured look and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal.999 fine silver (a process . there are many techniques to create finishes. shiny look. Sterling silver jewelry may be plated with a thin layer of 0. The most common are high-polish. High-polished jewelry is by far the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective. gold. reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. and hammered. and silver jewelry. rounded hammer and hammering the jewelry to give it a wavy texture." Hammered finishes are typically created by using a soft. satin/matte. leaving "brush strokes. or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewelry and is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. brushed.

gold. Likewise. as well as engagement rings for men. which refers to ostentatious display of jewelry by men or women. Later. hip hop culture has popularised the slang term bling-bling. In ancient Rome. again based on rank. only certain ranks could wear rings. For example.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM known as flashing) or may be plated with rhodium or gold. More recently. sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewelry. has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is completely rejected in others. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role. which did not. the jewelry industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise wedding rings for men. for instance. Base metal costume jewelry may also be plated with silver. Conversely. or rhodium for a more attractive finish. the display of body jewelry. going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had . such as piercings. Impact on society Jewelry has been used to denote status. which caught on. the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century and early 20th century.

SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM medieval roots. having a golden cup in her hand. the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold. featured a double-ring ceremony. In Christianity. Religion has also played a role: Islam." . considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo. 85% of weddings in the U. for instance. "the great whore" or false religious system. In Revelation 17. in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. By the mid 1940s. and many religions have edicts against excessive display.S. is depicted as being "decked with gold and precious stones and pearls. up from 15% in the 1920s.

At their extent. more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck. girls are introduced to their first neck ring. From as early as five years old.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Body modification A Kayan girl in Northern Thailand. and earrings predominates. some necks modified like this can reach 10- . The use of simple silver studs. rings. Over the years. as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear. Jewelry used in body modification is usually plain. Padang women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. Common jewelry pieces such as earrings are a form of body modification. a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves too.

these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. however. Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. jewelry is used as a temporary body modifier. This practice is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whilst being suspended by hooks. with. In many cultures. as well as other cultures throughout the world. . The practice has obvious health impacts. Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups. often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies. Tribes related to the Paduang.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM 15 inches long. this practise has seeped into western culture. In the late 20th century. the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures. hooks or even objects as large as bike bars being placed into the recipient's skin. labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and First Nations peoples of the northwest coast. use jewelry to stretch their earlobes or enlarge ear piercings. as well as some South American peoples. Most often. in some cases. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects. thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred. In the Americas. Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people. and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity.

The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015. Japan. India. and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries. China. and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%.8%.SSS 2202 Jewelry market KRAF LOGAM According to a recent KPMG study the largest jewelry market is the United States with a market share of 30. . Italy and the UK.9%. and Italy with 5%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%. and the Middle East each with 8 . where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%. whereas Europe's and Japan's market share will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan.

koleksi emas dan barang kemas terbesar dan termasuk keranda emas yang menunjukkan kualiti dan kemajuan pertukangan dan kerja emas negeri mesir pada ketika itu (millennium ke-2). ia menjadi satu simbol kemewahan dan jaminan kuasa. Sejak penemuan pertama emas. Sepanjang abad. Warnanya yang menarik serta kesukaran mendapatkannya menyebabkan ia dianggap bernilai oleh manusia. Di dalamnya.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM SEJARAH EMAS Emas merupakan logam yang sangat istimewa. Emas penyebab obsesi di kalangan lelaki dan Negara. Ini kerana ia tidak boleh dibinasakan dan tidak akan hilang nilainya. memusnahkan segelintir peradaban dan memberi kuasa pada yang lain. . Selain daripada dijadikan barang kemas emas juga menjadi penyimpan kekayaan yang paling unggul. kebanyakan makam mesir diserbu tetapi makam Tutankhamen ditemui tidak terusik oleh ahli arkeologi moden. Penggalian arkeologi mencadangkan pengunaan emas bermula di timur tengah di mana tamadun peradaban bermula. Emas mempunyai sejarah yang panjang dan kompleks. Barang kemas mesir tertua ditemui di dalam makam Permaisuri PuAbi dari Ur di Sumeria dan contoh tertua barang kemas ditemui pada millenium ke-3 sebelum masihi.

Pada kurun ke-3 selepas masihi. kemahiran peradaban pra-columbia di dalam pengunaan emas adalah maju sebelum kedatangan orang sepanyol. kerap menggunakan hasil seni kerja emas sebagai sebahagian daripada agama Zoroastrianism. Mereka mahir dengan kerongsang. Tukang Emas India telah menguasai kebanyakan teknik yang diketahui oleh orang eropah kontemporari ketika kedatangan orang sepanyol. Hasilnya. Ketika Rom mula membangun. tatah dalam dan cara acuan lilin. Hasil seni kerja emas parsi adalah terkenal dengan seni haiwan di mana telah diubah selepas arab menakluk kawasan tersebut pada kurun ke-7 selepas masihi. warganegara Rom memakai rantai yang mempunyai syiling berlambangkan maharaja. Di Amerika. Penakluk sepanyol mencairkan kebanyakan emas yang dirampas daripada penduduk daerah tersebut dan kebanyakan contoh peninggalan datang dari tapak penggalian tanah perkuburan. tekanan dan pertukangan. penggranulan. . penduduk eropah menamatkan pengebumian si mati bersama-sama barang kemas. Deposit emas terhebat dari masa tersebut adalah dari Andes dan Columbia. Bandar tersebut menarik tukang seni emas yang berbakat di mana telah mencipta pelbagai variasi barang kemas. Selepas itu. sekarang Iran. Ketika penyebaran Kristian di seluruh eropah. beberapa barang kemas terselamat abad pertengahan kecuali barang kemas diraja dan gerombolan gereja.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Empayar Parsi. Pengunaan emas di rom berkembang ke perkakas rumah golongan bangsawan dan atasan.

Di tempat lain. Platinum telah di masukkan ke keluarga Bulion Helang Amerika pada 1997. Pada pertengahan abad ke-20. Peningkatan taraf emas adalah untuk mengimbang ekonomi dunia. Syiling Bulion adalah syiling yang bernilaikan pada beratnya di dalam logam berharga yang spesifik .SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Ketika hari perbatasan Amerika di mana perkhabaran penemuan emas di daerah tersebut telah menyebabkan beribu peneroka baru yang mengambil risiko nyawa mencari emas. Selepas peperangan. diikuti oleh Negara eropah pada 1870. Program Bulion Helang Amerika dilancarkan pada 1986 dengan penjualan bulion emas dan perak. menetapkan bahawa Negara harus menghadkan pengeluaran mata wang berdasarkan jumlah emas yang disimpan. Negara lain hanya dibenarkan menyimpan mata wang utama daripada emas. Sistem tersebut kekal sehingga berakhirnya perang dunia pertama selepas Amerika hanya Negara yang masih mengikuti taraf emas. mata wang dollar menggantikan emas dalam perdagangan antarabangsa. Kedatangan kemelesetan menandakan berakhirnya pengeksportan emas pada 1930. Great Britain adalah Negara pertama mengamalkan taraf emas pada 1821. tera sulung emas berlaku di Australia pada 1851. Tera Sulung Emas berlaku di banyak negeri barat dan kejadian yang paling terkenal berlaku di California Sutter’s Mill pada 1848. Afrika Selatan pada 1884 dan di Kanada pada 1897.

SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM CONTOH BUATAN BARANG KEMAS (CINCIN) Tulang sotong akan direka bentuk dan dipotong mengikut kehendak para pelanggan. Pembentukan tulang sotong untuk dipotong. Tulang sotong yang sudah siap dipotong .

SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Acuan yang sudah siap untuk di tuang dengan perak atau emas atau suasa. Proses melebur sehingga emas. perak dan suasa cair sehingga ia sesuai untuk dituang ke dalam acuan .

SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Proses pembentukan cincin Sebentuk cincin telah terhasil .

apabila ia sudah kembang. Pada hakikatnya. ia mengeluarkan bau yang teramat busuk. Ciri Rafflesia ialah tumbuhan yang aneh.9 cm (3/4 inci) tebal dengan berat 7 kilogram (15 lbs). rafflesia tidak mempunyai daun untuk memproses karbon dioksida dan cahaya matahari bagi menghasilkan gula dan oksigen. Bunga Pakma adalah bunga rasmi negara Indonesia dan juga negeri Sabah di Malaysia. Tidak seperti tumbuhan lain. Rafflesia juga tidak mempunyai akar untuk menyerap air dan mineral dari tanah untuk diproses sebagai protein. Apa yang ada cumalah tisu-tisu yang kelihatan seperti tiub-tiub . Bunga Pakma spesies itu diberi nama Rafflesia arnoldii sempena nama mereka. 1. Bunga Pakma yang pertama telah direkodkan oleh Sir Stamford Raffles dan Dr Joseph Arnold pada tahun 1816. Bunga Pakma itu dijumpai di bandar Bengkulu (Bencoolen) di Sumatera. dan tumbuhan ini juga agak berat. dan bunga Pakma spesies Rafflesia arnoldii merupakan yang terbesar di dunia dengan saiz 91 cm (3 kaki) diameter.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Bunga pakma Bunga Pakma atau Rafflesia merupakan genus sejenis tumbuhan berbunga dengan bunga yang besar.

hampir sama dengan bau yang dikeluarkan daging atau bangkai yang reput. Ia hanya perlu menyerap nutrisi tersebut dari perumahnya. ditaburi dengan bintik-bintik putih menghasilkan bau yang amat tidak menyenangkan. Warna yang merah kecoklatan bagi kelopaknya. di mana perumahnya juga adalah tumbuh-tumbuhan lain. . Ini merupakan organ seks bunga ini.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM halus yang panjang memasuki tumbuhan perumah. Rafflesia Selalunya apa yang kita lihat adalah kelihatan seperti bunga yang besar. kadang-kala dilihat di tempat paling atas sesuatu tumbuhan yang melingkar atau biasanya terdapat di mana-mana atas tanah yang agak lembap. Ini menunjukkan bahawa rafflesia adalah sejenis parasit di mana ia tidak perlu manghasilkan nutrisinya sendiri.

Didapati bahawa tumbuhan ini selalunya dijumpai di kawasan yang berlaku banyak aktiviti dan kurang di kawasan lain • Bunga Pakma Bunga Rafflesia merupakan bunga yang terbesar di dunia.Ianya hanya terdapat di kawasan Asia Tenggara. Benih-benih akan melekat pada tapak kaki haiwan yang lalu dan dipindahkan ke tempat lain di mana benih ini akan mencari tumbuhan perumah yang boleh dijadikan tempat tinggal. terutamanya dalam hutan bukit di Perak dan Pahang. Lenggong dan Grik. Agar benih ini dapat tumbuh dan membesar. Di Sabah dan Sarawak terdapat beberapa spesies seperti Refflesia princei dan Rafflesia tuan-muda. Bunga pakma spesies Rafflesia hasselti boleh didapati di Semenenjung Malaysia. Walaubagaimanapun. ini tidak boleh dibuktikan.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Sesetengah percaya bahawa bau busuk ini menarik perhatian lalat dan serangga lain dan ini membantu dalam menyebarkan benih rafflesia ini. misalnya daerah Kampar. Bukit Cameron. Satu spesies bunga pakma di Indonesia ialah Refflesia patma. Temenggor. . dijumpai bahawa lingkaran tumbuhan perumah mesti dirosakkan dengan apa cara sekalipun bagi membolehkan tiub-tiub rafflesia itu dapat memasukkan benihnya ke dalam tumbuhan perumah. Tapah. Kerosakan pada tumbuhan perumah boleh dihasilkan dengan cara dipijak oleh haiwan. Rafflesia manillana pula ialah spesies bunga pakma negara Filipina.

SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM • Bunga pakma ialah sejenis tumbuhan parasit yang tidak berdaun. Kudup bunga ini boleh dikeringkan satu-satu atau dipotong kecil-kecil sebelum ia dikeringkan. Bunga pakma yang belum mekar dikumpul oleh orang melayu dan orang Asli untuk kegunaan ubat tradisional. Tumbuhan ini tidak mempunyai langsung bahagian yang hijau. jangka hayat bunga rafflesia hanya tujuh hari sebelum mati . bunga terbesar di dunia. Bahagian vegetif tumbuhan ini adalah struktur yang ringkas seperti kulat dalam kayu. Walaupun mengambil masa 9 hingga 15 bulan untuk mekar. Bunga Rafflesia. dan oleh itu bunga pakma tidak menjalankan proses fotosintesis.

This is important so that the finished component won't have any sharp ends to snag or cut. The perpendicular or flat side of the flush cutter will cut jewelry wire and leave a relatively flat end on the wire at that side. . The cutters are designed to be used with the flat side of the cutters perpendicular to the wire to be cut and the beveled side of the cutters provides the sharp edge necessary to cut. here are pictures showing how to hold your flush cutter when cutting wire. These cutters are specifically designed for jewelry and wire working projects to make a cut that leaves one side of the cut wire relatively flat or flush and the other side relatively sharp. As shown here. The beveled side of the flush cutter will leave the cut wire with a sharp end. Try cutting a piece of wire and see the two cut ends to understand this better. This is accomplished by cutting with the flat side of the flush cutter toward the finished piece.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Wire Jewelry Making (A ) How to Cut wire The jewelry wire cutters that we use for all of our jewelry making projects are called "Flush Cutters". Flat Side of Flush Cutter Beveled Side of Flush Cutter For your jewelry making and wire projects always cut the wire so that the flat side of the cut wire remains on the finished piece.

including the Soft Flex or Tiger Tail bead stringing wire and/or memory wire. Safety Tip * 2: A good habit to have. Safety Tip * 3: Flush cutters can be sharp and may not be suitable for young children. In addition. It can be a hazard to your eyes and it can be a hazard to your back as you crawl around on the floor trying to find the wire and pick it up. Safety Tip * 1: Always hold both ends of the wire as you cut it. . Jewelry making is probably not appropriate for young children. but it is safer still to make sure the loose end of the wire can not become a missile hazard.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Cutting Wire After the Cut Finally. This way the shorter wire segment that you work with will always have one sharp end and one flat end. This is sterling silver. gold. When the cut is made. They are not designed to cut steel in any form and may be ruined if they are used to cut steel. brass or copper wire. the wire on the spool with have a flat end so it will be less likely to hurt anyone who picks up that spool later. Wearing safety glasses when jewelry making is often recommended. is when you are cutting wire from a coil or spool to cut it so that the flat side of the cut remains on the spool or coil of wire. the flush cutters are designed for cutting "jewelry wire". the loose end of the wire tends to fly. goldfilled.

Should this be the case. Instead of pulling the jewelry wire through leather. Pull the wire through the leather several times while squeezing the leather in your fingers. There are many jewelry tools to help in straightening jewelry wire. is nylon jaw pliers. Finally. A jewelry tool that I prefer to use instead of leather. pull the wire through the jaws of nylon jaw pliers while squeezing the pliers closed. you can view the four steps in straightening wire with nylon jaw pliers below: Step 1 (start with a loop in your wire) Step 2 (grip the wire with your nylon jaw pliers) . you may find that it will be easier to pull the wire if you make a loop in one end and hold the wire by that loop while pulling it. Fold the leather in 1/2 and use it to hold the wire.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM (B) Jewelry Making -.How to Straighten Wire Among the first steps in jewelry making is straightening the jewelry wire. One of the simplest and easiest to use is a piece of leather. Sometimes when jewelry making you will find the the jewelry wire is too slippery to allow you to get a good grip for pulling the wire. This step is mandatory because jewelry wire is sold in coils or on spools and develops a natural curl as a result of the way it is packaged.

The needle nose pliers used by electricians are not an acceptable substitute for jeweler's chain nose pliers because they contain grooves which leave marks on wire.How to Bend Wire When bending wire for jewelry making. Then push the wire against the jaws of the pliers. This is one of the steps in making many jewelry wire components -. This technique is a very basic jewelry making skill.making a sharp.) Step 3 (pull the wire through your pliers several times) (C) Jewelry Making -. Quite frequently.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Step 4 (check to see if the wire is straight. A jewelry tool called "chain nose pliers" have smooth. the better chain nose pliers have thin tapered tips (about 1mm at the tip). Push by pressing the wire as close to the jaws as possible. In general. flat jaws so that they can hold the jewelry wire while spreading the gripping force across the flat face of the pliers and thereby leaving minimal marks on the wire. you will just need to bend the jewelry wire to make an angle in the wire. Hold the wire so that it is essentially perpendicular to the jaws of the pliers. You can view the two steps in bending wire below: . one needs to consider the finished piece. crisp bend in the wire. This feature becomes important when making the bend in the wire necessary to complete the wrapped bead link described in. Making a crisp bend in wire is done by grasping the wire firmly in the jaws of chain nose or bent chain nose pliers.

Push the wire against the jaws of the pliers.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Bending Wire -. . (D) How to make a "P" Loop.Grasp the Wire Bending Wire -.

The "P" loop is called a "P" loop because it resembles the letter "P". . Begin making a "P" loop by grasping a straight segment of wire with your round nose pliers. push the wire around the jaw of your pliers as far as you can until the jaws of the pliers prohibit you from pushing any further. You can view a properly made "P" loop at right.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM The first technique or skill for making wire components that we will discuss is how to make a "P" Loop. This is one of the most basic skills required in making jewelry. We do this by repositioning the wire in the jaws of your pliers so that you will have plenty of room to push the wire and close the small gap. Grasp the wire so that only a very small amount of wire shows on the opposite side of your round nose pliers as shown at left. While holding the wire firmly in the jaws of your round nose pliers. The steps for making almost all jewelry wire components begin by making a "P" loop. The resulting "P" loop should have straight wire connected to the rounded "P" with almost no gap between the start of the wire and the straight wire segment that forms the backbone of the "P". We need to close this small gap or opening. If you look very closely at the wire in your pliers you will note the the loop has a very small opening where the rounded wire piece does not touch the straight wire piece. Push the wire so that the gap is closed. Slide the loop as far down the jaws of your pliers as you can and firmly grasp the wire.

Allow about 1/16" of wire to show through the jaws of the pliers. Reposition the wire as shown here. The steps are shown below: Step 1: Grip the wire with the step jaw pliers. . place your thumb under the wire. Step 1 Top View Step 1 End View Step 2: Using the thumb on your dominant hand.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Making a "P" loop with step jaw pliers is very similar to making a loop with round nose pliers. Step 2 Top View Step 2 End View Step 3: You will not be able to complete the loop in step 2 and will need to relax your grip on the wire and reposition the wire so that you can push the wire to close the gap in the loop. as close to the pliers as possible. and push the wire up and over the jaw of the pliers. Hold the pliers in your non-dominant hand.

Stop pushing as soon as the gap in the loop is closed. using the thumb on your dominant hand. the flat jaw of the step jaw pliers does not mark the wire so you will not have any marks on the outside of your loop. wrapped loops or eye loops. Step jaw pliers aren't perfect for every application and can not replace round nose pliers when making bead dangles. each loop is the same size and 2. (E) Looping Technique . Use care to make sure that you don't push the wire too far. The advantages to using step jaw pliers are 1. it is always a good idea to make the initial loop for your piece using the step jaw pliers. When making jewelry on a jig. When you have pushed the wire far enough it will appear as shown at right. push the wire until the gap in the loop is closed.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Step 3 Top View Step 3 End View Step 4: Now grip the wire firmly in the jaws of the pliers and again.

This is normal. grasp your "P" loop with the tips of your round nose pliers as shown at left then twist your pliers while holding the wire as shown at right. . (F) Making an open loop bead dangle .SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM The next looping technique or skill we will discuss is how to make eye loops. use your bent closing pliers and gently squeeze the eye loop so that the gap is closed. To close any gap that opens. Aesthetically this is more pleasing than a "P" loop for most jewelry applications. To make an eye loop. With this technique an eye loop is made by first making a "P" loop and then modifying it with your round nose pliers. Frequently you will find that making an eye loop using this technique will cause the loop to open up slightly. Eye loops are very popular because the loop is centered on the wire leading to the loop.

Again.) Step 3: Using your round nose pliers grasp the wire on the horizontal segment. See the picture at right for the orientation of your pliers relative to the bend. Step 2: Using your thumb push the wire over about 90 degrees. Use the tips of your pliers as you will want to minimize the amount of wire above the beads. push the wire up and over the upper jaw in your round nose pliers. This technique is easier to accomplish in a more consistent manner when using 1/2 hard wire.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Making an open loop bead dangle is another technique for making an eye loop in the end of a wire component. The open loop is not as strong a way to make a bead dangle (shown at left) as the "wrapped loop" technique that we will discuss later. Step 5: In order to complete the loop you will have to re-orientate the wire in your pliers otherwise the lower jaw of your pliers will prevent you from completing the loop. Push the wire with your thumb as close to your pliers as possible so that you get a crisp bend (as opposed to a rounded bend. Step 1: Insert your head pin or wire component through your beads and grasp the wire immediately above your beads with your bent chain nose pliers as shown at right. but as close to the bend as possible. push the wire with your thumb as close to the pliers as possible. Step 4: Using your thumb. This technique is frequently used when making a bead dangle to hang beads from earrings or necklace components. Grasp the wire in roughly the middle of your round nose pliers according to the size of the loop that you want to make. but this technique is totally appropriate for applications like earrings where there won't be significant weight or force applied to the loop. .

. push the wire up and over the jaw of your round nose pliers as shown at left. This technique is important because it allows us to make a loop in wire that is as strong as if it were cast or soldered. This is very important for making beaded chains and for connecting wire components into chains that are very strong. Step 2: Bend the wire over to an angle of about 90 degrees. While holding the head pin upright. Step 1: Slide your beads onto your head pin all the way down. Step 4: Using your thumb. This technique can also be used to make a bead dangle using a head pin as shown at left. Step 5: At this point you will need to re-orientate the wire in the jaws of your pliers so that you can complete the loop. Step 3: Grasp the horizontal wire segment in your round nose pliers on the horizontal segment. grasp the wire immediately above the beads with your bent chain nose pliers. but as close to the 90 degree bend as possible. Re-grip the wire as shown at right.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM The wrapped loop is one of the more important skills involved in the wire working technique called "Wire Wrapping". The steps involved in making a wrapped loop bead dangle are described below. You can view a wrapped loop at right. Ensure that you have about 1" or 25 mm of wire on the now horizontal wire segment.

.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Step 6: Complete the loop as shown at left. with thinner tips that we call fine bent chain nose pliers. beads will be strung on a head pin to make the bead dangle. Let us start with a simple definition of a bead dangle. A bead dangle is one or more beads hanging from a jewelry component like an earring body. This modification is based upon the fact that we have developed some new bent chain nose pliers. In most cases. In order to be successful with our approach you need bent chain nose pliers with tips that are about 1mm wide. You can view a simple bead dangle at right.

Step 3: Grasp the head pin in your bent chain nose pliers immediately above the bead as shown at right. On your second bead dangle. We want this distance to be the same for all bead dangles in a particular jewelry item. The distance that you grasp the head pin from the tips of the jaws of your pliers will determine where the loop in the bead dangle begins. The steps involved in making a bead dangle are described starting below.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM You also need round nose pliers and a second pair of chain nose or bent chain nose pliers. you will want to grip the head pin at the same point on your pliers. Step 2: Push the bead all the way to the bottom of the head pin (touching the "head" of the head pin. ( G ) Jewelry Making -. so please notice where on your pliers you gripped the head pin. Step 1: Thread a head pin through your beads or beads.How to Open and Close Loops .

One easy way to connect jewelry wire components is via an open jump ring. The jump ring shown here is an "open" jump ring because it has an opening that will allow us to connect wire components to this jump ring. you will find that you need to connect two jewelry components. twist one pair of the pliers up and the second pair of pliers down. Opening a jump ring can be performed with one pair of chain nose pliers and some strong fingernails. or it can be performed with two pair of chain nose pliers. center-right. Grip the jump ring with the pliers on either side of the opening of the jump ring. Once the connection is made then re-grip the jump ring as shown below-right. A jump ring is a circle of wire. The first step in connecting a wire component to a jump ring is to grip the jump ring with both pair of pliers. Opening a jump ring must be performed in a way that will preserve the shape of the jump ring so that it can be closed and will have essentially the same shape. connect your wire component as shown below. The process for connecting items to a jump ring requires us to open the jump ring. See below. In the following paragraphs we describe how to open and close a jump ring. center-left. make the connection and then close the jump ring. . In the pictures below we will show how to connect a wire component to a jump ring with two pair of chain nose pliers. You can an enlarged view of one jump ring at right. To open the ring.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Frequently when jewelry making. See below-left. With the jump ring opened.

then squeeze gently to ensure that the jump ring is closed properly.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Grip Twist to Open Connect Re-Grip Close the jump ring by twisting the pliers in the opposite direction that you used to open the jump ring. with the opening of the jump ring on the short axis of the oval shape will naturally cause the jump ring to orientate itself so that the connected wire components will align themselves on the long axis and will therefore not pull against the opening of the jump ring. grip the jump ring in the jaws of your bent closing pliers. Position the opening in the jump rings against one jaw of the pliers as shown below-center. You can view an oblong jump ring below-right. An oblong jump ring. Twist to Close Squeeze to Finish Connected Components . Many people like to squeeze the jump ring enough so that it is slightly oblong and no longer perfectly round. To make the closed jump ring as perfect as possible.

. but you will find that almost every professional jewelry maker will have at least one pair. These pliers have grooves or notches carved in the jaws of the pliers to help hold the wire firmly without allowing it to slip. whether it is on a jump ring.we use the figure 8. or the beginning or ending loop in a wire component made on one of our WigJig tools. or to a loop in a figure 8 connector or alternate figure 8 connector. For beginners who may not be familiar with a figure 8 connector. The reason is simple -. We discuss the figure 8 connector many times in this web site. or a similar connector that we call a modified figure 8 connector.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM The tool that was used above to help in closing the jump ring is called bent closing pliers. Please select here to view our free instructions on how to use bent closing pliers to close gaps in loops. You can view our recommended bent closing pliers here (Item 4005). Bent closing pliers are not a mandatory tool. Please note that this same approach will apply to any open loop. you can view one at right.

SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM frequently. Step 2: Hold this loop and straighten the wire. Using the figure 8 connector allows us to change the orientation of the earring body. so that in this case it will hang parallel to the wearer's ear. Instructions for making a figure 8 connector begin below. grip the wire as shown at left. We also use a figure 8 connector as shown above-right to connect two loops and change the orientation of the loops that are connected. It can be used to connect a clasp to a chain. Make a regular "P" loop in one end of this wire using your round nose pliers. that would be otherwise impractical to connect. Frequently we use a figure 8 connector as a way to connect two loops. This approach is frequently used when connecting an earring body to an ear wire as shown at left. Step 1: Select a piece of wire at least 1 1/2" long. for a variety of reasons including a size mis-match. . It can be used to connect an earring body to an ear wire finding. Step 3: Now using your round nose pliers again.

we have a modified technique for making loops in larger gauges of wire. For this reason. push the wire up and over the jaw of your pliers making a second loop in the wire.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Try to grip the wire at the same point in your pliers as you used when you made your first loop in step 1. Your wire should be in the position shown above-left. Step 5: Now reposition the wire in the jaws of your pliers so that you can tightly finish this second loop. Making a loop in 16 gauge and larger jewelry wire is not as easy as making the same loop in 18 gauge and smaller gauges of wire. Step 7: Using your bent chain nose pliers close this final loop and you have a completed figure 8 connector. . Step 4: Using your thumb. Step 6: Remove the wire from your pliers and using your flush cutter cut the wire at the point where the wire tail crosses the figure 8 connector. Pull the wire so that the second loop in the wire rests tightly against the jaws of your pliers making it a round loop.

Your goal is to have the wire tightly follow the round shape of your pliers for more than a complete loop. proceed to step 3. grasp the wire in your round nose or step jaw pliers with about 1/8" of wire sticking beyond the edge of the jaws of the pliers as shown at left. Step 4: Push the wire so that it makes more than a complete loop as shown at right. Step 2: Push the wire with the thumb of your dominant hand until the wire bends slightly more than 180 degrees. This will require re-gripping the wire so that you will have room to push it further. holding your pliers in your non-dominant hand.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Step 1: While. When you reach the point where the jaws of your pliers will not allow you to push the wire any further. . Step 3: Re-orientate the wire in the jaws of your pliers so that you can complete the loop.

Step 7: After cutting the excess wire. Please note that this loop is partially opened and needs to be closed to be finished. The finished loop should appear as shown at right. your loop should appear as shown at left.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Step 5: Remove the wire from your pliers and it should appear as shown at left. . Step 6: Cut the excess wire with your flush cutter. Step 8: Close the loop by gripping the loop in the jaws of your bent chain nose pliers and twisting the loop closed. Remember to orientate the jaws of your flush cutter so that the flat side of your flush cutter is toward the finished loop.

Sometimes you find that you need a jump ring to finish a jewelry making project and just don't have any. it is important to know how to make jump rings. The easiest way we have found to make jump rings in our opinion is to use Step Jaw Pliers like our Fine Step Jaw Pliers . For that reason.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM A jump ring finding is essentially a circle of wire used to connect two wire components. Using these pliers. . you make a coil of wire about 1 1/2 times around one of the steps in the jaws of the pliers. Frequently people purchase jump rings rather than make them for the simple reason that this is something that a machine can do quickly and inexpensively.

you will have a perfect circle of wire. we need to flip the coil over so that we can cut the opposite side of the coil. (H) Instructions for opening and closing loops here. remove the wire from the pliers. The wire for the loop or jump ring is held in the grooves on each jaw of the pliers. effectively giving us a complete circle of wire -. the jump ring will naturally adjust so that the tension on the jump ring will not . Again cut the wire with the flat side of your flush cutter toward the finished jump ring. In this case. If you have made your cuts at the right places. This is your open Jump Ring. The reason that you do this is with an oval jump ring. When using open jump rings. This keeps the wire from slipping thereby avoiding having the pliers scratch the wire. you can view the grooves in both jaws of these pliers. the pliers have closed the gap in a "P" loop by gently squeezing the loop until the gap is closed. We need to cut this initial 1/8" of wire off the coil using our flush open jump ring. This will leave us a flat cut on the end of the wire for the coil. In the picture at right. Once we have completed that cut. The initial part of this small coil will be flat and not rounded like the rest of the coil. In the pictures left and right you can see two views of how to use Bent Closing Pliers to close an opening or small gap in a loop of wire.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM After this simple coil is completed. with the opening of the on one side of the oval. with the flat side of the flush cutter toward the main part of the coil. many wire crafters like to convert a round jump ring to an oval jump ring.

The jump ring shown at left. In most pieces this initial loop will be part of the finished piece. work better when starting the piece by placing a loop over a peg to fix one end of the wire. cut and straighten the jewelry wire. Next. Begin by adding pegs 1 and 2 to your jig and add a peg as you proceed. is slightly oval with the long axis of the oval being vertical and the short axis of the oval being horizontal. you will need to cut the initial loop off after you complete wrapping the wire on the jig. One of the most important tips in being successful when making wire components is to concentrate on keeping the wire straight as you wrap it around the pegs to make the design. The jump ring shown at right in the pliers is round. begin by identifying the design you want to make and start by identifying the positions for the pegs in the jig as required to make the component. To make a jewelry wire wire component on a jig. Almost all jewelry wire components made on a jig. ( I ) Jewelry Making using a WigJig Jewelry Tool Many jewelry making projects begin by making a jewelry wire component on a WigJig or other jewelry tool. As you can see.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM pull directly on the gap or opening of the jump ring. A good jewelry design for a beginner is shown here. as it won't be part of the finished piece. In some pieces. by contrast. you want the opening in your jump ring to be on the short axis of the jump ring. You .

Try to push the wire with your fingers as close to the pegs on the jig as possible. Do not get discouraged directions say they should. This is very each type wire component before you begin these practice pieces. (J) Jewelry Making -. For those that are unfamiliar with findings. You can view several styles of ear wire findings . but almost no Making simple earrings is as the name applies. If you can make a bead dangle and you can open and close loops.How to Make Simple Earrings inexpensive practice wire. two or more beads. One last suggestion for jewelry making. Ear wire findings come as "French" style ear wires. Avoid pulling the wire if possible. Plan on discarding if the first several pieces don't end up like the riding a bike. This craft is like Almost everyone can learn it. It is a skill that must be learned. A helpful tip is to hold and guide the wire with constant tension in your dominant hand and rotate the jig with your non-dominant hand as you wrap the wire around the pegs. A head pin is one type of finding. Plan on making at least three of each jewelry wire component to be made on the jig using important. The required jewelry supplies are two head pins. a finding is a metal component that is pre-made and sold as a complete component. one is ready to ride in a bicycle race during their first ride on a bike. . simple. some jewelry wire. post style ear wires. ear clips and many more. Concentrate on keeping the wire straight with your dominant hand until it wraps around the pegs. and a pair of ear wire findings. Make several practice pieces of to use your good wire. you can make these simple earrings. kidney shaped ear wires.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM may need to remove pegs from the pattern and add them back in one at a time as necessary to help keep the wire straight as you wrap.

SSS 2202 here. Given that the orientation is the same. Please note the orientation of the loop in the bead dangle and the loop in the ear wire finding. Now open the loop on your ear wire finding using the techniques discussed in page 6. connect the ear wire finding to the bead dangle by a figure 8 connector and not that the orientation of the loop in the ear wire and the loop in the bead dangle are the same as when we directly connect the ear wire to the bead dangle. . KRAF LOGAM Begin by making two bead dangles using the techniques discussed in page 7. is there a reason for using . or a simple circle of wire to connect the ear wire finding to the bead dangle. They will be rotated 90 degrees to their original orientation. Finally. Let's first modify the simple earring by adding a jump ring. Add the loop in the bead dangle to the loop in the ear wire finding and close the loop in the ear wire finding. You can open and close the jump ring to connect the two components.

Simplified instructions for making this link can be found here and here. other wrapped beads links. Better. The figure 8 connector also adds distance between the ear wire and the bead dangle. and connector (either none. a jump ring.) (K) Jewelry Making -. ear wire.How to Connect Jewelry Wire Components with a Wrapped Bead Link The wrapped bead link is the jewelry making component shown at right. . or a figure 8 connector.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM a figure 8 connector? The simple answer is yes. Complete this jewelry making project by making a pair of earrings using the same combination of bead dangle. The figure 8 connector adds a hinge in the ear ring that allow the bead dangle to move in more directions that if directly connected. more detailed instructions are provided in our online book on jewelry making called "Wire Design Basics". or segments of commercial chain. This link is one of the more important links for connecting jewelry wire components. there are several reasons.

use larger loops. but while you are perfecting this skill. you will probably find that soft wire. Try to keep the jewelry wire tail that you are wrapping perpendicular to the wire inside the bead as you wrap. In addition. it is best to hold the loop that you make with chain nose or bent chain nose pliers while you wrap the wire. When the wire gets at an angle to the wire inside the bead. These jewelry making tips provide amplification to the instructions provided above. As you are learning this jewelry skill allow yourself more wire in the wire tail that you wrap around the wire segment inside the bead. When you are trying to perfect this technique. Instead of starting with a bend 1 inch from the end. is harder to use in making wrapped loops than is 1/2 hard wire. One final jewelry technique to try is to push the wire tail that you are wrapping with your fingers close to the wire you are wrapping around. while you should practice this skill with inexpensive copper wire. When wrapping. 3.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM The following paragraphs provide a few jewelry making tips that I hope will help those who aren't satisfied with their wrapped loops. 6. This may make it easier to control the wrap and help to keep the wire perpendicular. you will notice gaps between the wraps. like copper practice wire. This helps to retain the shape of the loop (keeps it from distorting out of round) and helps to stabilize the piece as you wrap. 2. This will mean that you cut off more excess jewelry wire. 1. It is easier to be successful when making a wrapped loop when the loop is larger. 5. 4. 22G or 24G wire are easier to use in making wrapped loops than 18G or 20G. make the initial bend 1 1/4 or 1 1/2 inch from the end of the wire. . you will find it easier if you have a little more wire to work with.

In the following pages we will discuss some techniques for making permanent wire components. The first step in making wire components permanent is to use the hardest wire that will meet your needs. some pieces. must be made with soft wire. so this approach will not work in every situation. you will have less hardening to do with your finished wire component.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Making wire shapes that are strong and permanent isn't as easy as it might seem. Frequently. the wire components we make use half-hard wire. especially wire components that include a spiral. This is wire that is made stiffer in the manufacturing process. by allowing the wire component to be pushed or pulled out of shape after the piece is completed. . The same flexibility that allows us to use wire to make jewelry can also work against us. By starting with wire that is already partially hardened. Wire must be somewhat flexible so that we can bend it and change its shape. Unfortunately.

The strong axis of the piece is the axis where you can pull on the piece and it won't come apart. Most wire components made on our jigs will have both a strong axis and a weak axis. The weak axis is that axis where you could pull the piece apart. the horizontal axis is the strong axis and the vertical axis is the weak axis. . we incorporate this wire component in a bracelet as shown below. In the piece shown above-right. By incorporating the strong axis in this piece. this wire component will be almost as strong as if it were cast. For this reason.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM The third step in making a wire component permanent is to use the component in the proper orientation.

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A head pin is a jewelry making finding similar to a straight pin. It is basically a straight piece of wire with one large end. The large end is large enough so that it can't pass through the hole in a bead. Most head pins are manufactured by a machine with a head that is identical to the head on a pin. In this page, we will show a couple of ways that you can make a head pin using a straight segment of wire. In the earrings shown above-right you can view two ways of taking a straight segment of wire and converting it into a head pin. The first approach to making a head pin is to make one or more loops in the wire in a pattern like the Queen of Clubs Earrings shown with the amethyst bead above-left. The second approach is to flatten one end of the wire using a chasing hammer and an anvil. You can view this approach in the two earrings above-right.

Making the Queen of Clubs head pin is done with three pegs in a triangle pattern as shown at right. The finished head pin is shown at left. The instructions for making this head pin can be found by selecting either picture.

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To make a head pin by flattening one end of a segment of wire requires the use of a chasing hammer and anvil. Start with a segment of 20 gauge wire about 2 1/2 inches long. Place this segment of wire on your anvil and hammer the last 5/8" of wire with the rounded side of your chasing hammer. You will need to do a lot of hammering. Each of the wire segments shown here were hammered for about 4-5 minutes.

Note that the wire is not perfectly symmetrical after the hammering. When you have flattened the wire adequately, you will need to cut the end with your flush cutter. You can cut the end square as shown above-right, or you can cut the end into a point as shown in the earrings in the center at the top of this page. This style of head pin is called "paddles" because they resemble a paddle for a canoe or boat.

Making wire shapes that are strong and permanent isn't as easy as it might seem. Wire must be somewhat flexible so that we can bend it and change its shape. The same

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flexibility that allows us to use wire to make jewelry can also work against us, by allowing the wire component to be pushed or pulled out of shape after the piece is completed. In the following pages we will discuss some techniques for making permanent wire components. The first step in making wire components permanent is to use the hardest wire that will meet your needs. Frequently, the wire components we make use half-hard wire. This is wire that is made stiffer in the manufacturing process. By starting with wire that is already partially hardened, you will have less hardening to do with your finished wire component. Unfortunately, some pieces, especially wire components that include a spiral, must be made with soft wire; so this approach will not work in every situation.


The round. Let's begin with the instructions for making snap-fit earrings. You can view our selection of clasps here. As an alternative we also have clasps that are made of a larger loop on one end and a toggle type bar on the other end.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM A clasp is a jewelry making finding used to connect the ends of necklaces and bracelets so that they stay on the wearer. One way of making a clasp is with a loop on one end of the bracelet or necklace and some form of hook on the other end. diamond cut simulated gemstone. Please select any picture to view our instructions for making that clasp . Making the earrings shown here requires three components -. Most of these instructions for making clasps use our Super Pegs to make the larger rounded loops used in these wire components. the snap-fit setting to .

obviously you would select an 8mm setting. Step 2: Select a snap-fit setting that matches the diameter of the gemstone you have selected. If you have an 8mm gemstone. The following paragraphs show how to make these earrings. Grasp the setting in your bent chain nose pliers as shown at left and position the setting over the gemstone. Step 1: Position your simulated gemstone on a flat smooth surface like a cutting board with the flat side down and the pointed side pointing up. and the ear clutch finding to hold the earrings on the wearer's ear. Hold the pliers in your non-dominant hand and push down on the jaws of the pliers with the thumb of your dominant hand. Continue pushing until all 6 prongs snap into position.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM hold the simulated gemstone. Use the pliers to help. Step 3: Push down symmetrically on the setting. You will hear a snap or pop as the prongs of the setting snap into place around the stone. .

SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Step 4: The final step is to make sure that each prong is set tightly against the gemstone. This is accomplished by grasping an opposing pair of prongs and gently squeezing them in the jaws of your bent chain nose pliers. You can view an ear thread finding at right. First let's discuss exactly what is an "Ear Thread". these ear wires are held in place by the friction of the segment of chain with the wearer's ear lobe. Unlike most earrings that are either held in place by gravity (shepherd's hook type ear wires) or are held in place by a clip or other type of catch. An ear thread is a type of ear wire finding made with fine chain. Step 5: Add an ear clutch to the opposite end of the setting. and an open jump ring. The advantages to this type of ear wire is that you get a long earring with a lot of motion when worn. . Do this for each of the 3 pairs of opposing prongs. Repeat the above steps to make your second earring. a small segment of straight 21 or 22 gauge wire soldered to the chain. This could be considered a disadvantage of this style of ear wire as it limits the beads that can be attached to the ear thread to relatively light beads.

connecting the loop in the bead dangle and then closing the loop in the jump ring again using your bent chain nose pliers. We also have instructions for making open and wrapped loops that can be found starting here . The ear thread has an open jump ring at one end and your bead dangle is connected to this jump ring by opening the ring using your chain nose pliers. The jewelry making technique for making a bead dangle using a regular head pin and beads can be found here. When completed the earring made using an ear thread will appear as shown at left.SSS 2202 KRAF LOGAM Connecting a bead to an ear thread is exactly the same as almost all other ear wires.