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Prepared by Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative, Kent State University In collaboration with Adil Sharag-Eldin, Ph.D. LEED A.P Hollee Becker & Rohini Srivastava, College of ., Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University Jean Loria, CW Waterworks Adam Smith, Urban Lumberjacks of Cleveland Morgan Taggart, Ohio State University Extension
This project was funded in part by a grant from: American Planning Association Urban Design and Preservation Division
Introduction BioCellar Building Design BioCellar Performance Study BioCellar Uses BioCellar Site Selection Conclusions and Next Steps
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Like many older industrial cities, Cleveland, Ohio has experienced a dramatic decline in population and a corresponding rise in vacant properties. In Cleveland alone, there are estimated to be more than 8,000 homes in vacant and deteriorated condition, with the City demolishing 1,000 homes in a typical year. This number is growing due to the on-going effects of the foreclosure crisis. Cleveland is also experiencing a growing interest in urban agriculture. The number of community gardens, urban farms and community supported agriculture initiatives have placed Cleveland at the forefront of the local food movement. Using vacant land for food production offers many benefits and new opportunities. The BioCellar project is one such opportunity. A BioCellar is a partially deconstructed house unit with an added solar envelope. The new environment supports living systems designed to produce food and provide other beneficial ecosystem services. Large-scale housing demolition programs are occurring in older industrial cities throughout the Midwest and northeast parts of the U.S. Mass demolitions represent a tremendous loss of embodied energy. The BioCellar initiative proposes to salvage a valuable part of a derelict house–its masonry foundation. An existing foundation wall, surrounded by earth, is an insulated container that can store energy and serve a variety of productive functions. This insulated container of the BioCellar can be put to use for growing vegetables, fruits and herbs, for water purification and soil detoxification, and for nutrient cycling and pollination, among other uses. A BioCellar is architecture plus biology to yield mini-economic units, with solar energy as its driving force.1 BioCellars can form a decentralized and distributed infrastructure network across a city or region as stand-alone features, or clustered in groups to address larger, more complex community needs. It can provide a new set of uses for the fundamental building block of the city’s housing infrastructure, diversifying its functions and using it to house new programs that can catalyze sustainable change. Compared to the centralized urban utilities of the industrial era, this infrastructure could potentially solve multiple problems while being socially and environmentally sustainable. While traditional infrastructures are centrally governed and strive to be functionally invisible, this infrastructure has the potential to engage curiosity and become part of an education in the culture of interdependency and social engagement.
Loria, Jean. 2008. CW Waterworks.
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The Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative and its research partners are currently exploring the feasibility, applicability, and construction specifics associated with a BioCellar. This report presents the Phase II of the research work. Phase I of the research study was a BioCellar prototype study that included: • Architectural Alternatives: A BioCellar must be functional, energy-efficient, attractive, low-cost, and appropriate to neighborhood context. The BioCellar prototype study included a range of design alternatives for retrofitting the existing foundation of a deconstructed house. • Matrix of uses: Potential uses for a BioCellar were correlated with a range of geographical conditions (topography, demographics, existing land use patterns, economic opportunities, beneficial proximity, and accessibility) and infrastructure systems. • Initial study of three types of BioCellars: • FoodCellar: greenhouse, fish production, solar cells, poultry • HealthCellar: healing hut, herb garden, micro-sauna • eCellar: energy (Methane production), earth (Soil production), education (composting culture) Phase two of the research, documented in this report, includes: 1. BioCellar building design and construction 2. Building performance 3. Uses, with primary focus on food production 4. Site selection criteria
Foreclosed properties and houses sold at Sherriff sale in the city of Cleveland (2008) Biocellar | 2
BIOCELLAR BUILDING DESIGN
WHY UNDERGROUND? At depths below four feet, ground temperature stays a constant 50 to 55ºF yearround.2 Using environmental simulation modelling, the research team simulated conditions inside a BioCellar with a solar enclosure and brick/dry wall construction, which is described on page 6 in the report. BUILDING DESIGN BioCellar design is derived from energy storage principles for passive solar greenhouses. Regardless of whether a BioCellar is used as a greenhouse or for other purposes, these principles still apply to the workings of the energy system to heat the structure. All greenhouses collect energy, but passive solar greenhouses also store energy for dispersion at night or on cloudy days. For the past decade, U.S. greenhouse growers have increasingly adopted high tunnels as the preferred solar greenhouse technology3. High tunnels (also called hoop houses) are unheated greenhouses that extend the normal growing season. In cities like Cleveland, where the growing season is about 16 weeks, extending the season by a few weeks can cause a significant increase in production yield. Solar greenhouses differ from conventional greenhouses in that they: • Use materials with high thermal mass to retain solar heat • Have glazed surfaces oriented for maximum solar heat; have large amounts of insulation to minimize heat loss • Use glazing material and glazing installation methods that minimize heat loss; • Rely primarily on natural ventilation during summer • Use little or no additional heat during winter.4 The BioCellar’s advantages are that they reuse of the embodied energy from vacant structures, and the earth around a residential foundation provides natural insulation.
2 3 4
Walipini House. Benson Agriculture and Food Institute. Worley, Sally. 2008. High Tunnels: Are they Lucrative, The Practical Farmer. Illinois Solar Energy Association, 2002, Solar Greenhouse, ISEA Fact Sheet #9.
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DECONSTRUCTION The first step for construction of a BioCellar is methodical deconstruction of the vacant home. Conventional demolition techniques damage the foundation and therefore are not appropriate when converting a unit into a BioCellar. Deconstruction (the process of dismantling building components in the reverse of the order in which they were originally constructed) reduces demolition debris and the amount of material that must be sent to a landfill. Building materials are salvaged for reuse and only those that cannot be recycled are discarded. Following deconstruction, salvageable materials are sold and reused. Then the ‘pit’ which used to be the basement of the house is filled with topsoil and the site is leveled. Traditional deconstruction, as shown in the images below, uses heavy machinery for the process, and the basement serves as a temporary dumping ground for debris. There is a big emphasis on the speed and efficiency in the process of deconstruction, where protection of the structural integrity of the basement is not a priority. In this particular scenario, where the deconstruction leads to renovation, a number of special considerations will need to be outlined, including an alternative for debris collection, possibly a 40-yard dumpster, among others. A minimum required distance will need to be maintained for the heavy machinery from the basement to prevent any structural damage. Sewer, water and gas connections, which are typically capped as a code requirement for a deconstruction process, will also need to be retained.
Typical condition of a residential basement after the deconstruction process, where the debris is collected into the basement.
Step by step deconstruction of a Cleveland home; photos courtesy of Urban Lumberjacks of Cleveland
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STABILIzATION In Cleveland, much of the housing stock being demolished was built between 1915-1930 of balloon frame construction. This was a period when wood and energy were abundant, leading to homes that were overbuilt and under-insulated. This study uses a standard house dimension of 22 x 40 feet, which is typical of Cleveland’s housing stock. The majority of foundations are either: • Red or brown clay sewer tiles placed on the side and laid parallel to the run of the wall; or • Irregular chunks of sandstone, about 50 lbs and roughly the size of a modern cement building block. The deconstruction process includes removing the first and second floor structure, leaving intact the basement structure up to the plinth level, which is typically 2 to 2-½ Feet above ground level. Reusing a structure slated for deconstruction as a BioCellar involves special considerations for maintaining the structural integrity of the foundation walls to prevent them from collapsing before the solar envelope structure is put into place. To stabilize the walls of the basement, a part of the floor structure must be retained until the walls of the BioCellar are constructed and attached to the basement. A standard solid floor joist system commonly uses 2 x 8 feet or 2 x 6 feet members, 16 inches on center, and cross bridging to prevent warping or twisting. This framework is supported by a steel I-beam (King beam) and a steel column/post. Alternate floor joists along with the steel I-beam and the steel support column need to be retained during the deconstruction process. The floor joists can be removed once the top structure is attached, but the Steel I-beam and column need to be retained permanently as a part of the BioCellar structure. During the construction of the top structure, adding a C-beam steel frame lining the walls of the basement will provide stability for the basement walls and prevent them from collapsing. Also, since the mortars and its structural integrity between the stone slabs could be questionable after such long period of use, a one inch layer of sprayed-on concrete, like shotcrete, will be required for additional structural stability.
Floor joists C-beam frame Foundation/ plinth above ground King beam
Floor joist system with the King Beam and Steel I-Beam (images courtesy of: www.homebuildingmanual.com and www.brynmawrcorporation.com)
Foundation below ground Basement structure stabiliazation diagram
I-beam Biocellar | 5
WATERPROOFING Both types of foundation walls (tile or sandstone) are laid with mortar between the joints and both are susceptible to water intrusion without proper drainage away from the structure. If water comes up through the floor, it will destabilize the structure, adversely affect plant growth and promote plant disease. The basement walls need to be first checked for holes and cracks which can be repaired with waterproofing mortar mix. After that, a double coating of epoxy or latex waterproofing mixtures should be used for the interiors along with a layer of water proofing clay such as bentonite or plastic sheeting along the foundation wall and 2 feet away from the wall sloping outwards. Along with the wall treatment, pouring a 6” thick and 4 feet wide concrete slab around the majority of the structure, and tilted slightly away from the structure could alleviate most of the water intrusion issues. The foundation can be anchored to this slab with concrete ties. It will also help to add drains or draining ditches beyond the concrete slab to move water away from the bottom of the foundation. WALL CONSTRUCTION The north wall of the BioCellar is the one where the sun’s rays hit the most. It is crucial for this wall to have high heat absorption and retention rate. Brick or concrete filled cinderblock walls are good options. The walls should also be coated with light colored reflective paint to reflect direct heat and allow for a more even solar heat distribution. ROOF STRUCTURE This study initially considered two construction options for the BioCellar roof structure: shed roof and hoop house construction. Hoop house construction is a more temporary option and snow loads are an issue. Therefore the shed roof was selected for the purposes of a BioCellar. Shed-type or sloping roof construction has glazing on its south facing wall to collect maximum amount of solar energy, while the north wall is insulated. Options for construction include: a. Post and beam construction: This could involve the reuse of the existing 2 x 8s and 2 x 6s from the deconstructed house. However, this could be difficult from a logistical standpoint. The length of the lumber will not be sufficient to cover the length of the roof, and adding extensions and joints will make the structure heavier and more difficult to work with. Also, the depth of the two-by-tens will reduce the amount of solar gain into the structure. Even if new wood is used for construction, post and beam framing will make the roof structure very heavy. b. PVC: Though the cheapest and the lightest option, it does not provide enough structural stability for snow load and is possibly too lightweight for doubleBiocellar | 6
glazed panel construction. The other issue with PVC surrounds its toxic production, off gassing and lack of recyclability. However, the irrigation arena inside the greenhouse can be made from PVC. c. Aluminum: It is stronger than PVC and lighter than wood, but cost prohibitive regarding initial purchase and start-up. Working with aluminum requires skilled labor because of the required drilling and softness of the metal. Also, aluminum is highly desirable as a scrap metal and can be an easy target for vandalism and theft. As such, it is best suited for secure locations. d. Galvanized steel tubing (round and square): A 25 year life span, ease of construction, and strong structural capacity make this the best option. Most traditional greenhouses and greenhouse construction kits use galvanized steel as the construction material. It can work well for a variety of glazing options, and has the structural strength for snow loads. GLAzING MATERIALS The selection of the appropriate glazing material will play a huge role in determining the success of the BioCellar. The material should allow the highest level of solar heat gain while minimizing the loss of energy through its surface. Though glass was traditionally used for solar structures in the 70s, plastics have emerged as the dominant type of glazing, especially with the weatherability of these materials being enhanced by ultraviolet radiation degradation inhibitors, infrared radiation (IR) absorbency, anticondensation drip surfaces, and unique radiation transmission properties.5 Criteria for BioCellar glazing include6: 1. The U-factor is a measure of heat that is lost to the outside through a glazing material. A number of 0.35 BTU/hr-ft2-F or less is desired; 2. Photosynthetically radioactive radiation (PAR) is required for good plant growth; glazing must permit a natural spectrum of (PAR) to enter; 3. Light transmission percentage; 70% or more is desirable; 4. Affordability for replication and mass production; 5. Lifespan & durability; 6. Extreme winter weather resistance; 7. Ability to support snowload; 8. Fire-resistance; 9. Ability to support human load; 10. Convenience in sizes availability and installation.
5 6 Giacomelli, Gene A. 1999. Greenhouse glazings: Alternatives under the sun. Department of Bioresource Engineering. Rutgers University. BTS. 2001. Passive Solar Design. Technology Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of Energy. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs.
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Preferred options for BioCellar glazing include7: 1. UV stabilized woven polyethylene, double layer: Light transmission: 60-80% Disadvantages: • Easily torn • Cannot see through • UV-resistant polyethylene lasts only 1-2 years • Light transmission decreases over time • Expand and sag in warm weather, then shrink in cold weather
Advantages: • Easy to install, precise framing not required • Lowest-cost glazing material • Heat loss significantly reduced when a blower is used to provide an air space between layers • The films can be treated to reduce heat loss & condensation 2.
Tempered double pane glass: Light transmission: 70-75% Disadvantages: • Heavy • Clear glass does not diffuse light • Difficult to install, requires precise framing
Advantages: • Lifespan indefinite if not broken • Can be used in areas with freezing temperatures
Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP): Light transmission: 85-90% - new material Disadvantages: • Light transmission decreases over time • Poor weather-resistance • Most flammable of the rigid glazing materials • Insulation ability does not cause snow to melt
Advantages: • The translucent nature of this material diffuses and distributes light evenly • Tedlar-treated panels are resistant to weather, sunlight, and acids • Can last 5 to 20 years 4.
Polycarbonate rigid plastic, double wall: Light transmission: 83% Disadvantages: • Can be expensive • Not clear, translucent
Advantages: • Most fire-resistant of plastic glazing materials • UV-resistant • Very strong • Lightweight • Easy to cut and install • Provides good performance for 7-10 years
Double-glazing is recommended since the simulated environments demonstrated that this is more efficient for storing heat energy, as compared the single glazing (see page 14).
7 Bellows, Barbara. 2008. Solar Greenhouses. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service.
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SOLAR HEAT STORAGE Passive solar structures use thermal mass to store heat during the day, and then radiate it into the structure at night. Water is the most common medium for thermal storage. Other materials such as rammed earth or bags of rock can be used for thermal storage, but water has a high material value of 63 BTU/square foot/degree Fahrenheit, as compared to stone at 35, or earth at 208. The traditional way of using water in solar greenhouses is stacking 55-gallon dark colored drums filled with water and lined-up along the north wall to receive direct light. A more efficient method is a central water tank made from FRP that provides thermal storage and could also allow for fish production, if aquaponics is incorporated into the BioCellar use. For a free-standing solar structure in a Midwest winter, the minimum requirement of water for thermal storage is three gallons per square foot of solar surface8. For a 22 x 40 foot BioCellar structure, that translates into 3000 gallons of water storage or a 34 x 4 x 4 foot water tank.
Water tank for solar heat storage
ADDITIONAL INSULATION The heat storage in the BioCellar is only as effective as the insulation within the structure, making it as airtight as possible. The doors and vents need weather stripping and the joints between the glazing and the walls should be sealed with a flexible sealant. Polyurethane foam is a good insulation material but it needs to be kept dry to function well. A vapor barrier made of thick polyethylene plastic sheeting placed between the greenhouse interior environment and the foam will prevent moisture from entering the foam. Foil-faced insulation can work as well. Greenhouse doors should be airtight with extra weather stripping for sealing. In the Midwest, night curtains9 are effective. A night curtain is an insulating cover that can be rolled across the inside of the glazed surface to prevent extra heat loss.
8 9 Smith, Shane. 2000. Greenhouse Gardener’s Companion: Growing Food & Flowers in Your Greenhouse or Sunspace. Fulcrum Publishers. 2nd edition. Alward, Ron, and Shapiro, Andy. 1981. Low-Cost Passive Solar Greenhouses. National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT. 173 p.
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Curtains for retaining heat at night (Alward, Ron, and Shapiro, Andy. LowCost Passive Solar Greenhouses)
VENTILATION The summer temperature inside the BioCellar can be high. The building performance simulation study revealed the highest summer temperatures to reach 100 degrees Fahrenheit. This creates a need for ventilation during summer months which can be accomplished using automatic, thermally-activated vents. A general rule is that vent surface area needed to regulate spatial temperature is 1/5 to 1/6 of the building floor area.10 Roof top and side walls provide the best opportunities for heat to escape. Solar operated fans can also be used on the short, south-facing wall to direct the hot air flow on extreme heat days. The sections below show temperature profiles inside an unconditioned solar greenhouse11 (temperature values in Kelvin). They show temperature variations within different areas within the structures, thus presenting the need for temperature regulation. A thermostatically controlled ventilation fan can be set to activate at a specific temperature to help regulate the overall temperature. In addition to moderating greenhouse temperatures, ventilation also helps manage humidity and CO2 levels.12
Stack effect with low-level fans for summer
Temperature profiles inside a solar greenhouse (G. Tong, et. al. Numerical modelling of temperature variations in a Chinese solar greenhouse)
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Illinois Solar Energy Association. 2002. Solar Greenhouse. ISEA Fact Sheet #9. G. Tong, D.M. Christopher and B. Li. 2009. Numerical modelling of temperature variations in a Chinese solar greenhouse. Thomas, Andrew L., et. al, 2001. Performance of an Energy-efficient, Solar-heated Greenhouse in Southwest Missouri.
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VANDALISM RESISTANCE The south wall rises two feet above the ground, making it an easy target for vandalism or an attractive opportunity for climbing. Planting hardy shrubs that grow two feet high just outside the south wall can discourage climbing. In any case, the structure must be built to take human weight into account as an added load for structural strength.
Japanese Barberry (photo credit: Smithsonian Insititution, R.A. Howard @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
Japanese Barberry is an option for screening the south wall. It is a dense, two to four feet high deciduous shrub with thorny leaves. It grows well in Northeast Ohio and tolerates a wide range of weather conditions.
This section shows the assembly of the various building components of a BioCellar.
Roof vents Galvanized steel tubing for roof structure Double glazing
King beam I-beam central post C-beam frame Waterproofing around the base of the BioCellar Short shrubs along the South wall
Curtains for heat retention Reflective lining on the North wall
Central water tank
Section through a BioCellar
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BIOCELLAR PERFORMANCE STUDY
PARAMETRIC STUDY To better understand the impact of design decisions on the environmental conditions of a BioCellar, the research team conducted a series of parametric studies. These parameters are building aspect ratio, roof inclination, orientation, and percentage of glazing to roof area. The team worked with 22 x 40 foot as the size of the BioCellar, as that seemed to be representative of the sizes of the houses slated for demolition in Cleveland. Additional parameters were added to simulate the thermal heat storage properties of a central water tank to get readings closer in accuracy to the actual BioCellar performance. Most of these experiments were done with food production being the primary use of the BioCellar. However, once the results of the indoor temperatures, humidity, etc. are obtained, they can be compared to optimum requirements for other uses.
ORIENTATION In our tests, solar radiation is transmitted into the greenhouse interior through the roof alone. As a result the roof surface sees the same amount of solar energy regardless of orientation. The only difference is the shading effect of the sun-facing wall (Figure 1). The limited shading effect reduces solar gain through the roof (Figure 2). However, being an underground structure, thermal mass reduces the impact of this exposure and the temperature (Figure 3) is hardly affected by changing the orientation of the greenhouse. However, the research team investigated incident North-facing solar radiation in the inner south-facing surface of the north-facing wall. Figure 4 & Figure 5 demonstrate the fact that the wall receives much more solar radiation in winter than in summer if the greenhouse is south-facing. This is especially true in winter because of the low winter sun altitude. Because of the cosine effect the best orientation for the greenhouse will be facing true south ± 20°13.
Figure 1 South and north-facing glazing receive the same amount of solar radiation
Smith, Shane. 2000. Greenhouse Gardener’s Companion: Growing Food & Flowers in Your Greenhouse or Sunspace.
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Figure 2 Solar gain comparison
Figure 3 Temperature profile comparison
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Figure 4 Incident Solar Energy on internal south-facing wall (Winter)
Figure 5 Incident Solar Energy on internal south-facing wall (Summer) Biocellar | 14
INCLINATION OF THE ROOF Changing roof inclination does not substantially affect total indoor solar gain because of the solar aperture size is not drastically altered with the increase of the roof angle (Figure 6). However modeling the different configurations showed that the smaller the volume of the greenhouse, the higher the indoor temperature especially in summer (Figure 7 &Figure 8). On the other hand, increasing roof inclination angle resulted in increasing the indoor surface area exposed to solar radiation. These internal surfaces of the walls in turn receive more solar energy (Figure 9 & Figure 10). As a result we can conclude that the recommendation is to choose the largest roof slope that is economically feasible and structurally viable (including considerations such as snow load). A general rule of thumb for passive solar heated structures is to add 10 or 15 degrees to the site’s latitude to get the proper angle 14(ref). So Cleveland being Latitude 41º, the slope should ideally be 51 to 56º. Using this information, we will conduct further simulation experiments in the next phase to determine the most optimum angle.
Figure 6 Changing glazing inclination has limited effect on solar gain
Thomas, Stephen G., et al.1984. Solar Greenhouses and Sunspaces: Lessons Learned.
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Figure 7 Effect of Roof Inclination on Indoor Temperature of Greenhouse
Figure 8 Effect of Roof Inclination on Indoor Temperature of Greenhouse Biocellar | 16
Figure 9 Effect of Roof inclination on incident solar radiation on south facing inner wall
Figure 10 Effect of Roof inclination on incident solar radiation on south facing inner wall Biocellar | 17
EFFECT OF GLAZING TYPE Tested for this preliminary stage were two glazing types; a 6 mm single glazed and double glazed FRP (fiber reinforced plastic). Figure 5 demonstrates the consistent increase in solar gain of the single pane glazing material. This increase is estimated to be between two to three times as the energy transmitted through the double glazing panels. The result is an increase in the temperature build up in the green house during summer months to reach 130 °F (Figure 12), and to offset that fans and vents will be needed. On the other hand, even though the double glazed naturally ventilated configuration did not reach these high temperatures, the heat buildup still makes the need for mechanical ventilation a necessity. Solar gains were welcomed in winter as the single pane glazing skylights helped offset some of the energy needed to provide the auxiliary heating system. Figure 13 shows that the single glazing configuration increases heat loss due to conduction far beyond the limited solar gain advantage of the single glazing configuration (Figure 14) during winter days.
Figure 11 Solar Gain through roof in winter and summer
Figure 12 Comparison between temperature profiles of single and double glazed roofs Biocellar | 18
Figure 13 Heat loss through conduction
Figure 14 Sensible heating requirements for auxiliary heating in winter
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EXTENSION OF THE GROWING SEASON STUDY
Figure 15 Tested Configuration
TEMPERATURE PROFILES Temperatures inside the BioCellar during summer months remained higher than the outdoors. The use of natural ventilation by partially opening skylight apertures reduced the average temperature to less than 95 °F for the majority of the summer months (Figure 16). In winter indoor air temperatures were slightly above ambient conditions, increasing the risk of ice building and water pipe damage. To avoid that a heating source with a set point of 57 °F was added (Figure 17).
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Figure 16 Indoor air temperature during Summer
Figure 17 Indoor Air Temperature during winter
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ANNUAL TEMPERATURE PROFILE The unheated BioCellar without natural ventilation cooling provision was consistently warmer than the outdoor ambient conditions (Figure 18). The addition of an auxiliary heating system (Figure 19) helped reduce the risk of freezing. The addition of an operable skylight proved to be beneficial in reducing peak indoor air temperatures during summer (Figure 20) by bringing it closer to the ambient outdoor dry bulb air temperatures.
Figure 18 Annual temperature profile in basic unconditioned space
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Figure 19 Annual temperature profile with addition of an auxiliary heat source
Figure 20 Improving indoor summer temperatures by adding ventilation through operable vents and fans Biocellar | 23
EXTENSION OF THE GROWING SEASON - CONCLUSION According to the literature on the subject a favorable growing temperature range for most regular season crops is 65-75 °F ±10 °F. Figure 20 shows that with auxiliary heating the growing season is extended in the green house by about two weeks in spring and two weeks in fall. Figure 21 shows a cumulative temperature frequency profile of the three conditions described. Confirming the visual observation of the previous graph the difference between the natural growing season (outdoors and the heated and ventilated configuration was about 7.5% or 650 hours which is equivalent to four weeks. The growing season is thus effectively four weeks longer than the outdoors. On the other hand, research showed that the unconditioned greenhouse will bring the season for cold season crops four or five weeks earlier (Figure 22). This may have definite positive economic impact because of the relatively high price of early or off season crops to the market. Without completely opening the greenhouse to the environment, cold season crop may end four or five weeks earlier. If multiple crops are planned, research showed that the unconditioned but ventilated greenhouse will expand the growing season from cold and regular crops to encompass over 60% of the year or about 32 weeks a year (Figure 23).
Figure 21 Cumulative temperatures under different scenarios
Figure 22 Cumulative temperatures for cold season crops Biocellar | 24
Figure 22 Cumulative temperatures for cold season crops
TEMPERATURE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION Figures 24-31 show computational fluid dynamic modeling results of the tested configuration. Because of the relatively small volume of the space and simple design, the temperature distribution remains predominantly well mixed. Cooling effect of natural ventilation is clearly affecting summer afternoon configuration (Figure 24) while the hot air is accumulating at the upper section of the volume. The evening is cooler with some warm air left at the upper section of the volume (Figure 25). The same pattern is repeated in winter with the winter unconditioned greenhouse. Figures 28-31 show air movement pattern and velocity inside the greenhouse at summer and winter afternoon and evening. During ventilation period (65-95 °F), air is naturally ventilated into the space creating the clear pattern in Figure 28. At the evening some heat is retained at the ground mass and is released slowly through stack effect resulting in upward draft in the center of the greenhouse (Figure 29). Similarly, and due to the cold temperatures in winter, the warmer ground floor releases its stored heat through thermal stack effect creating the upward draft in the middle of the space (Figure 30 & Figure 31)
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Figure 24 Temperature on a summer afternoon
Figure 25 Temperature on a summer evening Biocellar | 26
Figure 26 Temperature on a winter afternoon (unconditioned)
Figure 27 Temperature on a winter evening (unconditioned) Biocellar | 27
Figure 28 Air movement summer afternoon
Figure 29 Air movement summer evening Biocellar | 28
Figure 30 Air movement winter afternoon
Figure 31 Air movement winter evening Biocellar | 29
Modeling of moisture content in the unconditioned configuration showed that it follows closely the outdoor conditions (Figure 32 & Figure 33). This means that close monitoring of the outdoor humidity and moisture content would be essential to guarantee appropriate conditions for the different plants and vegetables in the greenhouse.
Figure 32 Summer moisture Content
Figure 33 Winter moisture content Biocellar | 30
BIOCELLAR USES Season Extension
along with spinach, both sold out at the market. Beets were a tougher sell. Jill noted that “They were small beets. Plus, our Marketable % Marketable Potential regular customers didn’t expect us to have fresh beets at that e Revenue Product Sold Revenue time of the year. They picked those up at another location FOOD PRODUCTION making it to our booth.” $540 $640 84% $840 in the market before e 1. Fall 2008 revenue The primary andalong with spinach, both sold out at the market. greenhouse for food production. Jill function spent a total for101BioCellar is a Beets were a Sean considered of a labor hours in the $200 $304 66% Marketable Potential $464 high tunneltougher sell. Jill noted that “They were small beets. Plus, our cultivating their fall fare. Breakdown of hours cellars, energy generation, Marketable % Other possible functions include aquaponic facilities, beets at that root op Revenue $160 Revenue Product Sold is in Figure regular customers didn’t expect us to have fresh 3. $140 88% $380 Revenue time1, it appearsThey animals, and community uses, some of which are of the for farm Blue Gate Farmat another location year. that picked those up brought in soil production, shelters From nach $540 $64083% 84% $840 table $189 $228 $237 in the market before making it to our booth.” about half ofchapter. have if they had discussed in this the revenue they couldtotal of 101 labor more iss Jill and Sean spent a hours $36 $240 15% $240 aggressively marketed their crops and controlled aphids and in the ard $200 $304 66% $464 high tunnel cultivating their fall fare. Breakdown of hours A BioCellar greenhouse can be compared potential revenue 1,105 $1,572 70% $2,161 rodents. Figure 4 shows the revenue andto unheated high tunnels or hoop houses. High Choi $140 $160 88% $380 is in Figure 3. per square the From table to Blueagricultural Gate Farm brought in tunnels increasefoot according 1, it appears that Blue market price. These types of structures productivity of Gate’s 2008 operations. rrots $189 $228 83% Spinach made the most in 2008 per square foot, and comes $237 about half of the revenue they could have if they had more indow. Typically Blue Gate Farm offers a fall CSA extend for potential revenue. Swiss their crops andcan increase production yields and ets lost their original high tunnel in a tornado in in secondthe growing season for food crops and in second aphids and $36 $240 15% $240 aggressively marketed Chard came controlled for ey 2008 revenue per square foot, and shows thepotentialand potential revenue al $1,105 70% $2,161 rodents. Figure 4 has the revenue to make the revenues. For example, Blue Gate Farms near Des Moines, Iowa added a high tunnel to have their replacement tunnel up$1,572 to plan in time per square foot according to Blue Gate’s 2008 market most per square foot. However, Jill and Sean didn’t always sell out price. is would, in other years, provide a more stable their farm, which has a community supported agriculture (CSA) program for 30 families. Spinach made farmer’s market window. Typically Blue Gate Farm offersoffall CSA a Swiss Chard at the market. the most in 2008 per square foot, and comes roduct. share.includes marketable plus non-marketable a tornado in Montri,is projected to recover theChard of construction (about $4,500) in However, they lost their original high tunnel in The high tunnel Outreach CoordinatorSwissthe Michiganin second for Adam in second for potential revenue. for cost came State enue 2008 revenue per square foot, and has the potential to make the 2008. They didn’t have frost replacement tunnel up in time to plan Student Organic Farm, says that a good goal to shoot for t that had pest or their damage. Aphids and University most per square foot. However, Jill and approximately four years. for a fall CSA. This would, in other years, provide a more stable $9-$10 revenue per square foot per year.Sean didn’t always sell out would be Jill and Sean plan of Swiss Chard at the market. market for their product. on growing at least three successive crops this year, so the potential life span and higher A BioCellar isAdam Montri, Outreach Coordinator with a Michigan State a more permanent structure for the longer
Potential revenue includes marketable plus non-marketable says for good goal to shoot product—product that had pest or frost damage. Aphids and University Student Organic Farm, Continued on page 17 planting and greater solar construction costs. BioCellars can allow that amulti-tiered for would be $9-$10 revenue per square foot per year. Jill and Sean plan heat gain,on growing ataleast threeseason extensionyear, so is possible with a high tunnel. providing longer successive crops this than the potential Continued on page 17
ere their primary pests. aks down Revenue per crop for Blue Gate Farms the percentage of revenue per crop. Revenue per square foot for Blue Gate Farms rabbits/rodents were bringing in pests. main bread winner,theirHigh Tunnels: Are they of (Worley, Sally, primary roughly half Figure pac choi down thebed, or each had 84 2 breaks shared a percentage chard andLucrative, The Practical Farmer) of revenue per crop. Spinach was thethe other crops each bringing in roughly half of wing area, while main bread winner, had an entire the income. Swiss chard and pac choi shared a bed, or each hadgrowing area inside a BioCellar consists of raised beds on either side of the The 84 owing space. square feet of growing area, while the other crops each had an entire ndles at market were popular sellers. “They were central water tank, with tiered beds against the north wall. Raised beds have the bed, 168 feet of growing space. ked like bouquets,” commented Jill. The carrots, 15
The carrot bundles at market were popular sellers. “They were capacity beautiful, and looked like bouquets,” commented Jill. The carrots,
to absorb more solar energy than low, flat beds .
The building performance study demonstrated that for regular weather crops, the season is extended by two weeks on either end of the typical 16 week season (see page 21). However, cool-season crops (shown in the table on the next page) can withstand lower temperatures.
15 Thomas, Andrew L., et al. 2003. An Energy Efficient Solar Heated Greenhouse Produces Cool-Season Vegetables all Winter Long. Biocellar | 31
The winter temperature fluctuations in a BioCellar range from 40º to 56º, which are acceptable for cool season crops16 Therefore, if a BioCellar is predominantly used for cool season crops, it could be used throughout the winter season with a limited need for supplemental heating. This would have a significant impact on the economic viability of a BioCellar.
COOL SEASON CROPS Leafy greens Arugula Chard Cilantro Collards Cornsalad (Mache) Cress Dandelion Endive Escarole Lettuce Mizuna Mustard Purslane Radicchio Spinach Vegetables Beet Bok choi Broccoli Broccoli raab Cabbage Carrot Kale Leek Onion Pak choi Pea Flowers Calendula Johnny jump-up Linaria (Toadflax) Pansy
Season extension with the use of a high-tunnel greenhouse (HT) (Kleinhenz, Matt, OARDC/Market Gardener Training Program 2010)
An illustration showing a food production BioCellar adjacent to a market garden
The BioCellar performance study gives a basic sense of the environment inside a BioCellar. Food production could be a majority use for the structures, but a favorable internal environment opens up the possibility for some other uses as well.
16 Thomas, Andrew L., et al. 2003. An Energy Efficient Solar Heated Greenhouse Produces Cool-Season Vegetables all Winter Long. Biocellar | 32
ROOT CELLAR Root cellars are underground structures used to store food at a low temperature and steady humidity. A root cellar keeps produce from freezing during the winter and keeps it cool during the summer to prevent spoilage. Typically, a variety of vegetables are placed in a root cellar in the fall, after harvesting. A BioCellar could be used for a root cellar as part of an urban farm, provided the following criteria for a controlled environment17 are satisfied: 1. Temperature and humidity: optimal temperatures and humidity levels for a BioCellar vary, depending on the fruits and vegetables being stored (see chart below) Air circulation: because of natural release of ethylene from fruits and vegetables, a root cellar needs ventilation to prevent spoilage; Flooring: root cellars work best when they have dirt floors as opposed to a typical concrete basement floor. A soil pit can be constructed on the floor over the basement slab to provide the right environment.18
Section showing a root cellar incorporated into a BioCellar (redraw)
Preferred storage conditions for some common winter crops for Northeast Ohio (Bachman, Janet et. al, Postharvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables, NCAT)
Temperatures will be cooler in the lower section of the BioCellar so this area can be converted into a root cellar, leaving the upper portion for a solar-energy based use. This would effectively reduce the volume of the heated surface. The root cellar can be constructed by reusing old bricks or other material from the deconstructed home.
17 18 Root Cellars. 2009. http://www.surviveabide.com/Advanced/Food%20Plan/4%20 Root%20Cellars.htm Greene, Janet, et al. 1992. Putting Food By. Biocellar | 33
Besides food production, we are also exploring some other uses for the BioCellar structure, some of which are briefly described below. ENERGY PRODUCTION Since BioCellar collects and contains heat, it may be possible to use the structure as an energy production unit that could provide heat to one or more neighboring houses. However, to maintain a steady temperature of 57º Fahrenheit (minimum), a BioCellar will require an auxiliary heating source. Active solar heating forces solar-heated air, water, or phase-change materials through pipes buried in floors or walls.19 Another option is to pump water through pipes that circulate between the coils lining the glazed wall and the central water tank. This heat generated in the coils could be used for the BioCellar or converted into energy for use in an adjacent building. The performance study determined that even with the use an active solar heating system, a BioCellar would not provide enough energy for heating an adjacent house in winter. However, it could comfortably provide energy for domestic uses in summer like heating water for cooking and bathing, etc. SOIL PRODUCTION & COMPOST CELLAR Urban farming requires healthy, uncontaminated soil. City soils tend to be unsuitable for food production, so urban farmers often make use of raised beds. A BioCellar can be used for composting and soil production to support agricultural uses. A composting BioCellar provides two products: fertile soil, and energy in the form of heat and carbon dioxide. To operate a composting BioCellar, organic material would be collected from residents, restaurants, and markets. The north face of a compost cellar should have removable insulated panels20 through which the compost can be loaded into the structure. The compost must be turned periodically, allowing the release of heat, water vapor, nitrogen gases and carbon dioxide, all of which can be used to support plant growth. The moist air from the compost chamber can be blown into the cellar if it is also being used as a greenhouse. Methane gas could also be collected as an energy source.
Section of the greenhouse showing the compost chamber (Fulford, Bruce, 1984)
Monk, G.J., D.H. Thomas, J.M. Molnar, and L.M. Staley. 1987. Solar Greenhouses for Commercial Growers. Fulford, Bruce. 1984. Composting Greenhouse. Bioshelters of New Alchemy Institute. Biocellar | 34
Compost bucket provided to residents
provided to community brought to local BioCellar collected by compostal worker composting systems worms produces nutrient rich soil trench boxes
produces heat and CO2
The New Alchemy Institute has studied various greenhouse alterations and their capacity for energy production.21 Questions remain, particularly as to the amount of CO2 production for plants and ways to ensure controlled environments for the production of methane gas, which is highly explosive. COMMUNITY CELLAR The temperature profiles show the possibility of manageable indoor weather conditions, thus presenting the opportunity to have a community-amenity, like a sauna in dense neighborhood, responding to resident needs. With a number of branches of alternative medicines reinforcing the health benefits and prescribed uses of saunas, and more than 60 million consumers in the U.S. taking herbal remedies, an herb garden + sauna could be a great use for a BioCellar.
Illustration showing the use of a BioCellar as a community sauna
Fulford, Bruce. 1984. Composting Greenhouse. Bioshelters of New Alchemy Institute.
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Sauna is known to provide relief to patients with asthma and chronic bronchitis, and also known to alleviate pain and improve joint mobility in patients with rheumatism. It is also a excellent opportunity for social interaction. ANIMAL CELLAR The Restrictions on the Keeping of Farm Animals and Bees ordinance22 recently passed in the city of Cleveland opens up new possibilities for animal rearing within the city limits. Chicken and bees reared in Cleveland either for personal or business use, has multiplied manifold since the ordinance. The BioCellar provides an entrepreneurial opportunity for an all-year round business not only in chicken and bees rearing but also for other animals, since the structure can provide: 1. 2. 3. Warm place at night; Protection from wind and rain; Protection from predators.
Depending on the specific animal rearing at the BioCellar, the site selection criteria would vary; chickens need about 3 to 4 sq.ft per bird in the coop23, and 6 to 8 sq. ft. for free range roaming outdoors, whereas bigger animals will have different spatial requirements. In the next phase of this work, we would like to explore the financial feasibility of animal cellars for specific or combined uses.
City of Cleveland, Zoning Update. 2009. Restrictions on the Keeping of Farm Animals and Bees ordinance. Hubbard, Kerrie. 2010. City Girl Farming. www.citygirlfarming.com
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BIOCELLAR SITE SELECTION
Criteria for BioCellar site selection include: 1. Building orientation a. External obstruction to solar gain b. Southern exposure c. Tree canopy 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Water table Accessibility Community gardens and/or urban farms; Adjacency to vacant land Local champions (community group or CDC).
BUILDING ORIENTATION: a. External obstruction to solar gain: For optimum solar gain, obstructions should be absent from 45-60 degrees of both the south corners, if possible. Absence of obstructions means24: • • • • No obstructions within10 feet of the south side within the angles shown in the adjacent diagram; Fences can be located outside of 10 feet; 1-story buildings located outside of 17 feet; 2-story buildings located outside of 39 feet.
Diagram showing building orientation for maximum solar gain (Luce, Ben. 2001. Passive Solar Design Guidelines for Northern New Mexico)
Luce, Ben. 2001. Passive Solar Design Guidelines for Northern New Mexico. New Mexico Solar Energy Association.
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Chart showing solar path for Cleveland at 41 degree North latitude (Chart generated at: University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory)
Summer altitude 72º
Diagram showing the winter and summer solstice sun altitutes (University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Service & West Virginia University Extension Service)
Winter altitude 72º
b. Southern exposure: A BioCellar should have its longer wall face within 20° either side of true south.25 The energy calculations did not show much fluctuations when the south wall was the longer wall or the shorter wall. But for construction of the roof structure, having the longer wall as south facing works better. In case the other case, either the roof structure becomes heavier and more expensive because of a larger span, or gets added framework and consequently more obstruction for the sunlight into the structure.
Preferred orientation for the BioCellar; longer wall facing South
Variations to the BioCellar roof structure to make the shorter South-facing wall work
Smith, Shane, Greenhouse Gardener’s Companion: Growing Food & Flowers in Your Greenhouse or Sunspace. Biocellar | 38
c. Tree canopy: Among the external obstructions to solar gain, trees play an important role along with neighboring buildings. The preferred distance requirement for trees is the same as built structures from the south facade, i.e. 39’. Even deciduous trees are not good within that distance from the south facade. In winter, in spite of losing its leaves, a deciduous tree will shield 40% of the winter sun26. The following map shows mature tree canopy for the city of Cleveland.
26 NREL. 1994. Sunspace Basics. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. U.S. Department of Energy
Mature tree canopy for the city of Cleveland
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WATER TABLE Potential problems with underground structures are wet conditions from the water table seeping through the soil on the floor, and the entry of surface water through gaps in the walls at the ground level. To minimize the risk of water rising through the floor, the bottom of the structure should be at least five feet above the water table27. Since the BioCellar is reusing old basements, the water table level should have already been taken into consideration. It is still important to inspect for any signs of leakage in the structure or in the neighborhood before considering the house for reuse as BioCellar. Additional waterproofing is discussed in the BioCellar building design chapter. ACCESSIBILITY For the BioCellars to work as an important part of the city’s infrastructure in terms of food production, vacancy reuse and community amenity, accessibility becomes an important criteria. It would be desirable for the BioCellar to be located within a 1/4 radius of and RTA bus/train stops. In case of the BioCellar’s use for food production, its proximity to a community garden or urban farm makes this easier as almost all farms use accessibility within a neighborhood as an important criteria for their location. But even in case of uses such as soil or energy production, better accessibility can create job opportunities for lower income residents, refugee communities, etc. who use public transportation as primary means of access.
Walipini House. 2002. Benson Agriculture and Food Institute; Bellows, Barbara, Solar Greenhouses. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service.
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COMMUNITY GARDEN & URBAN FARM LOCATIONS The map below shows the city of Cleveland with an overlay of community gardens and urban farms, which is an important selection criteria for the BioCellar to be used as a greenhouse or a root cellar. The circles around the map show a 1/4 mile radius around the gardens, which should be the maximum distance between a food production BioCellar and an urban farm, although it would be ideal to reuse a vacant house adjacent to the garden if it satisfies other criteria.
Community gardens and urban farms in the city of Cleveland (2009)
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ADJACENT VACANT LAND For BioCellars that need open land for supplementary uses, the vacant parcels mapping can serve as an excellent starting point. The existing conditions of these vacant parcels, however, vary in terms of foliage, pervious surface percentage, soil toxicity, etc., and so more study would be needed to determine the suitability of the vacant land for intended purposes. For example, additional mapping of soil toxicity and pervious coverage would be needed to determine a suitable site for a new urban farm + BioCellar project.
Vacant parcels in the city of Cleveland (2009)
LOCAL CHAMPIONS Beyond the criteria discussed in this chapter it is important for the consideration of social criteria, the community group or local community development corporation (CDC) that can undertake the construction and management of the BioCellar(s). It would be preferable if a local champion has: 1. 2. 3. More than one community garden/urban farm in the neighborhood, to allow for a bigger network of BioCellars; Local, state or federal funding for urban agriculture or neighborhood stabilization projects; Farmers’ market, where there is a greater opportunity for local food education & community interaction;
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When these different layers of information are overlapped with the map showing vacant properties, it can help shortlist vacant residential properties that are slated for demolition as potential candidates for conversion into BioCellars.
Map showing overlapping of all paramters for site selection for a BioCellar
Large scale view of the map shown above Biocellar | 43
CONCLUSIONS & NEXT STEPS
A BioCellar can be temporary or permanent, singular or clustered, striking in its architectural vocabulary or mild-mannered and inconspicuous. A BioCellar is infrastructure made legible—a window into the systems that give life to cities. BioCellars are a direct response to population loss and urban decline, but they also set a framework in place for future growth by lowering energy costs in city neighborhoods and fostering new patterns of grass roots entrepreneurship. The BioCellar model harvests the opportunities embedded in the natural processes of change and creates a do-it-yourself approach for managing urban infrastructure. The first step towards exploring the possibilities for this DIY urban infrastructure, is to understand the structural, economic and commercial feasibility of the BioCellar model, some of which were addressed in this report. This chapter presents the recommendations from the Phase II work along with issues and questions for further considerations for the next phase. 1. BIOCELLAR BUILDING DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION a. • • • Preferred materials/specifications recommendations: Walls: brick or concrete filled cinder blocks Roof: galvanized steel tubing Glazing materials: 6 mm double walled fiber reinforced plastic or polycarbonate rigid plastic • Solar heat storage: 3000 gallons of water storage using either a 34 x 4 x 4 foot FRP water tank, or 55-gallon water drums lining the north wall • Insulation and ventilation: polyurethane foams, vapor barriers and night curtains.
b. Further design questions: • Code requirement for keeping water and sewer connections, and provisions needed for the maintenance of these systems • Optimal alternatives for access and egress (steps, ramps, etc.) • Ways to address contaminant issues (lead paint, black mold, radon, asbestos) • Criteria for ADA accessibility compliance and LEED certification • Cost of a basic prototype (deconstruction of the vacant house, stabilization of the foundation, and new construction) • Cost of a basic prototype for different scales; one versus many, including offsite construction and prefabrication options).
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2. BIOCELLAR PERFORMANCE a. Recommendations: • Orientation: BioCellar structure should be south facing with the long wall facing within 20º either side of true south. • Inclination of the roof: Choose the largest roof slope that is economically feasible and structurally viable. • Temperature profiles: Temperatures inside the BioCellar during summer months remain higher than the outdoors. Additional ventilation can reduce the average temperature to less than 95 °F . Auxiliary heating source will be required if the BioCellar uses require to be above 57º during winter. • Additional ventilation: Automatic, thermally-activated vents and solar operated fans will be necessary to offset the high summer indoor temperatures. • Season extension: The growing season is four weeks longer than the outdoors for crops that need a favorable growing temperature of 65-75 °F ±10 °F. If multiple crops are planned, the unconditioned but ventilated greenhouse can expand the growing season from cold and regular crops to encompass over 60% of the year or about 32 weeks a year. • Moisture content: Close monitoring of the outdoor humidity and moisture content would be essential to guarantee appropriate conditions for the different plants and vegetables in the greenhouse. b. Next steps: • Expand on the work in Phase II to include: i. ii. Energy comparisons to an at-grade greenhouse Variations with different thermal heat storage mechanisms
iii. Effect of external insulation, plant and human addition, etc. to the temperature profiles. • Environmental simulation to understand the viability of a BioCellar for other uses like root cellar, aquaponics, compost cellar, community cellar, etc. 4. BIOCELLAR USES a. Recommendations: • The feasibility study of a BioCellar for food production so far, is encouraging. For regular weather crops, the season is extended by two weeks on either end of the typical 16 week season, four weeks on either end for cool-season crops and a year-round harvest and storage for rootcellars.
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Next steps: Detailed study of a BioCellar for food production: i. ii. Types of crops and projected yield data Cost comparison with high tunnels for farming.
Detailed study of other potential uses for a BioCellar: i. ii. iv. v. Aquaponics Root cellar + food cellar
iii. Energy production Compost production Community cellar.
5. BIOCELLAR SITE SELECTION a. Recommendations: • Building orientation: i. External obstruction to solar gain: No obstruction within 10’, fences beyond 10’, 1-storey buildings outside of 17’, 2-storey buildings outside of 39’ on the southern side within 45º - 60º of the BioCellar structure. Southern exposure: A BioCellar should have its longer wall face within 20º either side of true south.
iii. Tree canopy: No trees inside of 39’ on the southern side within 45 -60 degrees of the BioCellar structure. • • • Water table: The bottom of the structure should be at least 5’ above the water table. Accessibility: The BioCellar should be located within 1/4 mile of an RTA bus or train stop. Community gardens and/or urban farms: Within 1/4 mile radius of community gardens and/or urban farms for the food production BioCellar is preferable. Adjacency to vacant land is preferred for BioCellars that need open land for supplementary uses. Collaboration with a local champion (community group or CDC) is advisable. Next steps: Other criteria important for a BioCellar site selection
• • b. •
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• • •
Role of community engagement in the development and implementation of a BioCellar Impact of zoning restrictions on the site selection, especially since the BioCellars are essentially residential units converted into for-profit uses Neighborhoods in Cleveland that might be well-suited for housing the BioCellar prototypes.
6. MANAGEMENT a. Next steps: • • • • Ownership options for a BioCellar Legal implications of a cooperative ownership arrangement City permit(s) needed for a BioCellar Potential funding mechanisms.
7. BIOCELLAR INFRASTRUCTURE STUDY a. Next steps: • • • • • • BioCellar network as a distributed, visible infrastructure that improves the health of neighborhoods Its capacity to introduce diversity in a climate of monocultures of family and housing types New programs and uses generated from a BioCellar as catalysts for sustainable change Range of ecological services that a BioCellar can offer Use of social network platforms like social media websites, smart phone apps, etc. to develop this DIY urban infrastructure Its ability to participate in the community’s education in the culture of interdependency, the need for biodiversity and benefits of social engagement.
8. PROTOTYPE DEVELOPEMNT a. Design and feasibility b. c. d. e. Construction Management Monitoring the building performance, productivity, etc. Statistics for mass production.
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Alward, Ron, and Andy Shapiro. 1981. Low-Cost Passive Solar Greenhouses. National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT. 173 p. Barnhart, Earle. 2007. Bioshelter Guidebook, Bioshelter research by The New Alchemy Institute (1971-1991). http://www.thegreencenter.net/pdf/BiosheltersofNAI.pdf Bellows, Barbara. 2008. Solar Greenhouses. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/solar-gh.html#designs BTS. 2001. Passive Solar Design. Technology Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of Energy. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs. apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/building_america/29236.pdf Bubel, Mike & Bubel Nancy. Root Cellaring: Natural Cold Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. Storey Publishing, LLC; 2 edition. 320 p. Chinese solar greenhouse. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 68: 129-139. http://energyfarms.wordpress.com/2010/04/05/solar-greenhouses-chinese-style/ City of Cleveland, Zoning Update. 2009. Restrictions on the Keeping of Farm Animals and Bees. http://planning.city.cleveland.oh.us/zoning/pdf/34702FarmAnimalsandBees.pdf Coleman, Eliot. 1998. The winter-harvest manual: Farming the back side of the calendar: Commercial greenhouse production of fresh vegetables in cold-winter climates without supplementary heat. Four Season Farms. 57 p. Fulford, Bruce, Composting Greenhouse. Bioshelters of New Alchemy Institute. 1984. The New Alchemy Institute. http://www.thegreencenter.net/ G. Tong, D.M. Christopher and B. Li. 2009. Numerical modelling of temperature variations in a Chinese solar greenhouse. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 68: 129-139. http://energyfarms.wordpress.com/2010/04/05/solar-greenhouses-chinese-style/ Hubbard, Kerrie. 2010. City Girl Farming. www.citygirlfarming.com Giacomelli, Gene A. 1999. Greenhouse glazings: Alternatives under the sun. Department of Bioresource Engineering. Cook College. Rutgers University. http://AESOP .RUTGERS. EDU/~ccea/publications.html Greene, Janet, Hertzberg et al. Putting Food By. Penguin Books Australia; 4th edition. 420 p. Illinois Solar Energy Association, 2002, Solar Greenhouse, ISEA Fact Sheet #9. www.illinoissolar.org
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Loria, Jean. 2008. CW Waterworks. Luce, Ben. 2001. Passive Solar Design Guidelines for Northern New Mexico. New Mexico Solar Energy Association. www.nmsea.org/Curriculum/Courses/Passive_Solar_Design/Guidelines/ Guidelines.htm Monk, G.J., D.H. Thomas, J.M. Molnar, and L.M. Staley. 1987. Solar Greenhouses for Commercial Growers. Agriculture Canada. Ottawa, Canada. NREL. 2001. Passive Solar Design for the Home. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. U.S. Department of Energy. www. nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/27954.pdf Root Cellars. 2009. http://www.surviveabide.com/Advanced/Food%20Plan/4%20Root%20 Cellars.htm Smith, Shane, 2000. Greenhouse Gardener’s Companion: Growing Food & Flowers in Your Greenhouse or Sunspace. Fulcrum Publishers. 2nd edition. www.greenhousegarden.com/energy.htm Thomas, Andrew L., et al. 2003. An Energy Efficient Solar Heated Greenhouse Producs CoolSeason Vegetables all Winter Long. University of Missouri-Columbia, Southwest Research Center, Mt. Vernon, Missouri. http://aes.missouri.edu/swcenter/research/Solar-heated%20 greenhouse.pdf Thomas, Andrew L., et al. 2001. Performance of an Energy-efficient, Solar-heated Greenhouse in Southwest Missouri. Missiouri Agricultural Experiment Station. Missouri University College of Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources. Thomas, Stephen G., John R. McBride, James E. Masker, and Keith Kemble. 1984. Solar Greenhouses and Sunspaces: Lessons Learned. National Center for Appropriate Technology. Butte, MT. 36 p. Vignola, Frank, Sun path chart program, University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory. http://solardat.uoregon.edu/SunChartProgram.html Walipini House. 2002. Benson Agriculture and Food Institute. http://www.bensoninstitute.org/ Publication/Manuals/Walipini.pdf Worley, Sally. 2008. High Tunnels: Are they Lucrative, The Practical Farmer. www.practicalfarmers.org/assets/files/horticulture/on-farm/High_Tunnels.pdf
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